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Sample records for la2cuo4 properties hints

  1. Hints.

    PubMed

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    1995-07-01

    The systematic use of hints in the learning-from-examples paradigm is the subject of this review. Hints are the properties of the target function that are known to use independently of the training examples. The use of hints is tantamount to combining rules and data in learning, and is compatible with different learning models, optimization techniques, and regularization techniques. The hints are represented to the learning process by virtual examples, and the training examples of the target function are treated on equal footing with the rest of the hints. A balance is achieved between the information provided by the different hints through the choice of objective functions and learning schedules. The Adaptive Minimization algorithm achieves this balance by relating the performance on each hint to the overall performance. The application of hints in forecasting the very noisy foreign-exchange markets is illustrated. On the theoretical side, the information value of hints is contrasted to the complexity value and related to the VC dimension. PMID:7584883

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Tl-Doped SnSe: A Hint of Phononic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucek, V.; Plechacek, T.; Janicek, P.; Ruleova, P.; Benes, L.; Navratil, J.; Drasar, C.

    2016-06-01

    Polycrystalline samples with composition Sn1- x Tl x Se (for x = 0 to 0.04) have been synthesized from elements of 5 N purity at elevated temperatures. The phase purity of the products was verified by x-ray diffraction analysis. Samples for measurement of transport properties were prepared by hot pressing. The samples were then characterized by measurement of electrical conductivity, Hall coefficient, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity over the temperature range from 300 K to 725 K. All samples demonstrated p-type conductivity. Tl markedly enhanced the carrier concentration. We discuss the influence of Tl substitution on the free carrier concentration and thermoelectric performance. Investigation of the thermoelectric properties showed an order-of-magnitude improvement, with ZT reaching 0.6 at 725 K. We discuss the distinctive nature of the thermal conductivity of SnSe.

  3. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  4. Hint, hint: theory of mind performance in schizotypal individuals.

    PubMed

    Pflum, Madeline Johnson; Gooding, Diane Carol; White, Hannah Jean

    2013-05-01

    Studying Theory of Mind (ToM) performance in nonclinical populations may assist our understanding of underlying cognitive processes and contributing factors. ToM was assessed in three groups of psychometrically identified schizotypes, namely, individuals elevated on scales assessing positive schizotypy, those elevated on scales assessing negative schizotypy, and those elevated on both positive and negative schizotypy scales, using two hinting tasks. Individuals characterized by positive schizotypy showed poorer ToM performance compared with controls. The results suggest that individuals with elevated positive schizotypy scores experience more difficulty inferring the meaning of others' mental states (i.e., intentions) via indirect speech, such as hints. The negative schizotypy group did not differ from the nonschizotypy group in ToM performance. These findings are considered in terms of cognitive processing styles and implications for possible intervention. They also provide support for the inclusion of multiple groups of schizotypal individuals when assessing social cognition. PMID:23588225

  5. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  6. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  7. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  8. Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tarique, K F; Devi, S; Abdul Rehman, S A; Gourinath, S

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily bind nucleotides and use the histidine triad motif to carry out dinucleotidyl hydrolase, nucleotidyltransferase and phosphoramidite hydrolase activities. Five different branches of this superfamily are known to exist. Defects in these proteins in humans are linked to many diseases such as ataxia, diseases of RNA metabolism and cell-cycle regulation, and various types of cancer. The histidine triad nucleotide protein (HINT) is nearly identical to proteins that have been classified as protein kinase C-interacting proteins (PKCIs), which also have the ability to bind and inhibit protein kinase C. The structure of HINT, which exists as a homodimer, is highly conserved from humans to bacteria and shares homology with the product of fragile histidine triad protein (FHit), a tumour suppressor gene of this superfamily. Here, the structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori (HpHINT) in complex with AMP is reported at a resolution of 3 Å. The final model has R and Rfree values of 26 and 28%, respectively, with good electron density. Structural comparison with previously reported homologues and phylogenetic analysis shows H. pylori HINT to be the smallest among them, and suggests that it branched out separately during the course of evolution. Overall, this structure has contributed to a better understanding of this protein across the animal kingdom. PMID:26750483

  9. Astrophysical hints of axion-like particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncadelli, M.; Galanti, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing three astrophysical hints of the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs), we describe in more detail a new similar hint involving flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Detection of FSRQs above about 20GeV pose a challenge to very-high-energy (VHE) astrophysics, because at those energies the ultraviolet emission from their broad line region should prevent photons produced by the central engine to leave the source. Although a few astrophysical explanations have been put forward, they are totally ad hoc. We show that a natural explanation instead arises within the conventional models of FSRQs provided that photon-ALP oscillations occur inside the source. Our analysis takes the FSRQ PKR 1222+206 as an example, and it looks tantalizing that basically the same choice of the free model parameters adopted in this case is consistent with those that provide the other three hints of the existence of ALPs.

  10. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for producing…

  11. Errors in Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the article, Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori by Tarique et al. [(2016) Acta Cryst. F72, 42–48] are presented, and a brief history of HINT nomenclature is discussed. PMID:27050269

  12. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  13. Quantum speed problem: Theoretical hints for control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisboa, Alexandre Coutinho; Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho

    2016-06-01

    The transition time between states plays an important role in designing quantum devices as they are very sensitive to environmental influences. Decoherence phenomenon is responsible for possible destructions of the entanglement that is a fundamental requirement to implement quantum information processing systems. If the time between states is minimized, the decoherence effects can be reduced, thus, it is advantageous to the designer to develop expressions for time performance measures. Quantum speed limit (QSL) problem has been studied from the theoretical point of view, providing general results. Considering the implementation of quantum control systems, as the decoherence phenomenon is unavoidable, it is important to apply these general results to particular cases, developing expressions and performance measures, to assist control engineering designers. Here, a minimum time performance measure is defined for quantum control problems, for time-independent or time-dependent Hamiltonians, and applied to some practical examples, providing hints that may be useful for researchers pursuing optimization strategies for quantum control systems.

  14. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  15. Altered specificity of Hint-W123Q supports a role for Hint inhibition by ASW in avian sex determination.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kristen P; Seidle, Heather; Wright, Nathan; Sperry, Jeffrey B; Bieganowski, Pawel; Howitz, Konrad; Wright, Dennis L; Brenner, Charles

    2004-12-15

    Hint is a universally conserved, dimeric AMP-lysine hydrolase encoded on the avian Z chromosome. Tandemly repeated on the female-specific W chromosome, Asw encodes a potentially sex-determining, dominant-negative Hint dimerization partner whose substrate-interacting residues were specifically altered in evolution. To test the hypothesis that Gln127 of Asw is responsible for depression and/or alteration of Hint enzyme activity, a corresponding mutant was created in the chicken Hint homodimer, and a novel substrate was developed that links reversal of AMP-lysine modification to aminomethylcoumarin release. Strikingly, the Hint-W123Q substitution reduced k(cat)/K(m) for AMP-lysine hydrolysis 17-fold, while it increased specificity for AMP-para-nitroaniline hydrolysis by 160-fold. The resulting 2,700-fold switch in enzyme specificity suggests that Gln127 could be the dominant component of Asw dominant negativity in avian feminization. PMID:15507519

  16. Flexible synthesis of video frames based on motion hints.

    PubMed

    Naman, Aous Thabit; Taubman, David

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce interframe predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint provides a reasonably accurate description of motion but only a loose description of where it is applicable; it is the task of the client to identify the exact locations where this motion model is applicable. The focus of this paper is a probabilistic multiscale approach to identifying these locations of applicability; the method is robust to noise, quantization, and contrast changes. The proposed approach employs the Laplacian pyramid; it generates motion hint probabilities from observations at each scale of the pyramid. These probabilities are then combined across the scales of the pyramid starting from the coarsest scale. The computational cost of the approach is reasonable, and only the neighborhood of a pixel is employed to determine a motion hint probability, which makes parallel implementation feasible. This paper also elaborates on how motion hint probabilities are exploited in generating interframe predictions. The scheme of this paper is applicable to closed-loop prediction, but it is more useful in open-loop prediction scenarios, such as using prediction in conjunction with remote browsing of surveillance footage, communicated by a JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) server. We show that the interframe predictions obtained using the proposed approach are good both visually and in terms of PSNR. PMID:24968173

  17. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women ... July 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead ...

  18. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women had ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead to ...

  19. Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex French finding adds to growing evidence that sexual ... the Zika virus can be transmitted through oral sex. Zika is typically spread through the bite of ...

  20. 110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. CAMPANILE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. CENTRAL SOUTHERN TOWER, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION; FROM THE SOUTH-WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. SOUTHERN GATEWAY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. WEST WING, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION: FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. GOTHIC DESIGN FOR SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FROM THE SOUTH WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159189.html Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex French finding adds ... A new report from France suggests that the Zika virus can be transmitted through oral sex. Zika ...

  9. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapies Fact Sheets NCI Dictionaries NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports Eating Hints: Before, During, and After ...

  10. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  11. Helpful hints for physical solvent absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.

    1982-11-01

    Review of experience with natural gas treatment using physical solvents points to design and operating suggestions. Experiences with three plants using either Selexol or Sepasolv MPE solvent shows that both solvents perform well. The solvents offer economical and problem-free purification of natural gas. The Sepasolv MPE and Selexol solvents are very similar in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, their application range is almost similar. An exchange is possible in most plants without equipment modification and/or process data.

  12. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

  13. Hints on the use of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Drach, R. S.; Mobley, R. L.; Phillips, T. J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the Hints interactive displays that assist a user of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS). These Hints describe the purpose of the VCS panels and provide basic instructions on their use.

  14. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of) these excesses can be accommodated.

  15. Hint1 knockout results in a compromised activation of protein kinase C gamma in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Fang, Zhenfei; Wang, Jia Bei

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have implicated a role of the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) could be potentially involved in the Hint1-implicated pathogenesis since PKCγ was identified as a Hint1 interacting protein. Recently, a debate was brought forward from the understanding how Hint1 affects the expression and activity of PKCγ in the brain. In the present study, we use Hint1 knockout mice and biochemical analysis to define the effect of Hint1 on protein PKCγ. Our data reveal that Hint1-deficiency in mouse brains led to increased protein levels of PKCγ in the cortex and hippocampus, the striatum and thalamus and amygdala. Without stimulation, PKCγ protein in Hint1-deficient brain displayed a basal activity that was reflected by control-leveled phosphorylations of PKCγ T514 and T674 at its kinase domain. Upon psycho-stimulation, both sites of PKCγ T514 and T674 were activated in these brain structures via phosphorylation; however, the phosphorylation level at the site of PKCγ T674 apparently attenuated in Hint1-deficient mice compared to wild-type control. Thus, we conclude that Hint1 deficiency leads to an increased protein level of PKCγ in the brain and a compromised activation response of PKCγ upon stimulation. These findings suggest an inhibitory role of Hint1 on the protein PKCγ in the brain and an impaired PKCγ-mediated phosphorylation signal in Hint1-deficient neuron. PMID:26133792

  16. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  17. Legacy limits and hints of New Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrin, Arnaud; /Marseille, CPPM

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews results of beyond-the-standard model searches at the Tevatron presented in a plenary talk at the Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP) in Grenoble. Here I present a selection of results from the CDF and D0 experiments that were shown at the conference during the parallel sessions. Much more is available and can be found at the experiment's web pages. This proceeding essentially focuses on searches in the dilepton, diboson, and t{bar t} final states. Throughout the paper, hints of new physics observed at the Tevatron are also briefly discussed.

  18. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Sulfamide and Sulfamate Nucleotidomimetic Inhibitors of hHint1.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit; Strom, Alexander; Zhou, Andrew; Maize, Kimberly M; Finzel, Barry C; Wagner, Carston R

    2016-08-11

    Hint1 has recently emerged to be an important target of interest due to its involvement in the regulation of a broad range of CNS functions including opioid signaling, tolerance, neuropathic pain, and nicotine dependence. A series of inhibitors were rationally designed, synthesized, and tested for their inhibitory activity against hHint1 using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies resulted in the development of the first small-molecule inhibitors of hHint1 with submicromolar binding affinities. A combination of thermodynamic and high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies provides an insight into the biomolecular recognition of ligands by hHint1. These novel inhibitors have potential utility as molecular probes to better understand the role and function of hHint1 in the CNS. PMID:27563403

  20. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  1. Acute behavioral effects of nicotine in male and female HINT1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Chen, X; Damaj, M I

    2012-11-01

    Human genetic association and brain expression studies, and mouse behavioral and molecular studies implicate a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety. The high comorbidity between smoking and psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia in particular, is well established. Associations with schizophrenia and HINT1 are also sex specific, with effects more predominant in males; however, it is unknown if sex differences associated with the gene extend to other phenotypes. Thus, in this study, using a battery of behavioral tests, we elucidated the role of HINT1 in acute nicotine-mediated behaviors using male and female HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The results show that male HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick, but not hot-plate test. At low nicotine doses, male and female HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to nicotine-induced hypomotility, although the effect was more pronounced in females. Baseline differences in locomotor activity observed in male HINT1 +/+ and -/- mice were absent in females. Nicotine did not produce an anxiolytic effect in male HINT1 -/- mice, but rather an anxiogenic response. Diazepam also failed to induce an anxiolytic response in these mice, suggesting a general anxiety phenotype not specific to nicotine. Differences in anxiety-like behavior were not observed in female mice. These results further support a role for HINT1 in nicotine-mediated behaviors and suggest that alterations in the gene may have differential effects on phenotype in males and females. PMID:22827509

  2. Hints of Period Change for OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between January 2007 and May 2009. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius, where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris over two years, which places an upper limit of 1-2 Earth masses on any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating the period is decreasing by 60±15 milliseconds per year. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than 8 years) timing variation due to an external perturber, or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and must be checked with additional observations. If a period decay is confirmed, OGLE-TR-113b will be the first planet observed to be falling onto its star. This would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets and place observational constraints on the value of stellar tidal energy dissipation factors. This work was supported in part by NASA Origins grant NNX07AN63G and Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01210.01-A/HF-51233.01 awarded by the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  3. HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-hui; Liu, Peng; Ma, Rui; Chu, Zheng; Liu, You-ping; Wang, Jia-bei; Ma, Xian-cang; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2015-10-21

    Social isolation (SI) rearing has been demonstrated to induce behavioral abnormalities like anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits which are relevant to core symptoms in patients with some certain neuropsychiatric disorders. But the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed HINT1 has close relation with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. In this present study, the SI rearing mice exhibited depression-like and aggressive behavior. Besides, HINT1 protein levels decreased in PFC but increased in HIP. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation and exerts distinct roles in different encephalic regions. PMID:26300541

  4. Hint, Fhit and GalT: Function, Structure, Evolution and Mechanism of Three Branches of the Histidine Triad Superfamily of Nucleotide Hydrolases and Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    HIT (histidine triad)1 proteins, named for a motif related to the sequence HφHφHφφ, (φ a hydrophobic amino acid) are a superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases and transferases, which act on the α-phosphate of ribonucleotides, and contain a ∼30 kDa domain that is typically either a homodimer of ∼15 kDa polypeptides with two active-sites or an internally, imperfectly repeated polypeptide that retains a single HIT active site. On the basis of sequence, substrate specificity, structure, evolution and mechanism, HIT proteins can be classified into the Hint branch, which consists of adenosine 5′-monophosphoramide hydrolases, the Fhit branch, which consists of diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolases, and the GalT branch, which consists of specific nucleoside monophosphate transferases including galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, diadenosine tetraphosphate phosphorylase, and adenylylsulfate:phosphate adenylytransferase. At least one human representative of each branch is lost in human diseases. Aprataxin, a Hint branch hydrolase, is mutated in ataxia-oculomotor apraxia syndrome. Fhit is lost early in development of many epithelially derived tumors. GalT is deficient in galactosemia. Additionally, ASW is an avian Hint family member that has evolved to have unusual gene expression properties and the complete loss of its nucleotide binding-site. The potential roles of ASW and Hint in avian sexual development are discussed in an accompanying manuscript. Here we review what is known about biological activities of HIT proteins, the structural and biochemical bases for their functions, and propose a new enzyme mechanism for Hint and Fhit that may account for the differences between HIT hydrolases and transferases. PMID:12119013

  5. HinT proteins and their putative interaction partners in Mollicutes and Chlamydiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Hegemann, Johannes H; Henrich, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    Background HinT proteins are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belong to the superfamily of HIT proteins, which are characterized by an histidine-triad sequence motif. While the eukaryotic variants hydrolyze AMP derivates and modulate transcription, the function of prokaryotic HinT proteins is less clearly defined. In Mycoplasma hominis, HinT is concomitantly expressed with the proteins P60 and P80, two domains of a surface exposed membrane complex, and in addition interacts with the P80 moiety. Results An cluster of hitABL genes, similar to that of M. hominis was found in M. pulmonis, M. mycoides subspecies mycoides SC, M. mobile and Mesoplasma florum. RT-PCR analyses provided evidence that the P80, P60 and HinT homologues of M. pulmonis were polycistronically organized, suggesting a genetic and physical interaction between the proteins encoded by these genes in these species. While the hit loci of M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium encoded, in addition to HinT, a protein with several transmembrane segments, the hit locus of Ureaplasma parvum encoded a pore-forming protein, UU270, a P60 homologue, UU271, HinT, UU272, and a membrane protein of unknown function, UU273. Although a full-length mRNA spanning the four genes was not detected, amplification of all intergenic regions from the center of UU270 to the end of UU273 by RT-PCR may be indicative of a common, but unstable mRNA. In Chlamydiaceae the hit gene is flanked upstream by a gene predicted to encode a metal dependent hydrolase and downstream by a gene putatively encoding a protein with ARM-repeats, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. In RT-PCR analyses of C. pneumoniae, regions comprising only two genes, Cp265/Cp266 and Cp266/Cp267 were able to be amplified. In contrast to this in vivo interaction analysis using the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro immune co-precipitation revealed an interaction between Cp267, which contains the ARM repeats, Cp265, the predicted hydrolase

  6. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    during bulge sequences deposition. One or - more likely - multiple layers of sulfates below the shallower levels of Arabia Terra surface need, in our opinion, to be hypothesized in order to explain all these contrasting observations. Indeed impact cratering on such an evaporate bearing layered target might have provided the ideal conditions of faulting, interconnectivity of evaporatic beds and lithostatic load release to allow diapirs ascent, In turn diapirism could have been responsible for central bulging as testified by outward dipping strata on stratified bulges, broad un-stratified bulges and folding (see Jackson and Vendeville, 1994 for typical salt tectonics). The depth of the fluid source calculated with a fractal method (Pozzobon et al., 2013) using the position of the small widespread mounds within Firsoff and Crommelin craters can give a hint of the average depth of the evaportic horizons (~4 km). As further developments we plan to test and quantify our model to take into account geological evidences, possible kinematics, rheology and stratigraphic constrains. References: Andrews-Hanna, J.C., and Lewis, K.W., 2011, Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. E02007, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003709. Franchi, F., Rossi, A. P., Pondrelli, M., Cavalazzi, B. (2014) Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars. Planet Space Sci., in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.013, Jackson M.P.A. & Vendeville B.C. (1994) - Regional extension as a geologic trigger for diapirism, GSA Bulletin, 106: 57-73, Pondrelli, M., Rossi, A. P., Ori, G.G., van Gasselt, S., Praeg, D., and Ceramicola, S., 2011, Mud volcanoes in the geologic record of Mars: The case of Firsoff crater: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 304, p. 511-519, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.027., Pozzobon R. et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #1797270.

  7. Characterization of the Effect of the Mitochondrial Protein Hint2 on Intracellular Ca2+ dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Collado-Hilly, Mauricette; Martin, Juliette; Prigent, Sylvie; Dufour, Jean-François; Combettes, Laurent; Dupont, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Hint2, one of the five members of the superfamily of the histidine triad AMP-lysine hydrolase proteins, is expressed in mitochondria of various cell types. In human adrenocarcinoma cells, Hint2 modulates Ca2+ handling by mitochondria. As Hint2 is highly expressed in hepatocytes, we investigated if this protein affects Ca2+ dynamics in this cell type. We found that in hepatocytes isolated from Hint2−/− mice, the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations induced by 1 μM noradrenaline was 150% higher than in the wild-type. Using spectrophotometry, we analyzed the rates of Ca2+ pumping in suspensions of mitochondria prepared from hepatocytes of either wild-type or Hint2−/− mice; we found that Hint2 accelerates Ca2+ pumping into mitochondria. We then resorted to computational modeling to elucidate the possible molecular target of Hint2 that could explain both observations. On the basis of a detailed model for mitochondrial metabolism proposed in another study, we identified the respiratory chain as the most probable target of Hint2. We then used the model to predict that the absence of Hint2 leads to a premature opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in response to repetitive additions of Ca2+ in suspensions of mitochondria. This prediction was then confirmed experimentally. PMID:24010670

  8. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  9. Clinical-HINTS: integrated intelligent ICU patient monitoring and information management system.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, D; Carson, E R; Collinson, P O

    1997-01-01

    Clinical-HINTS (Health Intelligence System) is a horizontally integrated decision support system (DSS) designed to meet the requirements for intelligent real-time clinical information management in critical care medical environments and to lay the foundation for the development of the next generation of intelligent medical instrumentation. The system presented was developed to refine and complement the information yielded by clinical laboratory investigations, thereby benefiting the management of the intensive care unit (ICU) patient. More specifically, Clinical-HINTS was developed to provide computer-based assistance with the acquisition, organisation and display, storage and retrieval, communication and generation of real-time patient-specific clinical information in an ICU. Clinical-HINTS is an object-oriented system developed in C+2 to run under Microsoft Windows as an embryo intelligent agent. Current generic reasoning skills include perception and reactive cognition of patient status but exclude therapeutic action. The system monitors the patient by communicating with the available sources of data and uses generic reasoning skills to generate intelligent alarms, or HINTS, on various levels of interpretation of an observed dysfunction, even in the presence of complex disorders. The system's communication and information management capabilities are used to acquire physiological data, and to store them along with their interpretations and any interventions for the dynamic recognition of interrelated pathophysiological states or clinical events. PMID:10179800

  10. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  11. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management:…

  12. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  13. Enhancement of Student Learning through the Use of a Hinting Computer E-Learning System and Comparison with Human Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.; Munoz-Organero, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in a Computer Architecture Laboratory course classroom session, in which students were divided into two groups for interaction both with a hinting e-learning system and with human teachers generating hints. The results show that there were high learning gains for both groups, demonstrating the…

  14. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  15. A Time Series Analysis of Cancer-Related Information Seeking: Hints From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological changes, such as the growth of the Internet, have made cancer information widely available. However, it remains unknown whether changes in access have resulted in concomitant changes in information seeking behavior. Previous work explored the cancer information seeking behaviors of the general population using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). This article aims to reproduce, replicate, and extend that existing analysis using the original dataset and five additional iterations of HINTS (2007, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014). This approach builds on the earlier work by quantifying the magnitude of change in information seeking behaviors. Bivariate comparison of the 2003 and 2014 data revealed very similar results; however, the multivariate model including all years of data indicated differences between the original and extended models: individuals age 65 and older were no longer less likely to seek cancer information than the 18-35 reference population, and Hispanics were also no longer less likely to be cancer information seekers. The results of our analysis indicate an overall shift in cancer information seeking behaviors and also illuminate the impact of increased Internet usage over the past decade, suggesting specific demographic groups that may benefit from cancer information seeking encouragement. PMID:27565190

  16. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  17. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  18. Hospital Hints

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... have to spend the night in the hospital. Learning more about what to expect and about people ...

  19. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg; Schneider, Aurel; Macciò, Andrea V.; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  20. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies. PMID:26905466

  1. The boy who would be queen: hints and closets on children's television.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Although American television programs targeted at children and adolescents posit universal heterosexuality and never openly allude to LGBT persons, a content analysis of 102 episodes of 25 contemporary children's programs revealed many examples of resistance to the heteronormative ideology: intimate same-sex friendships; inclusive statements or stage business; scenes that hint at the existence of same-sex desire; gender-transgressive or otherwise gay-stereotyped characters; and jokes and references that require a knowledge of gay culture. The impact of this resistance on viewers is analyzed through fan fiction and artwork, and potential explanations are examined. PMID:19657933

  2. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed. PMID:18637406

  3. HINT1 peptide/Hsp70 complex induces NK-cell-dependent immunoregulation in a model of autoimmune demyelination.

    PubMed

    Galazka, Grazyna; Jurewicz, Anna; Domowicz, Malgorzata; Cannella, Barbara; Raine, Cedric S; Selmaj, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) interact with the immune system and have been shown to contribute to immunoregulation. As efficient chaperones, Hsps bind many peptides and these complexes have many yet-to-be-clarified functions. We have shown that Hsp70 is complexed within the mouse CNS with peptide CLAFHDISPQAPTHFLVIPK derived from histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70). Only this complex, in contrast to other peptides complexed with Hsp70, was able to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by induction of immunoregulatory mechanisms dependent on NK cells. Pretreatment of proteolipid protein peptide ₁₃₉₋₁₅₁(PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁) sensitized SJL/J mice with HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70 prevented the development of EAE, suppressed PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced T-cell proliferation, and blocked secretion of IL-17. HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 stimulation of NK cells depended on synergistic activation of two NK-cell receptors, CD94 and NKG2D. NK cells with depleted CD94 or with blocked NKG2D did not inhibit PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced spleen cell (SC) proliferation. The HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70 complex enhanced surface expression of the NKG2D ligand-H60. Downstream signaling of CD94 and NKG2D converged at the adaptor proteins DAP10 and DAP12, and in response to HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 stimulation, expression of DAP10 and DAP12 was significantly increased in NK cells. Thus, we have shown that the HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 complex affects NK-cell function by enhancing NK-cell-dependent immunoregulation in the EAE model of autoimmune demyelination. PMID:25092109

  4. A megaxion at 750 GeV as a first hint of low scale string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Luis E.; Martín-Lozano, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Low scale string models naturally have axion-like pseudoscalars which couple directly to gluons and photons (but not W 's) at tree level. We show how they typically get tree level masses in the presence of closed string fluxes , consistent with the axion discrete gauge symmetry, in a way akin of the axion monodromy of string inflation and relaxion models. We discuss the possibility that the hints for a resonance at 750 GeV recently reported at ATLAS and CMS could correspond to such a heavy axion state ( megaxion). Adjusting the production rate and branching ratios suggest the string scale to be of order M s ≃ 7-104 TeV, depending on the compactification geometry. If this interpretation was correct, one extra Z' gauge boson could be produced before reaching the string threshold at LHC and future colliders.

  5. Technical hints and potential pitfalls in modified radical neck dissection for thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leyre; Sancho, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Modified radical neck dissection (MRND) is often performed in conjunction with total thyroidectomy for the management of thyroid cancer. Prevention of postoperative sequelae after MRND is closely dependent on the avoidance of technical mistakes that may lead to significant complications and long-term morbidity. A thorough technical discussion with emphasis on potential pitfalls is made of the most relevant steps of MRND using the extrafascial approach: fascial dissection, approach to the accessory nerve, posterior limits, upper internal jugular vein (IJV), transverse cervical vessels, thoracic duct and compartment V dissection. Some anatomical hints are emphasized to help the novice surgeon to develop a refined surgical technique, the key to an uneventful postoperative course. PMID:25083480

  6. Phase transitions in hydrophobe/phospholipid mixtures: hints at connections between pheromones and anaesthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Borsacchi, Silvia; Geppi, Marco; Macchi, Sara; Ninham, Barry W; Fratini, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Moira; Baglioni, Piero; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea

    2016-06-01

    The phase behavior of a mixture of a typical insect pheromone (olean) and a phospholipid (DOPC)/water dispersion is extensively explored through SAXS, NMR and DSC experiments. The results mimic those obtained with anaesthetics in phospholipid/water systems. They also mimic the behavior and microstructure of ternary mixtures of a membrane mimetic, bilayer-forming double chained surfactants, oils and water. Taken together with recent models for conduction of the nervous impulse, all hint at lipid involvement and the underlying unity in mechanisms of pheromone, anaesthetic and hydrophobic drugs, where a local phase change in the lipid membrane architecture may be at least partly involved in the transmission of the signal. PMID:27210443

  7. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  8. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  9. The ON:OFF switch, σ1R-HINT1 protein, controls GPCR-NMDA receptor cross-regulation: Implications in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón-Niño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) and sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) coordinate the activity of certain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with that of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To determine the role of HINT1-σ1R in the plasticity of GPCR-NMDAR interactions, substances acting at MOR, cannabinoid CB1 receptor, NMDAR and σ1R were injected into mice, and their effects were evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. It was observed that HINT1 protein binds to GPCRs and NMDAR NR1 subunits in a calcium-independent manner, whereas σ1R binding to these proteins increases in the presence of calcium. In this scenario, σ1R agonists keep HINT1 at the GPCR and stimulate GPCR-NMDAR interaction, whereas σ1R antagonists transfer HINT1 to NR1 subunits and disengage both receptors. This regulation is lost in σ1R−/− mice, where HINT1 proteins mostly associate with NMDARs, and GPCRs are physically and functionally disconnected from NMDARs. In HINT1−/− mice, ischemia produces low NMDAR-mediated brain damage, suggesting that several different GPCRs enhance glutamate excitotoxicity via HINT1-σ1R. Thus, several GPCRs associate with NMDARs by a dynamic process under the physiological control of HINT1 proteins and σ1Rs. The NMDAR-HINT1-σ1R complex deserves attention because it offers new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26461475

  10. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage. PMID:26444396

  11. ALMA HINTS AT THE PRESENCE OF TWO COMPANIONS IN THE DISK AROUND HD 100546

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Juhász, Attila; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Dent, William R. F.; Birnstiel, T.; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, T. J.; Sandell, Göran

    2014-08-10

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390 ± 20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230 ± 20 AU in radius), suggesting radial drift of the millimeter-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and micrometer-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75 ± 3 AU centered at 190 ± 3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is investigated. The companion at 10 AU facilitates the accumulation of millimeter-sized grains within a compact ring, ≈20-30 AU, by ≈10 Myr. The injection of a protoplanet at 1 Myr hastens the ring formation (≈1.2 Myr) and also triggers the development of an outer ring (≈100-200 AU). These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of a close-in companion and hint at dynamical clearing by a protoplanet in the outer disk.

  12. Discovery at Young Star Hints Magnetism Common to All Cosmic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    Astronomers have found the first evidence of a magnetic field in a jet of material ejected from a young star, a discovery that points toward future breakthroughs in understanding the nature of all types of cosmic jets and of the role of magnetic fields in star formation. Throughout the Universe, jets of subatomic particles are ejected by three phenomena: the supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies, smaller black holes or neutron stars consuming material from companion stars, and young stars still in the process of gathering mass from their surroundings. Previously, magnetic fields were detected in the jets of the first two, but until now, magnetic fields had not been confirmed in the jets from young stars. "Our discovery gives a strong hint that all three types of jets originate through a common process," said Carlos Carrasco-Gonzalez, of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia Spanish National Research Council (IAA-CSIC) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study a young star some 5,500 light-years from Earth, called IRAS 18162-2048. This star, possibly as massive as 10 Suns, is ejecting a jet 17 light-years long. Observing this object for 12 hours with the VLA, the scientists found that radio waves from the jet have a characteristic indicating they arose when fast-moving electrons interacted with magnetic fields. This characteristic, called polarization, gives a preferential alignment to the electric and magnetic fields of the radio waves. "We see for the first time that a jet from a young star shares this common characteristic with the other types of cosmic jets," said Luis Rodriguez, of UNAM. The discovery, the astronomers say, may allow them to gain an improved understanding of the physics of the jets as well as of the role magnetic fields play in forming new stars. The jets from young stars, unlike the other types, emit radiation

  13. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae. PMID:25976113

  14. Structure and energy level alignment at the dye-electrode interface in p-type DSSCs: new hints on the role of anchoring modes from ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-García, Ana B; Pavone, Michele

    2015-05-14

    p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent the complementary photocathodes to the well-studied n-type DSSCs (Grätzel cells), but their low performances have hindered the development of convenient tandem solar cells based on cost-effective n- and p-type DSSCs. Because of their low efficiencies, experimental investigations highlighted the role of hole-electron transport processes at the dye-electrode interface. However, the effects of the dye anchoring groups on interfacial electronic features are still unclear. We report here a first principles study of a benchmark p-type DSSC model, namely the widely used Coumarin-based dye C343 adsorbed on the p-NiO surface. Together with the original carboxylic acid, we test the alternative phosphonic acid as the anchoring group. We investigate binding energies, structural features and electronic energy level alignments: our results highlight that these properties are highly sensitive to the binding modes. In particular, both the chemical nature of the anchoring group and the binding mode strongly affect the thermodynamic driving force for the dye-electrode hole injection process. From analysis of the electronic densities, we find that favorable driving forces are correlated with small values of the interfacial electrostatic dipole that is formed upon dye adsorption. From our results, we derive new hints for improving open circuit potential and the hole injection process in p-type DSSCs based on NiO electrodes. PMID:25892559

  15. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  16. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.

    In this chapter on decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning school property it is noted that no new trends emerged during the year. Among the topics addressed are the extent of school board authority over property use and other property matters; the attachment and detachment of land from school district holdings; school…

  17. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  18. Hints on the Broad Line Region Structure of Quasars at High and Low Luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Zamfir, Sebastian; Negrete, C. A.; Dultzin, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    Quasars show a considerable spectroscopic diversity. However, the variety of quasar spectra at low redshifts is non-random: a principal component analysis applied to large samples customarily identifies two main eigenvectors. In this contribution we show that the range of quasar optical spectral properties observed at low-z\\ and associated with the first eigenvector is preserved up to z ≈ 2 in a sample of high luminosity quasars. We also describe two major luminosity effects.

  19. First hints of large scale structures in the ultrahigh energy sky?

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoco, A.; Miele, G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The result of the recent publication [1] of a broad maximum around 25 degrees in the two-point autocorrelation function of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions has been intriguingly interpreted as the first imprint of the large scale structures (LSS) of baryonic matter in the near universe. We analyze this suggestion in light of the clustering properties expected from the PSCz astronomical catalogue of LSS. The chance probability of the signal is consistent within 2 {sigma} with the predictions based on the catalogue. No evidence for a significant cross-correlation of the observed events with known overdensities in the LSS is found, which may be due to the role of the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, and is however consistent with the limited statistics. The larger statistics to be collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory is needed to answer definitely the question.

  20. The Intracellular Domain of Teneurin-1 Induces the Activity of Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) by Binding to Transcriptional Repressor HINT1

    PubMed Central

    Schöler, Jonas; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Thiry, Stéphane; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Teneurins are large type II transmembrane proteins that are necessary for the normal development of the CNS. Although many studies highlight the significance of teneurins, especially during development, there is only limited information known about the molecular mechanisms of function. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal intracellular domain (ICD) of teneurins can be cleaved at the membrane and subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it can influence gene transcription. Because teneurin ICDs do not contain any intrinsic DNA binding sequences, interaction partners are required to affect transcription. Here, we identified histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) as a human teneurin-1 ICD interaction partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed in human cells, where HINT1 is known to inhibit the transcription of target genes by directly binding to transcription factors at the promoter. In a whole transcriptome analysis of BS149 glioblastoma cells overexpressing the teneurin-1 ICD, several microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) target genes were found to be up-regulated. Directly comparing the transcriptomes of MITF versus TEN1-ICD-overexpressing BS149 cells revealed 42 co-regulated genes, including glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB). Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect endogenous GPNMB expression upon overexpression of MITF and HINT1 as well as promoter reporter assays using GPNMB promoter constructs, we could demonstrate that the teneurin-1 ICD binds HINT1, thus switching on MITF-dependent transcription of GPNMB. PMID:25648896

  1. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Schools. Frequently Asked Questions and FY 2006 NIMS Compliance Activities for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive system that improves tribal and local emergency response operations through the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the application of standardized…

  2. The intracellular domain of teneurin-1 induces the activity of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) by binding to transcriptional repressor HINT1.

    PubMed

    Schöler, Jonas; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Thiry, Stéphane; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2015-03-27

    Teneurins are large type II transmembrane proteins that are necessary for the normal development of the CNS. Although many studies highlight the significance of teneurins, especially during development, there is only limited information known about the molecular mechanisms of function. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal intracellular domain (ICD) of teneurins can be cleaved at the membrane and subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it can influence gene transcription. Because teneurin ICDs do not contain any intrinsic DNA binding sequences, interaction partners are required to affect transcription. Here, we identified histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) as a human teneurin-1 ICD interaction partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed in human cells, where HINT1 is known to inhibit the transcription of target genes by directly binding to transcription factors at the promoter. In a whole transcriptome analysis of BS149 glioblastoma cells overexpressing the teneurin-1 ICD, several microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) target genes were found to be up-regulated. Directly comparing the transcriptomes of MITF versus TEN1-ICD-overexpressing BS149 cells revealed 42 co-regulated genes, including glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB). Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect endogenous GPNMB expression upon overexpression of MITF and HINT1 as well as promoter reporter assays using GPNMB promoter constructs, we could demonstrate that the teneurin-1 ICD binds HINT1, thus switching on MITF-dependent transcription of GPNMB. PMID:25648896

  3. A hint of Poincaré dodecahedral topology in the WMAP first year sky map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, B. F.; Lew, B.; Cechowska, M.; Marecki, A.; Bajtlik, S.

    2004-09-01

    It has recently been suggested by Luminet et al. (\\cite{LumNat03}) that the WMAP data are better matched by a geometry in which the topology is that of a Poincaré dodecahedral model and the curvature is ``slightly'' spherical, rather than by an (effectively) infinite flat model. A general back-to-back matched circles analysis by Cornish et al. (\\cite{CSSK03}) for angular radii in the range 25-90 °, using a correlation statistic for signal detection, failed to support this. In this paper, a matched circles analysis specifically designed to detect dodecahedral patterns of matched circles is performed over angular radii in the range 1-40\\ddeg on the one-year WMAP data. Signal detection is attempted via a correlation statistic and an rms difference statistic. Extreme value distributions of these statistics are calculated for one orientation of the 36\\ddeg ``screw motion'' (Clifford translation) when matching circles, for the opposite screw motion, and for a zero (unphysical) rotation. The most correlated circles appear for circle radii of \\alpha =11 ± 1 \\ddeg, for the left-handed screw motion, but not for the right-handed one, nor for the zero rotation. The favoured six dodecahedral face centres in galactic coordinates are (\\lII,\\bII) ≈ (252\\ddeg,+65\\ddeg), (51\\ddeg,+51\\ddeg), (144\\ddeg,+38\\ddeg), (207\\ddeg,+10\\ddeg), (271\\ddeg,+3\\ddeg), (332\\ddeg,+25\\ddeg) and their opposites. The six pairs of circles independently each favour a circle angular radius of 11 ± 1\\ddeg. The temperature fluctuations along the matched circles are plotted and are clearly highly correlated. Whether or not these six circle pairs centred on dodecahedral faces match via a 36\\ddeg rotation only due to unexpected statistical properties of the WMAP ILC map, or whether they match due to global geometry, it is clear that the WMAP ILC map has some unusual statistical properties which mimic a potentially interesting cosmological signal.

  4. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  8. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, C. O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2015-03-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s-1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King & Ritter. The decay time-scales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 h. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: (1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of `normal' X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; (2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; (3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an LX of 1034-1035 erg s-1 for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accretion flow in a propeller effect, permitting a small portion of the flow to accrete on to the neutron star's surface. We thus predict that (quasi-) persistent VFXBs may also be transitional millisecond pulsars, turning on as millisecond radio pulsars when their LX drops below 1032 erg s-1.

  9. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  10. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  11. Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from the Picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri

    PubMed Central

    Thommen, Quentin; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Morant, Pierre-Emmanuel; Corellou, Florence; Bouget, François-Yves; Lefranc, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intringuing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks. PMID:21085637

  12. Hints of the existence of axionlike particles from the gamma-ray spectra of cosmological sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M. A.; Prada, F.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Dominguez, A.

    2009-06-15

    Axionlike particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the extragalactic background light intensity at 3.6 {mu}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and

  13. Earnings in e-learning: knowledge, CME credits or both? Hints from analysis of attendance dynamics and users' behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Landro, Mauro; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Marcello; Giorgi, Ines

    2010-01-01

    Many papers report and convey positive opinion about the use of e-learning in the healthcare sector. The issue is how to exploit at best such a powerful instrument. Starting from data regarding the usage of a CME e-learning course, attendance dynamics and users' behaviour have been inspected with the aim of getting some hints about how to improve the development and the delivery of e-learning courses for CME, and to promote knowledge acquisition at best. The different paths followed by 7811 users have been modeled, from enrolment to conclusion/drop-out, then the behaviour in terms of effort, elapsed time, achieved result have been analyzed. The obtained results point out: good acceptance (retention rate 83%) of a not basic educational model and effectiveness (success rate 79%). At the same time the inspection of behaviour has shown that there is a good margin of possible improvement in terms of knowledge acquisition. Conclusions provide a list of issues to keep in mind during system development, in order to provide CME e-learning meeting both credit and knowledge acquisition goals. PMID:20841752

  14. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  15. Modulation masking release using the Brazilian-Portuguese HINT: Psychometric functions and the effect of speech time compression

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.; Griz, Silvana; Pacífico, Fernando A.; Advíncula, Karina P.; Menezes, Denise C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Brazilian-Portuguese Hearing In Noise Test (HINT) was used to investigate the benefit to speech recognition of listening in a fluctuating background. The goal was to determine whether modulation masking release varied as a function of the speech-to-masker ratio at threshold. Speech-to-masker ratio at threshold was manipulated using the novel approach of adjusting the time-compression of the speech. Design Experiment 1 measured performance-intensity functions in both a steady speech-shaped noise masker and a 10-Hz square-wave modulated masker. Experiment 2 measured speech-to-masker ratios at threshold as a function of time-compression of the speech (0, 33, and 50%) in both maskers. Study Sample Participants were normal-hearing adults who were native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (Experiment 1: N = 10; Experiment 2: N = 30). Results The slope of the performance-intensity function was shallower in the modulated masker than in the steady masker for both words and sentences. Thresholds increased with increasing time-compression in both maskers, but more markedly in the modulated masker, resulting in reduced modulation masking release with increasing time-compression. Conclusions Speech-to-masker ratio at threshold varies with time-compression of speech. The results are relevant to the issue of whether degree of masker modulation benefit depends on speech-to-masker ratio at threshold. PMID:25630394

  16. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  17. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

  18. Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-12-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

  19. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay. PMID:26967409

  20. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B →D τ ν and B →D*τ ν of approximately 3.8 σ . There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3 σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ →μ ν ν is 1.8 σ (2.4 σ ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h →μ τ . Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ →μ ν ν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral C P -even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R (D ) and R (D*) can be easily explained by additional t -c -Higgs couplings. Combining these t -c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t →H c can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h →μ τ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ →μ γ decay.

  1. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers. PMID:25218499

  2. Enhanced models for stellar Doppler noise reveal hints of a 13-year activity cycle of 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the impact of Doppler noise models on the statistical robustness of the exoplanetary radial velocity fits. We show that the traditional model of the Doppler noise with an additive jitter can generate large non-linearity effects, decreasing the reliability of the fit, especially in the cases when a correlated Doppler noise is involved. We introduce a regularization of the additive noise model that can gracefully eliminate its singularities together with the associated non-linearity effects. We apply this approach to Doppler time series data of several exoplanetary systems. It demonstrates that our new regularized noise model yields orbital fits that have either increased or at least the same statistical robustness, in comparison with the simple additive jitter. Various statistical uncertainties in the parametric estimations are often reduced, while planet detection significance is often increased. Concerning the 55 Cnc five-planet system, we show that its Doppler data contain significant correlated (`red') noise. Its correlation time-scale is in the range from days to months, and its magnitude is much larger than the effect of the planetary N-body perturbations in the radial velocity (these perturbations thus appear undetectable). Characteristics of the red noise depend on the spectrograph/observatory, and also show a cyclic time variation in phase with the public Ca II H&K and photometry measurements. We interpret this modulation as a hint of the long-term activity cycle of 55 Cnc, similar to the solar 11-yr cycle. We estimate the 55 Cnc activity period by 12.6± ^{2.5}_{1.0} yr, with the nearest minimum presumably expected in 2014 or 2015.

  3. Healthy household hints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366863

  4. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  5. Quantitative Analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 Protein Over-Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Symes, Andrew J.; Eilertsen, Marte; Millar, Michael; Nariculam, Joseph; Freeman, Alex; Notara, Maria; Feneley, Mark R.; Patel, Hitenedra R. H.; Masters, John R. W.; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer. PMID:24386364

  6. Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF INFALLING AND ROTATIONAL MOTIONS ON A 1000 AU SCALE AROUND 17 CLASS 0 AND 0/I PROTOSTARS: HINTS OF DISK GROWTH AND MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (2-1) and {sup 12}CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ∼600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C{sup 18}O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ∼1 to ∼530 km s{sup –1} pc{sup –1}. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M {sub ☉} to >1 M {sub ☉}. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10{sup –4} km s{sup –1} pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk

  8. Observations of Infalling and Rotational Motions on a 1000 AU Scale around 17 Class 0 and 0/I Protostars: Hints of Disk Growth and Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C18O (2-1) and 12CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C18O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ~600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C18O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ~1 to ~530 km s-1 pc-1. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M ⊙ to >1 M ⊙. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10-4 km s-1 pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk formation.

  9. Co-evolution of Extreme Star Formation and Quasar: hints from Herschel and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Yan, Haojing

    2016-01-01

    Using the public data from the Herschel wide field surveys, we study the far-infrared properties of optical-selected quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Within the common area of ˜172 deg2 we have identified the far-infrared counterparts for 354 quasars, among which 134 are highly secure detections in the Herschel 250μm band (signal-to-noise ratios ≥5). This sample is the largest far-infrared quasar sample of its kind, and spans a wide redshift range of 0.14≤z≤4.7. Their far-infrared spectral energy distributions, which are due to the cold dust components within the host galaxies, are consistent with being heated by active star formation. In most cases (>˜80%), their total infrared luminosities as inferred from only their far-infrared emissions (LIR(cd)) already exceed 1012 Lsun, and thus these objects qualify as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. There is no correlation between LIR(cd) and the absolute magnitudes, the black hole masses or the X-ray luminosities of the quasars, which further support that their far-infrared emissions are not due to their active galactic nuclei. A large fraction of these objects (>˜50-60%) have star formation rates >˜300Msun/yr. Such extreme starbursts among optical quasars, however, is only a few per cent. This fraction varies with redshift, and peaks at around z~2. Among the entire sample, 136 objects have secure estimates of their cold-dust temperatures (T), and we find that there is a dramatic increasing trend of T with increasing LIR(cd). We interpret this trend as the envelope of the general distribution of infrared galaxies on the (T, LIR(cd)) plane.

  10. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Prada, F.; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like

  11. Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for U.S. Women Aged 25–64: Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Richard P.; Gaffey, Allison; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although it is widely accepted that Papanicolaou (Pap) screening can reduce cervical cancer mortality, many women still do not maintain regular cervical cancer screenings. Objective To describe the prevalence of cervical cancer screening and the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cancer-related knowledge factors associated with adherence to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cervical cancer screening guidelines among women in the United States. Methods Data for women aged 25–64 were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Women were considered adherent to screening guidelines if they had two consecutive, on-schedule screenings and planned to have another within the next 3 years. The sample comprised 2070 women. Results Ninety-eight percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, 90% reported having had a recent Pap smear (within 3 years), and 84% were adherent to USPSTF screening guidelines. Maintaining regular cervical cancer screening was significantly associated with having health insurance, normal body mass index (BMI), smoking status (nonsmoker), mood (absence of a mood disturbance), and being knowledgeable about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Conclusions Based on the observation that women who were current smokers, obese, or experiencing a substantial degree of psychological distress were significantly less likely to adhere to recommended screening guidelines, we suggest that healthcare providers pay particular attention to the screening needs of these more vulnerable women. PMID:19951209

  12. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS IN ORBITAL/SUPERORBITAL PHASE SPACE AND HINTS OF SUPERORBITAL VARIABILITY IN THE HARD X-RAYS OF LS I +61°303

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu

    2014-04-10

    We present an INTEGRAL spectral analysis in the orbital/superorbital phase space of LS I +61°303. A hard X-ray spectrum with no cutoff is observed at all orbital/superorbital phases. The hard X-ray index is found to be uncorrelated with the radio index (non-simultaneously) measured at the same orbital and superorbital phases. In particular, the absence of an X-ray spectrum softening during periods of negative radio index does not favor a simple interpretation of the radio index variations in terms of a microquasar's changes of state. We uncover hints of superorbital variability in the hard X-ray flux, in phase with the superorbital modulation in soft X-rays. An orbital phase drift of the radio peak flux and index along the superorbital period is observed in the radio data. We explore its influence on a previously reported double-peak structure of a radio orbital light curve, and present it as a plausible explanation.

  13. Similarities Between Cometary, Meteoritic, and Laboratory Analog Dust: Hints from the Attribution of the 10-micrometer Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Mennella, V.; Bussoletti, E.; Merluzzi, P.; Rotundi, A.; Palumbo, P.; di Marino, C.

    1993-07-01

    It is well known that the infrared emission of many comets is characterized by a broad feature at 10 micrometers, that has been attributed to a Si-O stretching resonance in amorphous and/or hydrated silicate grains. In the case of comets Halley [1,2], Bradfield [3] and Levy [4] two spectral components have been observed: the wide peak centered at 9.8 micrometers and a sharp feature at 11.3 micrometers. This last band has been interpreted with crystalline olivine silicatic grains [1,2,5]. However, recently, it has been pointed out [6] that the laboratory data frequently used in the fits refer to grains embedded in a matrix, which should produce a significant shift of the peak position, according to Mie computations. We have performed laboratory experiments on various silicatic samples with the perspective of determining their optical properties, to study experimentally the influence of matrix effects, and to use the final spectra to perform comparisons with observations. The samples are four terrestrial materials, olivine forsterite, jadeite pyroxene, andesite feldspar and impactite glass, and two meteoritic samples, chondrite (Zacatecas, Mexico) and pallasite (Atacama, Chile). Fine powders of the bulk materials were obtained by grinding calibrated mass amounts of the various samples in an agata mill. The morphological characterization of the samples was performed by means of S.E.M. (scanning electron microscopy) technique. EDX analysis was also performed to determine elemental composition. IR transmission spectra were obtained by using a double beam spectrophotometer that covers the spectral range 2.5-50 micrometers. The standard pellet technique was used by embedding dust samples in KBr or CsI matrices. For comparison, measurements were also performed by depositing small amounts of dust onto KBr windows. In this last case, dust-matrix interaction should be practically absent as grains are simply sitting onto the matrix. The data obtained from the spectroscopic

  14. Dual activity of certain HIT-proteins: A. thaliana Hint4 and C. elegans DcpS act on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as hydrolases (forming AMP) and as phosphorylases (forming ADP).

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna Maria; Zimny, Jarosław; Wypijewska, Anna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Bieganowski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Histidine triad (HIT)-family proteins interact with different mono- and dinucleotides and catalyze their hydrolysis. During a study of the substrate specificity of seven HIT-family proteins, we have shown that each can act as a sulfohydrolase, catalyzing the liberation of AMP from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS or SO(4)-pA). However, in the presence of orthophosphate, Arabidopsis thaliana Hint4 and Caenorhabditis elegans DcpS also behaved as APS phosphorylases, forming ADP. Low pH promoted the phosphorolytic and high pH the hydrolytic activities. These proteins, and in particular Hint4, also catalyzed hydrolysis or phosphorolysis of some other adenylyl-derivatives but at lower rates than those for APS cleavage. A mechanism for these activities is proposed and the possible role of some HIT-proteins in APS metabolism is discussed. PMID:19896942

  15. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  16. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  17. The moon-Earth system...As a vacuum gravity energy machine? A Hint about the Nature of Universal Gravity that May Have Been Overlooked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2011-10-01

    We revisit the theories describing the moon raising the tides by virtue of pull gravity combined with the moon's centripetal angular momentum. We show that if gravity is considered as the attractive interaction between individual bodies, then a laboring moon doing work would have fallen to earth eons ago. Isaac Newton's laws of motion cannot work with pull gravity, but they do with Einstein's gravity as a property of the universe, which produces a continuous infusion of energy. In other words, the moon-Earth system becomes the first observable vacuum gravity energy machine. In other words the dynamics of what appears to be a closed system has been producing energy that continues raising the tides into perpetuity along with the force needed for the moon to escape the Earth's gravitational pull 4cm per year. All this is in defiance of Newton's first law which says ``If no force is added to a body it cannot accelerate.'' In this theory, a flowing space-time curves with three dimensions of force. A (flowing) spatial fabric bends around mass and displaces the inverse square field vanishing point property of matter with the appearance of a push-force square of the distance. In other words, the immeasurable universal gravity field appears as measurable local gravitation, concentrating universal gravitational pressure with the square of the distance from the very point was supposed to have disappeared. Needless to say such ``gravity'' necessitates a different beginning.

  18. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  19. OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE HOT URANUS GJ3470b: A HINT OF A CLOUD-FREE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Hiroshi; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Suenaga, Takuya; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ohta, Kouji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-20

    We present optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c}) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, a Uranus-mass transiting planet around a nearby M dwarf, by using the 50 cm MITSuME telescope and the 188 cm telescope, both at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 {+-} 1.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 4.32{sup +0.21}{sub -0.10} R{sub Circled-Plus }, and 0.94 {+-} 0.12 g cm{sup -3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m photometry (0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p} /R{sub s} ) in the J band (0.07577{sup +0.00072}{sub -0.00075}) is smaller than that in the I{sub c} (0.0802 {+-} 0.0013) and 4.5 {mu}m (0.07806{sup +0.00052}{sub -0.00054}) bands by 5.8% {+-} 2.0% and 2.9% {+-} 1.1%, respectively. A plausible explanation for the differences is that the planetary atmospheric opacity varies with wavelength due to absorption and/or scattering by atmospheric molecules. Although the significance of the observed R{sub p} /R{sub s} variations is low, if confirmed, this fact would suggest that GJ3470b does not have a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere. This property would offer a wealth of opportunity for future transmission-spectroscopic observations of this planet to search for certain molecular features, such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, without being prevented by clouds.

  20. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local

  1. Shear wave splitting hints at dynamical features of mantle convection: a global study of homogeneously processed source and receiver side upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Masters, G.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The asthenosphere is embroiled in the process of mantle convection. Its viscous properties allow it to flow around sinking slabs and deep cratonic roots as it is displaced by intruding material and dragged around by the moving layer above. As the asthenosphere flows it develops a crystalline fabric with anisotropic crystals preferentially aligned in the direction of flow. Meanwhile, the lithosphere above deforms as it is squeezed and stretched by underlying tectonic processes, enabling anisotropic fabrics to develop and become fossilised in the rigid rock and to persist over vast spans of geological time. As a shear wave passes through an anisotropic medium it splits into two orthogonally polarised quasi shear waves that propagate at different velocities (this phenomenon is known as shear wave splitting). By analysing the polarisation and the delay time of many split waves that have passed through a region it is possible to constrain the anisotropy of the medium in that region. This anisotropy is the key to revealing the deformation history of the deep Earth. In this study we present measurements of shear wave splitting recorded on S, SKS, and SKKS waves from earthquakes recorded at stations from the IRIS DMC catalogue (1976-2010). We have used a cluster analysis phase picking technique [1] to pick hundreds of thousands of high signal to noise waveforms on long period data. These picks are used to feed the broadband data into an automated processing workflow that recovers shear wave splitting parameters [2,3]. The workflow includes a new method for making source and receiver corrections, whereby the stacked error surfaces are used as input to correction rather than a single set of parameters, this propagates uncertainty information into the final measurement. Using SKS, SKKS, and source corrected S, we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 1,569 stations. Using receiver corrected S we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 470 events. We compare

  2. Observational hints on the Big Bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Kurek, Aleksandra; Szydłowski, Marek; Kamionka, Michał E-mail: kamionka@astro.uni.wroc.pl E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we study possible observational consequences of the bouncing cosmology. We consider a model where a phase of inflation is preceded by a cosmic bounce. While we consider in this paper only that the bounce is due to loop quantum gravity, most of the results presented here can be applied for different bouncing cosmologies. We concentrate on the scenario where the scalar field, as the result of contraction of the universe, is driven from the bottom of the potential well. The field is amplified, and finally the phase of the standard slow-roll inflation is realized. Such an evolution modifies the standard inflationary spectrum of perturbations by the additional oscillations and damping on the large scales. We extract the parameters of the model from the observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, the value of inflaton mass is equal to m = (1.7±0.6)·10{sup 13} GeV. In our considerations we base on the seven years of observations made by the WMAP satellite. We propose the new observational consistency check for the phase of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make the observations of the Big Bounce effects possible. We translate them to the requirements on the parameters of the model and then put the observational constraints on the model. Based on assumption usually made in loop quantum cosmology, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter was shown to be constrained by γ < 1100 from the cosmological observations. We have compared the Big Bounce model with the standard Big Bang scenario and showed that the present observational data is not informative enough to distinguish these models.

  3. Lasers and Physics: A Pretty Good Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schawlow, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    The monochromaticity, directionality, and intensity of laser light make possible spectroscopic investigations of previously unimagined precision. Several of these investigations and their applications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  4. Scalar Hint from the Diboson Excess?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-10-01

    In view of the recent diboson resonant excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we suggest that a new weak singlet pseudoscalar particle ηW Z may decay into two weak bosons while being produced in gluon fusion at the LHC. The couplings to the gauge bosons can arise from a Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly term and thus we study an effective model based on the anomaly term as a well motivated phenomenological model. In models where the pseudoscalar particle arises as a composite state, the coefficients of the anomalous couplings can be related to the fermion components of the underlying dynamics. We provide an example to test the feasibility of the idea.

  5. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that they had heard of the Big Bang also provided responses that suggest they believe that the Big Bang was a phenomenon that organized pre-existing matter. To further examine this result, a second group of college students was asked specifically to describe what existed or occurred before, during, and after the Big Bang. Nearly 70% gave responses clearly stating that matter existed prior to the Big Bang. These results are interpreted as strongly suggesting that most students are answering these questions by employing an internally consistent element of knowledge or reasoning (often referred to as a phenomenological primitive, or p-prim), consistent with the idea that "you can't make something from nothing." These results inform the debate about the extent to which college students have pre-existing notions that are poised to interfere with instructional efforts about contemporary physics and astronomy topics.

  6. Many (and Many More) Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains 10 teaching tips about such topics/ideas as low-impact nature trails, sand, overhead transparency use, the cause of "trash," rainbows, the solar system, controlling variables, time keeping, science discovery centers, and animal characteristics. (TW)

  7. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  8. Scalar Hint from the Diboson Excess?

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-10-23

    In view of the recent diboson resonant excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we suggest that a new weak singlet pseudoscalar particle η(WZ) may decay into two weak bosons while being produced in gluon fusion at the LHC. The couplings to the gauge bosons can arise from a Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly term and thus we study an effective model based on the anomaly term as a well motivated phenomenological model. In models where the pseudoscalar particle arises as a composite state, the coefficients of the anomalous couplings can be related to the fermion components of the underlying dynamics. We provide an example to test the feasibility of the idea. PMID:26551102

  9. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  10. Hints for Teaching Success in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    This book offers support for middle school teachers and suggestions on how they can help their students be more successful, both in the classroom and in life. Thirteen chapters cover being a teacher, the classroom, students and the challenges they face, communication, teaching, testing, working with parents, staff relations and job stress, public…

  11. First-principle study of geometric stabilities, electronic and magnetic properties of low coverage vanadium adsorption on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullahi, Yusuf Zuntu; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Zainuddin, H.; Abubakar, Shamsu

    2014-03-05

    Stable geometries, electronic and magnetic properties of low coverage vanadium (V) atoms adsorption on graphene sheet have been investigated by first principles calculations, using generalized gradient approximation. Calculation shows that center of the ring is energetically favorable for both V adatom and perpendicular dimer after relaxation. Moreover, the proportion of orbital contribution of C-V bonding are mainly dominated by 2p{sub z} orbital of C and partially occupied by the 3d like states of V. It is also found that the low coverage V atom adsorbed graphene system is metallic and magnetic, and has demonstrated additional hint on its usefulness in magnetic devices.

  12. The interplay of mutations and electronic properties in disease-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chi-Tin; Wells, Stephen A.; Hsu, Ching-Ling; Cheng, Yun-Yin; Römer, Rudolf A.

    2012-02-01

    Electronic properties of DNA are believed to play a crucial role in many phenomena in living organisms, for example the location of DNA lesions by base excision repair (BER) glycosylases and the regulation of tumor-suppressor genes such as p53 by detection of oxidative damage. However, the reproducible measurement and modelling of charge migration through DNA molecules at the nanometer scale remains a challenging and controversial subject even after more than a decade of intense efforts. Here we show, by analysing 162 disease-related genes from a variety of medical databases with a total of almost 20,000 observed pathogenic mutations, a significant difference in the electronic properties of the population of observed mutations compared to the set of all possible mutations. Our results have implications for the role of the electronic properties of DNA in cellular processes, and hint at the possibility of prediction, early diagnosis and detection of mutation hotspots.

  13. Studies of top quark properties and search for electroweak single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Mousumi; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The top quark was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron during the Run I operation. Since the start of the Tevatron Run II in 2001, both experiments have collected {approx}2 fb{sup -1} data samples, which are over twenty times larger than that used in the Run 1 discovery. This larger data sample allows more precise studies of top-quark properties; differences between observed top-quark properties and the Standard Model (SM) prediction may give hints to possible physics beyond the SM. Here we present the latest results on the measurements of top-quark properties and the search for electroweak (EW) single top quark production from the CDF and D0 collaborations. The integrated luminosity used for the measurements corresponds to about 1 fb{sup -1}.

  14. Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  15. Urban Aerosol Optical Properties Measurement by Elastic Counter-Look Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Boselli, A.; He, Y.; Sannino, A.; Song, C.; Spinelli, N.

    2016-06-01

    The new developed elastic lidar system utilizes two identical elastic lidars, in counter-look configuration, to measure aerosol backscattering and extinction coefficients without any hypotheses. Compared to elastic-Raman lidar and high spectral resolution lidar, the proposed counter-look elastic lidar can use low power eyesafe laser and all available wavelengths. With this prototype lidar system, urban aerosol optical properties and their spatial distribution have been directly measured, including backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. The preliminary results show that the low cost and eye-safe counter-look configured elastic lidar system can be used to measure the aerosol optical properties distribution and give the hint of aerosol type.

  16. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 and was the last of the quarks to be discovered. As the partner of the bottom quark the top quark is expected to have quantum numbers identical to that of the other known up-type quarks. Only the mass is a free parameter. We now know that it is more than 30 times heavier than the next heaviest quark, the bottom quark. Thus, within the Standard Model all production and decay properties are fully defined. Having the complete set of quarks further allows to verify constraints that the Standard Model puts on the sum of all quarks or particles. This alone is reason enough to experimentally study the top quark properties. The high value of the top quark mass and its closeness to the electroweak scale has inspired people to speculate that the top quark could have a special role in the electroweak symmetry breaking. Confirming the expected properties of the top quark experimentally establishes the top quark as we expect it to be. Any deviation from the expectations gives hints to new physics that may help to solve the outstanding questions. In this review the recent results on top quark properties obtained by the Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 are summarized. At the advent of the LHC special emphasis is given to the basic measurement methods and the dominating systematic uncertainties. After a short introduction to the Standard Model and the experimental environment in the remainder of this chapter, Chapter 2 describes the current status of top quark mass measurements. Then measurments of interaction properties are described in Chapter 3. Finally, Chapter 4 deals with analyses that consider hypothetical particles beyond the Standard Model in the observed events.

  17. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

  18. Nanomechanical properties of the sea-water bacterium Paracoccus seriniphilus--a scanning force microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Neda; Müller-Renno, Christine; Ziegler, Christiane; Raid, Indek; Seewig, Jörg; Schlegel, Christin; Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of force-distance curves on a single bacterium provides a unique opportunity to detect properties such as the turgor pressure under various environmental conditions. Marine bacteria are very interesting candidates for the production of pharmaceuticals, but are only little studied so far. Therefore, the elastic behavior of Paracoccus seriniphilus, an enzyme producing marine organism, is presented in this study. After a careful evaluation of the optimal measurement conditions, the spring constant and the turgor pressure are determined as a function of ionic strength and pH. Whereas the ionic strength changes the turgor pressure passively, the results give a hint that the change to acidic pH increases the turgor pressure by an active mechanism. Furthermore, it could be shown, that P. seriniphilus has adhesive protrusions outside its cell wall. PMID:25708634

  19. The magnetic properties of the star Kepler-78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.; Lin, D.; Laine, R. O.; Hatzes, A.

    2016-06-01

    Kepler-78 is host to a transiting 8.5-h orbit super-Earth. In this paper, the rotation and magnetic properties of the planet host star are studied. We first revisit the Kepler photometric data for a detailed description of the rotation properties of Kepler-78, showing that the star seems to undergo a cycle in the spot pattern of ˜1300 d duration. We then use spectropolarimetric observations with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)/ESPaDOnS to measure the circular polarization in the line profile of the star during its rotation cycle, as well as spectroscopic proxies of the chromospheric activity. The average field has a strength of 16 G. The magnetic topology is characterized by a poloidal and a toroidal component, encompassing 60 per cent and 40 per cent of the magnetic energy, respectively. Differential rotation is detected with an estimated rate of 0.105±0.039 rad d-1. Activity tracers vary with the rotation cycle of the star; there is no hint that a residual activity level is related to the planetary orbit at the precision of our data. The description of the star magnetic field's characteristics then may serve as input for models of interactions between the star and its close-by planet, e.g. Ohmic dissipation and unipolar induction.

  20. Intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3). PMID:21337093

  1. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  2. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  3. Neutrino properties deduced from the study of lepton number violating processes at low and high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin

    2012-11-20

    There is nowadays a significant progress in understanding the neutrino properties. The results of the neutrino oscillation experiments have convincingly showed that neutrinos have mass and oscillate, in contradiction with the Standard Model (SM) assumptions, and these are the first evidences of beyond SM physics. However, fundamental properties of the neutrinos like their absolute mass, their character (are they Dirac or Majorana particles?), their mass hierarchy, the number of neutrino flavors, etc., still remain unknown. In this context there is an increased interest in the study of the lepton number violating (LNV) processes, since they could complete our understanding on the neutrino properties. Since recently, the neutrinoless double beta decay was considered the only process able to distinguish between Dirac or Majorana neutrinos and to give a hint on the absolute mass of the electron neutrino. At present, the increased luminosity of the LHC experiments makes feasible the search of LNV processes at high energy as well. In this lecture I will make a brief review on our present knowledge of the neutrino properties, on the present status of the double-beta decay studies and on the first attempts to search LNV processes at LHC.

  4. Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Antiferromagnetic-Core/Ferrimagnetic-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi N.; Nogués, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles are gaining increasing interest due to their foreseen applications. Inverse antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferrimagnetic(FiM) core/shell nanoparticles are particularly appealing since they may overcome some of the limitations of conventional FiM/AFM systems. However, virtually no simulations exist on this type of morphology. Here we present systematic Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations of the exchange bias properties of such nanoparticles. The coercivity, HC, and loop shift, Hex, present a non-monotonic dependence with the core diameter and the shell thickness, in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate novel unconventional behavior in FiM/AFM particles. Namely, while HC and Hex decrease upon increasing FiM thickness for small AFM cores (as expected), they show the opposite trend for large cores. This presents a counterintuitive FiM size dependence for large AFM cores that is attributed to the competition between core and shell contributions, which expands over a wider range of core diameters leading to non-vanishing Hex even for very large cores. Moreover, the results also hint different possible ways to enhance the experimental performance of inverse core/shell nanoparticles for diverse applications. PMID:25872473

  5. Property Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  6. School Property Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Howard L.

    1981-01-01

    Property management of surplus school district property retained for possible future use involves preserving the value of property while generating income. Steps for formulating and administrating a property management plan are provided. (Author/MLF)

  7. Inflammatory Stress and Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity: Hints from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaomin; Luyendyk, James P.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) present a serious human health problem. They are major contributors to hospitalization and mortality throughout the world (Lazarou et al., 1998; Pirmohamed et al., 2004). A small fraction (less than 5%) of ADRs can be classified as “idiosyncratic.” Idiosyncratic ADRs (IADRs) are caused by drugs with diverse pharmacological effects and occur at various times during drug therapy. Although IADRs affect a number of organs, liver toxicity occurs frequently and is the primary focus of this review. Because of the inconsistency of clinical data and the lack of experimental animal models, how IADRs arise is largely undefined. Generation of toxic drug metabolites and induction of specific immunity are frequently cited as causes of IADRs, but definitive evidence supporting either mechanism is lacking for most drugs. Among the more recent hypotheses for causation of IADRs is that inflammatory stress induced by exogenous or endogenous inflammagens is a susceptibility factor. In this review, we give a brief overview of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and the inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We discuss the inflammatory stress hypothesis and use as examples two drugs that have caused IADRs in human patients: ranitidine and diclofenac. The review focuses on experimental animal models that support the inflammatory stress hypothesis and on the mechanisms of hepatotoxic response in these models. The need for design of epidemiological studies and the potential for implementation of inflammation interaction studies in preclinical toxicity screening are also discussed briefly. PMID:19805476

  8. Hints to the diagnosis of uromodulin kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Onoe, Tamehito; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizushima, Ichiro; Ito, Kiyoaki; Kawakami, Takahiro; Daimon, Shoichiro; Muramoto, Hiroaki; Konoshita, Tadashi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Uromodulin kidney disease (UKD) is an inherited kidney disease caused by a uromodulin (UMOD) gene mutation. The UMOD gene encodes the Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP), which is the most abundant protein in healthy human urine. Because of its rarity, the incidence of UKD has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the frequency of UKD among patients who underwent renal biopsy. Methods Immunostaining for THP was performed for patients <50 years of age with renal insufficiency and hyperuricemia without overt urinalysis abnormality from renal biopsy databases. Serum and urinary THP concentrations were evaluated in available individuals. Results Fifteen patients were selected for immunostaining from a total of 3787 patients. In three independent patients, abnormal THP accumulation in renal tubular cells was observed. A novel missense A247P UMOD mutation was detected in two of the three patients, including one having a typical family history of familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy. Serum and urinary THP concentrations of all available patients with UMOD A247P mutation were significantly lower than those of controls. Conclusions In the present study, UKD was detected in <1 in 1000 subjects who underwent renal biopsies. However, in subjects meeting all of the above criteria, abnormal THP accumulation was detected in 20% (3/15), suggesting that renal biopsy with immunostaining for THP is a good tool for diagnosing UKD. Also, low serum THP concentration detected in the present subjects might be a good diagnostic marker or important in understanding the pathogenesis of UKD. PMID:26798464

  9. DO SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS SERVE SIGNALING FUNCTIONS? (HINT: YES).

    PubMed

    Tiokhin, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of illness provide information about an organism's underlying state. This notion has inspired a burgeoning body of research on organisms' adaptations for detecting and changing behavior toward ill individuals. However, little attention has been paid to a likely outcome of these dynamics. Once an organism's fitness is affected by others' responses to symptoms of illness, natural selection can favor individuals who alter symptom expression to influence the behavior of others. That is, many symptoms may originate as cues, but will evolve into signals. In this paper, I develop the hypothesis that symptoms of illness serve signaling functions, and provide a comprehensive review of relevant evidence from diverse disciplines. I also develop novel empirical predictions generated by this hypothesis and discuss its implications for public health. Signaling provides an ultimate explanation for otherwise opaque aspects of symptom expression, such as why symptoms fluctuate in social contexts, and can exist without underlying pathology, and why individuals deliberately generate symptoms of illness. This analysis suggests that signaling theory is a major organizing framework for understanding symptom etiology. PMID:27405223

  10. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  11. Ace Your Accounting Classes: 12 Hints to Maximize Your Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties when they try to get good grades in their accounting classes, and they are searching for answers. There is no single answer. Getting a good grade in an accounting class results from a process. If you know and understand the process--and can apply it--then your chances are much improved for getting a good…

  12. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  13. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  14. Hints for Leptonic CP Violation or New Physics?

    PubMed

    Forero, David V; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-15

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic CP violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if CP in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic CP violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios. PMID:27472108

  15. Use these practical hints to solve/prevent production problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, F.W

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents ideas and rules of thumb for improving efficiency and minimizing headaches while operating production facilities. It focuses on ways in which operating can be improved at the wellhead and down in the wellbore.

  16. Hints on nuclear effects from ArgoNeuT data

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, Ornella

    2015-05-15

    Initial results from a topological analysis of CC “0 pion” muon neutrino events in LAr collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment on the NuMI LE beam at Fermilab (in the few GeV energy region) are presented and compared with predictions from MC simulations. A new analysis method, based on the reconstruction of exclusive topologies, fully exploiting the LArTPC technique capabilities, is used to analyze the events and study nuclear effects in neutrino interactions on Argon nuclei. Multiple protons accompanying the leading muon and the presence of vertex activity are clearly visible (and measured) in the events. Ratios among rates of different exclusive topologies provide indications of the size of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interactions in LAr.

  17. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Newfound Worlds Hint at Hard-Knock Life.

    PubMed

    Sincell, M

    2000-08-18

    Last week at the International Astronomical Union 24th General Assembly, astronomers announced nine newly discovered planets orbiting other stars. The roster of extrasolar planets, now nearing 50, suggests that stars are fecund breeding grounds for worlds but that young planets must battle hordes of rivals for a handful of stable orbits. PMID:17833397

  18. Hints for Leptonic C P Violation or New Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, David V.; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic C P violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac C P phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if C P in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic C P violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  19. SGML: The Reason Why and the First Published Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Charles F.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the first published paper on need for Standard Generalized Markup Language, "An Online System for Integrated Text Processing," presented at the 33rd annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science in Philadelphia, in October 15, 1970. Details the history of an online integrated text processing system…

  20. Choosing, Creating and Using Story Problems: Some Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In this article Anne Roche describes some of the different types of story problems defined in the Cognitively Guided Instruction professional development program. Teachers will find the table reproduced on page 32 to be very helpful in designing word problems. Roche then gives some suggestions for improving the way division stories are used in the…

  1. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  2. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics. PMID:27071300

  3. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  4. Extended write combining using a write continuation hint flag

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-06-04

    A computing apparatus for reducing the amount of processing in a network computing system which includes a network system device of a receiving node for receiving electronic messages comprising data. The electronic messages are transmitted from a sending node. The network system device determines when more data of a specific electronic message is being transmitted. A memory device stores the electronic message data and communicating with the network system device. A memory subsystem communicates with the memory device. The memory subsystem stores a portion of the electronic message when more data of the specific message will be received, and the buffer combines the portion with later received data and moves the data to the memory device for accessible storage.

  5. Another hint for a changing stratospheric circulation after 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boenisch, H.; Engel, A.; Hoor, P.

    2009-04-01

    Aircraft data were used to study interannual changes of extratropical lower stratospheric tracer-tracer correlations. The focus is on the time periods before and after 2001 between which a remarkable step-like decrease of stratospheric water vapour has occurred (Randel et al., 2006). This feature associated with a cooling of temperatures near the tropical tropopause, and a decrease in tropical ozone at about the same time has been linked by Randel et al. (2006) to an increased stratospheric upwelling circulation in the tropics (the so-called Brewer-Dobson circulation) caused by enhanced wave driving after 2000 (Dhomse et al., 2006). Analysis of the extratropical tracer-tracer correlations shows different slopes before and after 2000. These changes could be explained by an enhanced horizontal tracer transport from the tropical lower stratosphere into the extratropics, taking into account that mean age of air has remained constant over the last 3 decades in the midlatitude stratosphere above 30 hPa (Engel et al., 2009). We will present a comparison of in-situ measured tracer-tracer correlations in the extratropical lower stratosphere before and after 2001 and discuss implications for a changing stratospheric circulation. References: Dhomse, S., Weber, M., and Burrows, J.: The relationship between tropospheric wave forcing and tropical lower stratospheric water vapor, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 471-480, 2008. Engel, A., T. Möbius, H. Bönisch, U. Schmidt, R. Heinz, I. Levin, E. Atlas, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, S. Sugawara, F. Moore, D. Hurst, J. Elkins, S. Schauffler, A. Andrews, and K. Boering (2009), Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years, Nature Geosci., 2, 28-31. Randel, W. J., F. Wu, H. Vömel, G. E. Nedoluha, and P. Forster (2006), Decreases in stratospheric water vapor after 2001: Links to changes in the tropical tropopause and the Brewer-Dobson circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12312, doi:10.1029/2005JD006744.

  6. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries together with a growth of the South Atlantic Anomaly has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. The precise age model and the accurate calibration of intensities on absolute scale allow to calculate the duration and the rate of change of the field during the well documented excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake. The rate of decay of the field intensity during these excursions is is virtually similar to that observed over the last few centuries and much higher than that observed for other low intensity periods of the same duration but not associated to any polarity change. Although these records do not provide undisputable information on future evolution of the field, we find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  7. Automatic Hint Generation for Logic Proof Tutoring Using Historical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tiffany; Stamper, John

    2010-01-01

    In building intelligent tutoring systems, it is critical to be able to understand and diagnose student responses in interactive problem solving. However, building this understanding into a computer-based intelligent tutor is a time-intensive process usually conducted by subject experts. Much of this time is spent in building production rules that…

  8. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  9. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  10. Hint of Lyme, an uncommon cause of syncope.

    PubMed

    Manek, Megha; Kulkarni, Abhishek; Viera, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old Caucasian male patient presented after a single episode of syncope. His heart rate was 40 beats per minute. ECG showed new onset complete heart block. A temporary pacer was placed. He had a macular rash on the body from past 2 weeks and was diagnosed with contact dermatitis. Erythema migrans was considered as differential for rash. Lyme titre was ordered and found to be positive. After antibiotic therapy and observation on telemetry, his heart block resolved. He was subsequently discharged and a follow-up ECG revealed persistent normal sinus rhythm. PMID:24604793

  11. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  12. Hyperon Puzzle: Hints from Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    The onset of hyperons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions and recent astrophysical observations of neutron stars are the grounds for the so-called hyperon puzzle. We calculate the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and Λ particles by using the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon interaction plays a fundamental role in the softening of the equation of state and for the consequent reduction of the predicted maximum mass. We have considered two different models of three-body force that successfully describe the binding energy of medium mass hypernuclei. Our results indicate that they give dramatically different results on the maximum mass of neutron stars, not necessarily incompatible with the recent observation of very massive neutron stars. We conclude that stronger constraints on the hyperon-neutron force are necessary in order to properly assess the role of hyperons in neutron stars.

  13. Hyperon puzzle: hints from quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    The onset of hyperons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions and recent astrophysical observations of neutron stars are the grounds for the so-called hyperon puzzle. We calculate the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and Λ particles by using the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon interaction plays a fundamental role in the softening of the equation of state and for the consequent reduction of the predicted maximum mass. We have considered two different models of three-body force that successfully describe the binding energy of medium mass hypernuclei. Our results indicate that they give dramatically different results on the maximum mass of neutron stars, not necessarily incompatible with the recent observation of very massive neutron stars. We conclude that stronger constraints on the hyperon-neutron force are necessary in order to properly assess the role of hyperons in neutron stars. PMID:25793808

  14. Inflammatory stress and idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity: hints from animal models.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaomin; Luyendyk, James P; Ganey, Patricia E; Roth, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) present a serious human health problem. They are major contributors to hospitalization and mortality throughout the world (Lazarou et al., 1998; Pirmohamed et al., 2004). A small fraction (less than 5%) of ADRs can be classified as "idiosyncratic." Idiosyncratic ADRs (IADRs) are caused by drugs with diverse pharmacological effects and occur at various times during drug therapy. Although IADRs affect a number of organs, liver toxicity occurs frequently and is the primary focus of this review. Because of the inconsistency of clinical data and the lack of experimental animal models, how IADRs arise is largely undefined. Generation of toxic drug metabolites and induction of specific immunity are frequently cited as causes of IADRs, but definitive evidence supporting either mechanism is lacking for most drugs. Among the more recent hypotheses for causation of IADRs is that inflammatory stress induced by exogenous or endogenous inflammagens is a susceptibility factor. In this review, we give a brief overview of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and the inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We discuss the inflammatory stress hypothesis and use as examples two drugs that have caused IADRs in human patients: ranitidine and diclofenac. The review focuses on experimental animal models that support the inflammatory stress hypothesis and on the mechanisms of hepatotoxic response in these models. The need for design of epidemiological studies and the potential for implementation of inflammation interaction studies in preclinical toxicity screening are also discussed briefly. PMID:19805476

  15. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  16. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  17. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth, S.; Venugopal Rao, S.; Hamad, Syed; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-15

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO{sub 3} samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000{sup o}C and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650{sup o}C-800{sup o}C. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ∼ 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO{sub 3} is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing

  18. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakanth, S.; Hamad, Syed; Venugopal Rao, S.; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-01

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO3 samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000oC and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650oC-800oC. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ˜ 1019-1020/cm3 range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×1020/cm3 near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO3 is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing applications.

  19. Titania nanotubes from weak organic acid electrolyte: fabrication, characterization and oxide film properties.

    PubMed

    Munirathinam, Balakrishnan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-04-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated using anodic oxidation in fluoride containing weak organic acid for different durations (0.5h, 1h, 2h and 3h). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs reveal that the morphology of titanium oxide varies with anodization time. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the as-formed oxide nanotubes were amorphous in nature, yet transform into crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) upon annealing at 600°C. Wettability measurements show that both as-formed and annealed nanotubes exhibited hydrophilic behavior. The electrochemical behavior was ascertained by DC polarization and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 0.9% NaCl solution. The results suggest that the annealed nanotubes showed higher impedance (10(5)-10(6)Ωcm(2)) and lower passive current density (10(-7)Acm(-2)) than the as-formed nanotubes. In addition, we investigated the influence of post heat treatment on the semiconducting properties of the oxides by capacitance measurements. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that precipitation of Ca/P is easier in crystallized nanotubes than the amorphous structure. Our study uses a simple strategy to prepare nano-structured titania films and hints the feasibility of tailoring the oxide properties by thermal treatment, producing surfaces with better bioactivity. PMID:25686985

  20. Valuation of Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodley, Joanne H.; Goodenough, Linda

    This report describes property tax revenues and assessment rates for all 50 States during 1966. The following information is summarized by State and by class of property: (1) The total valuation and the taxable valuation of property subject to local general property taxation and the percent distribution of total valuation by class of property; (2)…

  1. Precise Boundary Element Computation of Protein Transport Properties: Diffusion Tensors, Specific Volume, and Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Sergio; Hahn, David K.

    2006-01-01

    A precise boundary element method for the computation of hydrodynamic properties has been applied to the study of a large suite of 41 soluble proteins ranging from 6.5 to 377 kDa in molecular mass. A hydrodynamic model consisting of a rigid protein excluded volume, obtained from crystallographic coordinates, surrounded by a uniform hydration thickness has been found to yield properties in excellent agreement with experiment. The hydration thickness was determined to be δ = 1.1 ± 0.1 Å. Using this value, standard deviations from experimental measurements are: 2% for the specific volume; 2% for the translational diffusion coefficient, and 6% for the rotational diffusion coefficient. These deviations are comparable to experimental errors in these properties. The precision of the boundary element method allows the unified description of all of these properties with a single hydration parameter, thus far not achieved with other methods. An approximate method for computing transport properties with a statistical precision of 1% or better (compared to 0.1–0.2% for the full computation) is also presented. We have also estimated the total amount of hydration water with a typical −9% deviation from experiment in the case of monomeric proteins. Both the water of hydration and the more precise translational diffusion data hint that some multimeric proteins may not have the same solution structure as that in the crystal because the deviations are systematic and larger than in the monomeric case. On the other hand, the data for monomeric proteins conclusively show that there is no difference in the protein structure going from the crystal into solution. PMID:16714342

  2. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  3. Antimicrobial Peptides and their Pore/Ion Channel Properties in Neutralization of Pathogenic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sahoo, Nirakar; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    The essence of successful antimicrobial chemotherapy lies in selective toxicity of the agent towards the pathogen. An ideal antimicrobial agent should kill pathogens effectively with little or no effect on host cells. There is a dearth of antibiotic and antimicrobial therapies due the rapid development of microbial resistance to these agents, as evidenced by increasing incidences of hospital acquired infections. This challenge necessitates the discovery and development of novel and effective antimicrobial agents. One promising approach is Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs), which are synthesized by a large number of organisms. The presence of AMPs throughout evolution hints at their importance. The first and foremost interaction between AMPs and target cell occurs at the membrane of the pathogen. The details about these interactions will pave way for the development of new synthetic analogues or modified analogues of existing AMPs. Mechanistic insights into adoption of different structures in presence of bacterial membranes (and with their specific targets) will enhance our understanding and knowledge about these agents and their detailed mechanism of action. AMPs interact with lipids and form lipid-AMP complexes that create AMP-lined ion channels, which in turn modulate the membrane potential. This may have an effect on various biological processes leading to arrest of cell growth or cell death. This review summarizes the ion channel formation property of AMPs as an effective approach in dealing with neutralization of pathogenic microbes. PMID:26139119

  4. KINEMATIC PROPERTIES AS PROBES OF THE EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Gorgas, J.; De Paz, A. Gil; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Yildiz, U.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gadotti, D. A.; Pedraz, S.

    2009-12-10

    We present new observational results on the kinematical, morphological, and stellar population properties of a sample of 21 dEs located both in the Virgo Cluster and in the field, which show that 52% of the dEs (1) are rotationally supported, (2) exhibit structural signs of typical rotating systems such as disks, bars, or spiral arms, (3) are younger (approx3 Gyr) than non-rotating dEs, and (4) are preferentially located either in the outskirts of Virgo or in the field. This evidence is consistent with the idea that rotationally supported dwarfs are late-type spirals or irregulars that recently entered the cluster and lost their gas through a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation and becoming dEs through passive evolution. We also find that all, but one, galaxies without photometric hints for hosting disks are pressure supported and are all situated in the inner regions of the cluster. This suggests a different evolution from the rotationally supported systems. Three different scenarios for these non-rotating galaxies are discussed (in situ formation, harassment, and ram pressure stripping).

  5. Simultaneously enhanced methanol barrier and proton conductive properties of phosphorylated titanate nanotubes embedded nanocomposite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingtao; Zhao, Yuning; Hou, Weiqiang; Geng, Jiaqing; Xiao, Lulu; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    The current study aims at simultaneously enhancing the methanol barrier and proton conductive properties of membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) by embedding phosphorylated titanate nanotubes (PTNTs) into chitosan (CS) membrane. The enhancement is most probably due to the intrinsic interfacial interactions between PTNTs and CS chains, which are verified by the increased thermal stability and homogeneous dispersion of the fillers. The influence of PTNTs incorporation conditions including acid concentration and filler content upon the resulting nanocomposite membrane performance is extensively investigated. Compared with plain CS membrane, the presence of PTNTs within chitosan matrix will lead to denser chain packing, thus reduce free volume cavity size and fractional free volume (FFV) according to positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy analysis. The reduced FFV and more tortuous pathway significantly suppress the methanol crossover through the membranes. Meanwhile, the presence of PTNTs constructs an uninterrupted channel for proton migration via functionalized P-OH groups and adsorbed water, and therefore improving the proton conductivity substantially. As a result, the nanocomposite membranes exhibit desirable comprehensive performance, which is about ten times higher than that of Nafion 117. We envisage that the current observations hint the encouraging application promises of such nanocomposite membranes in DMFC.

  6. Kinematic Properties as Probes of the Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Gorgas, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gadotti, D. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pedraz, S.; Yildiz, U.

    2009-12-01

    We present new observational results on the kinematical, morphological, and stellar population properties of a sample of 21 dEs located both in the Virgo Cluster and in the field, which show that 52% of the dEs (1) are rotationally supported, (2) exhibit structural signs of typical rotating systems such as disks, bars, or spiral arms, (3) are younger (~3 Gyr) than non-rotating dEs, and (4) are preferentially located either in the outskirts of Virgo or in the field. This evidence is consistent with the idea that rotationally supported dwarfs are late-type spirals or irregulars that recently entered the cluster and lost their gas through a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation and becoming dEs through passive evolution. We also find that all, but one, galaxies without photometric hints for hosting disks are pressure supported and are all situated in the inner regions of the cluster. This suggests a different evolution from the rotationally supported systems. Three different scenarios for these non-rotating galaxies are discussed (in situ formation, harassment, and ram pressure stripping).

  7. Energy Transfer in Rare Earth Ion Clusters and Fluorescence from Rare Earth Doped LANTHANUM(1.85)STRONTIUM(0.15)COPPER -OXYGEN(4) Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissue, Brian Max

    1988-12-01

    Laser spectroscopy of rare earth ions in solids was used to study mechanisms of non-resonant energy transfer within rare earth clusters, and to detect insulating, impurity phases in rare earth doped La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. The mechanisms of phonon-assisted, non-resonant energy transfer were studied in well-defined dimer sites in Er^{3+ }:SrF_2 and Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2. Application of a magnetic field to Er^{3+} :SrF_2 greatly increased the energy transfer rate. The magnetic field dependence in Er^{3+}:SrF _2 indicates that the mechanism of non-resonant energy transfer is a two-phonon, resonant process (Orbach process). Application of a magnetic field to Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2 had no effect on the energy transfer rate because no significant Zeeman splittings occurred. The temperature dependence of the energy transfer rate in Pr^{3+ }:CaF_2 showed the mechanism to be a one-phonon-assisted process at low temperatures and predominantly an Orbach process above 10 K. In the second part of this thesis, laser spectroscopy of a Eu ^{3+} probe ion is developed to detect impurity phases in La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. Two impurity phases were found in polycrystalline La_ {1.85}Sr_{0.15} CuO_4: unreacted La _2O_3 starting material, and a La-silicate phase, which formed from contamination during sintering. The spectroscopic technique was found to be more than 100 times more sensitive than powder x -ray diffraction to detect minor impurity phases. In preparing the superconductors, several studies were made on the effect of Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^{3+ }, and fluorine dopants on the superconducting properties of La_{1.85}Sr _{0.15}CuO_4 and La_2Cuo_4 . Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^ {3+}, and F_2 doping all decreased the superconductivity in La_ {1.85}Sr^{0.15} CuO_4. Treating semi-conducting La_2CuO_4 in F_2 gas converted it to a superconductor with an onset T_{rm c} of 30-35 K.

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  9. Thickness-Dependent Properties of YBCO Films Grown on GZO/CLO-Buffered NiW Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Zhao, Y.; Grivel, J.-C.; Paturi, P.

    2016-07-01

    To study the role of novel Gd_2 Zr_2 O_7 /Ce_{0.9} La_{0.1} O_2 buffer layer structure on a biaxially textured NiW substrate, a set of YBa_2 Cu_3 O_{7-δ } (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Interface imperfections as well as thickness-dependent structural properties were observed in the YBCO thin films. The structure is also reflected into the improved superconducting properties with the highest critical current densities in films with intermediate thicknesses. Therefore, it can be concluded that the existing buffer layers need more optimization before they can be successfully used for films with various thicknesses. This issue is linked to the extremely susceptible growth method of PLD when compared to the commonly used chemical deposition methods. Nevertheless, PLD-grown films can give a hint on what to concentrate to be able to further improve the buffer layer structures for future coated conductor technologies.

  10. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  11. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  12. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 560.325... General Definitions § 560.325 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  14. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 549.308... Definitions § 549.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  15. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  16. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 590.309... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 590.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  17. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307... Definitions § 510.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  19. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  1. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  2. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  3. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  4. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  5. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  6. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  8. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  10. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307... Definitions § 510.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  11. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 590.309... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 590.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  12. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 590.309... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 590.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  15. 31 CFR 542.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.315... Definitions § 542.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  16. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  17. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  19. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  20. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  1. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  2. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  3. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308... Definitions § 542.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  4. 31 CFR 589.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 589.308... Definitions § 589.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  5. 31 CFR 588.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.308... General Definitions § 588.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  6. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  7. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  8. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  10. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 549.308... Definitions § 549.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  11. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  12. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 549.308... Definitions § 549.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  15. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  16. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  17. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308... Definitions § 542.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  19. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 585.304 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 585.304... General Definitions § 585.304 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  1. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  2. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  3. 31 CFR 575.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 575.315... § 575.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not... whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest...

  4. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  5. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  6. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  8. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  10. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  11. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  12. 31 CFR 500.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 500.311... Definitions § 500.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 500.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  13. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308... Definitions § 542.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  15. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  16. 31 CFR 558.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 558.308... Definitions § 558.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  17. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  19. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307... Definitions § 510.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  1. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  2. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  3. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  4. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 560.325... General Definitions § 560.325 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  5. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  6. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  7. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  8. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  10. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  11. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  12. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  15. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  16. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  17. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  19. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  1. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308... Definitions § 542.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  2. 31 CFR 545.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 545.309... General Definitions § 545.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  3. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 549.308... Definitions § 549.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  4. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  5. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  6. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  7. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  8. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  9. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  10. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  11. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  12. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  13. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  14. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  15. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  16. 31 CFR 586.314 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 586.314... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.314 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion,...

  17. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  18. 31 CFR 587.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 587.308... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts,...

  19. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  20. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  1. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  2. Are mental properties supervenient on brain properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.

    2011-09-01

    The ``mind-brain supervenience'' conjecture suggests that all mental properties are derived from the physical properties of the brain. To address the question of whether the mind supervenes on the brain, we frame a supervenience hypothesis in rigorous statistical terms. Specifically, we propose a modified version of supervenience (called ɛ-supervenience) that is amenable to experimental investigation and statistical analysis. To illustrate this approach, we perform a thought experiment that illustrates how the probabilistic theory of pattern recognition can be used to make a one-sided determination of ɛ-supervenience. The physical property of the brain employed in this analysis is the graph describing brain connectivity (i.e., the brain-graph or connectome). ɛ-supervenience allows us to determine whether a particular mental property can be inferred from one's connectome to within any given positive misclassification rate, regardless of the relationship between the two. This may provide further motivation for cross-disciplinary research between neuroscientists and statisticians.

  3. Electrical properties of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakova, Larisa A.

    In this study, thorough analysis is conducted for soil electrical properties, i.e. electrical resistivity, conductivity, and potential. Soil electrical properties are the parameters of natural and artificially created electrical fields in soils and influenced by distribution of mobile electrical charges, mostly inorganic ions, In soils. Distributions of electrical charges and properties in various soil profiles were shown to be results of the soil-forming processes. Soil properties influencing the density of mobile electrical charges were found to be exponentially related with electrical resistivity and potential based on Boltzmann's law of statistical thermodynamics. Relationships were developed between electrical properties and other soil physical and chemical properties, such as texture, stone content, bulk density, water content, cation exchange capacity, salinity, humus content, and base saturation measured in-situ and in soil samples. Geophysical methods of vertical electrical sounding, four-electrode probe, non-contact electromagnetic profiling, and self-potential were modified for measuring soil electrical properties and tested in different soil studies. The proposed methods are extremely efficient, reliable, and non-disturbing. Compared with conventional methods of soil analysis, the electrical geophysical methods allowed evaluating groundwater table, salt content, depth and thickness of soil horizons, Polluted or disturbed layers in soil profiles, and stone content with an estimation error <10%. The methods provide extensive data on spatial and temporal variations in soil electrical properties, which relate to the distributions of other essential soil properties. The electrical properties were incorporated with the data from conventional soil analyses to enhance the estimation of a number of soil physical and chemical properties and to assist soil survey. The study shows various applications of the modified geophysical methods in soil physics, soil

  4. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  5. Review of particle properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl; Cahn, R.N.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Porter, F.; Hernandez, J.J.; Montanet, L.; Hendrick, R.E.; Crawford, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of the Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group (Phys. Lett. 111B (1982)). Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available.

  6. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  7. The Idea of Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Reviews case law, constitutional principles, and early American writings which deal with the idea of private property. Concludes that, in the future, the issues of laissez-fare capitalism, government regulation, and the welfare state will require further clarification of our conception of private property. (JDH)

  8. Rhea and Dione: Variations in Surface Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howett, Carly; Spencer, J.; Anne, V.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal inertia variations have been observed on icy satellite surfaces throughout the Saturnian system, resulting in night and daytime temperature variations across the satellites. The most notable are the two ‘Pac-Man’ anomalies on Mimas and Tethys (Howett et al., 2011, 2012): distinct regions of high thermal inertia at low latitudes on the leading hemisphere of both satellites, resulting in warmer nighttime and cooler daytime temperatures (by ~15 K) than their surroundings. High-energy electrons are the likely cause of this surface alteration, which preferentially bombard low latitudes of the leading hemisphere of Mimas and Tethys, effectively gluing the grains together and thus increasing their thermal inertia. Cassini’s CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) has returned a plethora of night- and day-time data for both Dione and Rhea. Using these data, with the same analysis techniques that discovered the ‘Pac-Men’, the spatial variations in thermophysical properties across Rhea and Dione have been mapped. The results are intriguing: for the first time we see a decrease in the thermal inertia across Rhea’s Inktomi crater ejecta blanket and hints at a high thermal inertia region at low latitudes on Dione’s leading hemisphere. If Dione’s high thermal inertia region is formed by the same mechanism as the ‘Pac-Men’ on Mimas and Tethys (and nothing similar is observed on Rhea), then this sets an important bound in the electron energy able to produce this type of surface alteration. Rhea’s Inktomi crater (14 S/112 W, diameter 48 km) is a bright young ray crater. A similar crater (i.e. young, morphologically fresh) exists on Dione: Creusa (49 N/76 W, diameter 40 km). Preliminary results show that no significant change in the thermal inertia is observed over Creusa. Why should thermal inertia vary over Inktomi, but not Creusa? Rhea and Dione’s subsurface may be different enough to explain this inconsistency (Schenk et al., 2011), or maybe the

  9. Anti-biofilm potential of phenolic acids: the influence of environmental pH and intrinsic physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Horta, Bruno; Calhau, Conceição; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, M Manuela

    2016-09-13

    Phenolic acids are a particular group of small phenolic compounds which have exhibited some anti-biofilm activity, although the link between their activity and their intrinsic pH is not clear. Therefore, the present work examined the anti-biofilm activity (inhibition of biomass and metabolic activity) of phenolic acids in relation to the environmental pH, as well as other physico-chemical properties. The results indicate that, while Escherichia coli was not inhibited by the phenolic acids, both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis were susceptible to the action of all phenolic acids, with the pH playing a relevant role in the activity: a neutral pH favored MRSE inhibition, while acidic conditions favored MRSA inhibition. Some links between molecular polarity and size were associated only with their potential as metabolic inhibitors, with the overall interactions hinting at a membrane-based mechanism for MRSA and a cytoplasmic effect for MRSE. PMID:27434592

  10. Ground-based assessment of retrieved aerosol properties from GOSAT observations in multiple carbon dioxide retrieval algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R.; O'Dell, C. W.; Frankenberg, C.; Oshchepkov, S.; Bril, A.; Yokota, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Butz, A.; Guerlet, S.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Spaced-based near-infrared measurements of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are now routinely made from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) via an assortment of retrieval algorithms. The measurements are based on assumed knowledge of the light paths followed by the measured solar photons, paths which can be altered in the presence of clouds and aerosols. Most algorithms therefore attempt to simultaneously retrieval aerosol information alongside the desired gas concentrations, in an attempt to mitigate errors caused by atmospheric scattering. However, recent studies have hinted that most algorithms tend to retrieve biased aerosol information over certain surface types (such as bright surfaces), leading in particular to biased estimates of the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2). In this work, we compare GOSAT-retrieved AEROSOL properties from multiple XCO2 retrieval algorithms with those of the well-validated AERONET sun photometer network. We present a correlation analysis of retrieved aerosol errors and their effect on retrieved XCO2, as a function of multiple variables such as surface type and viewing geometry, with the goal of providing critical information on how best to deal with aerosols in the context of these challenging greenhouse gas retrievals.

  11. Structure and dynamics of reduced Bacillus pasteurii cytochrome c: oxidation state dependent properties and implications for electron transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Bartalesi, Ilaria; Bertini, Ivano; Rosato, Antonio

    2003-01-28

    The solution structure of reduced Bacillus pasteurii cytochrome c, which has only 71 amino acids, has been determined by NMR to an RMSD of 0.46 +/- 0.08 A for all backbone atoms and 0.79 +/- 0.08 A for all heavy atoms and refined through restrained energy minimization. The target function out of 1645 constraints is 0.52 +/- 0.11 A(2), and the penalty function is 66 +/- 12 kJ mol(-)(1). The structure appears very similar to that in the oxidized state, only Trp87 and the propionates showing significant differences. The mobility was investigated through (15)N R(1) and R(2) relaxation rates, (15)N-(1)H NOE, and (1)H/(2)H exchange. It is found that the oxidized form is generally more mobile than the reduced one. By comparing the redox-state dependence of the structural/dynamic properties of Fe-S proteins, cytochrome c, and blue copper proteins, hints are provided for a better comprehension of the electron transfer processes. PMID:12534286

  12. Properties of acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovcak, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    Acetylene continues to be the most widely used fuel in the oxyfuel cutting and welding industry. It displays properties that enhance its benefits to the industry, but at the same time, present potential hazards that have to be addressed. The presentation explores the main properties or characteristics of acetylene -- odor, toxicity, flammability, composition, and manufacture. it expands on those properties that are unique to acetylene and which account for its main value to the user or which constitute the chief concern for safe use of acetylene. The presentation explains characteristics such as anosmia, flammable or explosive range, ignition energy, autoignition temperature, and flame temperature, comparing these values for acetylene to other common gaseous fuels. it explains the unique property of acetylene to decompose explosively in the absence of air or oxygen. The toxicological aspects of acetylene is discussed, including anesthetic effect and simple asphyxiant, showing the increasing severity of symptoms to increasing levels of oxygen deficiency. The main value of this basic review of the properties of acetylene is to remind people of the benefits of acetylene due to its unique properties, and to realert them to the potential hazards that also have to be addressed to control the properties of acetylene.

  13. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of UnOm (n=1-3,m=1-3n) clusters: A theoretical study using screened hybrid density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The structural and electronic properties of small uranium oxide clusters UnOm (n=1-3, m=1-3n) are systematically studied within the screened hybrid density functional theory. It is found that the formation of U-O-U bondings and isolated U-O bonds are energetically more stable than U-U bondings. As a result, no uranium cores are observed. Through fragmentation studies, we find that the UnOm clusters with the m/n ratio between 2 and 2.5 are very stable, hinting that UO2+x hyperoxides are energetically stable. Electronically, we find that the O-2p states always distribute in the deep energy range, and the U-5f states always distribute at the two sides of the Fermi level. The U-6d states mainly hybridize with the U-5f states in U-rich clusters, while hybridizing with O-2p states in O-rich clusters. Our work is the first one on the screened hybrid density functional theory level studying the atomic and electronic properties of the actinide oxide clusters.

  15. Structural and electronic properties of UnOm (n=1-3,m=1-3n) clusters: A theoretical study using screened hybrid density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-05-14

    The structural and electronic properties of small uranium oxide clusters UnOm (n=1-3, m=1-3n) are systematically studied within the screened hybrid density functional theory. It is found that the formation of U-O-U bondings and isolated U-O bonds are energetically more stable than U-U bondings. As a result, no uranium cores are observed. Through fragmentation studies, we find that the UnOm clusters with the m/n ratio between 2 and 2.5 are very stable, hinting that UO2+x hyperoxides are energetically stable. Electronically, we find that the O-2p states always distribute in the deep energy range, and the U-5f states always distribute at the two sides of the Fermi level. The U-6d states mainly hybridize with the U-5f states in U-rich clusters, while hybridizing with O-2p states in O-rich clusters. Our work is the first one on the screened hybrid density functional theory level studying the atomic and electronic properties of the actinide oxide clusters. PMID:27179481

  16. JET PROPERTIES OF GeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES AND POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THEIR DISK AND CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Lin, Da-Bin; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L {sub corona}) to the accretion disk luminosity (L {sub d}) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L {sub corona}. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L {sub corona}/L {sub d} ratio prefers to power a jet.

  17. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  18. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  19. Properties of Combustion Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    New series of reports: First report lists data from combustion of ASTM Jet A fuel and dry air; second report presents tables and figures for combustion-gas properties of natural-gas fuel and dry air, and equivalent ratios.

  20. Physical properties of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many research studies have examined chemical properties and nutritional characteristics of DDGS, especially in terms of utilization as livestock feed ingredients, their digestibilities, and resulting animal performance. Up until just a few years ago, however, no information was available regarding ...

  1. The property 'instinct'.

    PubMed Central

    Stake, Jeffrey Evans

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run to quite specific and detailed rules about property acquisition, retention and disposition. The great variation in property-related behaviours across species may mask some important commonalities grounded in adaptive utility. Experiments and observations in the field and laboratory suggest that the legal rules of temporal priority and possession are grounded in what were evolutionarily stable strategies in the ancestral environment. Moreover, the preferences that humans exhibit in disposing of their property on their deaths, both by dispositions made in wills and by the laws of intestacy, tend to advance reproductive success as a result of inclusive fitness pay-offs. PMID:15590617

  2. ABSORPTION-LINE PROBES OF THE PREVALENCE AND PROPERTIES OF OUTFLOWS IN PRESENT-DAY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanmei; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang Jing; Tremonti, Christy A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2010-08-15

    We analyze star-forming galaxies drawn from SDSS DR7 to show how the interstellar medium (ISM) Na I {lambda}{lambda}5890, 5896 (Na D) absorption lines depend on galaxy physical properties, and to look for evidence of galactic winds. We combine the spectra of galaxies with similar geometry/physical parameters to create composite spectra with signal-to-noise {approx}300. The stellar continuum is modeled using stellar population synthesis models, and the continuum-normalized spectrum is fit with two Na I absorption components. We find that (1) ISM Na D absorption lines with equivalent widths EW > 0.8 A are only prevalent in disk galaxies with specific properties-large extinction (A{sub V} ), high star formation rates (SFR), high SFR per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}), or high stellar mass (M{sub *}); (2) the ISM Na D absorption lines can be separated into two components: a quiescent disk-like component at the galaxy systemic velocity and an outflow component; (3) the disk-like component is much stronger in the edge-on systems, and the outflow component covers a wide angle but is stronger within 60{sup 0} of the disk rotation axis; (4) the EW and covering factor of the disk component correlate strongly with dust attenuation, highlighting the importance that dust shielding may play in the survival of Na I; (5) the EW of the outflow component depends primarily on {Sigma}{sub SFR} and secondarily on A{sub V} ; and (6) the outflow velocity varies from {approx}120 to 160 km s{sup -1} but shows little hint of a correlation with galaxy physical properties over the modest dynamic range that our sample probes (1.2 dex in log {Sigma}{sub SFR} and 1 dex in log M{sub *}).

  3. Properties of leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-12-01

    The properties of the electron, muon, tau, and their neutrinos are reviewed. Three discrepancies in our understanding of those properties are discussed: the lifetime of orthopositronium, the mass spectra of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in heavy ion collisions, and the 1-charged particle modes problem in tau decays. The review concludes with a discussion of what we need to learn about the tau and the consequent need for a tau-charm factory. 68 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  5. Nonlinear Refractive Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Witherow, William K.

    2001-01-01

    Using nonlinear refractive properties of a salt-water solution at two wavelengths, numerical analysis has been performed to extract temperature and concentration from interferometric fringe data. The theoretical study, using a commercially available equation solving software, starts with critical fringe counting needs and the role of nonlinear refractive properties in such measurements. Finally, methodology of the analysis, codes, fringe counting accuracy needs, etc. is described in detail.

  6. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  7. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  8. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  9. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-04-01

    In this research program, we have adopted the approach that by measuring fundamental properties (i.e, the complex refractive index, m) of the fly ash which participates in the radiation transfer, we can use well established theoretical principles (Mie theory) to compute the radiative properties of dispersions of fly ash as found in coal combustors. With this approach one can, understand the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of an ash dispersion and more confidently predict how variations in the characteristics of the ash dispersion cause variations in its radiative properties. An important criterion in this approach is that the fly ash particles be spherical, homogeneous, and isotropic. Fortunately, fly ash particles are formed at high temperatures at which most of them are molten, leading primarily to spherical particles. Furthermore, one should expect that molten particles will be reasonably homogeneous and isotropic. On cooling, most fly ash particles form glassy spheres which are homogeneous and isotropic. Some ash particles form hollow shells (cenospheres) while others form as particles with bubbles'' or voids, but most fly ash particles are well approximated as homogeneous isotropic spheres. In the following sections we review some of the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of fly ash dispersions and report on progress that has been made during the past quarter.

  10. Distinct Properties of Hexameric but Functionally Conserved Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription-Repair Coupling Factor

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Swayam; Rao, Desirazu N.; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2011-01-01

    Transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is involved in correcting UV-induced damage and other road-blocks encountered in the transcribed strand. Mutation frequency decline (Mfd) is a transcription repair coupling factor, involved in repair of template strand during transcription. Mfd from M. tuberculosis (MtbMfd) is 1234 amino-acids long harboring characteristic modules for different activities. Mtbmfd complemented Escherichia coli mfd (Ecomfd) deficient strain, enhanced survival of UV irradiated cells and increased the road-block repression in vivo. The protein exhibited ATPase activity, which was stimulated ∼1.5-fold in the presence of DNA. While the C-terminal domain (CTD) comprising amino acids 630 to 1234 showed ∼2-fold elevated ATPase activity than MtbMfd, the N-terminal domain (NTD) containing the first 433 amino acid residues was able to bind ATP but deficient in hydrolysis. Overexpression of NTD of MtbMfd led to growth defect and hypersensitivity to UV light. Deletion of 184 amino acids from the C-terminal end of MtbMfd (MfdΔC) increased the ATPase activity by ∼10-fold and correspondingly exhibited efficient translocation along DNA as compared to the MtbMfd and CTD. Surprisingly, MtbMfd was found to be distributed in monomer and hexamer forms both in vivo and in vitro and the monomer showed increased susceptibility to proteases compared to the hexamer. MfdΔC, on the other hand, was predominantly monomeric in solution implicating the extreme C-terminal region in oligomerization of the protein. Thus, although the MtbMfd resembles EcoMfd in many of its reaction characteristics, some of its hitherto unknown distinct properties hint at its species specific role in mycobacteria during transcription-coupled repair. PMID:21559463

  11. The properties of early-type galaxies in the Ursa Major cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Mina; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lisker, Thorsten; Lee, Youngdae; Kim, Suk; Sung, Eon-Chang; Jerjen, Helmut; Chung, Jiwon

    2014-11-01

    Using SDSS-DR7 and NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database spectroscopic data, we identify 166 galaxies as members of the Ursa Major cluster with Mr < -13.5 mag. We morphological classify all galaxies by means of carefully inspecting g-, r-, i-band colour and monochromatic images. We show that the Ursa Major cluster is dominated by late-type galaxies, but also contains a significant number of early-type galaxies, particularly in the dwarf regime. We present further evidence for the existence of several subgroups in the cluster, consistent with previous findings. The early-type fraction is found to correlate with the mass of the subgroup. We also investigate environmental effects by comparing the properties of the Ursa Major early-type dwarf galaxies to those of the Virgo cluster. In contrast to the Virgo, the red sequence of the Ursa Major cluster is only sparsely populated in the optical and ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations. It also shows a statistically significant gap between -18 < Mr < -17 mag, i.e. the Ursa Major cluster lacks early-type dwarf galaxies at the bright end of their luminosity function. We discover that the majority of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Ursa Major cluster have blue cores with hints of recent or ongoing star formation. We suggest that gravitational tidal interactions can trigger central blue star-forming regions in early-type dwarfs. After that, star formation would only fade completely when the galaxies experience ram-pressure stripping or harassment, both of which are nearly absent in the Ursa Major cluster.

  12. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C.F. Ahlers, H.H. Liu

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  13. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  14. Electronic properties of quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, C.; Gozlan, A.; Fourcaudot, G.; Cyrot-Lackmann, F.; Lasjaunias, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The electronic properties of quasi-crystals are discussed using experimental data with particular attention given to the AlMn(Si) system. A comparison is made of the electronic properties of AlMn samples of the same composition for amorphous, icosahedral, decagonal and crystalline structures. It is concluded that, for AlMn, the measured properties are very similar in the quasi-crystalline and amorphous phases but are in all respects different from those of the crystalline compound. It is suggested that this is due to the presence of many defects in these metastable quasi-crystalline structures obtained by rapid solidification. Some preliminary experiments on single grain of the new thermodynamically stable AlCuFe quasi-crystals are presented.

  15. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  16. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  17. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  18. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  19. Compaction properties of isomalt.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Gerad K; Engelhart, Jeffrey J P; Eissens, Anko C

    2009-08-01

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of ispomalt were studied. The types used were the standard product sieved isomalt, milled isomalt and two types of agglomerated isomalt with a different ratio between 6-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-d-sorbitol (GPS) and 1-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-d-mannitol dihydrate (GPM). Powder flow properties, specific surface area and densities of the different types were investigated. Compactibility was investigated by compression of the tablets on a compaction simulator, simulating the compression on high-speed tabletting machines. Lubricant sensitivity was measured by compressing unlubricated tablets and tablets lubricated with 1% magnesium stearate on an instrumented hydraulic press. Sieved isomalt had excellent flow properties but the compactibility was found to be poor whereas the lubricant sensitivity was high. Milling resulted in both a strong increase in compactibility as an effect of the higher surface area for bonding and a decrease in lubricant sensitivity as an effect of the higher surface area to be coated with magnesium stearate. However, the flow properties of milled isomalt were too bad for use as filler-binder in direct compaction. Just as could be expected, agglomeration of milled isomalt by fluid bed agglomeration improved flowability. The good compaction properties and the low lubricant sensitivity were maintained. This effect is caused by an early fragmentation of the agglomerated material during the compaction process, producing clean, lubricant-free particles and a high surface for bonding. The different GPS/GPM ratios of the agglomerated isomalt types studied had no significant effect on the compaction properties. PMID:19327398

  20. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Liu

    2003-02-14

    This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

  1. Properties of Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliti, Gianluca; Paolucci, Samuel; Sen, Mihir

    2009-11-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamic simulations are presented for different configurations of interactions between gold metal and liquid water. It makes use of state-of-the-art potentials to capture a broad spectrum of realistic physical phenomena at the interface. Thermodynamic properties, such as internal energy, heat capacities, isothermal compressibility, and coefficient of thermal expansion of the nanofluid are currently being analyzed. Transport properties, such as mass diffusion, viscosity and thermal conductivity, are also under investigation. Some of the results obtained thus far, seems to strongly diverge from the prediction of ideal mixture theories. The understanding of basic thermodynamic and transport effects in nanofluids is a stepping stone to further studies.

  2. Ballistics/mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drendel, Albert S.; Richards, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Morton Thiokol's RSRM-4 motors, which were assigned to the STS-30R launch, are presented. The composite type solid propellant burn rates were close to predicted. The performance of the pair of motors were compared to some CEI Specification CPW1-3600 for compliance. Some aspects of the CEI Specification could not be compared because of low sampling of data. The performance of the motors were well within the CEI specification requirements. Post flight reconstructured RSRM mass properties are within expected values for the RSRM quarterweight and halfweight configurations.

  3. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-12-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  4. Properties of gluon jets

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1986-09-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed.

  5. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  6. CONNECTICUT DEP PROPERTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of property owned and maintained by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes state fish hatcheries, flood control areas, historic preserves, natural area preserves, state forests, state par...

  7. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

    1969-01-01

    Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

  8. Immunopharmacological properties of noopept.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Shipaeva, E V; Alekseeva, S V; Pronin, A V; Durnev, A D; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaja, R U; Seredenin, S B

    2007-07-01

    Noopept, a peptide analog of piracetam, enhanced phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages, stimulated humoral and cellular immune response to various antigens, and markedly increased spontaneous proliferative activity of splenocytes. In animals with secondary immune deficiency caused by cyclophosphamide, noopept exhibited immunocorrector properties. PMID:18256750

  9. Thermophysical properties of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  10. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  11. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  12. Carburizing: Microstructures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, G.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed discussions and over 250 graphs and charts describe the effects of microstructure on the properties of carburized steels. In-depth coverage clarifies the causes, interpretation, prevention, and consequences of various microstructural variations and defects in carburized parts. Also covered are the effects of post-hardening heat treatments, surface grinding, and shot peening.

  13. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  14. CONNECTICUT FEDERAL PROPERTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of property under the jurisdiction of Federal agencies such as the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes holdings for the Appalachian Trail, National Wil...

  15. Influence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) on the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of formulations for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable medical disposables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shamshad; Mehmood, Mazhar; Iqbal, Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Shelf life of the formulations designed for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable syringes and other medical disposables is a very important issue world over. Radiation compatible formulations were developed earlier in the laboratory by the incorporation of primary and secondary antioxidants along with processing stabilizers in a random polypropylene copolymer. It has been reported in literature that the mobilizing agents namely hydrocarbons, greases, wax and the plasticizer, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) impart radiation resistance to the polypropylene by providing free volume. It was envisaged that the addition of DOP to the afore-mentioned formulation might favorably influence the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of our formulation. To study the influence of addition of DOP on the afore-mentioned properties, the addition of 1%, 2% and 3% of the mobilizer was made, followed by the irradiation of resulting heat pressed sheets to the industrial standard dose of 25 kGy. Two important characteristic mechanical properties to determine the suitability of the radiation sterilized materials comprise angle of breakage and the haze percent. After irradiation and even on accelerated ageing of the irradiated material, the angle of breakage of heat press sheets of formulations containing 1%, 2% and 3% of DOP was found to be 180°, demonstrating the role of DOP, in imparting additional radiation stability. In case of the irradiated control sample, the angle of breakage was much lower. In the heat pressed sheets containing the DOP, a remarkable retention in the tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, along with improved thermal stability was observed. The formulation devoid of DOP demonstrated poor retention of the afore-mentioned characteristic properties .The observed improvement in thermal stability of the formulations containing DOP hints at the likely possibility of reuse of these materials by autoclaving which is considered an additional

  16. GLOBAL X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE O AND B STARS IN CARINA

    SciTech Connect

    Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Oskinova, L.; Cohen, D.; Corcoran, M. F.; Gagne, M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pittard, J. M.; Ud-Doula, A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2011-05-01

    The key empirical property of the X-ray emission from O stars is a strong correlation between the bolometric and X-ray luminosities. In the framework of the Chandra Carina Complex Project, 129 O and B stars have been detected as X-ray sources; 78 of those, all with spectral type earlier than B3, have enough counts for at least a rough X-ray spectral characterization. This leads to an estimate of the L{sub X}-L{sub BOL} ratio for an exceptional number of 60 O stars belonging to the same region and triples the number of Carina massive stars studied spectroscopically in X-rays. The derived log(L{sub X}/L{sub BOL}) is -7.26 for single objects, with a dispersion of only 0.21 dex. Using the properties of hot massive stars listed in the literature, we compare the X-ray luminosities of different types of objects. In the case of O stars, the L{sub X}-L{sub BOL} ratios are similar for bright and faint objects, as well as for stars of different luminosity classes or spectral types. Binaries appear only slightly harder and slightly more luminous in X-rays than single objects; the differences are not formally significant (at the 1% level), except for the L{sub X}-L{sub BOL} ratio in the medium (1.0-2.5 keV) energy band. Weak-wind objects have similar X-ray luminosities but they display slightly softer spectra compared with 'normal' O stars with the same bolometric luminosity. Discarding three overluminous objects, we find a very shallow trend of harder emission in brighter objects. The properties of the few B stars bright enough to yield some spectral information appear to be different overall (constant X-ray luminosities, harder spectra), hinting that another mechanism for producing X-rays, besides wind shocks, might be at work. However, it must be stressed that the earliest and X-ray brightest among these few detected objects are similar to the latest O stars, suggesting a possibly smooth transition between the two processes.

  17. Soot Optical Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K. T.; Hassan, M. I.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent past studies of soot reaction processes in laminar premixed and nonpremixed flames generally have used the intrusive technique of thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe soot structure and obtain important fundamental information about soot particle properties, such as soot primary particle diameters, the rate of change of soot primary particle diameter as a function of time (or rate of soot surface growth or oxidation), the amount of soot particle reactive surface area per unit volume, the number of primary soot particles per unit volume, and the rate of formation of primary soot particles (or the rate of soot primary particle nucleation). Given the soot volume per unit volume of the flame (or the soot volume fraction), all these properties are readily found from a measurement of the soot primary particle diameter (which usually is nearly a constant for each location within a laminar flame). This approach is not possible within freely propagating flames, however, because soot properties at given positions in such flames vary relatively rapidly as a function of time in the soot formation and oxidation regions compared to the relatively lengthy sampling times needed to accumulate adequate soot samples and to minimize effects of soot collected on the sampling grid as it moves to and from the sampling position through other portions of the flame. Thus, nonintrusive optical methods must be used to find the soot primary particle diameters needed to define the soot surface reaction properties mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, approximate nonintrusive methods used during early studies of soot reaction properties in flames, found from laser scattering and absorption measurements analyzed assuming either Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering from polydisperse effective soot particles having the same mass of soot as individual soot aggregates, have not been found to be an effective way to estimate the soot surface

  18. Leukocyte relaxation properties.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, K L; Dong, C; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Chien, S; Skalak, R

    1988-01-01

    Study of the mechanical properties of leukocytes is useful to understand their passage through narrow capillaries and interaction with other cells. Leukocytes are known to be viscoelastic and their properties have been established by micropipette aspiration techniques. Here, the recovery of leukocytes to their normal spherical form is studied after prolonged deformation in a pipette which is large enough to permit complete entry of the leukocyte. The recovery history is characterized by the time history of the major diameter (d1) and minor diameter (d2). When the cell is removed from the pipette, it shows initially a small rapid recoil followed by a slower asymptotic recovery to the spherical shape. In the presence of cell activation and formation of pseudopods, the time history for recovery is prolonged compared with passive cell recovery. If a protopod pre-existed during the holding period, the recovery only begins when the protopod starts to retract. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3207829

  19. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  20. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references.

  1. Property Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-01-28

    Provides cradle to grave tracking of DOE property (capital, accountable, etc.). Major functional areas include Acquisitions, Management, Inventory, Accounting, Agreements, Excessing, Dispositions, and Reporting. The Accounting module is not used at this time and may not be operational. A major enhancement added here at Lockheed Martin Energy Systems is the Web-based portion of the system, which allows custodians of property to record location and custodial changes, and to provide inventory confirmations. PLEASE NOTE: Customer mustmore » contact Ben McMurry, (865) 576-5906, Lockheed Martin Energy Ssytems, for help with installation of package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to the cost of the package from ESTSC. Customer should contact Cheri Cross, (865) 574-6046, for user help.« less

  2. Cold Hybrid Star Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moshfegh, H. R.; Darehmoradi, M.; Mojarrad, M. Ghazanfari

    2011-10-28

    Properties of neutron stars with quark core are investigated. The equation of state of hadronic matter is calculated using Myers and Swiatecki two nucleon interaction within Thomas-Fermi semiclassical approximation (TF). For quark matter we employ The MIT bag model with constant and density dependent bag parameter. With use of the obtained equation of states we have calculated mass-radius relation of such hybrid stars.

  3. Properties of multilayer filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

  4. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  5. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  6. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Top Quark Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    Since its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top quark has undergone intensive studies. Besides the Tevatron experiments, with the start of the LHC in 2010 a top quark factory started its operation. It is now possible to measure top quark properties simultaneously at four different experiments, namely ATLAS and CMS at LHC and CDF and D0 at Tevatron. Having collected thousands of top quarks each, several top quark properties have been measured precisely, while others are being measured for the first time. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from ATLAS, CDF, CMS and D0 are presented, using up to 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at the Tevatron and 1.1 fb{sup -1} at the LHC. In particular, measurements of the top quark mass, mass difference, foward backward charge asymmetry, t{bar t} spin correlations, the ratio of branching fractions, W helicity, anomalous couplings, color flow and the search for flavor changing neutral currents are discussed.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  9. Electronic properties of whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidukov, Iu. P.

    1984-04-01

    Size effects on the electronic properties of metals are examined, summarizing the results of recent experiments on metal whiskers of thickness about 1 micron. Whisker-growth techniques, the general properties of whiskers, and the theoretical principles of size effects on metal resistivity in general and on the resistance of whiskers in particular are reviewed. The experiments discussed are performed at low temperatures so that the mean-free path length of the conductance electrons is much greater than the whisker diameter. Findings presented include the temperature dependence of resistance (deviation from Matthiessen's rule and the angular dependence of the specular-reflection probability), magnetoresistance (size and temperature effects and quantum oscillations), and the effect of tensile stress on whisker electrical properties. Special consideration is given to a dc skin effect (in a layer about one Larmor radius thick) and quantum changes (when the Larmor radius is greater than the whisker diameter) observed in a magnetic field. Graphs and diagrams are provided, and the feasibility of experiments on whiskers less than 100 nm thick is considered.

  10. Irreversibility line and flux pinning properties in a multilayered cuprate superconductor of Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O,F)2 (Tc = 105 K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirage, P. M.; Iyo, A.; Shivagan, D. D.; Tanaka, Y.; Kito, H.; Kodama, Y.

    2008-07-01

    Irreversibility line (IL) and flux pinning properties were investigated for a Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O,F)2 (F-0234) multilayered cuprate superconductor with a Tc of 105 K. The intragrain critical current density (Jc) and irreversibility field (Birr) were determined by using Bean's critical state model for the grain-aligned sample (nominal composition Ba2Ca3Cu4O8.7F1.3). The irreversibility line (IL) of F-0234 is much lower than that of (Cu,C)Ba2Ca3Cu4Oy ((Cu, C)-1234) and HgBa2Ca3Cu4Oy (Hg-1234) in spite of the spacing between the superconducting blocks of F-0234 (7.3 Å) being much thinner. The double logarithmic plot of Birr field versus [1-(T/Tc) ] analysis hints that the flux line melting model has been adopted. An anisotropy factor of 65 was calculated from a 3D to 2D crossover field of about 0.95 T. Due to the high anisotropy of this system, a low IL has resulted. The flux pinning force density Fp ( ≈JcB) exhibits scaling behaviour when the magnetic field B is normalized by the Birr field. Analysis of the normalized pinning force reveals that a surface pinning mechanism is dominant and the reduced magnetic field bmax = 0.2 agrees with surface pinning mechanism with closely spaced pins.

  11. Molecular identification of potential selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) like properties of phytoestrogens in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Diel, P; Olff, S; Schmidt, S; Michna, H

    2001-08-01

    Numerous epidemiologic studies revealed that ethnic populations with higher dietary intake of phytoestrogens have the lowest incidence for breast cancer. The molecular mechanisms which may be responsible for this cancer protective action of phytoestrogens are so far only barely characterised. There are some hints that phytoestrogens may act like selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the breast. For this reason we have investigated potential SERM-like properties of the phytoestrogens daidzein (Dai), coumestrol (Cou), and genistein (Gen) in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Effects of these substances on progesterone (PR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER) mRNA expression and estrogen receptor alpha protein levels were studied in comparison to estradiol (E2) and the synthetic SERMs raloxifene (Ral) and faslodex (ICI 182 780). PR mRNA expression was up-regulated after administration of Cou, whereas treatment with Dai and Gen induced only a faint increase. ER mRNA expression was down-regulated by Cou but not affected by Dai and Gen. The content of ER protein in the breast cancer cells was strongly decreased by Gen, only a faint reduction could be observed following administration of Cou, whereas administration of Dai slightly increases ER protein levels. In summary and in comparison to the effects observed after administration of E2, Ral, and ICI it turned out that Cou shows molecular properties which are very similar to an estrogen receptor agonist like E2, whereas the molecular properties of Gen are comparable to the SERMs ICI and Ral. These results clearly indicate that phytoestrogens differ significantly in regard to their molecular action on breast cancer cells and can be subdivided into distinct functional categories. PMID:11509969

  12. Critical properties of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Divesh; Jasper, Ahren W; Schultz, Nathan E; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2006-04-01

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo calculations are performed using a validated embedded-atom potential to obtain the vapor-liquid coexistence curve for elemental aluminum in good agreement with available experimental data up to the boiling point. These calculations are then extended to make a reliable prediction of the critical temperature, pressure, and density of Al, which have previously been known only with very large uncertainties. This demonstrates the ability of modern simulations to predict fundamental physical properties that are extremely difficult to measure directly. PMID:16568986

  13. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, Mohammad J; Fromm, Katharina M; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta; de Larramendi, Idoia Ruiz; Rojo, Teofilo; Serpooshan, Vahid; Parak, Wolfgang J; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-10-01

    Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials. PMID:22884769

  14. Chemical properties of transactinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gäggeler, H. W.

    2005-09-01

    First investigations of chemical properties of bohrium (Z = 107) and hassium (Z = 108) showed an expected behaviour as ordinary members of groups 7 and 8 of the periodic table. Two attempts to study element 112 yielded some indication for a behaviour like a very volatile noble metal. However, a very recent experiment to confirm this preliminary observation failed. Two examples are described how chemical studies may help to support element discovery claims from purely physics experiments. The two examples are the discovery claims of the elements 112 and 115, respectively, where the progenies hassium and dubnium were chemically identified.

  15. Measurement of food optical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical properties determine how a biological material or a food product will behave or interact with light. Absorption and scattering coefficients are the two primary optical properties characterizing turbid or diffusive food products. Measurement of the optical properties can provide useful inform...

  16. Hydrogen technology survey: Thermophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic functions, transport properties, and physical properties of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen are presented. The low temperature regime is emphasized. The tabulation of the properties of normal hydrogen in both Si and engineering units is given along with the tabulation of parahydrogen.

  17. NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

  18. Elastic properties of hedenbergite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandelin, John; Weidner, Donald J.

    1988-02-01

    The single-crystal elastic moduli of hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) hare been measured at 20°C and 1 bar using Brillouin spectroscopy. The moduli are (in gigapascals): C11 = 222, C22 = 176, C23 = 249, C44 = 55, C55 = 63, C66 = 60, C12 = 69, C13 = 79, C33, = 86, C15 = 12, C25 = 13, C35 = 26, C46 = -10. The comparison of elastic properties among Mg-Fe-Ca bearing pyroxenes, known as quadrilateral pyroxenes, reveals only weak variations with changes in composition. Of the four quadrilateral pyroxenes, orthoferrosilite has elastic properties distinctive from the others. The principal differences among these pyroxenes are due to subtle structural differences. In particular, the mechanical linkage between the M2 polyhedral chains in clinopyroxenes enhances the importance of the cation in this site. In contrast to the orthopyroxenes, the aggregate shear modulus μ of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes (diopside and hedenbergite) exhibits no dependence on the amount of iron (Fe2+) present in the structure, while the ratio K/μ does. As a result, the compressional and shear acoustic velocities of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes show a smaller dependency on iron content than do the orthopyroxenes.

  19. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing. PMID:24558740

  20. and Their Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Reetz, M.; Cardoso-Gil, R.; Grin, Yu.

    2014-06-01

    In this study we performed substitution experiments on the gallium site of the intermetallic semiconductor FeGa3, to adjust the charge carrier concentration, and determined the thermoelectric (TE) properties of the resulting products. Isoelectronic species aluminium and indium, hole-doping zinc, and electron-doping germanium were chosen to find suitable substituent elements. The samples FeGa3- x E x ( E = Al, In, Zn, Ge; x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.06, 0.10, 0.20) were prepared by liquid-solid-reaction with subsequent spark plasma sintering treatment. X-ray diffraction, metallographic, and microstructure analysis were used to determine chemical composition and to evaluate the suitability of the substitution element. For solid solutions FeGa3- x Al x and FeGa3- x In x the substitution concentrations were very low ( x ≤ 0.02) and did not improve the TE properties of FeGa3. The samples FeGa3- x Zn x had the expected p-type behaviour and slightly lower thermal conductivity than the binary compound. A substantial increase in the TE figure of merit was achieved for the solid solution FeGa3- x Ge x for which transition from semiconducting to metal-like behaviour was observed, with an additional decrease of thermal conductivity. The maximum ZT value of 0.21 was achieved for the composition FeGa2.80Ge0.20.

  1. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  2. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  3. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  4. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  5. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    This is the sixteenth quarterly report under DOE contract No. DE-AC22-87PC 79903 entitled Optical Properties of Flyash.'' Tasks 1 and 2 of this program were funded from September 15, 1987. Tasks 3 and 4 were funded from September 15, 1988. The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Some preliminary work in this area has been carried out at Stanford in the past several years with NSF support. The present program will greatly enlarge the scope of this work.

  6. Properties of subentropy

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony; Jozsa, Richard; Benatti, Fabio

    2014-06-15

    Subentropy is an entropy-like quantity that arises in quantum information theory; for example, it provides a tight lower bound on the accessible information for pure state ensembles, dual to the von Neumann entropy upper bound in Holevo's theorem. Here we establish a series of properties of subentropy, paralleling the well-developed analogous theory for von Neumann entropy. Further, we show that subentropy is a lower bound for min-entropy. We introduce a notion of conditional subentropy and show that it can be used to provide an upper bound for the guessing probability of any classical-quantum state of two qubits; we conjecture that the bound applies also in higher dimensions. Finally, we give an operational interpretation of subentropy within classical information theory.

  7. [Nutraceutical properties of lycopene].

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Blasco, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, dietary recommendations have suggested an increase in the consumption of foods that contain phytochemicals that provide benefits to human health and play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. Lycopene -the carotenoid responsible for the red color of tomatoes- has attracted attention because of its physicochemical and biological properties in the prevention of chronic diseases in which oxidative stress is a major etiological factor, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and hypertension, among others. Antioxidants, including lycopene, interact with reactive oxygen species, can mitigate their damaging effects and play a significant role in preventing these diseases. This article presents a review of some epidemiological studies published in recent years on beneficial effects of lycopene in human health. PMID:20485889

  8. Elastic properties of HMX.

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.

  9. Dust properties from scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, C.; Pagani, L.; Min, M.; Poteet, C.; Whittet, D.; Cambrésy, L.

    2016-05-01

    Dust grains evolve during the life cycle of the interstellar matter. From their birth places to dense molecular clouds, they grow by coagulation and acquire ice mantles, mainly composed of water. These morphological changes affect their optical properties. However, it remains a highly degenerate issue to determine their composition, size distribution, and shape from observations. In particular, using wavelengths associated to dust emission alone is not sufficient to investigate dense cold cores. Fortunately, scattering has turned out to be a powerful tool to investigate molecular clouds from the outer regions to the core. In particular, it is possible to quantify the amount of dust aggregates needed to reproduce observations from 1.25 to 8 μm.

  10. Materials property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, D.M.; Green, E.R.; Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.

    1990-04-19

    An in-depth review of the measurement techniques that could be used in materials characterization is presented. The measurement techniques to non-destructively determine the in-service or time-related aging of materials considered include ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, eddy current conductivity, neutron scattering and absorption, conventional and tomographic imaging for ultrasonic and radiation imaging, x-ray scattering, thermal impedance, and magnetic hysteresis. The three sections of the report include a review of failure mechanisms in steel and a discussion of nondestructive evaluation techniques and fracture mechanics, a description of a chart on Measurement Techniques versus Material Properties, and recommendations on the techniques and tests to be performed for the experimental investigations and analysis task of the project. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  12. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  13. Physical properties of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of asteroids were studied by telescopic observations and laboratory and theoretical work. Spectrophotometry from 0.3 to 1.1 microns and 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 micron photometry allow spectral-compositional classification of asteroids. Based on laboratory data and telescopic observations, it was found that infrared measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns provide a relatively rapid and accurate method for the classification of minor planets and are important in comparing asteroids with meteorites. This technique was proven and employed in an expanded survey of Apollo-Amor-Aten and other unusual asteroids recently scanned by IRAS.

  14. Computational modeling of properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Judy R.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wise-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid II-VI semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.

  15. Computational modeling of properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Judy R.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wide-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid 2-6 semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.

  16. Electronic properties of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, M.; Kittler, M.; Uebensee, H.; Pippel, E.; Haehnel, A.; Birner, S.

    2016-04-01

    Dislocations exhibit a number of exceptional electronic properties resulting in a significant increase in the drain current of MOSFETs if defined numbers of these defects are placed in the channel. Measurements on individual dislocations in Si refer to a supermetallic conductivity. A model of the electronic structure of dislocations is proposed based on experimental measurements and tight-binding simulations. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core—exceeding 10 % or more—causes locally dramatic changes in the band structure and results in the formation of a quantum well along the dislocation line. This explains experimental findings (two-dimensional electron gas, single-electron transitions). The energy quantization within the quantum well is most important for supermetallic conductivity.

  17. Electromagnetic properties of baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwig, T.; Pascalutsa, V.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Martin-Camalich, J.

    2011-10-21

    We discuss the chiral behavior of the nucleon and {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic properties within the framework of a SU(2) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our one-loop calculation is complete to the order p{sup 3} and p{sup 4}/{Delta} with {Delta} as the {Delta}(1232)-nucleon energy gap. We show that the magnetic moment of a resonance can be defined by the linear energy shift only when an additional relation between the involved masses and the applied magnetic field strength is fulfilled. Singularities and cusps in the pion mass dependence of the {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic moments reflect a non-fulfillment. We show results for the pion mass dependence of the nucleon iso-vector electromagnetic quantities and present preliminary results for finite volume effects on the iso-vector anomalous magnetic moment.

  18. Structural, morphological and optical properties of chromium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Babukutty, Blessy; Parakkal, Fasalurahman; Nair, Swapna S.; Bhalero, G. M.; Aravind, P. B.

    2015-06-24

    Chromium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by reduction route from chloride precursors with surfactant, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Structural and morphological characterization are analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Transmission Electron micrographs show that the average grain size lies in the range 5nm to 10nm. Optical characterization has been done by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Distinct optical absorptions of Cr{sup 3+} ions show hinting towards the presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Presence of oxygen is also confirmed from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) studies.

  19. Structural, morphological and optical properties of chromium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babukutty, Blessy; Parakkal, Fasalurahman; Bhalero, G. M.; Aravind, P. B.; Nair, Swapna S.

    2015-06-01

    Chromium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by reduction route from chloride precursors with surfactant, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Structural and morphological characterization are analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Transmission Electron micrographs show that the average grain size lies in the range 5nm to 10nm. Optical characterization has been done by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Distinct optical absorptions of Cr3+ ions show hinting towards the presence of Cr2O3. Presence of oxygen is also confirmed from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) studies.

  20. Frankincense--therapeutic properties.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasiry, Ali Ridha Mustafa; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%). It contains mono- (13%) and diterpenes (40%) as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%) and methylanisole (7.6%). The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). PMID:27117114

  1. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  2. Polarimetric properties of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2015-11-01

    Quite frequently astronomic polarimetric observations of different celestial bodies do not guarantee a proper phase angle coverage that is required for estimating all of the attributes of their polarization phase curves with a high accuracy. To approximate the phase dependences of polarization observed for particulate surfaces, we use a simple empiric formula recently suggested by Shestopalov (2004). The efficiency of the approximating function in a wide range of phase angles is illustrated with the use of the results of polarimetric measurements of lunar areas, lunar samples, and near-Earth asteroids. For asteroids of various types, we can reproduce their negative polarization branches with adequate accuracy and roughly estimate a probable value of the maximum polarization degree at an appropriate phase angle. From the polarimetric database available at NASA PDS [Asteroid Polarimetric Database V7.0 (2012)] we calculated the main parameters of 153 polarimetric curves of asteroids in various spectral bands with the accuracy comparable to the observation errors. One more purpose of our analysis was to find correlations between the polarimetric and photometric properties of asteroids. For C-, M-, S-, E-type asteroids, the characteristics of the negative branch of polarization curves turned out to correlate closely with the phase coefficient of the photometric function of asteroids and the photometric roughness of asteroid surfaces. This implies that the complex geometry of the surface microrelief affects the polarization properties of asteroids. In particular, the data scattering around regression lines on the plots of the albedo versus the depth of negative polarization branch and the slope of the polarimetric function at inversion angle strongly depends on the differences in the photometric roughness of asteroid surfaces.

  3. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  4. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  5. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this task is to validate the whole approach adopted in this program. Specifically, this bench-scale experiment is intended to compare the measured optical/radiative properties of a dispersion of well characterized ash with those calculated on the basis of the known size/composition distribution using the correlation formulae relating the composition and complex refractive index resulting from measurements on bulk samples of synthetic slag. Considerable thought has been given to the various possible approaches to satisfying the objectives of this task. Several experiments were done to guide our design of an apparatus for measuring the scattering and absorption properties of dispersions of flyash. As a result of these experiments, and from extensive prior experience in connection with research on electrostatic precipitation, it has been determined that there is no satisfactory way to satisfy the aims of this task using a gaseous dispersion of flyash because it is not possible to adequately disperse and deagglomerate flyash into a gas stream. Unless the ash is adequately dispersed, as it exists in the radiant boiler of a pulverized coal-fired combustion system, one cannot expect calculations, based on Mie calculations for a dispersion of spheres to properly agree with laboratory measurements. For these reasons, our design efforts are based on making measurements on a dispersion of flyash in liquid, for which our experience shows we can obtain stable, well-deagglomerated dispersions of ash. Because there is not single liquid which is adequately transparent over the wavelength range 1--12 {mu}m, we plan to use a combination of three liquids, C Cl{sub 4}, C S{sub 2} and bromoform to cover the full range. Windows of BaF{sub 2} will be used to contain the liquid suspension in an absorption/scattering cell.

  6. Gold-rich R3Au7Sn3: Establishing the interdependence between electronic features and physical properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Provino, Alessia; Steinberg, Simon; Smetana, Volodymyr; Kulkarni, Ruta; Dhar, Sudesh K.; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2015-05-18

    Two new polar intermetallic compounds Y3Au7Sn3 (I) and Gd3Au7Sn3 (II) have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (P63/m; Z = 2, a = 8.148(1)/8.185(3), and c = 9.394(2)/9.415(3) for I/II, respectively). They can formally be assigned to the Cu10Sn3 type and consist of parallel slabs of Sn centered, edge-sharing trigonal Au6 antiprisms connected through R3 (R = Y, Gd) triangles. Additional Au atoms reside in the centres of trigonal Au6 prisms forming Au@Au6 clusters with Au–Au distances of 2.906–2.960 Å, while the R–R contacts in the R3 groups are considerably larger than themore » sums of their metallic radii. These exclusive structural arrangements provide alluring systems to study the synergism between strongly correlated systems, particularly, those in the structure of (II), and extensive polar intermetallic contacts, which has been inspected by measurements of the magnetic properties, heat capacities and electrical conductivities of both compounds. Gd3Au7Sn3 shows an antiferromagnetic ordering at 13 K, while Y3Au7Sn3 is a Pauli paramagnet and a downward curvature in its electrical resistivity at about 1.9 K points to a superconducting transition. DFT-based band structure calculations on R3Au7Sn3 (R = Y, Gd) account for the results of the conductivity measurements and different spin ordering models of (II) provide conclusive hints about its magnetic structure. As a result, chemical bonding analyses of both compounds indicate that the vast majority of bonding originates from the heteroatomic Au–Gd and Au–Sn interactions, while homoatomic Au–Au bonding is evident within the Au@Au6 clusters.« less

  7. Aqueous processes at Gusev crater inferred from physical properties of rocks and soils along the Spirit traverse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Grin, E.A.; Ritcher, L.; Soderblom, L.; Li, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Landis, G.A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for Spirit on the basis of morphological evidence of long-lasting water activity, including possibly fluvial and lacustrine episodes. From the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills, Spirit's traverse provides a journey back in time, from relatively recent volcanic plains showing little evidence for aqueous processes up to the older hills, where rock and soil composition are drastically different. For the first 156 sols, the only evidence of water action was weathering rinds, vein fillings, and soil crust cementation by salts. The trenches of Sols 112-145 marked the first significant findings of increased concentrations of sulfur and magnesium varying in parallel, suggesting that they be paired as magnesium-sulfate. Spirit's arrival at West Spur coincided with a shift in rock and soil composition with observations hinting at substantial amounts of water in Gusev's past. We used the Microscopic Imager data up to Sol 431 to analyze rock and soil properties and infer plausible types and magnitude of aqueous processes through time. We show the role played early by topography and structure. The morphology, texture, and deep alteration shown by the rocks in West Spur and the Columbia Hills Formation (CHF) suggest conditions that are not met in present-day Mars and required a wetter environment, which could have included transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water, vapor in volcanic gases, hydrothermal circulation, or saturation in a briny fluid containing the same elements. Changing conditions that might have affected flow circulation are suggested by different textural and morphological characteristics between the rocks in the CHF and those of the plains, with higher porosity proxy, higher void ratio, and higher water storage potential in the CHF. Soils were used to assess aqueous processes and water pathways in the top layers of modern soils. We conclude that infiltration might have become more difficult

  8. Tidal Signatures in the Faintest Milky Way Satellites: The Detailed Properties of Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, David J.; Strader, Jay; Willman, Beth; Zaritsky, Dennis; McLeod, Brian; Caldwell, Nelson; Seth, Anil; Olszewski, Edward

    2012-09-01

    We present deep wide-field photometry of three recently discovered faint Milky Way (MW) satellites: Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II. Our main goals are to study the structure and star formation history of these dwarfs; we also search for signs of tidal disturbance. The three satellites have similar half-light radii (~60-90 pc) but a wide range of ellipticities. Both Leo V and CVn II show hints of stream-like overdensities at large radii. An analysis of the satellite color-magnitude diagrams shows that all three objects are old (>10 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2), though neither the models nor the data have sufficient precision to assess when the satellites formed with respect to cosmic reionization. The lack of an observed younger stellar population (lsim 10 Gyr) possibly sets them apart from the other satellites at Galactocentric distances >~ 150 kpc. We present a new compilation of structural data for all MW satellite galaxies and use it to compare the properties of classical dwarfs to the ultra-faints. The ellipticity distribution of the two groups is consistent at the ~2σ level. However, the faintest satellites tend to be more aligned toward the Galactic Center, and those satellites with the highest ellipticity (gsim 0.4) have orientations (ΔθGC) in the range 20° <~ ΔθGC <~ 40°. This latter observation is in rough agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf galaxies that have lost a significant fraction of their dark matter halos and are being tidally stripped. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile and the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  9. TIDAL SIGNATURES IN THE FAINTEST MILKY WAY SATELLITES: THE DETAILED PROPERTIES OF LEO V, PISCES II, AND CANES VENATICI II

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, David J.; Strader, Jay; McLeod, Brian; Caldwell, Nelson; Willman, Beth; Zaritsky, Dennis; Olszewski, Edward; Seth, Anil

    2012-09-01

    We present deep wide-field photometry of three recently discovered faint Milky Way (MW) satellites: Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II. Our main goals are to study the structure and star formation history of these dwarfs; we also search for signs of tidal disturbance. The three satellites have similar half-light radii ({approx}60-90 pc) but a wide range of ellipticities. Both Leo V and CVn II show hints of stream-like overdensities at large radii. An analysis of the satellite color-magnitude diagrams shows that all three objects are old (>10 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx} -2), though neither the models nor the data have sufficient precision to assess when the satellites formed with respect to cosmic reionization. The lack of an observed younger stellar population ({approx}< 10 Gyr) possibly sets them apart from the other satellites at Galactocentric distances {approx}> 150 kpc. We present a new compilation of structural data for all MW satellite galaxies and use it to compare the properties of classical dwarfs to the ultra-faints. The ellipticity distribution of the two groups is consistent at the {approx}2{sigma} level. However, the faintest satellites tend to be more aligned toward the Galactic Center, and those satellites with the highest ellipticity ({approx}> 0.4) have orientations ({Delta}{theta}{sub GC}) in the range 20 Degree-Sign {approx}< {Delta}{theta}{sub GC} {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign . This latter observation is in rough agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf galaxies that have lost a significant fraction of their dark matter halos and are being tidally stripped.

  10. A distinct magnetic property of the inner penumbral boundary. Formation of a stable umbra-penumbra boundary in a sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčák, J.; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.

    2015-08-01

    Context. A sunspot emanates from a growing pore or protospot. In order to trigger the formation of a penumbra, large inclinations at the outskirts of the protospot are necessary. The penumbra develops and establishes by colonising both umbral areas and granulation. Evidence for a unique stable boundary value for the vertical component of the magnetic field strength, Bstablever, was found along the umbra-penumbra boundary of developed sunspots. Aims: We study the changing value of Bver as the penumbra forms and as it reaches a stable state. We compare this with the corresponding value in fully developed penumbrae. Methods: We use broadband G-band images and spectropolarimetric GFPI/VTT data to study the evolution of and the vertical component of the magnetic field on a forming umbra-penumbra boundary. For comparison with stable sunspots, we also analyse the two maps observed by Hinode/SP on the same spot after the penumbra formed. Results: The vertical component of the magnetic field, Bver, at the umbra-penumbra boundary increases during penumbra formation owing to the incursion of the penumbra into umbral areas. After 2.5 h, the penumbra reaches a stable state as shown by the GFPI data. At this stable stage, the simultaneous Hinode/SP observations show a Bver value comparable to that of umbra-penumbra boundaries of fully fledged sunspots. Conclusions: We confirm that the umbra-penumbra boundary, traditionally defined by an intensity threshold, is also characterised by a distinct canonical magnetic property, namely by Bverstable. During the penumbra formation process, the inner penumbra extends into regions where the umbra previously prevailed. Hence, in areas where Bverhints toward the role of Bverstable as inhibitor of the penumbral mode of magneto-convection.

  11. Predict amine solution properties accurately

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Meisen, A.; Chakma, A.

    1996-02-01

    Improved process design begins with using accurate physical property data. Especially in the preliminary design stage, physical property data such as density viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat can affect the overall performance of absorbers, heat exchangers, reboilers and pump. These properties can also influence temperature profiles in heat transfer equipment and thus control or affect the rate of amine breakdown. Aqueous-amine solution physical property data are available in graphical form. However, it is not convenient to use with computer-based calculations. Developed equations allow improved correlations of derived physical property estimates with published data. Expressions are given which can be used to estimate physical properties of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) solutions.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmenter, Kelly E.; Milstein, Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Aerogels are extremely low density solids that are characterized by a high porosity and pore sizes on the order of nanometers. Their low thermal conductivity and sometimes transparent appearance make them desirable for applications such as insulation in cryogenic vessels and between double paned glass in solar architecture. An understanding of the mechanical properties of aerogels is necessary before aerogels can be used in load bearing applications. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of various types of fiber-reinforced silica aerogels was investigated with hardness, compression, tension and shear tests. Particular attention was paid to the effects of processing parameters, testing conditions, storage environment, and age on the aerogels' mechanical response. The results indicate that the addition of fibers to the aerogel matrix generally resulted in softer, weaker materials with smaller elastic moduli. Furthermore, the testing environment significantly affected compression results. Tests in ethanol show an appreciable amount of scatter, and are not consistent with results for tests in air. In fact, the compression specimens appeared to crack and begin to dissolve upon exposure to the ethanol solution. This is consistent with the inherent hydrophobic nature of these aerogels. In addition, the aging process affected the aerogels' mechanical behavior by increasing their compressive strength and elastic moduli while decreasing their strain at fracture. However, desiccation of the specimens did not appreciably affect the mechanical properties, even though it reduced the aerogel density by removing trapped moisture. Finally, tension and shear test results indicate that the shear strength of the aerogels exceeds the tensile strength. This is consistent with the response of brittle materials. Future work should concentrate on mechanical testing at cryogenic temperatures, and should involve more extensive tensile tests. Moreover, before the mechanical response

  13. 76 FR 2001 - Government Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...NASA is issuing a final rule to revise the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to update Agency-level, property-related provisions, clauses, prescriptions and procedures to be consistent with changes made to Part 45 and Part 52.245 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-17. FAC 2005-17 significantly rewrote FAR Part 45, Government Property, and changed property......

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of HCFC-124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masato; Watanabe, Naohiro

    Thermodynamic properties of HCFC-124, such as saturated densities, vapor pressures and PVT properties, were measured and the critical parameters were determined through those experimental results. The correlations for vapor pressure, saturated liquid density and PVT properties deduced from those experimental results were compared with the measured data and also with the estimates of the other correlations published in literatures. The thermodynamic functions, such as enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, etc., can reasonably be calculated from the correlation equations in this paper.

  15. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Starrett, H.S.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program have been: (1) the post-test evaluation of candle filters, (2) to measure the material properties of current filter materials, destructively and non-destructively, and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, (3) to develop an understanding of the material requirements for hot gas filter elements, (4) to develop material property goals for filter materials, and (5) to establish test matrices and a protocol to evaluate candidate filter materials.

  16. Joint Commission on rock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A joint commission on Rock Properties for Petroleum Engineers (RPPE) has been established by the International Society of Rock Mechanics and the Society of Petroleum Engineers to set up data banks on the properties of sedimentary rocks encountered during drilling. Computer-based data banks of complete rock properties will be organized for sandstones (GRESA), shales (ARSHA) and carbonates (CARCA). The commission hopes to access data sources from members of the commission, private companies and the public domain.

  17. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  18. Statistical properties of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Stéphane

    Since the detection a decade ago of the planetary companion of 51 Peg, more than 165 extrasolar planets have been unveiled by radial-velocity measurements. They present a wide variety of characteristics such as large masses with small orbital separations, high eccentricities, period resonances in multi-planet systems, etc. Meaningful features of the statistical distributions of the orbital parameters or parent stellar properties have emerged. We discuss them in the context of the constraints they provide for planet-formation models and in comparison to Neptune-mass planets in short-period orbits recently detected by radial-velocity surveys, thanks to new instrumental developments and adequate observing strategy. We expect continued improvement in velocity precision and anticipate the detection of Neptune-mass planets in longer-period orbits and even lower-mass planets in short-period orbits, giving us new information on the mass distribution function of exoplanets. Finally, the role of radial-velocity follow-up measurements of transit candidates is emphasized.

  19. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  20. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    PubMed Central

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at −20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism. PMID:27188748

  1. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin.

    PubMed

    Inyushin, M; Kucheryavih, Yu; Kucheryavih, L; Rojas, L; Khmelinskii, I; Makarov, V

    2016-01-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at -20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe(3+) ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe(3+) electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe(3+) ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism. PMID:27188748

  2. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Younss Ait; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study. PMID:26779498

  3. Antioxidant properties of Ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Nowak, D; Antczak, A; Król, M; Bialasiewicz, P; Pietras, T

    1994-04-01

    We tested whether Ambroxol, a drug which stimulates the release of surfactant by pneumocytes type II, may also possess antioxidant properties. To assess the reactivity of Ambroxol with reactive oxygen species, we analysed its ability to decompose hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and to inhibit the superoxide (O2.-)-dependent autooxidation of pyrogallol, hydroxyl radical (.OH)-mediated deoxyribose oxidation, and hypochlorous acid (HClO-induced chlorination of monochlorodimedon. Ambroxol was found to be a sufficient scavenger of HClO and .OH and also revealed the capacity to decompose H2O2. At concentrations of 25 and 70 microM, it inhibited HClO-induced chlorination of monochlorodimedon by 22 +/- 13 and 59 +/- 14%, respectively. Similarly, at concentrations of 1, 2, and 10 mM, Ambroxol decreased .OH-mediated deoxyribose oxidation by 47 +/- 11, 75 +/- 9, and 89 +/- 4%. In addition, at concentrations of 1 to 5 mM, it completely protected linoleic acid from .OH-induced peroxidative damage. Ambroxol had a weak effect on O2.(-)-dependent autooxidation of pyrogallol. Our results indicate that Ambroxol has antioxidant activity, which may have clinical significance in protecting lung tissue from oxidant-induced injury. PMID:8005537

  4. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-05-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at ‑20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism.

  5. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  6. Photohaptenic properties of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Y; Nishijima, T; Yagi, H; Furukawa, F; Takigawa, M

    1996-11-01

    Although quinolone antibacterial agents have both phototoxicity and photoallergenicity, the latter's potency has been poorly investigated compared with the former's. Some of the photoallergic chemicals serve as photohaptens, which lead to T-cell-mediated immune reactions after photobinding to protein by UVA radiation. We examined the photohaptenic potential of fluoroquinolones, including lomefloxacin (LFLX), ciplofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fleroxacin, enoxacin and sparfloxacin (SPFX). The absorption spectra of the quinolones were altered by UVA irradiation, with an exception of SPFX that seems to be photostable toward UVA. Bovine serum albumin and murine epidermal cells were coupled with these fluoroquinolones other than SPFX by exposure to UVA. Subcutaneous inoculation of fluoroquinolone-photomodified epidermal cells induced and elicited a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice. However, epidermal cells incubated with LFLX without UVA exposure also induced and elicited a significant hypersensitivity reaction to a lesser degree than LFLX-photomodified epidermal cells. Furthermore, there was cross-reactivity between LFLX-photomodified epidermal cells and simply LFLX-incubated cells. This suggests that cells can be weakly modified with LFLX even in the dark and that UVA irradiation promotes this modification. Our study demonstrated that fluoroquinolones have photohaptenic properties to which their photoallergenicity is probably ascribed. PMID:8931383

  7. Immunomodulatory properties of Cumaside.

    PubMed

    Aminin, D L; Pinegin, B V; Pichugina, L V; Zaporozhets, T S; Agafonova, I G; Boguslavski, V M; Silchenko, A S; Avilov, S A; Stonik, V A

    2006-07-01

    The medical lead, so-called Cumaside, was created on the basis of triterpene oligoglycosides from the Far-Eastern edible sea cucumber (holothurian) Cucumaria japonica and its immunomodulatory properties were studied. The haemolytic activity of Cumaside was significantly reduced in comparison with original glycosides due to the glycoside-cholesterol complex formation. The influence of Cumaside on mouse macrophages in low doses was accompanied by more then two-fold stimulation of lysosomal activity. This preparation was found to increase significantly the animal resistance against bacterial infections elicited by various pathogens. It stimulated phagocytosis, ROS formation, IL6 and TNF-alpha production in lymphocytes, increased the number of antibody producing cells and amplified the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8) preliminary cultured with hydrocortisone. At the same time the preparation did not affect the delayed-type hypersensitivity, proliferative activity of lymphocytes, cytotoxic activity of NK-cells and cytokine IFNgamma and IL12p70 release. The mechanism of Cumaside action is discussed. PMID:16714210

  8. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  9. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  10. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312 Section 576.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  11. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312 Section 576.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  12. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312 Section 576.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  13. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312 Section 576.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  14. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  15. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  16. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308 Section 541.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 562.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 562.307 Section 562.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.307...

  3. 31 CFR 562.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 562.307 Section 562.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  4. 31 CFR 562.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 562.307 Section 562.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  5. 31 CFR 562.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 562.307 Section 562.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.307...

  6. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. Property Dominance and Typicality Effects in Property Statement Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.

    1978-01-01

    Reaction time to verify property statements was examined in the context of two semantic distance factors--typicality of the category member in the subject of the statement, and dominance of the category member's property in the predicate. (Author/NCR)

  8. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wenjie; He, Xingyuan; Zhang, Wentian; Song, Kaishan; Han, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and bulk density) and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements). Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05). The primary forest had a 2.35–2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C–H, C–O, and O–H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N) in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05). However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes. PMID:26430896

  10. Experimental constraints on the rheology and mechanical properties of lava erupted in the Holuhraun area during the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Wall, Richard; von Aulock, Felix; Kennedy, Ben; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-04-01

    A fissure eruption began at Holuhraun on 16 August 2014, following magma drainage from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland). Extrusion initiated as fire fountaining along a segment of the fracture and rapidly localised to a series of small, aligned cones containing a lava lake that over spilled at both ends, feeding a large lava field. The lava composition and flow behaviour put some constraints on its rheology and mechanical properties. The lava erupted is a nearly aphyric basalt containing approximately 2-3% plagioclase with traces of olivine and pyroxene in a quenched groundmass composed of glass and 20-25% microlites. The transition from fire fountaining to lava flow leads to lava with variable vesicularities; pyroclasts expelled during fire fountaining reach up to 80% vesicles whilst the lava contain up to 45% vesicles. Textures in the lava vary from a'a to slabby pahoehoe, and flow thicknesses from several meters to few centimetres. Tension gashes, crease structures and shear zones in the upper lava carapace reveal the importance of both compressive and tensional stresses. In addition, occasional frictional marks at the base of the lava flow as well as bulldozing of sediments along the flow hint at the importance of frictional properties of the rocks during lava flow. Flow properties, textures and failure modes are strongly dependent on the material properties as well as the local conditions of stress and temperature. Here we expand our field observation with preliminary high-temperature experimental data on the rheological and mechanical properties of the erupted lava. Dilatometric measurements are used to constrain the thermal expansion coefficient of the lava important to constrain the dynamics of cooling of the flow. Micropenetration is further employed to determine the viscosity of the melt at super-liquidus temperature, which is compared to the temperature-dependence of viscosity as constrained by geochemistry. Lastly, uniaxial compression and

  11. Probing the Noninnocent π-Bonding Influence of N-Carboxyamidoquinolate Ligands on the Light Harvesting and Redox Properties of Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ken T; Lee, Nicholas A; Pinnace, Sashari D; Szalda, David J; Weber, Ralph T; Rochford, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Electronic and photophysical characterization is presented for a series of bis-heteroleptic [Ru(bpy)2(R-CAQN)](+) complexes where CAQN is a bidentate N-(carboxyaryl)amidoquinolate ligand and the aryl substituent R = p-tolyl, p-fluorobenzene, p-trifluoromethylbenzene, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene, or 4-methoxy-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene. Characterized by a strong noninnocent Ru(dπ)-CAQN(π) bonding interaction, density functional theory (DFT) analysis is used to estimate the contribution of both atomic Ru(dπ) and ligand CAQN(π) manifolds to the frontier molecular orbitals of these complexes. UV-vis absorption and emission studies are presented where the noninnocent Ru(dπ)-CAQN(π) bonding scheme plays a major role in defining complex electronic and photophysical properties. Oxidation potentials are tuned over a range of 0.92 V with respect to the [Ru(bpy)3](2+) reference system, hereafter referred to as 1(2+), by varying the degree of R-CAQN fluorination while maintaining consistently strong and panchromatic visible absorption properties. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is employed to experimentally map delocalization of the unpaired electron/electron-hole within the delocalized Ru(dπ)-CAQN(π) singly occupied valence molecular orbital of the one-electron oxidized complexes. EPR data is complemented experimentally by UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry, and computationally by molecular orbital Mulliken contributions and spin-density analysis. It is ultimately demonstrated that the CAQN ligand framework provides a simple yet broad synthetic platform in the design of redox-active transition metal chromophores with a range of electronic and spectroscopic characteristics hinting at the diversity and potential of these complexes toward photochemical and catalytic applications. PMID:26886292

  12. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... currently approved information collection, Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and...

  13. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  14. Joint laboratory investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of the COSC-1 drill core, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Lebedev, Maxim; Ask, Maria; Wenning, Quinn; Zappone, Alba; Berthet, Théo; Malehmir, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The Caledonian orogen is an early to middle Paleozoic mountain chain with size dimension similar to the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. Parts of the Caledonian orogen have been deeply eroded and provide excellent exposure of rocks that were emplaced into the middle and lower crust during orogenesis. These exposed rock units therefore provide the possibility to study processes of mountain building that are often inaccessible in more modern orogens, and represent the targets for the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides deep drilling project (COSC-1). The main target of COSC-1 was the high grade Seve nappe complex. Temperature estimates indicate granulite facies conditions at the top of this nappe, grading to lower amphibolitic conditions downwards through the nappe. Discovery of micro-diamond included in garnets from the nearby Åreskutan mountain hints at an ultra-high pressure origin in parts of the Seve nappe complex. The COSC-1 deep drilling project presents a unique opportunity to study the laboratory physical properties of a 2.5 km drill core, which can be correlated to downhole logging measurements and for the interpretation of surface geophysical experiments. In a joint effort that comprises five laboratories, the physical properties the COSC drill core are investigated. Measurement schemes and preliminary results from this cooperative effort are presented. The physical properties suite of measurements on the core includes (i) density, (ii) porosity, (iii) ultrasonic wave velocity and anisotropy at elevated confining pressure, (iv) seismic attenuation and (v) permeability (and anisotropy of permeability). Mechanical properties include uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength at different confining pressures, and subsequent calculation of internal and residual friction angles. The joint investigations will also serve to cross-validate and calibrate different laboratory techniques that are used to measure physical properties. The rock units

  15. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by investigating three…

  16. 76 FR 50186 - Surplus Properties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Notice published in the Federal Register on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39680). DATES: Effective August 12... Department of the Army Surplus Properties AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This amended notice provides information regarding the properties that have been determined surplus to...

  17. Property attribution in combined concepts.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Thomas L; Gagné, Christina L

    2015-05-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns (baby ducks have webbed feet) is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns (ducks have webbed feet). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit properties from their constituent concepts. Experiments 1 and 2 replicate this effect and demonstrate a reversed modification effect with false properties. That is, false properties are judged more likely with modification (e.g., purple candles have teeth is judged more likely than candles have teeth). These experiments also show that properties that are neither generically true nor false are unaffected by modification. Experiments 3 and 4 manipulate participants' expectation of contrast by showing modified and unmodified nouns that either match or mismatch in terms of a property and show that the judged likelihood of properties depends on the expectations of contrast set up by the manipulation. These results show that the modification effect is primarily driven by participants' understanding of the relation of subcategories to categories, rather than by the features of the concepts being combined, suggesting that the process of property attribution in combined concepts is strongly affected by pragmatic factors and is less strongly dependent on conceptual content than most theories of conceptual combination would suggest. PMID:25419816

  18. Outstanding properties of bistochastic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugia, O.; Wolfowicz, W.

    1981-10-01

    The statistical properties of many devices used in communication systems, such as scramblers and line coding and decoding devices, are described by mathematical models in which the transition probability matrix is bistochastic. To facilitate the analysis of systems response, the specific properties of the bistochastic matrices are described in six theorems which are demonstrated.

  19. Unintended Consequences of Property Revaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; Luce, Judith A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines a school district's experience with property revaluation that produced a 33 percent increase in the school taxes of some residential property owners. When small segments of different municipalities comprise the same school district, revaluation may shift the local tax burden. District administrators should prepare for potential changes.…

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  1. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  2. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Lukashenko, G.M.; Polotskaya, R.I.

    1986-11-01

    The authors determine the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, formation heat, and other thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide by measuring the electromotive force in the 830-960 K temperature range in electrolytes consisting of molten tin and various chlorides. The relationship of these properties to crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  3. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  4. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  5. Annealing properties of rice starch.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of starch can be modified by annealing, i.e., a pre-treatment in excessive amounts of water at temperatures below the gelatinization temperatures. This treatment is known to improve the crystalline properties, and is a useful tool to gain a better control of the functional proper...

  6. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  7. The Structures & Properties of Carbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellini, Olivia M.; Lisensky, George C.; Ehrlich, Jennifer; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    The four main forms of carbon--diamond, graphite, buckyballs, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--are an excellent vehicle for teaching fundamental principles of chemical bonding, material structure, and properties. Carbon atoms form a variety of structures that are intrinsically connected to the properties they exhibit. Educators can take advantage of…

  8. Nonlinear Electrostatic Properties of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to study the induction charging and charge decay characteristics of small dielectric particles, or glass beads. Initially, the goal of the experiment was further understanding of induction charging of lunar dust particles. However, the mechanism of charging became a point of greater interest as the project continued. Within an environmentally-controlled acrylic glove box was placed a large parallel plate capacitor at high-voltage (HV) power supply with reversible polarity. Spherical 1-mm and 0.5-mm glass beads, singly, were placed between the plates, and their behaviors recorded on video and quantified. Nearly a hundred trials at various humidities were performed. The analysis of the results indicated a non-linear relationship between humidity and particle charge exchange time (CET), for both sizes of beads. Further, a difference in CET for top-resting beads and bottom-resting beads hinted at a different charging mechanism than that of simple induction. Results from the I-mm bead trials were presented at several space science and physics conferences in 2008 and 2009, and were published as a Master's thesis in August 2009. Tangential work stemming from this project resulted in presentations at other international conferences in 2010, and selection to attend workshop on granular matter flow 2011.

  9. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  10. Altered motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients: a hint at crossmodal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Langguth, Berthold; Eichhammer, Peter; Zowe, Marc; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jacob, Peter; Binder, Harald; Sand, Philipp; Hajak, Göran

    2005-06-01

    Idiopathic tinnitus is a frequent and often debilitating auditory phantom perception of largely unknown pathological conditions. In electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies, affected subjects have shown excessive spontaneous activity in the central auditory system. To further investigate the underlying central nervous component, we assessed motor cortex excitability in 19 patients with chronic tinnitus by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When results were compared with data from 19 healthy controls matched for age and sex, we found significantly enhanced intracortical facilitation in tinnitus patients. These findings parallel excitability changes after limb amputation and experimental deafferentation. Our results give further support to crossmodal interactions involving neuroplastic changes in some forms of tinnitus and may help to better understand mechanisms of maladaptive cortical reorganisation involved in phantom perceptions. PMID:15862911

  11. Some Biological Hints on the Control of Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    This review paper explores the possibilities of the control of heat and mass transfer associated with drought tolerance and freeze tolerance. The accumulation of some metabolites, such as proline and trehalose, are effective for drought tolerance. The special microstructures on the surfaces of some plants and insects in deserts are effective for collecting moisture in the air. Methods of preserving crops will be improved by the mimetic of the drought tolerance. Calcium ions and a protein are effective for the retrieval of damaged cell membrane due to ice formation. Ice crystal growth is inhibited by some substances such as antifreeze proteins. The cryopreservation of foods and organs will be improved by the mimetic of the freeze tolerance.

  12. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  13. Insights into the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes: a hint for novel immunospecific therapies.

    PubMed

    Casares, S; Brumeanu, T D

    2001-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an organ-specific autoimmune disease whose incidence is increasing worldwide. At present, there is no effective therapy to prevent or cure this disease. The genetic background (MHC and non-MHC genes) and environmental factors (pathogens, drugs, and diet) are critical for the initiation of the autoimmune response against the pancreatic beta-cells. Recognition of the pancreatic autoantigens by T cells in a predetermined environment of antigen-presenting cells, costimulation, and cytokines is crucial for the selective activation of diabetogenic or protective/regulatory T cells. Once the autoimmune process is triggered, epitope spreading and sustaining the autoimmune responses by continuous antigen stimulation leads to expansion of effector cells, which launch the attack on the beta-cells. Despite of some controversy, most of the studies in humans and animal models suggest that CD4 (Th1) T cells are directly involved in the autoimmune attack by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by Th2 cells is protective against the disease. Therapy with peptides derived from major target antigens, such as glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 or proinsulin, can prevent the disease in animal models by rising protective Th2 cells. Herein, we review the recent progress in the immunopathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes and insights into the development of new diagnostic tools and antigen-specific immunomodulators, such as MHC-peptide chimeras. PMID:11899083

  14. GRB spectra in the MeV range: hints from INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Denis, Miroslaw; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Goldoni, Paolo; Laurent, Philip; Osuch, Lukasz

    2007-07-12

    INTEGRAL detects a large number of gamma-ray bursts outside of its field of view with the SPI ACS. Several of these bursts are also detected by IBIS. We present the results of the spectral analysis using the ISRGI, PICSIT and Compton mode data of several bursts. These bursts show very hard spectra with the high energy index reaching -2 above 1 MeV We show that there is a group of bursts with the peak energy Epeak in the MeV range. We discuss the implications of these findings for GLAST.

  15. New continuous Stern-Gerlach effect and a hint of ``the'' elementary particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmelt, H.

    1988-06-01

    First a Stern-Gerlach type experiment on a beam of electrons similar to Brillouin's 1927 proposal is discussed and shown to be feasible contrary to claims in the literature. Then the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect for an individual electron in classical oscillatory motion along the axis of a Penning trap is introduced. The analogy is developed between the classic Stern-Gerlach effect and the continuous one, in which a magnetic bottle replaces the constant field gradient and the place of the glass plate collecting the silver atoms is taken by a meter measuring the frequency of the axial oscillation. Quantum jumps observed with this apparatus in 1977 are exhibited, demonstrating the requirement of a finite time for collapse of the wave function, and the work has been recognized as an early quantum-non-demolition experiment. A plot of measured g-factors vs normalized radius for triton, proton, and electron suggests a new, 104× smaller value for the electron radius, when our electron g-value determined by magnetic resonance and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used. The plot further suggests a progression of ever smaller and heavier fermions until “the” elementary particle, the “cosmon”, is reached. It was formed, when in a random quantum jump the metastable vacuum dissociated into a lone “cosmon/anticosmon” pair, whose subsequent rapid breakup initiated the Big Bang.

  16. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J.L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10−4M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species. PMID:26997665

  17. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  18. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  19. Light hydrocarbons in hydrothermal and magmatic fumaroles: hints of catalytic and thermal reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Martini, Marino; Mangani, Filippo

    1995-02-01

    Volcanic gaseous mixtures emitted from active volcanoes frequently show variable amounts of saturated (alkanes), unsaturated (alkenes) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons. Three major patterns of distributions can be recognized, apparently related to the chemical-physical environment of formation of the gas exhalations: alkane-rich, low-temperature gas emissions from recently active volcanic areas; aromatic-rich hydrothermal manifestations; and alkene-rich, ‘magmatic’ fumaroles on active volcanoes. Thermodynamic data, together with theoretical and practical findings from the petroleum industry, point to two main types of reactions occurring in these volcanic environments: cracking and reforming. Cracking processes, mainly caused by thermal effects, occur when hydrocarbon-bearing hydrothermal fluids enter and mix with a hot and dry, rapidly rising magmatic gas phase. The most probable products are light alkenes with carbon numbers decreasing with increasing reaction temperatures. The presence of aromatic species in hydrothermal fluids can be linked to reforming processes, catalysed by several possible agents, such as smectites and zeolites, generally present in the hydrothermally altered volcanic terranes, and facilitated by long residence times in a hydrothermal envelope.

  20. Bathymetric and Seismic-Reflection Profiles Hint at the Origins of Medicine Lake, CA (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Barth, G. A.; Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.; Donnelly-Nolan, J.; Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Phillips, R. L.; Starratt, S. W.; Barron, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Bathymetric and acoustic surveys (in 1999), combined with vibracore sampling of lake-bottom sediments (in 2000) reveal much about the latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of Medicine Lake, a 2 km x 1 km, closed-basin lake at the top of Medicine Lake volcano, 40 km SW of Tulelake, CA. Forty high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles show a prominent reflector interpreted as the volcanic landform (primarily lavas) that would have existed prior to lake formation. A total of 1560 travel-time picks for this reflector reveal the topography of the lake basement. A representative seismic velocity through the sedimentary lake fill is estimated to be 2200 +/- 200m/s based on quantitative analysis of diffraction hyperbolae observed in this single-channel data set. Converting travel-time picks with this interval velocity, volcanic "bedrock" lies between ~ 5 and 85 m below the lake surface (currently 2036 masl) and 1 to 60 m beneath the lake floor. The topography of the horizon is a linear trough with a 70° trend, slightly askew of the 100° trend of the lake itself. The trough is filled partially with 30 x 106 m3 of material, about 2 times that of the lake volume itself. Over 90% of this lake-basin fill is presumed to be locally derived glacial till and landslide deposits; it is very poorly bedded, and contain numerous slumps. It is thickest at the middle of the trough, adjacent to a prominent landslide and crudely defined glacial cirques and fill deposits off of Medicine Mountain, to the south. The top 1-2 m of lake-fill is Holocene sediments, consisting primarily of organic diatomaceous debris interlayered with thin beds of tephra from Medicine Lake volcano, Mazama and (likely) Mt. Shasta. The lake-bottom bathymetry (water-sediment interface) shows a circular hole at the east end of the lake. The hole appears to be part of the larger trough, but has not yet been filled with sediment/landslide deposits. There is no evidence for creation of the hole through venting or explosive excavation. We speculate that the trough (and hole) result from non-coalescence of adjacent, steep-sided lava flows. The lake is bordered primarily by two late Pleistocene lavas, the ~ 90 ka Lake Basalt and the slightly older andesite of the south rim. To the east of Medicine Lake, these two lavas are separated by a 10- to 20- m-wide valley that appears to have served as an outlet for Medicine Lake during periods where the lake level was 5-10 m higher. A possible explanation for the origin of this valley and the trough within Medicine Lake is that these areas were filled with glacial ice at the time of eruption of the Lake Basalt. The ice would have prevented the Lake Basalt from directly contacting the older andesite. The ice has been absent during the Holocene and the resulting basin has filled with till, landslide deposits, tephra, diatomaceous sediments and Medicine Lake itself.

  1. How to Get on the 6 O'Clock News, amd Other Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions from college public relations directors on promoting expert faculty members in the media include: knowing the needs and formats of various media, campus reporters, op-ed articles, a weekly tip sheet for reporters containing story ideas and faculty contacts for them, a media directory, and sending alumni publications to the media. (MSE)

  2. Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 μM) and high (100 μM) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition. PMID:24074147

  3. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  4. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  5. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: a hint for structural control on the rupture process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, R.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Ito, Y.; Piatanesi, A.; Zhao, D.; Lanucara, P.; Hirata, K.; Cocco, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, due to the exceptional amount of data and the unexpected rupture features characterizing this event, represents a great opportunity for the scientific community to better understand the physical processes underlying the genesis of mega-thrust earthquakes and try to provide future guidelines useful for mitigate the tsunami risk. Actually, this event has been extensively studied by using an unprecedented collection of high-quality geophysical data. In particular, different source models have been published by modeling seismological, geodetic and tsunami data with a resulting general agreement about the main features of the rupture process (a patch of nearly 50 meters of slip located around and up-dip from the hypocenter), while the slip pattern at shallow depths near the trench exhibits some variability among these models, likely due to the different resolving power of distinct data sets and to the adopted fault geometry. However, these features, particularly the very concentrated rupture area (with respect to the magnitude 9) and the very high slip in a zone typically considered aseismic, due to their unexpected nature are still under investigation. Here we use a 3-D structural model to account for the effects of both the geometrical variations of the plate interface and the elastic contrasts between the subducting plate and the continental lithosphere, within a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model of the Tohoku-oki area. We infer the slip distribution of the 2011 earthquake by performing a joint inversion of geodetic (GPS and seafloor observations) and tsunami (ocean bottom pressure sensors, DART and GPS buoys) data. We find a pattern of slip mainly extending up-dip from the hypocenter and reaching the trench, with maximum slip of about 52 meters. We observe that the resulting rupture image of the Tohoku event exhibits a striking correlation with the distribution of lateral heterogeneities in seismic wave velocities around the plate interface. We then speculate on the causes of a possible structural control on the rupture propagation and arrest, which might have relevant implications in terms of earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment in this region.

  6. IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Kang, Sin Kyu; Serpico, Pasquale Dario E-mail: neutrino.skk@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events—even if astrophysical in origin—an important tool for astroparticle physics studies.

  7. Hints at the Onset of Strong Interactions in the Higgs Sector of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesselmann, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop corrections to a couple of processes which involve the Higgs boson, H, and longitudinally polarized gauge bosons, W_sp{L} {+/-}, Z_{L}, as a perturbation series in the quartic Higgs coupling lambda. In particular, we study the two-body scattering of the channels W_sp{L} {+}W_sp{L}{-}, Z_ {L}Z_{L}, HH and HZ _{L}, and examine the fermionic decay H to f| f. Both processes display a breakdown of the perturbation series in lambda, indicating the onset of strong interactions. The results are used to obtain upper limits on the mass M _{H} of a weakly interacting Higgs boson. The 2 to 2 processes involving W_sp{L}{+/-}, Z _{L}, H are calculated in the high -energy heavy-Higgs limit sqrt{s} gg M_{H} gg M_{W} using the equivalence theorem. Introducing the running Higgs coupling lambda_ {s}(s, M_{H}), the two -loop amplitudes are re-written as to satisfy the renormalization group equation. Using an Argand diagram analysis, we find that the perturbative eigen-amplitudes are approximately unitary for lambda_{s} _sp{~}{<} 2.3. For larger values, the perturbation series is not converging towards its unitary value. Assuming that the Standard Model is the correct theory to describe longitudinal gauge boson scattering up to energies of 5 TeV (10 ^{16} GeV), the bound lambda_{s} _sp{ ~}{<} 2.3 translates into an upper bound M_{H} _sp{~}{<} 380 (155) GeV for a weakly interacting Higgs boson. For larger M_{H}, the scattering amplitudes need to be unitarized in a phenomenological manner. We inspect the K-matrix and the Pade-resummation methods for unitarizing the two-loop amplitudes, and conclude that the Pade method is preferable. The decay H to f| f is calculated to two loops in lambda , again using the equivalence theorem. To one-loop we include the Yukawa couplings and show explicitly the validity of the equivalence-theorem approximation for the process H to t| t. We find that our result reproduces the full electroweak result reported by other authors to better than 97% for M_{H} >= 500 GeV. Neglecting the Yukawa couplings, we carry out a consistent two-loop calculation of the O( lambda^2) corrections. We find that the two-loop correction is in magnitude larger than the one-loop correction for M_{H} > 375 GeV, indicating the breakdown of the perturbation series in lambda. The derivation of this result is independent of any assumptions about the energy up to which the Standard Model is supposed to be valid, a completely new feature in the context of perturbative limits on the Higgs mass.

  8. Improving HIV coreceptor usage prediction in the clinic using hints from next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Due to the high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drug-resistant-variants emerge frequently. Therefore, researchers are constantly searching for new ways to attack the virus. One new class of anti-HIV drugs is the class of coreceptor antagonists that block cell entry by occupying a coreceptor on CD4 cells. This type of drug just has an effect on the subset of HIVs that use the inhibited coreceptor. A good prediction of whether the viral population inside a patient is susceptible to the treatment is hence very important for therapy decisions and pre-requisite to administering the respective drug. The first prediction models were based on data from Sanger sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV. Recently, a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was introduced that predicts labels for each read separately and decides on the patient label through a percentage threshold for the resistant viral minority. Results: We model the prediction problem on the patient level taking the information of all reads from NGS data jointly into account. This enables us to improve prediction performance for NGS data, but we can also use the trained model to improve predictions based on Sanger sequencing data. Therefore, also laboratories without NGS capabilities can benefit from the improvements. Furthermore, we show which amino acids at which position are important for prediction success, giving clues on how the interaction mechanism between the V3 loop and the particular coreceptors might be influenced. Availability: A webserver is available at http://coreceptor.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de. Contact: nico.pfeifer@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:22962486

  9. "Spring break" of Dissolved Organic Matter above the Arctic Circle: New Hints on Source and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teisserenc, R.; Myers-Pigg, A.; Louchouarn, P.; Gandois, L.; Tananaev, N.; Le Dantec, T.; Gascoin, S.; Probst, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean, on a volume basis, receives the largest input of terrestrial organic matter of all ocean basins. These inputs come from the most important stock of soil organic carbon (OC) on Earth, estimated around 1700 Pg OC, which is well preserved in permafrost (from patchy to continuous). Arctic watersheds are experiencing unprecedented climate warming, and future warming is projected to be stronger at high latitudes. As a result, we can expect an increase in active layer depth and a decrease of permafrost extent in the near future. These shifts will affect the riverine contributions of terrestrial organic matter to the coastal and oceanic carbon pools. Until recently, few data existed about dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes in Siberian rivers, particularly during the spring freshet. Further, there is still a dearth of information about the source and degradation state of this DOC in Arctic rivers through their hydrographs. To address this issue, we intensively sampled two spring flood periods in a small Canadian river (Great Whale river) and the largest Arctic river (Yenisei) at their outlet in order to get information on the source and state ("freshness") of mobilized DOC during these active flood periods. Combining geographical information data (GIS) and biogeochemical analysis (elemental, isotopic and molecular) we were able to discern dynamic ecosystem linkages. DOC concentration increased 4-9 fold in each river from low flow to peak flow. Molecular characteristics of this DOC are extremely variable during the flood event, ranging from old, altered DOC to fresh, labile DOC. We observed a partition of this quality between DOC and POC, with fresher DOC coming mostly from the leaching of softwoods during peak flow. Snow cover is variable along the period with snow-free area of the watershed imparting the greatest influence on DOC composition within the river. These results confirm that DOC dynamics during the spring flood are complex and much different than during low flow conditions. As export of DOC in this period can reach up to 80% of annual DOC export, measurements acquired during this study will bring crucial information on not only watershed-aquatic system linkages, but also on global carbon cycling.

  10. Hints of a Rotating Spiral Structure in the Innermost Regions around IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules toward the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08 {M}⊙ . Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in structures similar to those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ˜1.1 × 10-4 {M}⊙ . In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species.

  11. Origin of the universe: A hint from Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan

    2014-09-01

    We study the `initial state' of an anisotropic universe in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity filled with a scalar field, whose potential has various forms. With this purpose, the evolution of a spatially-flat, homogeneous, anisotropic Kasner universe is studied. We find an exact evolution of the universe for each scalar potential by imposing a maximal pressure condition. The solution is shown to describe the initial state of the universe. The state is regular if the scalar potential does not increase faster than the quadratic power for large-field values. We also show that the anisotropy does not raise any defect in the early universe, contrary to the case of general relativity.

  12. Geoepidemiological hints about Streptococcus pyogenes strains in relationship with acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Fastiggi, Michele; Fumagalli, Monica; Andreozzi, Laura; Rigante, Donato

    2015-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains are lately classified on the basis of sequence variations in the emm gene encoding the M protein, but despite the high number of distinct emm genotypes, the spectrum of phenotypes varying from invasive suppurative to non-suppurative GAS-related disorders has still to be defined. The relationship of GAS types with the uprising of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a multisystemic disease caused by misdirected anti-GAS response in predisposed people, is also obscure. Studies published over the last 15 years were retrieved from PubMed using the keywords: "Streptococcus pyogenes" or "group A Streptococcus" and "acute rheumatic fever": the prevalence of peculiar emm types across different countries of the world is highly variable, depending on research designs, year of observation, country involved, patients' age, and gender. Most studies revealed that a relatively small number of specific emm/M protein types can be considered "rheumatogenic", as potentially characterized by the possibility of inducing ARF, with remarkable differences between developing and developed countries. The association between emm types and post-streptococcal manifestations is challenging, however surveillance of disease-causing variants in a specific community with high rate of ARF should be reinforced with the final goal of developing a potential primary prophylaxis against GAS infections. PMID:25772310

  13. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  14. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda. PMID:27117711

  15. Bird Flight: Hints to Be Obtained from It for Use in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan,

    1923-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive study of birds and how their shapes have been molded by the resistance of the air. 500 species of birds were studied and nearly 30,000 ratios calculated. The author makes a distinction between flapping and soaring flight.

  16. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctor Join eNewsletter Log in Login to your account Don't have an account yet? Register now! ... Forgot your password? Forgot your username? Create an account Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required. Name * ...

  17. RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF 47 TUCANAE AND {omega} CENTAURI: HINTS FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-03-10

    We present results of deep radio continuum observations of two galactic globular clusters 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) and {omega} Centauri ({omega} Cen) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. No statistically significant evidence for radio emission was found from the central region for the two clusters. However, both clusters show a 2.5{sigma} detection near the center that may be confirmed by future deeper radio observations. The 3{sigma} upper limits of the radio observations are 20 and 40 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} for {omega} Cen and 47 Tuc, respectively. By using the fundamental plane of accreting black holes, which describes the relationship between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass, we constrain the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the globualar clusters. We also compare our results with other globular clusters and discuss the existence of IMBHs in globular clusters.

  18. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous environments persisted in the near-subsurface for hundreds of millions of years and might exist even today. Studies of Mars-analog environments must better understand subsurface nonphotosynthetic ecosystems and their biosignatures in mafic and ultramafic terranes. Studies must determine minimum needs for water activity and energy and also establish survival limits when conditions that support active metabolism and propagation become progressively less frequent over time.

  19. Advice and Hints in Training the Mentally Handicapped to Drive Electric Wheelchairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birath, Gunnar

    The booklet is intended to help train people with mild mental retardation to drive electric wheelchairs. The systematic training incorporates features of adequate time, stress upon generalization, and a relaxed and secure environment. Lessons are presented on the following skill areas: preparation, starting and stopping, driving straight ahead,…

  20. Deep Onshore Crustal Structure of Chicxulub Impact Crater Hinted From Mt Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzate, J. A.; Campos-Enríquez, J. O.

    This detailed MT study provides information about the deep continental structure of the Chicxulub impact crater (Yucatan, Mexico). In particular MT images of the elec- trical resistivity distribution along three radial profiles confirm the presence of shallow high resistive material at the crater center. Over this resitive high the MT soundings are featured by a sharper rise in resistivity related to the basement. This uplifted base- ment material coincides with the central structural high inferred in previous gravity, magnetic and MT studies. The top to the uplifted material is about 5 km in agreement with a recent seismic study. Its diameter is about 40 km and according to our images the basement material has been uplifted from a depth of about 10 km. The cenotes ring mark the rim of a deep basin featured by low resistivities. These low resistivities are interpreted as due to the fluids filling and interconecting the fractures of this portion.