Saha, Himadri; Saha, Ratan K; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Kumar, Pankaj
2013-10-01
In Labeo rohita, myxozoan infection is very common and here occurrence and distribution of myxozoan gill parasites were studied with an objective to evaluate the relationship between myxozoan infections with different abiotic factors. All ponds were infected with myxozoan infection. Sampling of water and fish was done fortnightly and soil sample on monthly basis for about 6 months. L. rohita is infected with the one myxozoan species Thelohanellus rohita. The first, second and third gill arches showed higher distribution of myxozoans than the fourth one. Posterior hemibranch of second gill arch was the most preferred site for parasite attachment. The mean intensity of parasite was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the size class of 8-9 cm in comparison to the other size classes. There were profound variability in the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of gill myxosoporeans from three ponds. During the start of the sampling, myxozoans were present in all the ponds but their intensity varied in different ponds. These may be due to the variability in the abiotic factors of individual ponds. Most importantly acidic pH, lower DO and higher temperature promote myxozoan infestation and their propagation. Low soil pH is also seen to enhance their propagation. Our data clearly highlighted that prevalence, intensity and abundance of T. rohita strongly influenced by the above environmental parameters and suggested that its life cycle is probably effected by their change; our hypothesis must be regarded as speculative as long as further detail study is not carried out. PMID:24431581
Expressed sequences and polymorphisms in rohu carp (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) revealed by mRNA-seq.
Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, Pramoda K; Baranski, Matthew; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra N; Das, Sweta; Mishra, Yashowant; Das, Paramanandra; Barman, Hirak K; Eknath, Ambekar E
2012-10-01
Expressed genes and polymorphisms were identified in lines of rohu Labeo rohita selected for resistance or susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila, an important bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis. All animals were grown in a common environment and RNA from ten individuals from each line pooled for Illumina mRNA-seq. De novo transcriptome assembly produced 137,629 contigs with 40× average coverage.Forty-four percent of the assembled sequences were annotated with gene names and ontology terms. Of these, 3,419 were assigned biological process terms related to "stress response" and 1,939 "immune system". Twenty-six contigs containing 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to map to the Cyprinus carpio mitochondrial genome and over 26,000 putative SNPs and 1,700 microsatellite loci were detected. Seventeen percent of the 100 transcripts with coverage data most indicative of higher-fold expression(>5.6 fold) in the resistant line pool showed homology to major histocompatibility (MH), heat shock proteins (HSP)30, 70 and 90, glycoproteins or serum lectin genes with putative functions affecting immune response. Forty-one percent of these 100 transcripts showed no or low homology to known genes. Of the SNPs identified, 96 showing the highest allele frequency differences between susceptible and resistant line fish included transcripts with homology to MH class I and galactoside-binding soluble lectin, also with putative functions affecting innate and acquired immune response. A comprehensive sequence resource for L. rohita, including annotated microsatellites and SNPs from a mixture of A. hydrophila-susceptible and -resistant individuals, was created for subsequent experiments aiming to identify genes associated with A. hydrophila resistance. PMID:22298294
Acute and subchronic toxicity of aflatoxin B1 to rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).
Sahoo, P K; Mukherjee, S C; Nayak, S K; Dey, S
2001-05-01
Pathological alterations in various organs of rohu (L. rohita) fingerlings following acute (0, 7.50, 11.25 and 13.75 mg/kg body weight) and subchronic (0, 1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg body weight) single i.p. aflatoxin B1 exposure for 10 and 90 days, respectively, were investigated. Mortality (dose-dependent) was marked only during acute toxicosis. The changes observed in various organs were dose and time dependent. The acute dose groups revealed toxic changes viz., necrotic and vascular changes in liver and gill lamellae; meningitis, congestion in brain, degeneration and inflammatory reaction in heart along with degenerative to necrotic changes in kidney tubules and sloughing of the intestinal mucosa. During subchronic exposure to this toxin, preneoplastic lesions in liver along with changes in spleen, intestine, gill and pancreas were recorded. With low doses of aflatoxin, the fish did not reveal any mortality or external signs other than catchexia and increased pigmentation on scales. In composite culture practice of Indian major carps, this could be of economic significance. PMID:11510129
Sahu, Dinesh K; Panda, Soumya P; Panda, Sujata; Das, Paramananda; Meher, Prem K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang J; Eknath, Ambekar E; Nandi, Samiran
2013-07-15
Labeo rohita (Ham.) also called rohu is the most important freshwater aquaculture species on the Indian sub continent. Monsoon dependent breeding restricts its seed production beyond season indicating a strong genetic control about which very limited information is available. Additionally, few genomic resources are publicly available for this species. Here we sought to identify reproduction-relevant genes from normalized cDNA libraries of the brain-pituitary-gonad-liver (BPGL-axis) tissues of adult L. rohita collected during post preparatory phase. 6161 random clones sequenced (Sanger-based) from these libraries produced 4642 (75.34%) high-quality sequences. They were assembled into 3631 (78.22%) unique sequences composed of 709 contigs and 2922 singletons. A total of 182 unique sequences were found to be associated with reproduction-related genes, mainly under the GO term categories of reproduction, neuro-peptide hormone activity, hormone and receptor binding, receptor activity, signal transduction, embryonic development, cell-cell signaling, cell death and anti-apoptosis process. Several important reproduction-related genes reported here for the first time in L. rohita are zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, aquaporin-12, spermine oxidase, sperm associated antigen 7, testis expressed 261, progesterone receptor membrane component, Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of 8 known and 8 unknown transcripts during preparatory and post-spawning phase showed increased expression level of most of the transcripts during preparatory phase (except Neuropeptide Y) in comparison to post-spawning phase indicating possible roles in initiation of gonad maturation. Expression of unknown transcripts was also found in prolific breeder common carp and tilapia, but levels of expression were much higher in seasonal breeder rohu. 3631 unique sequences contained 236 (6.49%) putative microsatellites with the AG (28.16%) repeat as the most
Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti
2016-08-01
In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection. PMID:27330981
Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Dalvi, R; Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S C
2008-09-01
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the immuno-protective effect of microbial levan on Labeo rohita juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Six purified diets were prepared with different levels of microbial levan: control (no levan), T1 (Basal + 0.25%), T2 (Basal + 0.50%), T3 (Basal + 0.75%), T4 (Basal + 1%) and T5 (Basal + 1.25%), fed to six groups of fish in triplicate. Among the treatment groups the haemoglobin content and total leucocyte count were increased with a dietary supplementation of levan at 1% or more. An increasing trend for total erythrocyte count was observed with increasing level of dietary levan. Lower levan-supplemented groups showed a higher albumin/globulin ratio. As the levan supplementation was increased, there was a gradual increase in serum lysozyme activity and respiratory burst activity [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay] reduction values. The highest lysozyme activity and NBT were observed in the T5 group although this was similar to the T4 group (P > 0.05). No significant histo-architectural changes were associated with dietary levan levels. After challenge with A. hydrophila, moderately degenerated hepatocytes, oedema and leucocytic infiltration in parenchymatous tissues, and extensive haemorrhage and haemosiderosis in the kidney were observed in the control group. However, the T5 group supplemented with 1.25% levan showed infiltrating leucocytes in the liver while the kidney showed only moderate degeneration of renal tubules. The relative survival per cent of juveniles after challenge with A. hydrophila was the highest in the T5 group followed by T4. This suggests that microbial levan at 1.25% can be used as dietary immunostimulant for L. rohita juveniles. PMID:18786027
Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran
2015-01-01
Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16 GB, 72 bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098
Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran
2015-01-01
Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang
2016-07-01
The present study evaluated the effects of exposure (28 days) to a sub-lethal concentration of cadmium (Cd) (0.65 mg CdCl2 L(-1)) on the immune responses and expression of immune-related and heat shock protein (HSP) genes in Labeo rohita, an important aquacultured fish species. Among the immune parameters studied, significantly lower lysozyme activity was observed in fish 28 days post-exposure (dpe) to Cd as compared to control fish. Alternative complement pathway activity was slightly higher in the Cd-exposed group at 2 dpe than in controls, and this activity declined gradually thereafter. The phagocytic activity and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were insignificantly lower in the Cd-exposed group at all assessed time points than in controls. Among serum enzymatic activities, peroxidase activity was always higher in the Cd-exposed group than in controls, but the increase was insignificant at all assessed time points. Additionally, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the Cd-exposed group at 14 and 28 dpe. Immune and HSP gene expression patterns were observed in kidney and liver tissues, respectively, by RT-PCR, and HSPs were further analysed by immunoblotting. Cd had an immunosuppressive effect, leading to down-regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and IFN-γ. However, Cd exposure led to the up-regulation of HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSP78, and HSP90, indicating Cd-induced cellular stress. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the immunotoxic effect of Cd. Cd exposure makes Labeo rohita immunocompromised, and this could subsequently increase the disease susceptibility of Labeo rohita. PMID:26994673
2014-01-01
Background Production of carp dominates world aquaculture. More than 1.1 million tonnes of rohu carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), were produced in 2010. Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen causing aeromoniasis in rohu, and is a major problem for carp production worldwide. There is a need to better understand the genetic mechanisms affecting resistance to this disease, and to develop tools that can be used with selective breeding to improve resistance. Here we use a 6 K SNP array to genotype 21 full-sibling families of L. rohita that were experimentally challenged intra-peritoneally with a virulent strain of A. hydrophila to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci associated with disease resistance. Results In all, 3193 SNPs were found to be informative and were used to create a linkage map and to scan for QTL affecting resistance to A. hydrophila. The linkage map consisted of 25 linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid chromosomes in L. rohita. Male and female linkage maps were similar in terms of order, coverage (1384 and 1393 cM, respectively) and average interval distances (1.32 and 1.35 cM, respectively). Forty-one percent of the SNPs were annotated with gene identity using BLAST (cut off E-score of 0.001). Twenty-one SNPs mapping to ten linkage groups showed significant associations with the traits hours of survival and dead or alive (P <0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Of the SNPs showing significant or suggestive associations with the traits, several were homologous to genes of known immune function or were in close linkage to such genes. Genes of interest included heat shock proteins (70, 60, 105 and “small heat shock proteins”), mucin (5b precursor and 2), lectin (receptor and CD22), tributyltin-binding protein, major histocompatibility loci (I and II), complement protein component c7-1, perforin 1, ubiquitin (ligase, factor e4b isoform 2 and conjugation enzyme e2 c), proteasome subunit, T-cell antigen receptor and
Ultrastructural alterations in the gills of Labeo rohita fingerlings exposed to thermal extremes.
Das, T; Sahu, N P; Chakraborty, S K; Chatterjee, N; Mohammed, M S; Dalvi, R S; Baruah, K; Pal, A K
2014-02-01
This study aimed to determine the cellular alterations in the gill of Labeo rohita exposed to lethal temperature maxima (LTM ax ) and lethal temperature minima (LTM in ) by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Acclimation of advanced fingerlings of L. rohita was carried out at 26°C for 30 days. Acclimated fish were subjected to a constant rate of increase or decrease in temperature (0.3°C/min) until the LTM ax and LTM in values were reached. Dissected gills were processed for TEM, both at the end of acclimation period at ambient temperature (26°C) and at lethal temperatures. Results indicated that at ambient temperature, the gill tissues appeared normal. However, significant changes were observed at lethal temperatures. The gill tissues at lethal temperature maxima showed severely damaged lamellae, with more vacuolated space. At lethal temperature minima, gill tissues showed increased density of mitochondria. Our prima-facie report indicated that L. rohita exposed to lethal temperatures exhibited marked ultrastructural changes in the gills. PMID:23480531
Physiological responses of dietary tryptophan fed Labeo rohita to temperature and salinity stress.
Akhtar, M S; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Ciji, A; Meena, D K; Das, P
2013-12-01
Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the possible effects of dietary L-tryptophan (TRP) in Labeo rohita based on growth performance and physio-biochemical responses. In the experiment I, a 60-day feeding trial was carried out to elucidate the effects of dietary TRP enrichment on growth performance and physio-biochemical responses. In the experiment II, the TRP pre-fed L. rohita, from experiment I, was exposed to temperature and salinity stress to evaluate stress-mitigating efficacy of TRP. In L. rohita, dietary supplementation of TRP showed significant effect on weight gain percentage and feed conversion ratio but not on blood glucose. A significant increase in RNA content and RNA/DNA ratio upon TRP supplementation was observed and was positively correlated with growth performance. The results of experiment II indicated that weight gain percentage, serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly reduced in groups that were exposed to temperature and salinity stress and fed diets without TRP supplementation. However, dietary supplementation of TRP significantly augmented weight gain percentage in stress-exposed groups. Tryptophan supplementation helped in bringing back T3 and T4 levels comparable with control. A significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, Adenosine triphosphatase, blood glucose and serum cortisol was observed in temperature- and salinity-exposed groups fed without TRP-supplemented diets. However, TRP supplementation was found to be effective in restoring the above parameters. The results of these experiments suggest that dietary TRP supplementation augments growth, lowers energy demand and helps in mitigating thermal and salinity stress in L. rohita. PMID:23186225
Low-depth shotgun sequencing resolves complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Labeo rohita.
Das, Sofia P; Bit, Amrita; Patnaik, Siddhi; Sahoo, L; Meher, P K; Jayasankar, P; Saha, T M; Patel, A B; Patel, Namrata; Koringa, P; Joshi, C G; Agarwal, Suyash; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya; Kushwaha, B; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, N S; Iquebal, M A; Jaiswal, Sarika; Kumar, Dinesh; Jena, J K; Das, P
2016-09-01
Labeo rohita, popularly known as rohu, is a widely cultured species in whole Indian subcontinent. In the present study, we used in-silico approach to resolve complete mitochondrial genome of rohu. Low-depth shotgun sequencing using Roche 454 GS FLX (Branford, Connecticut, USA) followed by de novo assembly in CLC Genomics Workbench version 7.0.4 (Aarhus, Denmark) revealed the complete mitogenome of L. rohita to be 16 606 bp long (accession No. KR185963). It comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 putative control region. The gene order and organization are similar to most vertebrates. The mitogenome in the present investigation has 99% similarity with that of previously reported mitogenomes of rohu and this is also evident from the phylogenetic study using maximum-likelihood (ML) tree method. This study was done to determine the feasibility, accuracy and reliability of low-depth sequence data obtained from NGS platform as compared to the Sanger sequencing. Thus, NGS technology has proven to be competent and a rapid in-silico alternative to resolve the complete mitochondrial genome sequence, thereby reducing labors and time. PMID:26260184
Patil, S; Jain, A K
1989-01-01
Adrenaline was effective in aggregating the melanosomes both in innervated as well as denervated melanophores. Isotonic KCl could induce pigment aggregation only in innervated melanophores. Adrenaline- and K+-induced pigment aggregation response in these melanophores was blocked by phentolamine: propranolol failed to do so. It is suggested that the chromatic nerves in the fish, Labeo rohita are adrenergic and via post-synaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, control the melanosome aggregation. PMID:2550366
Rebello, Sanjay C; Rathore, Gaurav; Punia, Peyush; Sood, Neeraj
2016-05-01
In this study, we have described the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against thymocytes of rohu, Labeo rohita. MAbs were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with freshly isolated and nylon wool column enriched mononuclear cells of thymus. Positive clones against thymocytes were screened by cellular ELISA. The hybridoma showing strong reactivity with nylon wool enriched mononuclear cells, and non-reactivity with a rohu thymus macrophage cell line and rohu serum was selected and subjected to single cell cloning by limiting dilution. The MAbs secreted by a positive clone were designated as E6 MAb. Western blotting of reduced protein from enriched thymocytes showed that E6 reacted with a 166.2 kDa polypeptide and belongs to the IgG1 subclass. Flow cytometric analysis of gated lymphocytes, revealed that the percentage of E6 positive (E6+) cells in thymus (n = 5, 720.4 ± 79.70 g) was 89.7 %. Similarly, the percentage of E6+ cells in kidney, spleen and blood (n = 5) was 6.71, 1.71 and 1.88 %, respectively. In indirect immunoperoxidase test, E6+ cells appeared to be lymphoid cells with a high nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio and were densely packed in the central region of thymus whereas, a few cells were found to be positive in kidney and spleen sections. E6 MAb also reacted with a small population of lymphocytes in blood smear. This MAb appears to be a suitable marker for T lymphocytes and can be a valuable tool in studying immune response and ontogeny of L. rohita immune system. PMID:25749913
Dawar, Farman Ullah; Zuberi, Amina; Azizullah, Azizullah; Khan Khattak, Muhammad Nasir
2016-02-01
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub-lethal doses of Cypermethrin (CYP) on the survival and morphological and biochemical aspects of rohu (Labeo rohita) during early developmental stages. Newly fertilized eggs were incubated in the presence of sub-lethal concentration of CYP (20% of LC50 i.e., 8.43 μg L(-1)) in a well designed flow through system. Increased mortality was found with increase in exposure time. Deformities like eroded yolk and margins, elongated yolk sac, larvae with short tail, no eyes or larvae with zigzag movement and paralyzed larvae were observed in CYP treated group from blastula to fry stage. The activities of antioxidant like Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Lactoperoxidase (LPO) were decreased from 24 to 96 h in the control group whereas increased in CYP treated group. The Glutathione reducatse (GR) activity was also increased with time in both the control and treated groups; however, the activity was significantly higher in CYP treated group. Similarly, the whole body cortisol level showed an increasing trend with time in both control and treated groups. However, in CYP exposed group the cortisol level was considerably higher after 24 h exposure but statistically comparable to the control group after 96 h. It can be concluded from the present results that CYP even at very low concentration adversely affects the early development of L. rohita and enhances mortality. The obtained results reveal that CYP may affect the wild population of fish by inducing oxidative stress and modulating stress response during early ontogenesis. PMID:26408976
Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian
2015-08-01
Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974
Role of HSP70 in cytoplasm protection against thermal stress in rohu, Labeo rohita.
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V
2014-12-01
To understand the function of HSP70 of Labeo rohita (LrHSP70) in cellular protection, LrHSP70 ORF cDNA was inserted into the plasmid of pET-32a(+) or pEGFP-L1. Then, the recombinant plasmids were transformed or transfected into Escherichia coli cells, mouse myeloma cells (MPC-11) or fish hepatoma cells (PLHC-1). Western blot results revealed that LrHSP70 was expressed in E. coli cells and molecular weight was estimated to be 70 kDa. In cells, LrHSP70 was over-expressed following thermal or cold stress. Results revealed that LrHSP70 protected prokaryotic cells against thermal or cold extremes as well as played the same role in MPC-11 and PLHC-1 cells. After heat treatment at 42 °C for 1 h, the viability of the cell was declined considerably. PLHC-1 cells with pEGFP-L1/LrHSP70 exhibited a higher survival rate (50%) than wild-type cells (18%) or cells with only pEGFP-L1 (21.2%). When the time lag extended to 2 h, the survival rates were 30%, 3.4% and 5.3% respectively. The present study revealed that LrHSP70 plays an important role in response to thermal and cold stress in fish. PMID:25240978
Khare, Ankur; Dange, Swati
2014-01-01
The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem. PMID:25302308
2005-01-01
The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F−) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686
Balaswamy, K; Prabhakara Rao, P G; Rao, D G; Jyothirmayi, T
2010-03-01
In India, fish egg (roes) is the underutilized rich source of protein and essential fatty acids. An attempt was made to utilize the roes for the preparation of pickle product. Roes of rohu (Labeo rohita) were subjected to pretreatments such as pasteurization and blanching in varying molar concentrations of salt solutions to improve the texture and sensory quality. Losses in protein content and absorption of salt by roes were assessed in both pasteurized and blanched roes for processing them into roe pickle. The pasteurized roes were very soft coupled with high fishy odour. Roes blanched in 1M NaCl solution were found to be good in taste in terms of salt, minimum loss in protein content and reduced fishy odour. The blanched roes were used to prepare fish roe pickle. The pickle was analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, microbial and sensory quality during storage. The roe pickle packed in glass bottle was shelf-stable and scored good for sensory characteristics of flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability during a storage period of 6 months at room temperature (28 ± 2°C). PMID:23572628
Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan
2014-01-01
Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P<0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. PMID:24502533
Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish
2015-01-01
This study examined the impact of municipal wastewater on scale morphology of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6, or 35.4%) of municipal wastewater for durations of 15, 30, and 60 d. Recovery experiments were also performed for a duration of 60 d. Scales were extracted after respective exposure periods, cleaned, and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Results showed concentration- and exposure duration-dependent alterations in the morphology of scales. Severe damage was observed at the anterior and posterior portions of scales in the form of lepidontal breakage and uprooting, destructions at the base of circuli and radii along with complete structural loss in the focal region and adjacent circuli and radii, and alterations in structure of tubercles. Data indicate that scales of fish L. rohita may be employed as bioindicators of water pollution and could be incorporated into water monitoring surveillance. PMID:25734766
Role of Bacillus subtilis VSG4-derived biosurfactant in mediating immune responses in Labeo rohita.
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang
2016-07-01
This study aimed to isolate biosurfactant from CO2-sequestering Bacillus subtilis VSG4 and to evaluate its immunostimulatory effect in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the water-soluble fraction of purified biosurfactant at 50 (S50), 100 (S100), 200 (S200), or 300 (S300) μg mL(-1). Fish injected with PBS served as controls. Various immunological parameters, including immune-related gene expression, were measured at 14, 21, and 28 days post administration (dpa). At 28 dpa, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded up to 14 days. Among the immune parameters tested, lysozyme levels (36.32 ± 1.79 U mL(-1)), alternative complement pathway activity (76.26 ± 2.18 U mL(-1)), phagocytic activity (32.18 ± 0.67%), and serum bactericidal activity (73.2 ± 4.7%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the S200 group at 21 dpa than in the controls. Respiratory burst activity (0.386 ± 0.008 OD630nm) was the highest in the S200 group at 28 dpa. Of the immune-related genes examined, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were significantly down-regulated in the S200 and S300 groups. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) as well as IKB-α was higher (P < 0.05) in the S100‒S300 groups at 21 dpa. The expression of NF-κB p65, IKK-β, MAPKp38, and Myd88 was down-regulated in the treated groups when compared to the controls. Fish in the S200 group exhibited the highest post-challenge relative survival rate (67.88%). Collectively, these results suggest that secondary metabolite (biosurfactant) isolated from B. subtilis VSG4 at 200 μg mL(-1) can positively influence immune responses, enhance disease resistance, and stimulate immune-related gene expression in L. rohita. PMID:27079425
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajkumar, K. S.; Kanipandian, N.; Thirumurugan, R.
2016-01-01
The increasing use of nano based-products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using chemical reduction method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. UV-Vis range was observed at 420 nm and XRD pattern showed that the particles are crystalline nature. HRTEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 50 and 100 nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, L. rohita was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and muscle of L. rohita. The results of this investigation showed that increasing the concentration of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The haematological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by chemically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of L. rohita. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver and muscle when compared with untreated tissues (control) of L. rohita.
Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram
2015-06-01
We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3% oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754
Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Prabhath, N Arun; Raghavender, M; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu
2007-09-01
Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661
Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Arun Prabhath, N.; Raghavender, M.; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu
2007-01-01
Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661
Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Paul, Joydeb; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba
2016-01-01
Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes high mortality in different fish species and at different growth stages. Although vaccination has significantly contributed to the decline of disease outbreaks in aquaculture, the use of oral vaccines has lagged behind the injectable vaccines due to lack of proven efficacy, that being from primary immunization or by use of boost protocols. In this study, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW) of A. hydrophila was cloned, purified, and encapsulated in poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for oral vaccination of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton). The physical properties of PLGA NPs encapsulating the recombinant OmpW (rOmpW) was characterized as having a diameter of 370–375 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 53% and −19.3 mV zeta potential. In vitro release of rOmpW was estimated at 34% within 48 h of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. To evaluate the efficacy of the NP-rOmpW oral vaccine, two antigen doses were orally administered in rohu with a high antigen (HiAg) dose that had twice the amount of antigens compared to the low antigen (LoAg) dose. Antibody levels obtained after vaccination showed an antigen dose dependency in which fish from the HiAg group had higher antibody levels than those from the LoAg group. The antibody levels corresponded with post challenge survival proportions (PCSPs) and relative percent survival (RPS) in which the HiAg group had a higher PCSP and RPS than the LoAg group. Likewise, the ability to inhibit A. hydrophila growth on trypticase soy agar (TSA) by sera obtained from the HiAg group was higher than that from the LoAg group. Overall, data presented here shows that OmpW orally administered using PLGA NPs is protective against A. hydrophila infection with the level of protective immunity induced by oral vaccination being antigen dose-dependent. Future studies should seek to optimize the antigen dose and duration of oral immunization in rohu in order to
Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Paul, Joydeb; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba
2016-01-01
Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes high mortality in different fish species and at different growth stages. Although vaccination has significantly contributed to the decline of disease outbreaks in aquaculture, the use of oral vaccines has lagged behind the injectable vaccines due to lack of proven efficacy, that being from primary immunization or by use of boost protocols. In this study, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW) of A. hydrophila was cloned, purified, and encapsulated in poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for oral vaccination of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton). The physical properties of PLGA NPs encapsulating the recombinant OmpW (rOmpW) was characterized as having a diameter of 370-375 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 53% and -19.3 mV zeta potential. In vitro release of rOmpW was estimated at 34% within 48 h of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. To evaluate the efficacy of the NP-rOmpW oral vaccine, two antigen doses were orally administered in rohu with a high antigen (HiAg) dose that had twice the amount of antigens compared to the low antigen (LoAg) dose. Antibody levels obtained after vaccination showed an antigen dose dependency in which fish from the HiAg group had higher antibody levels than those from the LoAg group. The antibody levels corresponded with post challenge survival proportions (PCSPs) and relative percent survival (RPS) in which the HiAg group had a higher PCSP and RPS than the LoAg group. Likewise, the ability to inhibit A. hydrophila growth on trypticase soy agar (TSA) by sera obtained from the HiAg group was higher than that from the LoAg group. Overall, data presented here shows that OmpW orally administered using PLGA NPs is protective against A. hydrophila infection with the level of protective immunity induced by oral vaccination being antigen dose-dependent. Future studies should seek to optimize the antigen dose and duration of oral immunization in rohu in order to
FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.
2009-01-01
Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.
2009-01-01
Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.
Sahu, A K; Sahoo, S K; Giri, S S
2002-12-01
The use of water hyacinth compost as manure in nursery ponds for larval rearing of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita was studied. Better performance with regard to growth and survivability of the larvae was recorded in the ponds treated with water hyacinth compost (Group A) than in either the ponds treated with inorganic fertilizers (Group B) or the ponds where no treatment was applied (Group C). The average percentages of survival in Groups A, B and C were 14.3, 11.2 and 5.0, respectively. Thus about 186% increase in the survivability was recorded in the ponds treated with water hyacinth compost (P < 0.01), whereas the increase was about 124% in the ponds treated with only inorganic fertilizers, when compared with the ponds which were without any treatment. PMID:12365499
Basu, Madhubanti; Lenka, Saswati S; Paichha, Mahismita; Swain, Banikalyan; Patel, Bhakti; Banerjee, Rajanya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Surajit; Samanta, Mrinal
2016-10-15
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in protecting host against diverse pathogenic invasion and diseases. Among all Ig isotypes, IgD is the most recently-evolved and enigmatic molecule detected in all vertebrates species except birds. In South-East Asia, Labeo rohita (rohu) is the leading candidate fish species for freshwater aquaculture, and this article describes about IgD gene expression in rohu following viral, bacterial and parasitic antigenic challenges. The partial cDNA (761bp) of Labeo rohita-IgD (LrIgD) was cloned and submitted in the GenBank with the accession no KT883581. Phylogenetically, LrIgD was closely related to grass carp IgD. Analysis of LrIgD gene expression in juveniles by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay revealed gradual increase in IgD expression with the advancement of time. In the healthy rohu fingerlings, LrIgD expression occurred predominantly in kidney followed by liver and spleen. In response to rhabdoviral antigenic stimulation, LrIgD expression was significantly enhanced in all tested tissues. In bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infection, transcripts of LrIgD increased more dramatically in liver followed by kidney and gill. In parasitic (Argulus) infection, most significant expression of IgD was noted in the skin, followed by kidney, liver, spleen and gill. These results collectively suggest the key role of IgD in the immune response of rohu during viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. PMID:27590429
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V.
2015-01-01
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP), as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet), on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA) were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P < 0.05) in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) was also downregulated (P < 0.5) after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival) compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita. PMID:26649325
Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy
2015-01-01
The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25274116
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Sen, Shib Sankar; Vinumonia, J; Banu, B Nazeema; Jena, Prasant Kumar
2011-12-01
The objective of this study was to characterise the antagonistic activity of cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from the gut of healthy rohu (Labeo rohita), a tropical freshwater fish, against the fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Three potential probiotic strains (referred to as R1, R2, and R5) were screened using a well diffusion, and their antagonistic activity against A. hydrophila was determined. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed that R1, R2, and R5 were Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG2, and Bacillus subtilis VSG1, respectively. Four different fractions of cellular components (i.e. the whole-cell product, heat-killed whole-cell product [HKWCP], intracellular product [ICP], and extracellular product) of these selected strains were effective in an in vitro sensitivity test against 6 A. hydrophila strains. Among the cellular components, the ICP of R1, HKWCP of R2, and ICP of R5 exhibited the strongest antagonistic activities, as evidenced by their inhibition zones. The antimicrobial compounds from these selected cellular components were partially purified by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their properties were analysed. The ranges of pH stability of the purified compounds were wide (3.0-10.0), and compounds were thermally stable up to 90 °C. Considering these results, isolated probiotic strains may find potential applications in the prevention and treatment of aquatic aeromonosis. PMID:26781682
Nadeem, Raziya; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar
2008-08-15
The present study reports the use of locally available fish (Labeo rohita) scales for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption (196.8 mg g(-1)) occurred at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption was found to be pH, dose, initial metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed dependent while particle size and temperature independent. Experimental data of Pb(II) biosorption onto fish scales fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model in comparison to the model of Langmuir. The fast adsorption process in first 30 min followed by subsequent slow adsorption rate was suitably described by pseudo-second order model. In addition, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical pretreatments on surface properties of fish scales by the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis. Physical pretreatments resulted in partial degradation of some functional groups. Alkaline pretreatments of fish scales did not have any significant influence on the nature of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) uptake, while acidic pretreatments resulted in degeneration of the most of functional groups on biosorbent cell wall. FTIR analysis confirmed the involvement of amino, carboxylic, phosphate and carbonyl groups in Pb(II) biosorption by fish scales. PMID:18242826
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.
2014-08-01
An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.
Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B
2015-12-01
Previously, we have reported the chemical composition, molecular mass distribution and antioxidant activity of rohu roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antiproliferative, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from rohu (Labeo rohita) roe proteins, prepared by gastrointestinal proteases (pepsin and trypsin), were investigated. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The results showed that the pepsin hydrolysate possessed dose dependent inhibitory effect on Caco-2 cell line. Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates displayed ACE-inhibitory activity in vitro. The ACE-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate generated by pepsin (47 ± 1.7 %, at 1 mg/ml) is higher than that obtained by trypsin (36 ± 3.2 %). Additionally, the undigested rohu roe proteins and its hydrolysates exhibited functional properties. Solubilities of the hydrolysates were above 81 ± 9.2 % at all pH values tested. Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates showed good foaming capacity (45-211 %) and emulsification activity (4-29 m(2)/g). The foaming abilities and emulsifying activity index (EAI) were affected by pH. The results suggest that protein hydrolysates from rohu roe could be useful in food industry for various applications. PMID:26604407
Chakraborty, R; Bepari, S; Banerjee, A
2011-02-01
This paper explores the feasibility of converting waste Rohu fish (Labeo rohita) scale into a high-performance, reusable, low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a significant portion of the main component of fish scale i.e. HAP (hydroxyapatite) could be transformed into β-tri-calcium phosphate when calcined above 900°C for 2 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) morphology studies of the calcined scale depicted a fibrous layer of porous structure; while a BET surface area of 39 m(2)/g was measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimal parametric conditions viz. methanol/oil molar ratio, 6.27:1, calcination temperature, 997.42°C and catalyst concentration, 1.01 wt.% of oil corresponding to a maximum FAME yield of 97.73%. Reusability results confirmed that the prepared catalyst could be reemployed up to six times, procreating a potentially applicable avenue in biodiesel synthesis. PMID:21094040
Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Mohapatra, Shibani D.; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar
2016-01-01
The myostatin (MSTN) is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A) of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P) were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies. PMID:27019850
Vutukuru, S S
2005-12-01
An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were performed adopting renewal bioassay technique (USEPA, 1975) over a period of 96 h, using different concentrations of potassium dichromate to the fish and the 96 h LC[50] value was found to be 111.45 mg/l (Cr(+6) as 39.40 mg/l). ANOVA results showed that the normal respiratory activity of the fish was significantly affected and there is a depression in the metabolic rate at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure. The metal also induced significant decrease (p<0.001) in the hematological parameters of the fish like total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percent and absolute value Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) both at the end of 24h and 96 h exposure indicating anemia. Appreciable decline in the biochemical profiles such as total glycogen, total lipids and total protein contents of the fish was also observed. However, the decrease in protein content was significant only at the end of 96 h. This study reflects the extent of the toxic effects of hexavalent chromium and the metal induced cumulative deleterious effects at various functional levels in the widely consumed freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. PMID:16819101
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Nishanth, T.; Renju, V. B.
2010-03-01
In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the bioconcentration and distribution of zinc on the selected organs of Labeo rohita and to study the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical constitutions of gill tissues of L. rohita by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. The concentration pattern in the organs reveals that the liver is the prime site of metal binding and muscle accumulates least metal concentration. The accumulation profile is in the order: liver > gill > kidney > brain > bone > muscle. It has also been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-Penicillamine (DPA) reduces the zinc concentration in all tissues more effectively than the administration of the chelating agent Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid. The FT-IR spectra reveal that zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical constitutions of the gill tissues. It causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent DPA improves the protein and lipid contents in the gill tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that DPA is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that zinc exposure causes significant changes in both lipids and proteins of the gill tissues, and changes the protein profile in favour of β-sheet structure.
Mohanta, Ramya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Barman, Hirak Kumar
2014-08-01
We cloned the 5'-flanking region (1.2 kb) of a muscle-specific gene, encoding myosin light chain 2 polypeptide (mylz2) of a farmed carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). Sequence analysis using TRANSFAC-database search identified the consensus cis acting regulatory elements of TATA-box and E (CANNTG)-box, including the monocyte enhancer factor 2 motif, implying that it is likely to be a functional promoter. The proximal promoter (~620 bp) was highly homologous with that of Danio rerio (zebrafish) as compared to Channa striatus (snakehead murrel) counterparts and showed less identity with Sparus auratus (gilthead sea bream), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Direct muscular (skeletal) injection of the construct containing the mylz2 promoter (0.6 kb) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene showed efficient expression in L. rohita, validating its functional activity. Further, the functional activity was confirmed by the observation that this promoter drove GFP expression in the skeletal muscle of transgenic rohu. The promoter may have potential applications for value-addition in ornamental fishes and studying gene regulatory functions. PMID:24740361
Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S
2014-04-01
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868
Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang
2016-01-01
To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156
Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang
2016-01-01
To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156
Kumar, Shivendra; Sahu, N P; Gal, Denes
2015-12-01
The present study was conducted to investigate the strategy to mitigate the immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of gelatinized starch in fingerling of Labeo rohita. Fingerlings were either maintained at ambient water temperature (26 °C) or exposed to 32 °C for one week and then subjected to 26 °C for four weeks. Both groups were fed with isoproteinous (30% crude protein) diets containing gelatinized (G) or non-gelatinized (NG) starch. After 5 weeks of feeding trial, fingerlings were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. Serum cortisol and glucose content was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in G starch fed group and decreased with the increase in temperature from 26 to 32 °C, which was consistent for next four week after decrease in temperature from 32 to 26 °C. Lower respiratory burst activity and serum total protein and globulin content in G starch fed group at 26 °C significantly (p < 0.05) increased after elevation of temperature from 26 to 32 °C and levelled off to NG starch fed group. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of G starch fed group was significantly higher in group reared at 32 °C compared to 26 °C. After challenge, fish fed G starch showed lower survival rate than that of fish fed NG starch. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32 °C) for one week significantly increased the survival rate of G starch fed group and levelled off to NG starch fed group. The results of this study indicated that dietary G starch may cause metabolic stress of fingerling L. rohita, as might consequently lead to the decrease antioxidant abilities, depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. Subsequently, exposure of elevated temperature (32 °C) for one week mitigate immunosuppressive and oxidative stress effect of dietary G starch. PMID:26475365
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang
2016-09-01
Pinocembrin is a flavonoid that has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of pinocembrin in a fish cell line, we investigated its ability to regulate the inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS (1 μg mL(-1)) in the presence or absence of pinocembrin. We examined the inhibitory effect of pinocembrin on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of pinocembrin on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of pinocembrin on pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK, JNK, and p38 was analysed by western blot. Pinocembrin inhibited LPS-induced productions of NO and PGE2, and also markedly inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression levels decreased significantly, while IL-10 mRNA expression increased (P < 0.05) with pinocembrin pre-treatment. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that pinocembrin decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. Pinocembrin suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPK in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. Further, pinocembrin significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity via the attenuation of IκBα degradation. Taken together, pinocembrin reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the suppression of ERK and p38
Mohapatra, Amruta; Karan, Sweta; Kar, Banya; Garg, L C; Dixit, A; Sahoo, P K
2016-08-01
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the most abundant and multifunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) having a major role in lipid transport and potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. In this study, a complete CDS of 771 bp of Labeo rohita (rohu) ApoA-I (LrApoA-I) encoding a protein of 256 amino acids was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Tissue specific transcription analysis of LrApoA-I revealed its expression in a wide range of tissues, with a very high level of expression in liver and spleen. Ontogenic study of LrApoA-I expression showed presence of transcripts in milt and 3 h post-fertilization onwards in the larvae. The expression kinetics of LrApoA-I was studied upon infection with three different types of pathogens to elucidate its functional significance. Its expression was found to be up-regulated in the anterior kidney of L. rohita post-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Similarly following poly I:C (poly inosinic:cytidylic) stimulation, the transcript levels increased in both the anterior kidney and liver tissues. Significant up-regulation of LrApoA-I expression was observed in skin, mucous, liver and anterior kidney of the fish challenged with the ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Immunomodulatory effect of recombinant LrApoA-I (rApoA-I) produced in Escherichia coli was demonstrated against A. hydrophila challenge in vivo. L. rohita administered with rApoA-I at a dose of 100 μg exhibited significantly higher protection (∼55%) upon challenge with A. hydrophila 12 h post-administration of the protein, in comparison to that observed in control group, along with higher level of expression of immune-related genes. The heightened expression of ApoA-I observed post-infection reflected its involvement in immune responses against a wide range of infections including bacterial, viral as well as parasitic pathogens. Our results also suggest the possibility of using rApoA-I as an immunostimulant, particularly rendering protection
Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang
2015-11-01
Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. PMID:26327113
Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N
2015-10-01
The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms. PMID:26094035
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sil, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, Archita
2014-10-01
In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a ‘reducing agent' and ‘stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle.
Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Sil, A K; Bhattacharjee, Archita
2014-10-15
In this article, a cleaner, greener, cheaper and environment friendly method for the generation of self assembled silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) applying a simple irradiation technique using the aqueous extract of the fish scales (which is considered as a waste material) of Labeo rohita is described. Gelatin is considered as the major ingredient responsible for the reduction as well as stabilisation of the self assembled Ag NPs. The size and morphology of the individual Ag NPs can be tuned by controlling the various reaction parameters, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Studies showed that on increasing concentration and pH Ag NPs size decreases, while on increasing temperature, Ag NPs size increases. The present process does not need any external reducing agent, like sodium borohydride or hydrazine or others and gelatin itself can play a dual role: a 'reducing agent' and 'stabilisation agent' for the formation of gelatin-Ag NPs colloidal dispersion. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterised by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The synthesized Ag NPs was used to study the catalytic reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds in aqueous and three different micellar media. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the micelle and the substrate is responsible for the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in micelle. PMID:24835945
Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish
2015-03-01
The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of municipal wastewater of Tung Dhab drain on morphology of scale melanophores in freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Ham.). Chronic, non-renewal toxicity tests were performed with sub lethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6 and 35.4%) of wastewater for exposure durations of 15, 30 and 60 days. Recovery experiments were also performed for duration of 60 days. The scales were removed, processed and diameters of melanophores were measured using an ocular micrometer. The results showed concentration and duration dependent changes in melanophore morphology (size and dendricity) in experimental fish as compared to control fish. The values of mean melanophore size index (MMSI) varied from 5.37 ± 0.49 (17.7%) to 12.12 ± 0.81 (35.5%) in comparison to control values of 4.32 ± 0.32 and 4.55 ± 0.29 for 15 and 60 days respectively. The recovery experiments suggested that observed dark colouration due to pigment translocation is reversible, even after chronic exposure for 60 days. PMID:25723343
Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita
2015-05-01
Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (<500 nm) and could be successfully endocyted in the body. Despite low antigen loading in PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V
2015-10-01
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P < 0.05). Among the immune parameters examined, lysozyme levels (79.5 ± 5.1 U mL(-1)), leukocyte phagocytic activity (52 ± 4.3%), and alternative complement pathway activity (ACP) (186.1 ± 8.3 U mL(-1)) were significantly high (P < 0.05) in G2 fed group; there was, however, no significant effect of guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive
Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Palande, Nikhil V; Sinh, Dharmendra P
2015-11-01
Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemically diffusible molecular messenger playing various roles in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the key enzyme in synthesis of NO. The neuroanatomical distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was studied and developing stages of Labeo rohita such as hatchlings (10-15mm), frys (15-35mm), semi-fingerlings (35-65mm), fingerlings (65-100mm) and adults (350-370mm) were used. In the telencephalon, nitrergic cells were observed in both pallial and subpallial regions along with entopeduncular nucleus suggesting the involvement of NO in the control of sensory functions throughout the development. In the diencephalon, nNOS positive neurons were localized in the nucleus preopticus periventricularis and preopticus parvocellularis throughout development while nucleus preopticus magnocellularis was found immunopositive only in adult specimens who suggest the involvement of NO in the hormonal regulation. nNOS immunoreaction was also noted in suprachaismatic nucleus, habenula, lateral tuberal nucleus, paraventricular organ and anterior division of preglomerular nucleus throughout development. In the mesencephalic region, nNOS immunoreactivity was seen in the optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, nucleus of median longitudinal fascicle and occulomotor nucleus indicate the role of NO in integration of visual inputs and modulates motor control of the eyes and movements. Caudally, in the rhombencephalon, the cerebellum, the nucleus reticularis, the octaval nucleus and the motor nucleus of vagal nerve were nNOS positive during development. nNOS reactive cells and fibers were noted in the spinal motor column, thus suggesting a role of NO in gestation and startle response from early development. PMID:26143285
Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan
2013-01-01
Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940
Prusty, Ashisa K.; PaniPrasad, Kurchetti; Mohanta, Kedar N.
2014-01-01
Probiotics play an important role in growth increment, immune enhancement and stress mitigation in fish. Increasing temperature is a major concern in present aquaculture practices as it markedly deteriorates the health condition and reduces the growth in fish. In order to explore the possibilities of using probiotics as a counter measure for temperature associated problems, a 30 days feeding trial was conducted to study the hemato-immunological and apoptosis response of Labeo rohita (8.3±0.4 g) reared at different water temperatures, fed with or without dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture (PM) consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1011 cfu kg−1). Three hundred and sixty fish were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups in triplicates, namely, T1(28°C+BF(Basal feed)+PM), T2(31°C+BF+PM), T3(34°C+BF+PM), T4(37°C+BF+PM), T5(28°C+BF), T6(31°C+BF), T7(34°C+BF) and T8(37°C+BF). A significant increase (P<0.01) in weight gain percentage was observed in the probiotic fed fish even when reared at higher water temperature (34–37°C). Respiratory burst assay, blood glucose, erythrocyte count, total serum protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the probiotic fed groups compared to the non-probiotic fed groups. A significant (P<0.01) effect of rearing temperature and dietary probiotic mixture on serum myeloperoxidase activity, HSP70 level and immunoglobulin production was observed. Degree of apoptosis in different tissues was also significantly reduced in probiotic-supplemented groups. Hence, the present results show that a dietary PM could be beneficial in enhancing the immune status of the fish and also help in combating the stress caused to the organism by higher rearing water temperature. PMID:24979660
Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V
2015-12-01
The efficiency of intracellular products (ICPs) of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis VSG1 and Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 in stimulating cytokine responses in the head kidney (HK) macrophages of Labeo rohita was investigated. The HK macrophages were incubated with ICPs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the responses of cytokine genes, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-1 (IFN-1), and IFN-γ were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-stimulation (hps). Among the proinflammatory cytokines, a strong increase in the gene expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was displayed mainly at 2-6 hps with ICPs, as compared to that of the positive control (LPS) or the negative control (PBS) (P < 0.05). However, COX-2 and NF-κB showed higher expression at 2 and 24 hps, and 6-24 hps with ICPs, respectively. Antiviral cytokines IFN-1 and IFN-γ displayed strong expressions (P < 0.05) at 6-12 hps, and 12-24 hps with ICPs, respectively. Upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was recorded at 6-24 hps with ICPs, as compared to that controls. Expressions of cell-mediated immune factor genes (IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-18) were also significantly upregulated at different time points, except 48 hps, in HK macrophages stimulated with ICPs. Furthermore, enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and nitroblue tetrazolium assay) and humoral (lysozyme) immune parameters in stimulated cells confirmed the induction of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the results of this in vitro study indicate that the ICPs of B. subtilis VSG1 or L. plantarum VSG3 have great potential for stimulating the cytokine responses in fish, and are thereby potential immunostimulants to fish. Further studies could be conducted to explore its suitability as an adjuvant vaccine in aquaculture. PMID:26520566
Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Jena, J K
2016-09-01
We characterized mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) 6 and 8 genes in Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and determined genetic variation in wild populations across the natural distribution in Indian rivers. A total of 206 individuals were sampled from 11 riverine sites belonging to distinct geographical locations covering five major river basins. Sequencing of 842 base pairs of ATPase 6/8 revealed 21 haplotypes with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.1250 (River Satluj) to 0.8846 (River Bhagirathi). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data revealed significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.192, p < 0.0001) which was indicative of moderate level of genetic structuring in the wild L. calbasu populations. The patterns of genetic divergence and haplotype network of mtDNA revealed distinct clades present in Indian rivers. The analysis of data demonstrated the potential of ATPase 6/8 genes in determining the genetic diversity and indicated considerable sub-structuring in wild calbasu populations present in different rivers. PMID:25630739
Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S
2011-06-01
We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388
Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176
Optimization and Immobilization of Purified Labeo rohita Visceral Protease by Entrapment Method
Geethanjali, S.; Subash, Anitha
2013-01-01
The purified fish visceral protease enzyme was immobilized by using various concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride to optimize the best concentration for the formation of the beads. Then it was characterized by assaying the optimal pH, temperature, storage stability and reusability. The results on immobilization with sodium alginate and calcium chloride showed that a combination of 2% sodium alginate and 0.3 M calcium chloride weas found to be the optimum concentration for the formation of spherical and stable beads, this gave a maximal entrapped activity of 48.31%, and there was no change in the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C of protease before and after entrapment. The results on stability and reusability indicated that it was stable at 4°C retaining 100% residual activity after 5 days of storage and 67% loss of activity after ten days of storage and it retained 100% residual activity on the first reuse, 75% residual activity on the second reuse, 25% residual activity on the third use and complete loss in the activity on the fourth reuse. PMID:23533718
Hamilton, Ritz, and elastodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1976-01-01
The theory of Ritz is applied to the equation that Hamilton called the 'Law of Varying Action'. Direct analytical solutions are obtained for the transient motion of beams, both conservative and nonconservative. The results obtained are compared to exact solutions obtained by the use of rigorously exact free-vibration modes in the differential equations of Lagrange and to an approximate solution obtained through the application of Gurtin's principles for linear elastodynamics. A brief discussion of Hamilton's law and Hamilton's principle is followed by examples of results for both free-free and cantilever beams with various loadings.
Elizabeth Hamilton: Enlightenment Educator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russell, Rosalind
1986-01-01
Elizabeth Hamilton, an eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scottish writer on education, was one of the first to advocate the application of educational psychology to teaching. She introduced Pestalozzi's method to the English-reading public and argued for equal education for all children of both sexes and all social backgrounds. (LFL)
Hamilton's Principle for Beginners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brun, J. L.
2007-01-01
I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…
Debnath, Mitra; Saha, Ratan Kumar; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Saikia, Dipangka; Saha, Himadri
2012-12-01
Effects of water-borne iron on Indian major carps spawn were evaluated in the present study. Ferrous sulphate was used to prepare different test iron concentrations. Mrigal had the lowest 96 h LC(50) value of 0.30 ± 0.06 mg L(-1) while rohu had the highest value of 0.73 ± 0.06 mg L(-1) of iron. Accumulation of iron in mrigal spawn was highest whereas it was lowest in catla. Abnormal behaviour and reduced growth were observed in chronic toxicity. Application factors were calculated to establish acceptable ranges and safe levels. PMID:23052582
Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wayman, P. A.
1999-01-01
William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.
Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory.
Roncadelli, Marco; Schulman, L S
2007-10-26
Quantum canonical transformations have attracted interest since the beginning of quantum theory. Based on their classical analogues, one would expect them to provide a powerful quantum tool. However, the difficulty of solving a nonlinear operator partial differential equation such as the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) has hindered progress along this otherwise promising avenue. We overcome this difficulty. We show that solutions to the QHJE can be constructed by a simple prescription starting from the propagator of the associated Schrödinger equation. Our result opens the possibility of practical use of quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory. As an application, we develop a surprising relation between operator ordering and the density of paths around a semiclassical trajectory. PMID:17995307
Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions.
Taylor, Peter
2016-05-21
Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [abcd] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of "higher-order" relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original coefficient and can be calculated with exactly the same type of recursive equations. Secondly I observe that for models in which the population is not too large and local genetic renewal is rare (e,g, rare mutation), these higher order coefficients are not needed even with non-additive interactions; in fact the synergistic interaction is entirely equivalent to a closely-related additive one. The overall conclusion is that in the study of synergistic binary social interactions (2-player games) in a finite homogeneous population with weak selection and rare genetic renewal, a standard inclusive-fitness analysis is able to predict the direction of allele-frequency change. I apply this result to analyze a recent model of Allen and Nowak (2015). PMID:26947271
Basic Theatrical Understanding: Considerations for James Hamilton
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, Noel
2009-01-01
In this article, the author considers Hamilton's idea of "basic understanding" of a theatrical performance. The author finds it hard to grasp this conception. He worries, although perhaps only on the basis of misunderstanding, that Hamilton's conception of the basic understanding of theatrical performances will not do the work he wants it to do as…
Hamiltonization of the generalized Veselova LR system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, Yu. N.; Jovanović, B.
2009-08-01
We revise the solution to the problem of Hamiltonization of the n-dimensional Veselova nonholonomic system studied previously in [1]. Namely, we give a short and direct proof of the hamiltonization theorem and also show the trajectorial equivalence of the problem with the geodesic flow on the ellipsoid.
Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1995-12-01
In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational
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... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...
The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.
Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes
2016-03-01
Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669
Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1973-01-01
The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.
Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan
2012-01-01
Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…
Unbiased sampling of lattice Hamilton path ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Marc L.
2006-10-01
Hamilton paths, or Hamiltonian paths, are walks on a lattice which visit each site exactly once. They have been proposed as models of globular proteins and of compact polymers. A previously published algorithm [Mansfield, Macromolecules 27, 5924 (1994)] for sampling Hamilton paths on simple square and simple cubic lattices is tested for bias and for efficiency. Because the algorithm is a Metropolis Monte Carlo technique obviously satisfying detailed balance, we need only demonstrate ergodicity to ensure unbiased sampling. Two different tests for ergodicity (exact enumeration on small lattices, nonexhaustive enumeration on larger lattices) demonstrate ergodicity unequivocally for small lattices and provide strong support for ergodicity on larger lattices. Two other sampling algorithms [Ramakrishnan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7592 (1995); Lua et al., Polymer 45, 717 (2004)] are both known to produce biases on both 2×2×2 and 3×3×3 lattices, but it is shown here that the current algorithm gives unbiased sampling on these same lattices. Successive Hamilton paths are strongly correlated, so that many iterations are required between statistically independent samples. Rules for estimating the number of iterations needed to dissipate these correlations are given. However, the iteration time is so fast that the efficiency is still very good except on extremely large lattices. For example, even on lattices of total size 10×10×10 we are able to generate tens of thousands of uncorrelated Hamilton paths per hour of CPU time.
Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harned, Catherine
Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…
GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...
GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA
Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiehn, R. M.
1975-01-01
For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco
2015-07-01
Adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to quantum mechanics leads to a cocycle condition, which is invariant under D-dimensional Mobius transformations with Euclidean or Minkowski metrics. In this paper we aim to provide a pedagogical presentation of the proof of the Möbius symmetry underlying the cocycle condition. The Möbius symmetry implies energy quantization and undefinability of quantum trajectories, without assigning any prior interpretation to the wave function. As such, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, augmented with the global Möbius symmetry, provides an alternative starting point, to the axiomatic probability interpretation of the wave function, for the formulation of quantum mechanics and the quantum spacetime. The Möbius symmetry can only be implemented consistently if spatial space is compact, and correspondingly if there exist a finite ultraviolet length scale. Evidence for nontrivial space topology may exist in the cosmic microwave background radiation.
Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè
2014-03-01
Indigenous South African Labeo spp. show promise with regard to development of semi-intensive aquaculture, yet little research on their monogenean fauna has been conducted. Ecological aspects of monogenean fauna of the moggel Labeo umbratus (Smith 1841) and the Orange River mudfish Labeo capensis (Smith 1841), as recorded during both winter and summer sampling surveys, are reported here. Fish were collected using gill nets, euthanized and gills removed and examined to both quantify parasite numbers and distribution on the gills. Results obtained support the hypothesis that gill site preference is not due to active choice for a particular attachment site, but rather a result of water flow over gills during respiration in conjunction with fish behaviour and habitat use. Interaction between individual elements investigated (temperature effects, parasite population dynamics and host population dynamics) may be largely responsible for seasonal differences in infection statistics of monogenean parasites. Such interactions should be investigated in future large scale ecological studies, in combination with experimental studies, to further elucidate these effects. PMID:24570046
Das, Sweta; Chhottaray, Chiranjibi; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Baranski, Matthew; Robinson, Nicholas; Sahoo, P K
2014-11-01
A total of 137,629 contigs generated via de novo transcriptome assembly from resistant and susceptible lines of rohu (first generation) raised against aeromoniasis were further analyzed in terms of defence-related genes. Out of 1,939 contigs showing homology to genes involved in immune processes, 1,866 were further categorised into different functional subgroups. Comparative analysis revealed five genes for the first time in any carp species out of which apolipoprotein h, septin 4 isoform 3 and septin isoform cra_c were identified for the first time in fish. Differential expression analysis of ten genes viz., heat shock proteins (Hsps) (Hsp30, Hsp70 and Hsp90), serum lectin isoform 1 (SLI1), linker histone H1M (LHH1M), NAD(P)H quinone 1 (NQO1), zona pellucida 2 (ZP2) and three unknown genes that were highly up-expressed in first generation resistant line fish from mRNA-seq coverage data, was carried out using susceptible and resistant individuals of the second generation selected populations in eight different tissues viz. liver, kidney, intestine, gill, brain, spleen, skin and muscle using qPCR. Significant up-regulation in Hsp90, NQO1, C_116914 and C_22454 in specific tissues of resistant line and variable expression in Hsp30 and LHH1M genes in different tissues of both lines were noticed. The expression of Hsp70 was lower in many tissues of the resistant line than in susceptible line rohu. The expression of ZP2, SLI1 and C_94589 genes was not significantly different in terms of fold difference between the two lines. Differentially expressed genes need further characterisation to explore their role in resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rohu. PMID:25081649
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.
2014-10-01
Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.
A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeev, S. G.
2008-09-01
We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.
An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.
Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M
2014-12-01
Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy. PMID:25448145
Hamilton-Jacobi Theory in Cauchy Data Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, CéAdric M.; de Leóan, Manuel; de Diego, David Martín; Vaquero, Miguel
2015-12-01
Recently, M. de LeóAn et al. [8] have developed a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for classical fields in the setting of multisymplectic geometry. Our purpose in the current paper is to establish the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory in the Cauchy data space, and relate both approaches.
WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH
Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Zhao, G.
2013-10-01
We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Å.
Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.
Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W
2008-05-01
In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539
CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...
CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA
1. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Hamilton, Photographer June, ...
1. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Hamilton, Photographer June, 1934. Copied by Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer (a) EXT.-FRONT, LOOKING NORTH - Enfield Road (Schoolhouse), Prescott Center, Franklin County, MA
Quantum Hamilton Mechanics and the Theory of Quantization Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
A formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of complex canonical variables is presented. It is seen that these variables are governed by Hamilton's equations. It is shown that the action variables need to be quantized. By formulating a quantum Hamilton equation for the momentum variable, the energies for two different systems are determined. Quantum canonical transformation theory is introduced and the geometrical significance of a set of generalized quantization conditions which are obtained is discussed.
Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenn, Joseph S.
2013-01-01
Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.
Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution
Bourke, Andrew F. G.
2014-01-01
Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934
Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications
McGlothlin, Joel W.; Wolf, Jason B.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Moore, Allen J.
2014-01-01
Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing—with good reason—almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
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... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... February 26, 2010, City of Hamilton, Ohio (Hamilton) and American Municipal Power, Inc. (AMP) filed an... approval to transfer the license for the Meldahl Project from Hamilton to Hamilton and AMP....
Extending Fourier transformations to Hamilton's quaternions and Clifford's geometric algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hitzer, Eckhard
2013-10-01
We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton's algebra of quaternions. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class of Clifford's geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data.
VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 ...
VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) LEFT CENTER BUILDING 31 RIGGER'S SHOP (1890) CENTER BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (1853) RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ
Involutive constrained systems and Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we study singular systems with complete sets of involutive constraints. The aim is to establish, within the Hamilton-Jacobi theory, the relationship between the Frobenius' theorem, the infinitesimal canonical transformations generated by constraints in involution with the Poisson brackets, and the lagrangian point (gauge) transformations of physical systems.
Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Joanne
2014-01-01
Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…
INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND ...
INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND MARBLE SCULPTURE IN SOME OF THE HEMICYCLE NICHES. ONE OF THE NICHES HOUSED A CANNON STOVE FOR HEATING THE ROOM IN THE COLDER MONTHS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Rehearsal and Hamilton's "Ingredients Model" of Theatrical Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davies, David
2009-01-01
One among the many virtues of James Hamilton's book, "The Art of Theater," is that it challenges the hegemony of the classical paradigm in the performing arts by questioning its applicability to theatrical performances. He argues instead for an "ingredients model" of the relationship between a literary script and a theatrical work. According to…
75 FR 37293 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX
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Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.
Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila
2016-01-01
The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved. PMID:27516930
Research on Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Hamilton Graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yan; Cui, Chao-Dong
An important concept, "closed domain" is proposed in this paper. In the same time, necessary and sufficient lemma for closed domain, R, is proved on which necessary and sufficient theorem for judging whether a general graph G is a Hamilton graph is proposed and proved. All instances in this paper are judged by comparatively using the theorem proposed herein and the original necessary condition theorem and sufficient condition theorem to prove the correctness of the method proposed in this paper.
[Factorial analysis of the Hamilton depression scale, II].
Dreyfus, J F; Guelfi, J D; Ruschel, S; Blanchard, C; Pichot, P
1981-04-01
A factorial analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was performed on 85 ratings of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale obtained in 1979-1980 on inpatients with a major depressive illness. Using a replicable statistical technique, 4 factors were obtained. These factors do not overlap with those obtain on a similar sample with a similar technique nor with those obtained by other authors. It thus appears that there is no such thing as a factorial structure of this scale. PMID:7305179
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics
Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.
2009-03-15
We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.
Bäcklund transformations relating different Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sozonov, A. P.; Tsiganov, A. V.
2015-06-01
We discuss one of the possible finite-dimensional analogues of the general Bäcklund transformation relating different partial differential equations. We show that different Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be obtained from the same Lax matrix. We consider Hénon-Heiles systems on the plane, Neumann and Chaplygin systems on the sphere, and two integrable systems with velocity-dependent potentials as examples.
Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.
2009-03-01
We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.
Swain, Subrat Kumar; Bej, Dillip; Das, Sofia Priyadarsani; Sahoo, Lakshman; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Pratap Chandra; Das, Paramananda
2016-05-01
Labeo fimbriatus, a medium sized carp is assessed as a commercially important aquaculture species in Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of four Indian riverine populations of L. fimbriatus have been evaluated using partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA. Sequencing and analysis of this gene from 108 individuals defined 7 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.067 to 0.405 and 0.00023 to 0.03231, respectively. The Mahanadi population had the highest π level. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 47.36% of genetic variation contained within population and 53.76% of genetic variation among groups. Pairwise FST analysis indicated that there was little or no genetic differentiation among populations (-0.0018 to 04572) from different geographical regions except Mahanadi population. The Mahanadi population can be considered as a separate stock from rest three riverine populations. Accordingly, the genetic information generated from this study can be implemented while taking decision in formulating base population for the sustainable selective breeding programs of this species. PMID:25329277
Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.
Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D
2007-06-01
In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian." PMID:17542838
Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.
2006-12-01
We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.
Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinney, William H.
1997-08-01
I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an ``inverted'' polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation.
Hamilton-Jacobi solutions for strongly coupled gravity and matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salopek, D. S.
1998-05-01
A Green function method is developed for solving strongly coupled gravity and matter in the semiclassical limit. In the strong-coupling limit, one assumes that Newton's constant approaches infinity, 0264-9381/15/5/009/img1. As a result, one may neglect second-order spatial gradients, and each spatial point evolves like a homogeneous universe. After constructing the Green function solution to the Hamiltonian constraint, the momentum constraint is solved using functional methods in conjunction with the superposition principle for Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Exact and approximate solutions are given for a dust field or a scalar field interacting with gravity.
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Unified formalism for the generalized kth-order Hamilton-Jacobi problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombo, Leonardo; de Léon, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2014-08-01
The geometric formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory enables us to generalize it to systems of higher-order ordinary differential equations. In this work we introduce the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on higher-order autonomous dynamical systems described by regular Lagrangian functions.
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A Celebration of Voices: The Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Janet
2001-01-01
Focuses on the establishment of, changes in, and discussions that have taken place at the Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth, celebrating its 17th year of stimulating dialogue on children's books. The conference honors author Virginia Hamilton, winner of almost every major award in the field of children's…
Sense of Belonging and Mental Health in Hamilton, Ontario: An Intra-Urban Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James
2012-01-01
This paper examines geographic variations in sense of community belonging in Hamilton, Ontario. It also identifies the most significant health and social factors associated with belonging in the city. The research employs data from the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey for respondents aged 18 or over living in the Hamilton Census…
Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors
Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas
2015-01-01
A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141
Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.
2010-10-15
Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.
Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.
Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas
2015-01-01
A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141
Particle dynamics inside shocks in Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei
2010-04-13
The characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action-minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. For non-smooth 'viscosity' solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this description is usually pursued only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we show that, for any convex Hamiltonian, there exists a uniquely defined canonical global non-smooth coalescing flow that extends particle trajectories and determines the dynamics inside shocks. We also provide a variational description of the corresponding effective velocity field inside shocks, and discuss the relation to the 'dissipative anomaly' in the limit of vanishing viscosity. PMID:20211875
Hamilton's inclusive fitness in finite-structured populations
Taylor, Peter D.; Maciejewski, Wes
2014-01-01
Hamilton's formulation of inclusive fitness has been with us for 50 years. During the first 20 of those years attention was largely focused on the evolutionary trajectories of different behaviours, but over the past 20 years interest has been growing in the effect of population structure on the evolution of behaviour and that is our focus here. We discuss the evolutionary journey of the inclusive-fitness effect over this epoch, nurtured as it was in an essentially homogeneous environment (that of ‘transitive’ structures) having to adapt in different ways to meet the expectations of heterogeneous structures. We pay particular attention to the way in which the theory has managed to adapt the original constructs of relatedness and reproductive value to provide a formulation of inclusive fitness that captures a precise measure of allele-frequency change in finite-structured populations. PMID:24686932
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muse, Daphne
2002-01-01
Presents a tribute to Virginia Hamilton. Notes that at a time when Black people, especially girls, were seriously beginning to struggle with self-acceptance and self-worth, Hamilton's "bold and imaginative writing was nothing short of revolutionary." (SG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Jing-Li; Fu, Li-Ping; Chen, Ben-Yong; Sun, Yi
2016-01-01
This letter focuses on studying Lie symmetries and their inverse problems of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton systems. Based on the invariance of the fractional motion equations, constraint equations and virtual displacement restrictive conditions of the systems under the infinitesimal transformation with respect to the time and generalized coordinates, the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton system are discussed and the corresponding definitions, determining equations, limiting equations, additional restricting equations and Lie theorems are given. The letter also systematically studies inverse theorems of Lie symmetries of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton systems. Finally, an example is discussed to illustrate theses results.
Quantum line bundles via Cayley-Hamilton identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurevich, D.; Saponov, P.
2001-06-01
As shown by Pyatov and Saponov (1995 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28 4415-21) and Gurevich et al (1997 Lett. Math. Phys. 41 255-64), the matrix L = || lij||, whose entries lij are generators of the so-called reflection equation algebra (REA), is subject to some polynomial identity resembling the Cayley-Hamilton identity for a numerical matrix. Here a similar statement is presented for a matrix whose entries are generators of a filtered algebra that is a `non-commutative analogue' of the REA. In an appropriate limit we obtain a similar statement for the matrix formed by the generators of the algebra U(gl(n)). This property is used to introduce the notion of line bundles over quantum orbits in the spirit of the Serre-Swan approach. The quantum orbits in question are presented explicitly as some quotients of one of the algebras mentioned above both in the quasiclassical case (i.e. that related to the quantum group Uq(sl(n))) and a non-quasiclassical one (i.e. that arising from a Hecke symmetry with non-standard Poincaré series of the corresponding symmetric and skew-symmetric algebras).
Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2008-09-28
Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems.
An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle
Drapaca, Corina S.
2015-01-01
Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin–Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin–Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented. PMID:26236195
The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.
Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z
2000-01-01
In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827
The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).
Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh
2015-01-01
While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin. PMID:26249452
On Dynamics of Lagrangian Trajectories for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei
2016-02-01
Characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. However this description is valid only for smooth solutions. For nonsmooth "viscosity" solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this picture holds only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we discuss two physically meaningful regularization procedures, one corresponding to vanishing viscosity and another to weak noise limit. We show that for any convex Hamiltonian, a viscous regularization allows us to construct a nonsmooth flow that extends particle trajectories and determines dynamics inside the shock manifolds. This flow consists of integral curves of a particular "effective" velocity field, which is uniquely defined everywhere in the flow domain and is discontinuous on shock manifolds. The effective velocity field arising in the weak noise limit is generally non-unique and different from the viscous one, but in both cases there is a fundamental self-consistency condition constraining the dynamics.
Quantum vortices within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E
2008-06-21
Quantum vortices are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in the complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. It is shown that the Polya vector field of the quantum momentum function is parallel to contours of the probability density. A nonstationary state constructed from eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the formation of a transient excited state quantum vortex, and the coupled harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate quantization of the circulation integral in the multidimensional complex space. This study not only analyzes the formation of quantum vortices but also demonstrates the local structures for the quantum momentum field and for the Polya vector field near a node of the wave function. PMID:18570490
Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E
2008-09-28
Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems. PMID:19045012
Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.
2016-02-01
We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.
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... Hamilton County, OH On February 24, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed with the Surface... discontinue service over 5.70 miles of railroad between milepost CT 2.10 and milepost CT 7.80, in...
Stochastic homogenization of nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Scott N.; Tran, Hung V.; Yu, Yifeng
2016-09-01
We prove stochastic homogenization for a general class of coercive, nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension. Some properties of the effective Hamiltonian arising in the nonconvex case are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.
1974-01-01
Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.
Hamilton study: estimating exposure to ambient suspended particles
Pengelly, L.D.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Kerigan, A.T.; Furlong, W.; Toplack, S.
1987-12-01
In the industrial city of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, we recently carried out an epidemiological study of the effect of environmental factors on respiratory health in 3500 elementary school children. The level and size distribution of suspended particles in ambient air was measured from 24-h samples taken at 6-day intervals from a network of 29 hivol TSP samplers, and nine Andersen 2000 4-stage cascade impactors. Exposure was computed by generating a 3-dimensional response surface using a linear regression model of the form: TSP = (1 + E + N)/sup 2/, based on monthly geometrical mean data for all sites. From this response surface generated for a given month, TSP levels were predicted by the model for all schools by specifying their geographical coordinates. The yearly exposure for a given child was determined from the arithmetic mean of the predicted values for 12 monthly TSP levels. A similar procedure was employed for calculation of the exposure to the fine (less than or equal to 3.3 ..mu..m) and coarse (> 3.3 ..mu..m) size fraction, as well as the aerodynamic mass median diameter of particles from the network of cascade impactors. Results of the measurements showed that gradients for TSP up to approximately 10 ..mu..g/m/sup 3//km exist over the city covering distances from 5 to 10 km. The range of 1 yr mean exposure values calculated for each child was from 30.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ to 74.5 ..mu../m/sup 3/. Comparable figures for particle size were up to 0.3 ..mu..m AMMD (aerodynamic mass median diameter)/km and annual mean particle size exposure from 2.69 to 3.53 ..mu..m AMMD.
Testing the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis: past, present, and future.
Balenger, Susan L; Zuk, Marlene
2014-10-01
Hamilton and Zuk proposed a good-genes model of sexual selection in which genetic variation can be maintained when females prefer ornaments that indicate resistance to parasites. When trait expression depends on a male's resistance, the co-adaptive cycles between host resistance and parasite virulence provide a mechanism in which genetic variation for fitness is continually renewed. The model made predictions at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels. In the three decades since its publication, these predictions have been theoretically examined in models of varying complexity, and empirically tested across many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. Despite such prolonged interest, however, it has turned out to be extremely difficult to empirically demonstrate the process described, in part because we have not been able to test the underlying mechanisms that would unequivocally identify how parasites act as mediators of sexual selection. Here, we discuss how the use of high-throughput sequencing datasets available from modern genomic approaches might improve our ability to test this model. We expect that important contributions will come through the ability to identify and quantify the suite of parasites likely to influence the evolution of hosts' resistance, to confidently reconstruct phylogenies of both host and parasite taxa, and, perhaps most exciting, to detect generational cycles of heritable variants in populations of hosts and parasites. Integrative approaches, building on systems undergoing parasite-mediated selection with genomic resources already available, will be particularly useful in moving toward robust tests of this hypothesis. We finish by presenting case studies of well-studied host-parasite relationships that represent promising avenues for future research. PMID:24876194
Holographic Wilson loops, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and regularizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontello, Diego; Trinchero, Roberto
2016-04-01
The minimal area for surfaces whose borders are rectangular and circular loops are calculated using the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. This amounts to solving the HJ equation for the value of the minimal area, without calculating the shape of the corresponding surface. This is done for bulk geometries that are asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). For the rectangular contour, the HJ equation, which is separable, can be solved exactly. For the circular contour an expansion in powers of the radius is implemented. The HJ approach naturally leads to a regularization which consists in locating the contour away from the border. The results are compared with the ɛ -regularization which leaves the contour at the border and calculates the area of the corresponding minimal surface up to a diameter smaller than the one of the contour at the border. The results for the circular loop do not coincide if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the contour at the border. It is shown that using this expansion parameter the ɛ -regularization leads to incorrect results for certain solvable non-AdS cases. However, if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the minimal surface whose area is computed, then the results coincide with the HJ scheme. This is traced back to the fact that in the HJ case the expansion parameter for the area of a minimal surface is intrinsic to the surface; however, the radius of the contour at the border is related to the way one chooses to regularize in the ɛ -scheme the calculation of this area.
Mataba, Gordian Rocky; Verhaert, Vera; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven
2016-03-15
The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river. Samples of surface water, sediment and fish were collected up- and downstream of the North Mara Gold Mine (Tanzania) and following trace elements were analysed: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Trace element concentrations in surface water were below or near the detection limit. Regarding the sediments, relative high concentrations of arsenic at all sites and high levels of mercury at a site downstream of the mine where artisanal mining is performed were observed. Trace element concentrations in Ningu fish tissues (Labeo victorianus) were comparable to slightly higher than levels in fishes from unpolluted environments. For none of the measured human health risk by consumption of fish from the Thigithe river is expected when the Tanzanian average amount of 17 g/day is consumed. However, for Hg and As the advised maximum daily consumption of Ningu fish was lower than 100g. As a result fishermen and people living along the shores of the river consuming more fish than the average Tanzanian fish consumption set by the FAO (2005) are possibly at risk. PMID:26780131
Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet
2010-04-01
The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031
Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toledo, Porfirio
2013-12-01
We study the behavior of solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a minimax framework of game theory. The solutions of this problem represent the optimal payoff of a zero-sum game of two players, where the number of moves between the players converges to infinity. A real number, called the critical value, plays a central role in this work; this number is the asymptotic average action of optimal trajectories. The aim of this paper is to show the existence and characterization of solutions of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this kind of games.
Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.
2013-05-01
Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. When the well-behaved Painleve coordinate system and Eddington coordinate are used, we get the correct result of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy before and after radiation but a direct computation will lead to a wrong result via Hamilton-Jacobi method. Our results show that the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal but it is consistent with underlying unitary theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, J. H.
2011-01-01
It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…
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To optimize the Hamilton-Thorn Motility Analyzer (HIM, Hamilton-Thorn Research, Beverly, MA) for use in reproductive toxicology studies with rat spermatozoa, the accuracy and precision of the instrument were assessed under a variety of instrument settings. ideotapes of both fast ...
Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis
2011-12-01
Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U
Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis
2011-12-01
Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U
A Survey of Environmental Education in Hamilton County Schools (K-12).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garver, Janice B.
Environmental education (EE) courses and programs offered in grades K-12 in Hamilton County (Ohio) public, private, and parochial schools were surveyed by means of a questionnaire mailed to 67 district level administrators, principals, and teachers. Questionnaires were returned from 5 private, 4 parochial, and 27 public schools, representing a 57…
Zung, Beck, and Hamilton Rating Scales as Measures of Treatment Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lambert, Michael J.; And Others
1986-01-01
Treatment studies using the Zung Self-Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as dependent measures were reviewed to determine whether these scales provide comparable data for assessing treatment effects. Results indicated that the Zung and the Beck showed less change in depression following…
Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William
2009-01-01
Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey
1979-01-01
Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)
Infant Care in Hamilton County: 4C Final Report and Model Designs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coats, Betty Ann Hanna
This report describes a one-year feasibility study to design a functional child development model for infant day care in Hamilton County, Ohio. Mothers of babies under 18 months were interviewed by telephone to determine use of and interest in infant day care. Assessment was made of existing resources for full time day care in the county…
Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.
2012-01-01
This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…
Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison
2012-01-01
This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were highlighted as…
76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-05-05
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Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.
2012-01-01
Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…
75 FR 20794 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX
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ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journet, Debra
2005-01-01
This article analyzes the power of ambiguous metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…
The Code Red Project: Engaging Communities in Health System Change in Hamilton, Canada
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeLuca, Patrick F.; Buist, Steve; Johnston, Neil
2012-01-01
The communication of determinants of health and health outcomes normally executed through academic channels often fail to reach lay audiences. In April of 2010, the results of collaboration between academe and mass media were published in the Hamilton Spectator, one of Canada's 10 largest English-language daily newspapers as a 7-day series. The…
Fort Hamilton High School Project GRASP. ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Irizarry, Ruddie A.; And Others
This report is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted at the Fort Hamilton High School in Brooklyn, New York, in 1979-1980. This bilingual program provided instruction for Greek, Spanish, and Arabic speaking students. The ethnic and economic composition of the neighborhood and of the school population are discussed, and the…
Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison
2012-01-01
This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…
Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton: Black Women Writers and Science Fiction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hampton, Gregory Jerome; Brooks, Wanda M.
2003-01-01
Notes that African American literature has always had science fiction elements in its focus on narratives of the alienated and marginalized "other." Contends that Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton are two African American writers of science fiction who examine the connections between the stories of a culture and the genre of science fiction.…
Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das
2016-08-01
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste. PMID:27146546
Swenson, Sarah A
2015-02-01
W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921
Okasha, S; Martens, J
2016-03-01
Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. PMID:26679493
Morselli, Davide; Passini, Stefano
2015-11-01
In Crimes of obedience, Kelman and Hamilton argue that societies can be protected by the degeneration of authority only when citizenship is based on a strong values orientation. This reference to values may be the weakest point in their theory because they do not explicitly define these values. Nevertheless, their empirical findings suggest that the authors are referring to specific democratic principles and universal values (e.g., equality, fairness, harmlessness). In this article, a composite index known as the value-oriented citizenship (VOC) index is introduced and empirically analysed. The results confirm that the VOC index discriminates between people who relate to authority based on values rather than based on their role or on rules in general. The article discusses the utility of the VOC index to develop Kelman and Hamilton's framework further empirically as well as its implications for the analysis of the relationship between individuals and authority. PMID:26463549
Crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis as projected from plane-wave basis sets.
Deringer, Volker L; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard
2011-06-01
Simple, yet predictive bonding models are essential achievements of chemistry. In the solid state, in particular, they often appear in the form of visual bonding indicators. Because the latter require the crystal orbitals to be constructed from local basis sets, the application of the most popular density-functional theory codes (namely, those based on plane waves and pseudopotentials) appears as being ill-fitted to retrieve the chemical bonding information. In this paper, we describe a way to re-extract Hamilton-weighted populations from plane-wave electronic-structure calculations to develop a tool analogous to the familiar crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) method. We derive the new technique, dubbed "projected COHP" (pCOHP), and demonstrate its viability using examples of covalent, ionic, and metallic crystals (diamond, GaAs, CsCl, and Na). For the first time, this chemical bonding information is directly extracted from the results of plane-wave calculations. PMID:21548594
Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)
Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.
2016-01-01
This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328
[Alice Hamilton (1869-1970): a pioneer of occupational medicine and public health].
Kowalska, M; Steplewski, Z
1999-01-01
Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was the mother of occupational health a pioneer in public health in the United States. She worked as a doctor in Hull House, the first settlement house, and she was an advocate of the birth-control movement. She led pioneering studies of occupational head, mercury, carbon monoxide poisoning and many other chemical intoxications of workers. She was an assistant professor of industrial medicine at the Harvard Medical School (1919-1935). During the years 1924-1930 she worked for the Health Organization of the League of Nations. From 1943 she acted as a vice-president of the American Health Association. Alice Hamilton was an expert in the field of occupational lead poisoning. PMID:10438256
Association of Celiac Disease With Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis; Lane Hamilton Syndrome
Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Sandal, Ozlem Sarac; Bag, Ozlem; Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Bekem Soylu, Ozlem; Diniz, Gulden; Ozturk, Aysel; Can, Demet
2015-01-01
Introduction: Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage, which is seen primarily in childhood. Celiac disease is defined as a chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine, caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. Association of IPH and celiac disease is known as Lane Hamilton syndrome. There are limited number of case reports of this syndrome in literature. Case Presentation: Although there were no growth and developmental delay and gastrointestinal symptoms like chronic diarrhea, chronic constipation, vomiting, abdominal bloating and pain in the two patients with IPH, they were diagnosed with Lane Hamilton Syndrome. After initiation of gluten-free diet, their IPH symptoms disappeared and hemoglobin levels were observed to return to normal. Conclusions: Even if there were no gastrointestinal symptoms in a patient with IPH, celiac disease should be investigated. These patients may benefit from gluten free diet and IPH symptoms may disappear. PMID:26495097
From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.
2013-07-01
A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.
Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osher, Stanley; Sethian, James A.
1987-01-01
New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.
Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.
2014-04-15
We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius’ integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.
A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.
The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osher, Stanley
1989-01-01
Simple inequalities for the Riemann problem for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimension when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave) are presented. The initial data is globally continuous, affine in each orthant, with a possible jump in normal derivative across each coordinate plane, x sub i = 0. The inequalities become equalities wherever a maxmin equals a minmax and thus an exact closed form solution to this problem is then obtained.
Compressed Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Kurganov, Alexander; Levy, Doron; Petrova, Guergana
2003-01-01
We introduce a new family of Godunov-type semi-discrete central schemes for multidimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These schemes are a less dissipative generalization of the central-upwind schemes that have been recently proposed in series of works. We provide the details of the new family of methods in one, two, and three space dimensions, and then verify their expected low-dissipative property in a variety of examples.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.
Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to Study the Hawking Radiation of Kerr-Newman Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng
Taking the self-gravitation interaction and unfixed background space-time into account, we study the Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one, which is accordant with that obtained using Parikh and Wilczek's method and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of the black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yi
2014-11-01
This paper focuses on the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities for both holonomic and nonholonomic systems based on a new non-conservative dynamical model introduced by El-Nabulsi. First, the El-Nabulsi dynamical model which is based on a fractional integral extended by periodic laws is introduced, and El-Nabulsi—Hamilton's canonical equations for non-conservative Hamilton system with holonomic or nonholonomic constraints are established. Second, the definitions and criteria of El-Nabulsi—Noether symmetrical transformations and quasi-symmetrical transformations are presented in terms of the invariance of El-Nabulsi—Hamilton action under the infinitesimal transformations of the group. Finally, Noether's theorems for the non-conservative Hamilton system under the El-Nabulsi dynamical system are established, which reveal the relationship between the Noether symmetry and the conserved quantity of the system.
Separability of Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations in general Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel; Kubiznák, David
2007-02-01
We demonstrate the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and scalar field equations in general higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes. No restriction on the parameters characterizing these metrics is imposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmid, L. A.
1977-01-01
The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.
Chou, Chia-Chun
2014-03-14
The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics.
Krantzberg, G. )
1994-10-01
Trace metals in sediment from nearshore urban and industrialized centers of the Great Lakes are frequently at concentrations well above geological background values. Total metal content in sediment, however, is a weak predictor of sediment toxicity. This study examined the bioavailability of metals from Hamilton Harbor in Lake Ontario and considered variability in metal forms on a temporal basis. Sediment from regions within Hamilton Harbor is highly contaminated with metals; nevertheless, not all metal-contaminated sites were toxic to test organisms. Most sediment did elicit sublethal and/or lethal responses in bioassay organisms. Metal bioavailability, as measured by weak acid extractions, metal bioaccumulation by fathead minnows, and sediment toxicity, was greater in sediment collected in the fall as compared to sediment collected in the spring. Results of analyses of tissue residues in test organisms and the reduced toxicity observed in sediment collected from some stations in the spring as compared to the fall implicate trace metals and sediment oxygen demand as contributing to sediment toxicity. The suitability for colonization by benthic invertebrates of sediment in some areas of Hamilton Harbor appears to be limited by both contaminants and high sediment oxygen demand. Improving the oxygen regime of the harbor should result in improvements in the benthic invertebrate community directly, by providing a suitable oxygen regime for organisms less tolerant of temporal anoxia, and indirectly by decreasing metal bioavailability, possibly through the co-precipitation of trace metals with iron and manganese hydroxides.
Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: Properties, classification and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, A.; Blasco, A.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.
2015-04-01
We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in González-López, Kamran, and Olver (1992) [23] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. By determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. We also analyse biomathematical models, the Milne-Pinney equations, second-order Kummer-Schwarz equations, complex Riccati equations and Buchdahl equations.
Chou, Chia-Chun
2014-03-14
The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics. PMID:24628169
Hamilton-Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near-field aspects.
Keller, O
2008-02-01
After having briefly reviewed the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of classical point-particle mechanics, its extension to the quantum regime and the formal identity between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function and the eikonal equation of geometrical optics, an eikonal theory for free photons is established. The space-time dynamics of the photon is described on the basis of the six-component Riemann-Silberstein energy wave function. Form-identical eikonal equations are obtained for the positive and negative helicity dynamics. Microscopic response theory is used to describe the linear photon-matter interaction. In the presence of matter the free-photon concept is replaced by a quasi-photon concept, and there is a quasi-photon for each of the two helicity states. After having established integro-differential equations for the wave functions of the two quasi-photons, the eikonal conditions for the quasi-photons are determined. It appears that the eikonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eikonal over volumes of near-field domain size. In these space integrals the dynamics of the electrons (matter particles) appears via transverse transition current densities between pairs of many-body states. Generalized microscopic polarization and magnetization fields are introduced to establish the connection between the quasi-photon and macroscopic eikonal theories. PMID:18304094
The method of Ritz applied to the equation of Hamilton. [for pendulum systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1976-01-01
Without any reference to the theory of differential equations, the initial value problem of the nonlinear, nonconservative double pendulum system is solved by the application of the method of Ritz to the equation of Hamilton. Also shown is an example of the reduction of the traditional eigenvalue problem of linear, homogeneous, differential equations of motion to the solution of a set of nonhomogeneous algebraic equations. No theory of differential equations is used. Solution of the time-space path of the linear oscillator is demonstrated and compared to the exact solution.
Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.
Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A
2000-05-23
The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. PMID:10811874
Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.
2006-01-01
Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on triangulated domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive triangulation algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zatloukal, Václav
2016-04-01
Classical field theory is considered as a theory of unparametrized surfaces embedded in a configuration space, which accommodates, in a symmetric way, spacetime positions and field values. Dynamics is defined by a (Hamiltonian) constraint between multivector-valued generalized momenta, and points in the configuration space. Starting from a variational principle, we derive local equations of motion, that is, differential equations that determine classical surfaces and momenta. A local Hamilton-Jacobi equation applicable in the field theory then follows readily. The general method is illustrated with three examples: non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics, De Donder-Weyl scalar field theory, and string theory.
The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardi, Martino; Osher, Stanley
1991-01-01
Simple inequalities are presented for the viscosity solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimensions when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave). The initial data are uniformly Lipschitz and can be written as the sum of a convex function in a group of variables and a concave function in the remaining variables, therefore including the nonconvex Riemann problem. The inequalities become equalities wherever a 'maxmin' equals a 'minmax', and thus a representation formula for this problem is obtained, generalizing the classical Hopi formulas.
Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.
Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C
2008-08-01
The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378
Scalar particles emission from black holes with topological defects using Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusufi, Kimet
2015-11-01
We study quantum tunneling of charged and uncharged scalar particles from the event horizon of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes pierced by an infinitely long spinning cosmic string and a global monopole. In order to find the Hawking temperature and the tunneling probability we solve the Klein-Gordon equation by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation. We show that Hawking temperature is independent of the presence of topological defects in both cases.
On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel
2016-05-01
We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.
Coordinates Used in Derivation of Hawking Radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; He, Xiaokai; Liu, Wenbiao
2009-05-01
Coordinates used in derivation of Hawking radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi method are investigated more deeply. In the case of a 4-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole, a direct computation leads to a wrong result. In the meantime, making use of the isotropic coordinate or invariant radial distance, we can get the correct conclusion. More coordinates including Painleve and Eddington-Finkelstein are tried to calculate the semi-classical Hawking emission rate. The reason of the discrepancy between naive coordinate and well-behaved coordinates is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bijoy K.; Janicki, Marek R.; Ayers, Paul W.
2004-10-01
Classical dynamics can be described with Newton's equation of motion or, totally equivalently, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here, the possibility of using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to describe chemical reaction dynamics is explored. This requires an efficient computational approach for constructing the physically and chemically relevant solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation; here we solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations on a Cartesian grid using Sethian's fast marching method [J. A. Sethian, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1591 (1996)]. Using this method, we can—starting from an arbitrary initial conformation—find reaction paths that minimize the action or the time. The method is demonstrated by computing the mechanism for two different systems: a model system with four different stationary configurations and the H+H2→H2+H reaction. Least-time paths (termed brachistochrones in classical mechanics) seem to be a suitable chioce for the reaction coordinate, allowing one to determine the key intermediates and final product of a chemical reaction. For conservative systems the Hamilton-Jacobi equation does not depend on the time, so this approach may be useful for simulating systems where important motions occur on a variety of different time scales.
A practical approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elvang, Henriette; Hadjiantonis, Marios
2016-06-01
We revisit the subject of holographic renormalization for asymptotically AdS spacetimes. For many applications of holography, one has to handle the divergences associated with the on-shell gravitational action. The brute force approach uses the Fefferman- Graham (FG) expansion near the AdS boundary to identify the divergences, but subsequent reversal of the expansion is needed to construct the infinite counterterms. While in principle straightforward, the method is cumbersome and application/reversal of FG is formally unsatisfactory. Various authors have proposed an alternative method based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. However, this approach may appear to be abstract, difficult to implement, and in some cases limited in applicability. In this paper, we clarify the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization and present a simple algorithm for its implementation to extract cleanly the infinite counterterms. While the derivation of the method relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the actual application of our algorithm does not. The work applies to any D-dimensional holographic dual with asymptotic AdS boundary, Euclidean or Lorentzian, and arbitrary slicing. We illustrate the method in several examples, including the FGPW model, a holographic model of 3d ABJM theory, and cases with marginal scalars such as a dilaton-axion system.
Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework for optimal control in multistage energy systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieniutycz, Stanislaw
2000-03-01
We enunciate parallelism for structures of variational principles in mechanics and thermodynamics in terms of the duality for thermoeconomic problems of maximizing of production profit and net profit which can be transferred to duality for least action and least abbreviated action which appear in mechanics. With the parallelism in mind, we review theory and macroscopic applications of a recently developed discrete formalism of Hamilton-Jacobi type which arises when Bellman's method of dynamic programming is applied to optimize active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multistage energy systems with free intervals of an independent variable. Our original contribution develops a generalized theory for discrete processes in which these intervals can reside in the model inhomogeneously and can be constrained. We consider applications to multistage thermal machines, controlled unit operations, spontaneous relaxations, nonlinear heat conduction, and self-propagating reaction-diffusion fronts. They all satisfy a basic functional equation that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJB equation) and a related discrete optimization algorithm with a maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. Correspondence is shown with the well-known HJB theory for continuous processes when the number of stages approaches an infinity. We show that a common unifying criterion, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy, can be proven to act locally in the majority of considered cases, although the related global statements can be invalid far from equilibrium. General limits are found which bound the consumption of the classical work potential (exergy) for finite durations.
MHC, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis.
Buczek, M; Okarma, H; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Radwan, J
2016-03-01
The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. Infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. However, the link between immune genes, infection and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. Here, we explored whether the presence and identity of functional variants (supertypes) of the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is responsible for the recognition of parasites, predict the load of lung and gut parasites and antler development in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). While we found MHC supertypes to be associated with infection by a number of parasite species, including debilitating lung nematodes, we did not find support for the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. On the contrary, we found that lung nematode load was positively associated with antler development. We also found that the supertypes that were associated with resistance to certain parasites at the same time cause susceptibility to others. Such trade-offs may undermine the potential genetic benefits of mate choice for resistant partners. PMID:26687843
Structure and metamorphism of the Franciscan Complex, Mt. Hamilton area, Northern California
Blake, M.C., Jr.; Wentworth, C.M.
1999-01-01
Truncation of metamorphic isograds and fold axes within coherent terranes of Franciscan metagraywacke by intervening zones of melange indicate that the melange is tectonic and formed after the subduction-related metamorphism and folding. These relations are expressed in two terranes of blueschist-facies rocks of the Franciscan Complex in the Mt. Hamilton area, northern California-the Jurassic Yolla Bolly terrane and the structurally underlying Cretaceous Burnt Hills terrane. Local preservation in both terranes of basal radiolarian chert and oceanic basalt beneath continent-derived metagraywacke and argillite demonstrates thrust repetition within the coherent terranes, although these relations are scarce near Mt. Hamilton. The metagraywackes range from albite-pumpellyite blueschists to those containing well-crystallized jadeitic pyroxene, and a jadeite-in isograd can be defined in parts of the area. Primary bedding defines locally coherent structural orientations and folds within the metagraywacke units. These units are crosscut by thin zones of tectonic melange containing blocks of high-grade blueschist, serpentinite, and other exotic rocks, and a broader, but otherwise identical melange zone marks the discordant boundary between the two terranes.
1989 Alice Hamilton lecture. Lead and human health: background and recent findings.
Lippmann, M
1990-02-01
This paper, prepared in tribute to Dr. Alice Hamilton on her 120th birthday, reviews her pioneering studies of occupational lead poisoning and its control, her largely unheeded warnings about the possible consequences of widespread lead exposure to the general public through the use of leaded fuel, and the results of recent studies of human exposure to and health effects of lead in the general environment. Evidence is presented for dose-related non-threshold effects for children with blood lead concentrations below 25 micrograms/dl for a variety of effects including verbal IQ; mental development; physical size; and age at physical milestones such as first steps, hearing thresholds, and postural sway. For adults, various studies have produced associations between blood pressure and blood lead concentrations below 35 micrograms/dl, suggesting possible effects on cardiovascular health. While the biological mechanisms responsible for these effects remain poorly understood, recent and current efforts to reduce exposure to lead by the virtual elimination of lead in gasoline and food packaging show that we have learned one of Dr. Hamilton's important lessons, i.e., that the most effective means of reducing excessive exposures are through control of the environmental sources. PMID:2404752
On the connection between Hamilton and Lagrange formalism in quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villalba-Chávez, Selym; Alkofer, Reinhard; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-08-01
The connection between the Hamilton and the standard Lagrange formalism is established for a generic quantum field theory with vanishing vacuum expectation values of the fundamental fields. The effective actions in both formalisms are the same if and only if the fundamental fields and the momentum fields are related by the stationarity condition. These momentum fields in general differ from the canonical fields as defined via the effective action. By means of functional methods a systematic procedure is presented to identify the full correlation functions, which depend on the momentum fields, as functionals of those usually appearing in the standard Lagrange formalism. Whereas Lagrange correlation functions can be decomposed into tree diagrams, the decomposition of Hamilton correlation functions involves loop corrections similar to those arising in n-particle effective actions. To demonstrate the method we derive for theories with linearized interactions the propagators of composite auxiliary fields and the ones of the fundamental degrees of freedom. The formalism is then utilized in the case of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory for which the relations between the two-point correlation functions of the transversal and longitudinal components of the conjugate momentum to the ones of the gauge field are given.
From classical Lagrangians to Hamilton operators in the standard model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, M.
2016-07-01
In this article we investigate whether a theory based on a classical Lagrangian for the minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) can be quantized such that the result is equal to the corresponding low-energy Hamilton operator obtained from the field-theory description. This analysis is carried out for the whole collection of minimal Lagrangians found in the literature. The upshot is that the first quantization can be performed consistently. The unexpected observation is made that at first order in Lorentz violation and at second order in the velocity, the Lagrangians are related to the Hamilton functions by a simple transformation. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that this holds universally. That result is used successfully to obtain classical Lagrangians for two complicated sectors of the minimal SME that have not been considered in the literature so far. Therefore, it will not be an obstacle anymore to derive such Lagrangians even for involved sets of coefficients—at least to the level of approximation stated above.
Marvin, C.H.; McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.; Bryant, D.W.
1995-06-01
Aggregates of dreissenid mussels were collected in Hamilton Harbour (western Lake Ontario) from a south shore site (Randle Reef) in an area characterized by coal tar-contaminated sediments, and from a site on the north shore exposed to particulates circulating in the harbour water column. Samples were separated into three components: dreissend mussels, gammarid amphipods (Gammarus fasciatus), and particulate material. The samples were freeze-dried, and extracted using ultrasonication in dichloromethane. The organic solvent extracts were subjected to an open-column alumina and Sephadex LH-20 gel column clean-up procedure, and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles of all sample extracts were dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentrations of the individual compounds were normalized for contaminant profile comparison of the extracts of dreissenids, amphipods, and particulates associated with aggregates of dreissenid mussels. These profiles were also compared with extracts of coal tar-contaminated sediment from the Randle Reef area, and extracts of suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates in Hamilton Harbour are being accumulated by dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods.
Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013
Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M
2014-01-01
The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks
Massless Spin-Zero Particle and the Classical Action via Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Gödel Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.
2012-08-01
In this letter we investigate the separability of the Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Gödel universe. We show that the Klein-Gordon eigen modes are quantized and the complete spectrum of the particle's energy is a mixture of an azimuthal quantum number, m and a principal quantum number, n and a continuous wave number k. We also show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation gives a closed function for classical action. These results may be used to calculate the Casimir vacuum energy in Gödel universe.
Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf
Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.
1994-11-01
Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Lui, Tun Hing
2015-01-01
A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826
Marvin, C.H.; Allan, L.; McCarry, B.E.; Bryant, D.W. )
1993-01-01
Highly contaminated sediment from the Hamilton Harbour area of western Lake Ontario was examined using a bioassay-directed fractionation methodology. A sediment sample was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and the resulting extract was fractionated into compound classes using an alumina clean-up step and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques. The resulting fractions were subjected to bioassays using TA98- and TA100-like strains modified by the inclusion of genes for the activating enzymes nitroreductase and O-acetyl-transferase. The majority of the mutagenic activity displayed by the sample extract was found to be present in the fraction containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Extracts of the PAH-containing fraction displayed dramatically higher responses with the TA100 type strains with metabolic activation. Further separation of the PAH-containing fraction showed the majority of the biological activity coeluted with PAH having molecular masses of 276, 278, and 302 amu.
Landau-Lifshitz magnetodynamics as a Hamilton model: Magnons in an instanton background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Wang, Kang L.
2010-07-01
To take full advantage of the well-developed field-theoretic methods, Magnonics needs a yet-existing Lagrangian formulation. Here, we show that Landau-Lifshitz magnetodynamics is a member of the covariant-Schrödinger-equation family of Hamilton models and apply the covariant background method arriving at the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian formalism for magnons in an instanton background. Magnons appear to be nonrelativistic spinless bosons, which feel instantons as a gauge field and as a Bose condensate. Among the examples of the usefulness of the proposition is the recognition of the instanton-induced phase shifts in magnons as the Berry phase and the interpretation of the spin-transfer-torque generation as a ferromagnetic counterpart of the Josephson supercurrent.
Green, Jonathan P; Freckleton, Robert P; Hatchwell, Ben J
2016-01-01
Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604
Nice to kin and nasty to non-kin: revisiting Hamilton's early insights on eusociality.
Boomsma, Jacobus J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia
2013-01-01
When helping behaviour is costly, Hamiltonian logic implies that animals need to direct helpful acts towards kin, so that indirect fitness benefits justify the costs. We revisit inferences about nepotism and aggression in Hamilton's 1964 paper to argue that he overestimated the general significance of nepotism, but that other issues that he raised continue to suggest novel research agendas today. We now know that nepotism in eusocial insects is rare, because variation in genetic recognition cues is insufficient. A lower proportion of individuals breeding and larger clutch sizes selecting for a more uniform colony odour may explain this. Irreversible worker sterility can induce both the fiercest possible aggression and the highest likelihood of helping random distant kin, but these Hamiltonian contentions still await large-scale testing in social animals. PMID:24132094
Lane-Hamilton syndrome: case report and review of the literature.
Hendrickx, Guy F M; Somers, Katia; Vandenplas, Yvan
2011-12-01
We report a case of a three-and-a-half-year-old boy, who presented with poor general condition, stunted growth, had the presence of nail clubbing, persistent cough and frequent diarrhoea. Persistent iron deficiency anaemia without signs of haemolysis suggested Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) which is or/is an extremely rare combination of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) and celiac disease (CD), although both diseases are immunologically mediated and the pathogenetic link between them is not clear. We have now 3 years of follow-up on gluten-free diet (GFD), resulting in a gradual recovery of the abnormal laboratory results in combination with an improving growth. Clinically, he is asymptomatic without any additional treatment. Our case illustrates that CD should be specifically looked for in patients with IPH, especially those in whom the severity of anaemia is disproportionate to the IPH symptoms. Both diseases may benefit from a GFD. PMID:21947219
On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuch, Dieter
1993-01-01
According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.
Constants of the motion, universal time and the Hamilton-Jacobi function in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Hara, Paul
2013-04-01
In most text books of mechanics, Newton's laws or Hamilton's equations of motion are first written down and then solved based on initial conditions to determine the constants of the motions and to describe the trajectories of the particles. In this essay, we take a different starting point. We begin with the metrics of general relativity and show how they can be used to construct by inspection constants of motion, which can then be used to write down the equations of the trajectories. This will be achieved by deriving a Hamiltonian-Jacobi function from the metric and showing that its existence requires all of the above mentioned properties. The article concludes by showing that a consistent theory of such functions also requires the need for a universal measure of time which can be identified with the "worldtime" parameter, first introduced by Steuckelberg and later developed by Horwitz and Piron.
Green, Jonathan P.; Freckleton, Robert P.; Hatchwell, Ben J.
2016-01-01
Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604
Refinement of the Hamilton-Jacobi solution using a second canonical transformation
Gabella, W.E. . Dept. of Physics); Ruth, R.D.; Warnock, R.L. )
1991-05-01
Two canonical transformations are implemented to find approximate invariant surface for a nonlinear, time-periodic Hamiltonian. The first transformation is found from the non-perturbative, iterative solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The residual angle dependence remaining after performing the transformation is mostly eliminated by a second, perturbative transformation. This refinement can improve the accuracy, or the speed, of the invariant surface calculation. The motion of a single particle in one transverse dimension is studied in a storage ring example where strong sextupole magnets are the source of nonlinearity. The refined transformation to action-angle variables, and the corresponding invariant surface, can attain accuracy similar to that of a good non-perturbative transformation in half the computation time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath
Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2005-06-15
Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, Anthony J.; Melamed, Nahum
1993-01-01
In this paper we develop a general procedure for constructing a matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation based on the method of characteristics. The development is for a class of perturbation problems whose solution exhibits two-time-scale behavior. A regular expansion for problems of this type is inappropriate since it is not uniformly valid over a narrow range of the independent variable. Of particular interest here is the manner in which matching and boundary conditions are enforced when the expansion is carried out to first order. Two cases are distinguished - one where the left boundary condition coincides with or lies to the right of the singular region and one where the left boundary condition lies to the left of the singular region. A simple example is used to illustrate the procedure, and its potential application to aeroassisted plane change is described.
Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator.
Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi
2013-12-01
Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions. PMID:24320362
The classical limit of minimal length uncertainty relation: revisit with the Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaobo; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2016-05-01
The existence of a minimum measurable length could deform not only the standard quantum mechanics but also classical physics. The effects of the minimal length on classical orbits of particles in a gravitation field have been investigated before, using the deformed Poisson bracket or Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we first use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to derive the deformed equations of motion in the context of Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. We then employ them to study the precession of planetary orbits, deflection of light, and time delay in radar propagation. We also set limits on the deformation parameter by comparing our results with the observational measurements. Finally, comparison with results from previous papers is given at the end of this paper.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.
Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.
1997-01-01
Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J), level set, and Eikonal equations on triangulated domains are presented. The first scheme is a provably monotone discretization for certain forms of the H-J equations. Unfortunately, the basic scheme lacks proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. By employing a virtual edge flipping technique, Lipschitz continuity of the numerical flux is restored on acute triangulations. Next, schemes are introduced and developed based on the weaker concept of positive coefficient approximations for homogeneous Hamiltonians. These schemes possess a discrete maximum principle on arbitrary triangulations and naturally exhibit proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. Finally, a class of Petrov-Galerkin approximations are considered. These schemes are stabilized via a least-squares bilinear form. The Petrov-Galerkin schemes do not possess a discrete maximum principle but generalize to high order accuracy.
A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for termination of seizure-like bursting.
Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff
2014-10-01
We use Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods to find minimum-time and energy-optimal control strategies to terminate seizure-like bursting behavior in a conductance-based neural model. Averaging is used to eliminate fast variables from the model, and a target set is defined through bifurcation analysis of the slow variables of the model. This method is illustrated for a single neuron model and for a network model to illustrate its efficacy in terminating bursting once it begins. This work represents a numerical proof-of-concept that a new class of control strategies can be employed to mitigate bursting, and could ultimately be adapted to treat medically intractible epilepsy in patient-specific models. PMID:24965911
Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for dynamical horizons in different coordinate gauges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Criscienzo, Roberto; Hayward, Sean A.; Nadalini, Mario; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio
2010-01-01
Previous work on dynamical black hole instability is further elucidated within the Hamilton-Jacobi method for horizon tunneling and the reconstruction of the classical action by means of the null expansion method. Everything is based on two natural requirements, namely that the tunneling rate is an observable and therefore it must be based on invariantly defined quantities, and that coordinate systems which do not cover the horizon should not be admitted. These simple observations can help to clarify some ambiguities, like the doubling of the temperature occurring in the static case when using singular coordinates and the role, if any, of the temporal contribution of the action to the emission rate. The formalism is also applied to FRW cosmological models, where it is observed that it predicts the positivity of the temperature naturally, without further assumptions on the sign of energy.
Gauge symmetry of the N-body problem in the Hamilton-Jacobi approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efroimsky, Michael; Goldreich, Peter
2003-12-01
In most books the Delaunay and Lagrange equations for the orbital elements are derived by the Hamilton-Jacobi method: one begins with the two-body Hamilton equations in spherical coordinates, performs a canonical transformation to the orbital elements, and obtains the Delaunay system. A standard trick is then used to generalize the approach to the N-body case. We reexamine this step and demonstrate that it contains an implicit condition which restricts the dynamics to a 9(N-1)-dimensional submanifold of the 12(N-1)-dimensional space spanned by the elements and their time derivatives. The tacit condition is equivalent to the constraint that Lagrange imposed ``by hand'' to remove the excessive freedom, when he was deriving his system of equations by variation of parameters. It is the condition of the orbital elements being osculating, i.e., of the instantaneous ellipse (or hyperbola) being always tangential to the physical velocity. Imposure of any supplementary condition different from the Lagrange constraint (but compatible with the equations of motion) is legitimate and will not alter the physical trajectory or velocity (though will alter the mathematical form of the planetary equations). This freedom of nomination of the supplementary constraint reveals a gauge-type internal symmetry instilled into the equations of celestial mechanics. Existence of this internal symmetry has consequences for the stability of numerical integrators. Another important aspect of this freedom is that any gauge different from that of Lagrange makes the Delaunay system noncanonical. In a more general setting, when the disturbance depends not only upon positions but also upon velocities, there is a ``generalized Lagrange gauge'' wherein the Delaunay system is symplectic. This special gauge renders orbital elements that are osculating in the phase space. It coincides with the regular Lagrange gauge when the perturbation is velocity independent.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicolaidis, Mary; Sica, Michael
The major goal of Project SPEED (at Fort Hamilton High School, Brooklyn, New York) was dropout prevention. In its first year of operation, 1982-83, the project provided English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction, bilingual instruction in basic skills required for graduation, and guidance services to approximately 300 limited English proficient…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blight, David W.
2002-01-01
Presents the story of Charles Hamilton Houston, an African American legal scholar who led a crusade focused on equal educational opportunities and facilities for African American students. He used the courts to force Americans to listen to his message about racial subjugation, segregation, and lynch law. (SM)
76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-08
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-15
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osetrin, Konstantin; Filippov, Altair; Osetrin, Evgeny
2016-01-01
The characteristics of dust matter in spacetime models, admitting the existence of privilege coordinate systems are given, where the single-particle Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be integrated by the method of complete separation of variables. The resulting functional form of the 4-velocity field and energy density of matter for all types of spaces under consideration is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.
1974-01-01
The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhongwen; Li, Guoping; Jiang, Pengying; Pan, Yang; Zu, Xiaotao
2016-07-01
In this paper, we derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations from the generalized Klein-Gordon equation and generalized Dirac equation. Then, we study the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and entropy of the higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordström de Sitter black hole via the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our results show that the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for charged scalar particles and charged fermions have the same expressions. Besides, the modified Hawking temperatures and entropy are related to the mass and charge of the black hole, the cosmology constant, the quantum number of emitted particles, and the term of GUP effects β.
Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation
Wyatt, Robert E.; Chou, Chia-Chun
2011-08-21
A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Moebius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.
Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.
1984-10-01
Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.
Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.
Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan
2008-01-01
Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164
Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Ren, Zhanmei
2015-09-01
We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second order differential system (SODS) and the first order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which exhibit some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different from the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison- Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but not introduced by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.