Sample records for laboratory conditions similar

  1. Pathogenesis of Malaria and Clinically Similar Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Alleva, Lisa M.; Mills, Alison C.; Cowden, William B.

    2004-01-01

    There is now wide acceptance of the concept that the similarity between many acute infectious diseases, be they viral, bacterial, or parasitic in origin, is caused by the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines initiated when the organism interacts with the innate immune system. This is also true of certain noninfectious states, such as the tissue injury syndromes. This review discusses the historical origins of these ideas, which began with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and spread from their origins in malaria research to other fields. As well the more established proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF, interleukin-1, and lymphotoxin, the roles of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, which are chiefly inhibitory, are discussed. The established and potential roles of two more recently recognized contributors, overactivity of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and the escape of high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) protein from its normal location into the circulation, are also put in context. The pathogenesis of the disease caused by falciparum malaria is then considered in the light of what has been learned about the roles of these mediators in these other diseases, as well as in malaria itself. PMID:15258091

  2. Similarity Criteria for the Laboratory Simulation of Supernova Hydrodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Ryutov; R. P. Drake; J. Kane; E. Liang; B. A. Remington; W. M. Wood-Vasey

    1999-01-01

    The conditions for validity and the limitations of experiments intended to simulate astrophysical hydrodynamics are discussed, with application to some ongoing experiments. For systems adequately described by the Euler equations, similarity criteria required for properly scaled experiments are identified. The conditions for the applicability of the Euler equations are formulated, based on the analysis of localization, heat conduction, viscosity, and

  3. SIMILARITY OF CONDITIONED FEAR RESPONSES BASED UPON DIFFERENT AVERSIVE EVENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VINCENT M. LOLORDO

    1967-01-01

    A NEW TECHNIQUE WAS EMPLOYED TO DETERMINE WHETHER CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES (CERS) BASED UPON ELECTRIC SHOCKS AND LOUD NOISES WERE SIMILAR. WHILE 8 DOGS DEPRESSED A PANEL TO AVOID ELECTRIC SHOCK ON A SIDMAN AVOIDANCE SCHEDULE, THEY RECEIVED CLASSICAL CONDITIONING TRIALS IN WHICH CS+ WAS FOLLOWED BY AN UNAVOIDABLE LOUD NOISE UCS; A 2ND STIMULUS SERVED AS CS-. A

  4. 9 CFR 327.19 - Specimens for laboratory examination and similar purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.19 Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...specimens of products for laboratory examination,...

  5. 9 CFR 327.19 - Specimens for laboratory examination and similar purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.19 Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...specimens of products for laboratory examination,...

  6. 9 CFR 327.19 - Specimens for laboratory examination and similar purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.19 Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...specimens of products for laboratory examination,...

  7. 9 CFR 327.19 - Specimens for laboratory examination and similar purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.19 Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...specimens of products for laboratory examination,...

  8. 9 CFR 327.19 - Specimens for laboratory examination and similar purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.19 Specimens for laboratory examination and similar...specimens of products for laboratory examination,...

  9. Anonymous indexing of health conditions for a similarity measure.

    PubMed

    Song, Insu; Marsh, Nigel V

    2012-07-01

    A health social network is an online information service which facilitates information sharing between closely related members of a community with the same or a similar health condition. Over the years, many automated recommender systems have been developed for social networking in order to help users find their communities of interest. For health social networking, the ideal source of information for measuring similarities of patients is the medical information of the patients. However, it is not desirable that such sensitive and private information be shared over the Internet. This is also true for many other security sensitive domains. A new information-sharing scheme is developed where each patient is represented as a small number of (possibly disjoint) d-words (discriminant words) and the d-words are used to measure similarities between patients without revealing sensitive personal information. The d-words are simple words like "food,'' and thus do not contain identifiable personal information. This makes our method an effective one-way hashing of patient assessments for a similarity measure. The d-words can be easily shared on the Internet to find peers who might have similar health conditions. PMID:22531815

  10. Radionuclide migration experiments under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Vandergraaf

    1995-01-01

    Arguments are given in favour of performing non-conservative radionuclide migration experiments in natural and artificial fractures under laboratory conditions. Results are presented from a series of migration experiments performed in a natural fracture in a quarried block of granite with overall dimensions of 81 × 90 × 75 cm. These experiments were conducted in a dedicated experimental facility and were

  11. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1403 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director. 493.1441 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for...

  1. Radionuclide migration experiments under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Vandergraaf

    1995-01-01

    Arguments are given in favor of performing non-conservative radionuclide migration experiments in natural and artificial fractures under laboratory conditions. Results are presented from a series of migration experiments performed in a natural fracture in a quarried block of granite with overall dimensions of 81×90×75 cm. These experiments were conducted in a dedicated experimental facility and were designed to complement field

  2. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230 Section... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230 Section... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230 Section... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230 Section... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230 Section... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1355 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; laboratory director. 493.1355 Section 493.1355...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1355 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; laboratory director. 493.1355 Section 493.1355...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1355 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; laboratory director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; laboratory director. 493.1355 Section 493.1355...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived...

  10. Growth of phototrophic biofilms from limestone monuments under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Zélia Miller; Leonila Laiz; Amélia Dionísio; Maria Filomena Macedo; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, five phototrophic biofilms from different Southern Europe limestone monuments were characterised by molecular techniques and cultivated under laboratory conditions. Phototrophic biofilms were collected from Orologio Tower in Martano (Italy), Santa Clara-a-Velha Monastery and Ajuda National Palace, both in Portugal, and Seville and Granada Cathedrals from Spain. The biofilms were grown under laboratory conditions and periodically sampled

  11. Evaluation of Laboratory Conditioning Protocols for Warm-Mix Asphalt 

    E-print Network

    Yin, Fan 1990-

    2012-10-26

    ) and off-site Plant Mixed Laboratory Compacted (PMLC) specimens were selected, and their effects on mixture properties were evaluated. Mixture stiffness evaluated in a dry condition using the Resilient Modulus (MR) test (ASTM D-7369) was the main parameter...

  12. Equilibrium similarity, effects of initial conditions and local Reynolds number on the axisymmetric wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter B. V.; George, William K.; Gourlay, Michael J.

    2003-03-01

    Equilibrium similarity considerations are applied to the axisymmetric turbulent wake, without the arbitrary assumptions of earlier theoretical studies. Two solutions for the turbulent flow are found: one for infinite local Reynolds number which grows spatially as x1/3; and another for small local Reynolds number which grows as x1/2. Both solutions can be dependent on the upstream conditions. Also, the local Reynolds number diminishes with increasing downstream distance, so that even when the initial Reynolds number is large, the flow evolves downstream from one state to the other. Most of the available experimental data are at too low an initial Reynolds number and/or are measured too near the wake generator to provide evidence for the x1/3 solution. New results, however, from a laboratory experiment on a disk wake and direct numerical simulations (DNS) are in excellent agreement with this solution, once the flow has had large enough downstream distance to evolve. Beyond this the ratio of turbulence intensity to centerline velocity deficit is constant, until the flow unlocks itself from this behavior when the local Reynolds number goes below about 500 and the viscous terms become important. When this happens the turbulence intensity ratio falls slowly until the x1/2 region is reached. No experimental data are available far enough downstream to provide unambiguous evidence for the x1/2 solution. The prediction that the flow should evolve into such a state, however, is confirmed by recent DNS results which reach the x1/2 solution at about 200 000 momentum thicknesses downstream. After this the turbulence intensity ratio is again constant, until box-size affects the calculation and the energy decays exponentially.

  13. Environmental monitoring programs vs Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) programs: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R E

    1995-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and Good Laboratory Practice programs are similar when looked at empirically. Both address quality issues, human or environmental safety, and have set procedures to assure the concomitant results. However, when compared at the operational level, they can be best described as very different. Good Laboratory Practice programs deal basically with two governmental agencies and their divisions- the Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration. These are administered from the federal level involving no state resources. These programs are objective driven with the procedures being defined in study plans, protocols, and standard operating procedures. The environmental monitoring testing programs deal with a profusion of federal legislation including CERCLA (also known as CLP), RCRA, CWA, CAA, SDWA, NPDES and others. These acts require analysis by specific procedures mandated by the statutes. States operate many of these programs and have been given the authority by the federal government. Many of the states require separate certifications to conduct these analyses. Environmental monitoring testing laboratories often must acquire multiple state certifications to participate in multiple state programs. This is not cost effective and often leads to conflicting requirements. Much of the direction for having a national certification program comes from problems associated with these state-operated programs. PMID:8890354

  14. 42 CFR 493.1481 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  15. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing. 493... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing §...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1361 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1361 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1481 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  16. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing. 493... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing §...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1361 - Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing PPM procedures; testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1481 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytotechnologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  5. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing. 493... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing §...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel. 493.1421 Section 493.1421 Public... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel. 493.1487 Section 493.1487 Public... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  9. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing. 493... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing §...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1421 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1487 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; testing personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1409 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; technical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1447 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; technical supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing...

  2. A quasi-solution approach to Blasius similarity equation with general boundary conditions

    E-print Network

    Tae Eun Kim

    2014-04-08

    A recently developed method \\cite{Costinetal}, \\cite{Dubrovin}, and \\cite{BlasiusCT} is used to find an analytic approximate solution with rigorous error bounds to the classical Blasius similarity equation with general boundary conditions. This provides detailed proofs for the results reported in \\cite{Kim}.

  3. PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

  4. Development Cycle of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Wolff; Eliana Cuartas; Carlos Velásquez; Nicolás Jaramillo

    2004-01-01

    Determinant aspects of the development cycle of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Fertility, duration of life cycle, mortality rate, feeding time, defecation time, thermal reaction time to food source, and volume of blood ingested were studied. From an initial cohort of Þfth instars, nine adult pairs were formed, the females of which oviposited 2,338 eggs over

  5. High-Energy Density Jets Generated by Laser Facilities in Laboratory Astrophysics: Experiments and Self-Similar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falize, E.; Bouquet, S.; Loupias, B.; Koenig, M.; Michaut, C.; Bennuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Ozaki, N.

    2007-07-01

    Recently, we performed laboratory jet experiments using the LULI2000 facility. We tried to characterize completely the generated jets and study their similarity properties. Moreover, we performed analytical work in order to understand experimental results. We tried to find self-similar solutions with the Burgan-Feix transformation that we will present in this paper.

  6. Cable condition monitoring research activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Zigler, G.L.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is currently conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant cables. The objectives of the program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond 40 year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring techniques for predicting remaining cable life. The cables are being aged for long times at relatively mild exposure conditions with various condition monitoring techniques to be employed during the aging process. Following the aging process, the cables will be exposed to a sequential accident profile consisting of high dose rate irradiation followed by a simulated design basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) steam exposure. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  8. Investigation of influence of hypomagnetic conditions closely similar to interplanetary magnetic filed on behavioral and vegetative reactions of higher mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Trukhanov, Kiril; Zamotshina, Tatyana; Zaeva, Olga; Khodanovich, Marina; Misina, Tatyana; Tukhvatulin, Ravil; Suhko, Valery

    To study the influence of long being under reduced magnetic field on behavioral and vegetative reactions of higher mammals the white rat males were put into the 700-1000 times reduced geomagnetic field (50-70 nT) for 25 days. Such field was obtained by using automatic compensation of the horizontal and vertical components of the GMF at a frequencies up to 10 Hz by means of solenoids of the experimental magnetic system. Control animals were located in the same room under usual laboratory GMF conditions (52 uT). Two days before the experiment the behavioral reactions were studied in the "open field" by means of a set of tests, characterizing the level of emotionality, moving and orientational-investigative activities of the animals under conditions of unimpeded behavior. 60 white underbred rat males with the initial body mass of 200 g were divided into three clusters. Animals with average indices were selected for the experiment. We have judged behavioral reaction disturbances of the rats under hypomagnetic conditions using videotape recordings carried out in the entire course of the chronic experiment. According to the obtained results during the period of maximum activity (from 230 to 330 a.m.) the number of interrelations between the individuals increased appreciably for experimental rats including interrelations with aggressive character. This was real during all 25 days of observation. We observed a certain dynamics of this index differed from that of the control group. We have also analyzed the final period of observation from the 21th to the 25th days. In this period we studied the 24 hours' dynamics of interrelations which were noted during 5 minutes in every hour around the clock. In the control group the number of interrelation was at a constantly low level. For experimental animals the number of interrelations was higher in the night hours than in the day ones. Moreover it exceeded the similar indexes observed from the 1st to the 20th day. For example from 300 to 305 a.m. on the 23th day we recorded 27 contacts of aggressive character between the individuals. So, in hypomagnetic field conditions the irritability of the animals' central nervous system grows, that expresses itself in the increase of contacts of aggressive and non-aggressive character between the individuals. Also we have carried out the Spirman correlation analysis between studied indices of moving activity and chemiluminescence of blood plasma and urine, electrolytic composition of urine and muscles. For control animals the quantity of correlation connections between electrolyte concentrations in studied substrata was higher than for experimental animals. The physiological sense of these correlation connections is discussed.

  9. The Relationship of Belief Similarity to Attraction Following Conditioning and Generalization of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.; Stonner, David

    Most studies of interpersonal attraction and rejection have come to the unremarkable conclusion that persons who are perceived as similar to one's self in beliefs and values are liked better than those perceived as dissimilar. This experiment was designed to vary in an orthogonal design (1) perceived similarity between a subject and another…

  10. A comparative analysis of Painleve, Lax pair, and similarity transformation methods in obtaining the integrability conditions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    SciTech Connect

    Al Khawaja, U. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17551, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-05-15

    We derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations using the Lax pair and similarity transformation methods. We present a comparative analysis of these integrability conditions with those of the Painleve method. We show that while the Painleve integrability conditions restrict the dispersion, nonlinearity, and dissipation/gain coefficients to be space independent and the external potential to be only a quadratic function of position, the Lax Pair and the similarity transformation methods allow for space-dependent coefficients and an external potential that is not restricted to the quadratic form. The integrability conditions of the Painleve method are retrieved as a special case of our general integrability conditions. We also derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations for two- and three-spacial dimensions.

  11. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 ?g/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 ?g/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress. PMID:20888428

  12. 42 CFR 493.807 - Condition: Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Reinstatement of laboratories performing nonwaived testing. 493.807 Section 493.807 Public...REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing § 493.807 Condition:...

  13. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Zélia Miller; Leonila Laiz; Juan Miguel Gonzalez; Amélia Dionísio; Maria Filomena Macedo; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation

  14. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  15. Stratigraphy and Hydrologic Conditions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vicinity,

    E-print Network

    Stratigraphy and Hydrologic Conditions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vicinity, Suffolk in cooperation with the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy #12;Cover Photo: View of Brookhaven National Laboratory, March 1997, showing developed area near center of site, sewage treatment

  16. Agreement of measured fusion gains with the self-similarity model and volume ignition for NIF conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hora, Heinrich [University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Azechi, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Murakami, M.; Nishihara, K.; Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-04-15

    Comparing the recent results of the highest fusion gains with direct and indirect drive from Rochester, Osaka and Arzamas-16, the results are well reproduced by the self similarity model of nearly ideal adiabatic compression. Measurements with high shock wave generation do not fit the model as is explained by the high deviation from the isentropic conditions of the adiabats of the self similarity model. The conclusion for higher input energy results in volume ignition developed since 1977 by numerous teams with very high net fusion gains close to those from spark ignition. Self similarity volume ignition computations are checked by different codes and compared. This seems to be a new computational access for formulating conditions in the NIF range which rather easily could be covered by direct drive using the stagnation-free laser compression well experienced at ILE Osaka, but may be valid also for indirect drive with less complex laser irradiation profiles.

  17. Hind limb unloading, a model of spaceflight conditions, leads to decreased B lymphopoiesis similar to aging.

    PubMed

    Lescale, Chloé; Schenten, Véronique; Djeghloul, Dounia; Bennabi, Meriem; Gaignier, Fanny; Vandamme, Katleen; Strazielle, Catherine; Kuzniak, Isabelle; Petite, Hervé; Dosquet, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Goodhardt, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Within the bone marrow, the endosteal niche plays a crucial role in B-cell differentiation. Because spaceflight is associated with osteoporosis, we investigated whether changes in bone microstructure induced by a ground-based model of spaceflight, hind limb unloading (HU), could affect B lymphopoiesis. To this end, we analyzed both bone parameters and the frequency of early hematopoietic precursors and cells of the B lineage after 3, 6, 13, and 21 d of HU. We found that limb disuse leads to a decrease in both bone microstructure and the frequency of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Although multipotent hematopoietic progenitors were not affected by HU, a decrease in B lymphopoiesis was observed as of the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage with a major block at the progenitor B (pro-B) to precursor B (pre-B) cell transition (5- to 10-fold decrease). The modifications in B lymphopoiesis were similar to those observed in aged mice and, as with aging, decreased B-cell generation in HU mice was associated with reduced expression of B-cell transcription factors, early B-cell factor (EBF) and Pax5, and an alteration in STAT5-mediated IL-7 signaling. These findings demonstrate that mechanical unloading of hind limbs results in a decrease in early B-cell differentiation resembling age-related modifications in B lymphopoiesis. PMID:25376832

  18. Exploring the nature of collisionless shocks under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stockem, A.; Fiuza, F.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-01-01

    Collisionless shocks are pervasive in astrophysics and they are critical to understand cosmic ray acceleration. Laboratory experiments with intense lasers are now opening the way to explore and characterise the underlying microphysics, which determine the acceleration process of collisionless shocks. We determine the shock character – electrostatic or electromagnetic – based on the stability of electrostatic shocks to transverse electromagnetic fluctuations as a function of the electron temperature and flow velocity of the plasma components, and we compare the analytical model with particle-in-cell simulations. By making the connection with the laser parameters driving the plasma flows, we demonstrate that shocks with different and distinct underlying microphysics can be explored in the laboratory with state-of-the-art laser systems. PMID:24488212

  19. Exploring the nature of collisionless shocks under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Stockem, A; Fiuza, F; Bret, A; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2014-01-01

    Collisionless shocks are pervasive in astrophysics and they are critical to understand cosmic ray acceleration. Laboratory experiments with intense lasers are now opening the way to explore and characterise the underlying microphysics, which determine the acceleration process of collisionless shocks. We determine the shock character - electrostatic or electromagnetic - based on the stability of electrostatic shocks to transverse electromagnetic fluctuations as a function of the electron temperature and flow velocity of the plasma components, and we compare the analytical model with particle-in-cell simulations. By making the connection with the laser parameters driving the plasma flows, we demonstrate that shocks with different and distinct underlying microphysics can be explored in the laboratory with state-of-the-art laser systems. PMID:24488212

  20. A laboratory acoustic emission experiment under in situ conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, S. D.; Young, R. P.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit acoustic emission (AE) data from an in situ rock fracture experiment conducted at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Manitoba, Canada. The Mine-By experiment, a large-scale excavation response test, was undertaken at a depth of 420 m and involved the mechanical excavation of a cylindrical tunnel. During the experiment a small array of 16 Panametrics V103 AE sensors enclosed a 0.7 m × 0.7 m × 1.1 m rectangular prism of Lac du Bonnet granite located in the tunnel wall. The V103 sensors were later calibrated in the laboratory, and a source parameter analysis was undertaken using a spectral fitting method. Corner frequency and moment magnitude were found to be inside the ranges 250 kHz

  1. Gas exchange responses of Chesapeake Bay tidal marsh species under field and laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. DeJong; B. G. Drake; R. W. Pearcy

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and field gas exchange measurements were made on C3 (Scirpus olneyi Gray) and C4 (Spartina patens (Ait.) Mahl., Distichlis spicata (L.) Green) species from an irregularly flooded tidal marsh on the Chesapeake Bay. Laboratory measurements were made on plants grown from root stocks that were transplanted to a greenhouse and grown under high light and high nutrient conditions. The

  2. SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

  3. Training of astronauts in laboratory-aircraft under weightless conditions for work in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khrunov, Y. V.; Chekidra, I. F.; Kolosov, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    Analyses of occupational activities of astronauts in laboratory-aircraft flights simulating weightlessness conditions permit the development of training methods and optimization of the interaction of man with various spacecraft designs.

  4. Weathering rates of marble in laboratory and outdoor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yerrapragada, S.S.; Chirra, S.R.; Jaynes, J.H.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Gauri, K.L. [Univ of Louisville, KY (United States); Li, S. [Metro Services Lab., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the modern urban atmosphere SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} attack calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) in marble exposed at rain-sheltered surfaces creating largely gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) crusts that eventually exfoliate. In combination with CO{sub 2} these gases erode the marble at unsheltered surfaces. the authors report the development of mathematical models to predict the rate of growth of crust and the rate of surface recession. To determine the rate of growth of crust the kinetic rate constant, diffusion rate, and the order of reaction were determined by the application of the shrinking-core model applied to data generated in laboratory experiments. Based on these parameters /and average ambient levels of 10 parts per billion (ppb) SO{sub 2} and 25 ppb NO{sub 2} in Louisville, Ky., the rate of crust formation for this metro area was calculated to be 1.8 {micro}m in the first year. However, the rate of recession was modeled from data obtained by exposing marble slabs to rainfalls. A surface recession of 15 {micro}m/yr was calculated. The models predicted well the rate of growth of crust observed at several sites in Louisville and the predicted surface recession compared well with values reported in the literature.

  5. Laboratory study of frazil ice accumulation under wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rosa, S.; Maus, S.

    2011-07-01

    Ice growth in turbulent seawater is often accompanied by the accumulation of frazil ice crystals at its surface. The thickness and volume fraction of this ice layer play an important role in shaping the gradual transition from a loose to a solid ice cover, however, observations are very sparse. Here we analyse an extensive set of observations of frazil ice, grown in two parallel tanks with controlled wave conditions and thermal forcing, focusing on the first one to two days of grease ice accumulation. The following unresolved issues are addressed: (i) at which volume fraction the frazil crystal rising process starts and how densely they accumulate at the surface, (ii) how the grease ice solid fraction evolves with time until solid ice starts to form and (iii) how do these conditions affect, and are affected by, waves and heat loss from the ice. We obtained estimates of the initial frazil ice solid fraction (0.04-0.05), the maximum solid fraction to which it accumulates (0.24-0.28), as well as the time-scale of packing, at which 95 % of the frazil reaches the maximum solid fraction (12-18 h). Comparison of ice thickness and wave observations also indicates that grease ice first begins to affect the wave field significantly when its thickness exceeds the initial wave amplitude. These results are relevant for modelling frazil ice accumulation and freeze-up of leads, polynyas and the seasonal ice zone.

  6. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanta, Vojt?ch; Doležal, Ji?í; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30 %. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

  7. Laboratory study of frazil ice accumulation under wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rosa, S.; Maus, S.

    2012-02-01

    Ice growth in turbulent seawater is often accompanied by the accumulation of frazil ice crystals at its surface, forming a grease ice layer. The thickness and volume fraction of this ice layer play an important role in shaping the gradual transition from a loose to a solid ice cover, however, observations are very sparse. Here we analyse an extensive set of observations of frazil ice, grown in two parallel tanks with controlled wave conditions and thermal forcing, focusing on the first one to two days of grease ice accumulation. The following unresolved issues are addressed: (i) at which volume fraction the frazil crystals' rising process starts and how densely they accumulate at the surface, (ii) how the grease ice solid fraction and salinity evolve with time until solid ice starts to form and (iii) how do these conditions affect, and are affected by, waves and heat loss from the ice. We obtained estimates of the minimum initial grease ice solid fraction (0.03-0.05) and the maximum solid fraction to which it accumulates before freezing into pancakes (0.23-0.31). The equivalent thickness of solid ice that needs to be accumulated until grease ice packs close to maximum (95% of the compaction accomplished), was estimated as 0.4 to 1.2 cm. Comparison of grease ice thickness and wave observations indicates that a grease ice layer first begins to affect the wave field significantly when its thickness exceeds the initial wave amplitude. These results are relevant for modelling frazil ice accumulation and freeze-up of leads, polynyas and along the seasonal ice zone.

  8. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer (friction velocity and roughness height) were retrieved by velocity profiling and subsequent data processing based on self-similarity of the turbulent boundary layer and 10-m wind speed was calculated. The wind wave field parameters in the flume were measured by three wire gauges. The measured data on wind waves were used for estimation of the short wave spectra and slope probability density function for "long waves" within composite Bragg theory of microwave radar return. Estimations showed that for co-polarized radar returns the difference between measurements and the predictions of the model is about 1-2 dB and it can be explained by our poor knowledge about the short wave part of the spectrum. For cross-polarized return the difference exceeds 10 dB, and it indicates that some non-Bragg mechanisms (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc) are responsible for the depolarization of the returned signal. It seems reasonable then to suppose that the cross-polarized radar return in X- and C-bands will demonstrate similar dependence on wind speed. We compared the dependence of cross-polarized X-band radar cross-section on 10-m wind speed obtained in laboratory conditions with the similar dependence obtained in [2] from the field data for C-band radar cross-section and found out that the laboratory data follow the median of the field data with the constant bias -11 dB. Basing on laboratory data an empirical polynomial geophysical model function was suggested for retrieving wind speed up to 40 m/s from cross-polarized microwave return, which is in good agreement with the direct measurements. This work was carried out under financial support of the RFBR (project codes ¹ 13-05-00865, 12-05-12093) and by grant from the Government of the Russian Federation (project code 11.G34.31.0048). References [1] B. Zhang, W. Perrie Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 531-541, 2012. [2] G.-J. van Zadelhoff, et.al. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 6, 7945-7984, doi:10.5194/amtd-6-7945-2013, 2013.

  9. Good laboratory practices for molecular genetic testing for heritable diseases and conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Gagnon, MariBeth; Shahangian, Shahram; Anderson, Nancy L; Howerton, Devery A; Boone, Joe D

    2009-06-12

    Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized as waived (from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived based on the complexity of the tests; tests of moderate and high complexity are nonwaived tests. Laboratories that perform molecular genetic testing are subject to the general CLIA quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the CLIA personnel requirements for tests of high complexity. Although many laboratories that perform molecular genetic testing comply with applicable regulatory requirements and adhere to professional practice guidelines,specific guidelines for quality assurance are needed to ensure the quality of test performance. To enhance the oversight of genetic testing under the CLIA framework,CDC and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have taken practical steps to address the quality management concerns in molecular genetic testing,including working with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC). This report provides CLIAC recommendations for good laboratory practices for ensuring the quality of molecular genetic testing for heritable diseases and conditions. The recommended practices address the total testing process (including the preanalytic,analytic,and postanalytic phases),laboratory responsibilities regarding authorized persons,confidentiality of patient information,personnel competency,considerations before introducing molecular genetic testing or offering new molecular genetic tests,and the quality management system approach to molecular genetic testing. These recommendations are intended for laboratories that perform molecular genetic testing for heritable diseases and conditions and for medical and public health professionals who evaluate laboratory practices and policies to improve the quality of molecular genetic laboratory services. This report also is intended to be a resource for users of laboratory services to aid in their use of molecular genetic tests and test results in health assessment and care. Improvements in the quality and use of genetic laboratory services should improve the quality of health care and health outcomes for patients and families of patients. PMID:19521335

  10. Can natural phenotypic variances be estimated reliably under homogeneous laboratory conditions?

    PubMed

    St Juliana, J R; Janzen, F J

    2007-07-01

    The phenotypic variance is assumed to be greater in a more heterogeneous environment. The validity of this assumption is important for microevolutionists to extrapolate results from the laboratory to field environments. We subjected clutches of eggs from common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) to a split-family design to evaluate the variability in incubation time and four size traits of neonates from eggs incubated in the laboratory and those left in situ. Mean size measurements were similar between the laboratory and the field, but incubation time was systematically longer in the field. We found no tendency among clutches for hatchlings resulting from eggs incubated in laboratory or field environments to demonstrate greater variability. Also contrary to expectation, clutches that experienced greater thermal variation in the field did not exhibit greater variation in phenotypic traits. Consequently, extrapolating results from the laboratory to the field may not always be problematic for microevolutionary analyses. PMID:17584235

  11. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Lanta, Vojt?ch; Doležal, Ji?í; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30%. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions. PMID:22580797

  12. SIMILARITY IN RESPONSES OF LABORATORY-REARED ANED FIELD-COLLECTED LONE STAR TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE)NYMPHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field testing tick repellents intended for use on human skin can be difficult, particularly when multiple concentrations of multiple repellents must be tested. Therefore, laboratory tests using laboratory reared ticks have been important. To address concerns that test results obtained with laborator...

  13. Similar, and similar concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lila R. Gleitman; Henry Gleitman; Carol Miller; Ruth Ostrin

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes English symmetrical predicates such as collide and match. Its point of departure is an analysis of the concept ‘similar’ from Tversky (1977) that appears to show that similarity is psychologically asymmetrical. One basis for this claim from Tversky is that the sentences North Korea is similar to Red China and Red China is similar to North Korea

  14. The life cycle of Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi Olenev, 1931 (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ze Chen; Zhijun Yu; Xiaojun Yang; Hongyuan Zheng; Jingze Liu

    2009-01-01

    The developmental stages in the life cycle of Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi were investigated under laboratory conditions. The larval, nymphal and adult ticks were all fed on rabbits at 25–27°C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and exposed to daylight. All free-living stages were maintained in an incubator at 26±1°C, 70% RH and daylight conditions. The life cycle of H. asiaticum kozlovi was

  15. The Zoeal Stages of Petrolisthes caribensis Werding, 1983 Reared under Laboratory Conditions (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Kraus; Alexandra Hiller; Norella Cruz

    2004-01-01

    The early larval development of the western Atlantic porcellanid crab Petrolisthes caribensis Werding, 1983 was studied under laboratory conditions. The two zoeal stages are described and illustrated. P. caribensis has bifid lateral spines on the telson of the first zoea. A short serrated seta on the terminal article of the endopodite of the second maxillipeds occurs in both zoeal stages.

  16. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  17. Photodegradation of organic pollutants on the spruce needle wax surface under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jind?iška Dolinová; Jana Klánová; Petr Klán; Ivan Holoubek

    2004-01-01

    The photochemistry of selected organic compounds, including common pollutants, on the paraffin (as a model matrix) and spruce wax surfaces was studied under laboratory conditions. Two model transformations were evaluated: (1) intramolecular rearrangements of valerophenone and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, and (2) hydrogen abstraction between an excited benzophenone and the hydrocarbon paraffin\\/wax chains. The steric or polar influence of the solid matrix on

  18. Life Cycle of the Tick Haemaphysalis Leporis-palustris (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Bahia Labruna; Romário Cerqueira Leite; João Luiz Horácio Faccini; Fernando Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    The life cycles of two separate populations (colonies A and B) of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, were studied under laboratory conditions. Domestic New Zealand rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, and wild rabbits, Sylvilagus brasiliensis, were used as hosts for ticks from colony B and only O. cuniculus rabbits were used as hosts for ticks from colony A. Developmental periods were observed

  19. Standardization of a model to study revaccination against Marek's disease under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Witter, Richard L; Cortes, Aneg L; Reddy, Sanjay M; Pandiri, Arun R

    2012-01-01

    Revaccination, the practice of administering Marek's disease (MD) vaccine a second time, has been used in commercial poultry flocks for many years. The rationale is largely anecdotal as the few published reports have failed to provide support for the value of the practice. In the present work, we have standardized a model to study MD revaccination under laboratory conditions. Nine bird experiments were conducted to evaluate homologous revaccination (same vaccine administered twice) and heterologous revaccination (administration of two different vaccines) with various challenge models. Our results demonstrated that heterologous revaccination (with a second vaccine more protective than the first vaccine) but not homologous revaccination provided a beneficial increase in protection. Administration of the first vaccine at 18 days of embryonation followed by a more protective second vaccine at hatch reproduced systematically the benefits of revaccination. In addition, our results show that revaccination protocols might aid in solving major drawbacks associated with various highly protective experimental MD vaccines; that is, lymphoid organ atrophy and residual virulence. Strain RM1 is one of the most protective vaccines against early challenge with highly virulent MD virus but it induces severe lymphoid atrophy in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus. In this study, strain RM1 did not induce lymphoid organ atrophy when administered as second vaccine in a revaccination protocol. Similarly, strain 648A100/BP5 maintains residual virulence in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus but did not induce any lesions when used as a second vaccine. Until now, arbitrary revaccination protocols have been occasionally proven useful to the poultry industry. The model developed in this study will allow for a better understanding of this phenomenon and its optimization. A more rational use of this practice will be of great help to control MD outbreaks until better vaccines are available. PMID:22845322

  20. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of microwave and millimeter wave properties of the simulated atmosphere of the outer planets and their satellites has continued. One of the focuses is on the development of a radiative transfer model of the Jovian atmosphere at wavelengths from 1 mm to 10 cm. This modeling effort led to laboratory measurements of the millimeter wave opacity of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) under simulated Jovian conditions. Descriptions of the modeling effort, the Laboratory experiment, and the observations are presented. Correlative studies of measurements with Pioneer-Venus radio occultation measurements with longer wavelength emission measurements have provided new ways for characterizing temporal and spatial variations in the abundance of both gases H2SO4 and SO2, and for modeling their roles in the subcloud atmosphere. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 1.35 cm (and 13 cm) opacity of gaseous SO2 and absorptivity of gaseous SO2 at the 3.2 mm wavelength under simulated Venus conditions. Laboratory measurements were completed on millimeter wave dielectric properties of liquid H2SO4, in order to model the effects of the opacity of the clouds of Venus onto millimeter wave emission spectrum.

  1. A comprehensive approach to studies of porous media (rocks) using a laboratory spectrometer and logging tool with similar operating characteristics.

    PubMed

    Taicher, Z; Coates, G; Gitartz, Y; Berman, L

    1994-01-01

    The value of NMR spectrometry as a way to understand the porosity and permeability of rocks is well documented. Other more esoteric parameters, such as restrictive diffusion, grain size distribution, and fluid viscosities have received less notice but are also available from the NMR measurements as laboratory studies have shown. With the introduction of gradient field spin-echo NMR well logging, all of these parameters become available in a routine way. To accomplish the goal of having a well log that systematically provides this complete array of NMR answers requires consideration of the measurement principles that can be applied. Magnetic field strength and the relative merits of gradient versus homogeneous magnetic fields methods, as well as the limitations presented by the well bore and wireline systems are a few examples of the factors that must be considered. As important, to the end user, is being provided a definitive link between the well logging response and laboratory measurements on rock samples that prove the meaning of the log. This is ideally accomplished when the laboratory measurements are attained using an apparatus that has the same operating characteristics as the log. For most well logging systems this is seldom accomplished to the degree desired, but it is readily attainable with NMR technologies. The consideration of these factors and the features and benefits of having such a capability are the focus of this paper. The technical attributes of such a comprehensive system, the Numar Corporation's "MRIL" and "CoreSpec1000", plus actual examples of laboratory and well bore data are provided to show the value of such an approach. PMID:8170320

  2. A comparative study of nitrate leaching from soils of differing textures under similar climatic and cropping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinten, A. J. A.; Vivian, B. J.; Wright, F.; Howard, R. S.

    1994-07-01

    This study reports a direct comparison of nitrate leaching on a field scale from a sandy soil overlying a relatively impermeable glacial till ( Ksat = 30-50 mm day -1), with that from a clay loam soil overlying a similar glacial till ( Ksat = 2-8 mm day -1), under nearly identical climatic and cropping conditions. Drained plots were installed at each site, and N application rate on the plots, which grew spring barley, varied from 0 to 210 kg N ha -1. Nitrate concentrations in drainage water from the two sites were measured using a simple flow-weighted sampling device and drainflow was measured using tipping bucket flow meters. Total leaching losses (including an estimate of deep percolation) in the first year of the comparison were not significantly higher on the sandy site (38 ± 11 kg N ha -1 at 150 kg N ha -1 N fertiliser application) than on the clay loam site (27 ± 4 kg N ha -1). In the subsequent 2 years, leaching losses increased at the sandy loam site. At the clay loam site leaching losses were much lower (7-11 kg N ha -1) in the final year). Timing of cultivation was an important factor influencing the amount of leaching in the clay loam soil. The effect of applied N fertiliser on nitrate leaching was small at both sites, except in the final year at the sandy site, which leached 105 kg N ha -1 at the highest fertiliser rate. The interpretation of these results was aided by concurrent chloride leaching experiments. These experiments showed that the residence time of a substantial proportion of chloride (40-50%) was longer than 1 year. This may be because of diffusion and slow convection into the glacial till horizons, where the residence time is long.

  3. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1987-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments and Earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing atmospheric constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorping properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or laboratory measurements of such properties under environmental conditions which are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. Laboratory measurement of the microwave properties of atmospheric gases under simulated conditions for the outer planets were conducted. Results of these measurements are discussed.

  4. Anaerobic respiration and antioxidant responses of Corythucha ciliata (Say) adults to heat-induced oxidative stress under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wei, He-Ping; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2014-03-01

    High temperature often induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in insects. This phenomenon has been well documented under controlled laboratory conditions, but whether it happens under fluctuating field conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we used an invasive lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model species to compare the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2 h at 33-43 °C with 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally fluctuating thermal conditions (08:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (29.7-37.2 °C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) was the marker) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the marker), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR). The results show that MDA concentration increased significantly in response to heat stresses with similar trend in the laboratory and field. LDH activities did not significantly vary across temperatures in the laboratory-exposed individuals, but they significantly increased by rising temperature in the field. The activities or concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH, and GR all significantly increased with increasing temperature in the two populations. These findings indicate that high temperature induces oxidative stress, resulting in high anaerobic respiration and antioxidant defenses in C. ciliata under both the laboratory and field conditions, which likely provide a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS. PMID:23943359

  5. Degradation of fipronil under laboratory conditions in a tropical soil from sirinhaém pernambuco, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmem S. M. Masutti; Ahmet R. Mermut

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the degradation of fipronil [5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-?,?,? -trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile] in soils from sugar cane fields in Northeastern Brazil. Degradation experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions (controlled temperature and in the dark), where sterile and non-sterile soils (Ustoxs) were incubated [under moisture content of 55% of the water holding capacity (WHC)] and analyzed for fipronil

  6. Larval development of Neopisosoma neglectum werding, 1986 (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Werding; H.-G. Müller

    1990-01-01

    The complete larval development of the porcellanid crabNeopisosoma negluctum Werding, 1986, was studied under laboratory conditions. At 27C, the megalopa appeared after 9 days. The development consists\\u000a of a transitory prezoea, two zoeal stages and a megalopa stage. The larvae exhibit telsonal features which places them in\\u000a thePetrolisthes-group of porcellanid larvae. Larval morphology gives no additional support for the status

  7. Larval Culture of Tachypleus gigas and Its Molting Behavior Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Mishra

    \\u000a Horseshoe crab populations along the northeast coast of India are under threat due to degradation of the breeding beaches.\\u000a To augment the trend, attempts were made to culture the larvae of Tachypleus gigas and study its growth rate by enhancing the molting pattern in the laboratory condition. Trilobites of T. gigas were cultured on a controlled diet of brine shrimp

  8. Biological degradation of VCCs and CFCs under simulated anaerobic landfill conditions in laboratory test digesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Deipser; Rainer Stegmann

    1997-01-01

    The biological degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (chlorocarbons (VCCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)) was\\u000a investigated under simulated conditions of landfills in laboratory test digesters. Fully halogenated VCCs (tetrachloroethylene,\\u000a 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane and dichloromethane) and CFCs (trichlorofluoromethane (R11), dichlorodifluoromethane\\u000a (R12) and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (R113)) were degraded under anaerobic conditions in addition to the methanogenic\\u000a bacteria in municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic wastes. These

  9. Biological cycle and preliminary data on vectorial competence of Triatoma boliviana in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2014-12-01

    With more than 140 potential vectors of Chagas disease, it is important to better know the biology and especially the vectorial capacity of the triatomine species which live in the surroundings of human dwellings. In Bolivia where 17 triatomine species are reported, the principal vector is Triatoma infestans. In some valleys of the department of La Paz where T. infestans is not present, a new species (Triatoma boliviana) was described in 2007. This species lives in a sylvatic environment not far away from the dwellings, and occasionally some individuals are found inside the houses. This study was carried out to describe the biological cycle of T. boliviana and to determine its vectorial competence. The development of a cohort of 95 nymphs of first instar (N1) was followed through nymphal instars and adult stage until death in laboratory (22°C). They were fed twice a week on an immobilized mouse. The median egg-to-adult development time was 8.4 months. The mortality by nymphal instar was lower than 7% except for N1 (67%) and N5 (18%). All nymph instars needed at least two feedings to molt (until six feedings for N5). The differentiation of a nymph into a female or a male could not be detected until the fifth instar for which the food intake was greater for a nymph developing into a female. Adults fed about once a week. The adult life span was around 400 days. The fecundity was 4.2 eggs/female/week, with a hatching rate of 50% and a hatching time of 39 days. In the same conditions, T. infestans showed a similar fecundity but a greater hatching rate and hatching time. A trial for rearing the adults at a higher temperature (26°C) showed a drastic fall in the fecundity and in the hatching rate. The vectorial competence was analyzed for fifth instars and adults by three parameters: the ability to feed on human beings, the capacity to be infected by T. cruzi and the postfeeding defecation delay. Results showed a relatively high vectorial competence: (1) insects fed easily on the tested human being; (2) 100% of the specimens became infected by T. cruzi just by one infected meal; and (3) although the adults defecated after a median postfeeding delay greater than that of T. infestans, results on N5 suggest that they could be as good vectors as T. infestans males. PMID:25151046

  10. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  11. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1988-01-01

    In the first half of this grant year, laboratory measurements were conducted on the millimeter-wave properties of atmospheric gases under simulated conditions for the outer planet. Significant improvements in the current system have made it possible to accurately characterize the opacity from gaseous NH3 at longer millimeter wavelengths (7 to 10 mm) under simulated Jovian conditions. In the second half of the grant year, it is hoped to extend such measurements to even shorter millimeter-wavelengths. Further analysis and application of the laboratory results to microwave and millimeter-wave absorption data for the outer planets, such as results from Voyager Radio Occultation experiments and earth-based radio astronomical observations will be continued. The analysis of available multispectral microwave opacity data from Venus, including data from the most recent radio astronomical ovservations in the 1.3 to 3.6 cm wavelength range and newly obtained Pioneer-Venus Radio Occulatation measurements at 13 cm, using the laboratory measurements as an interpretative tool will be pursued.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation and Application of Microwave Absorption Properties Under Simulated Conditions for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1997-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments and earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically-derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or using laboratory measurements of such properties under environmental conditions which are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. Laboratory measurements completed under this grant (NAGW-533), have shown that the opacity from, SO2 under simulated Venus conditions is best described by a different lineshape than was previously used in theoretical predictions. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres.

  13. Neural Tube Defects in Curly-Tail Mice. I. Incidence, Expression and Similarity to the Human Condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Embury; Mary J. Seller; M. Adinolfi; P. E. Polani

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of neurovertebral defects in mutant mice of the curly-tail strain was investigated and found to be similar to that observed in the same mice twenty-five years ago. The results of breeding experiments support the hypothesis of Gruneberg that the defects in these mice are probably caused by a recessive gene, the expression of which is markedly affected by

  14. Effects of Initial Conditions on Compressible Mixing in Supernova-Relevant Laboratory Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, A R; Edwards, M; Greenough, J

    2004-04-30

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this paper, we summarize recent results from our computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. For planar multimode systems, compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. Initial conditions predicted by some recent stellar calculations are incompatible with self-similarity.

  15. Laboratory modeling of air-sea interaction under severe wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vasiliy, Kazakov; Nicolay, Bogatov; Olga, Ermakova; Mikhail, Salin; Daniil, Sergeev; Maxim, Vdovin

    2010-05-01

    Wind-wave interaction at extreme wind speed is of special interest now in connection with the problem of explanation of the sea surface drag saturation at the wind speed exceeding 30 m/s. The idea on saturation (and even reduction) of the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the sea surface at hurricane wind speed was first suggested by Emanuel (1995) on the basis of theoretical analysis of sensitivity of maximum wind speed in a hurricane to the ratio of the enthalpy and momentum exchange coefficients. Both field (Powell, Vickery, Reinhold, 2003, French et al, 2007, Black, et al, 2007) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments confirmed that at hurricane wind speed the sea surface drag coefficient is significantly reduced in comparison with the parameterization obtained at moderate to strong wind conditions. Two groups of possible theoretical mechanisms for explanation of the effect of the sea surface drag reduction can be specified. In the first group of models developed by Kudryavtsev & Makin (2007) and Kukulka,Hara Belcher (2007), the sea surface drag reduction is explained by peculiarities of the air flow over breaking waves. Another approach more appropriate for the conditions of developed sea exploits the effect of sea drops and sprays on the wind-wave momentum exchange (Andreas, 2004; Makin, 2005; Kudryavtsev, 2006). The main objective of this work is investigation of factors determining momentum exchange under high wind speeds basing on the laboratory experiment in a well controlled environment. The experiments were carried out in the Thermo-Stratified WInd-WAve Tank (TSWIWAT) of the Institute of Applied Physics. The parameters of the facility are as follows: airflow 0 - 25 m/s (equivalent 10-m neutral wind speed U10 up to 60 m/s), dimensions 10m x 0.4m x 0.7 m, temperature stratification of the water layer. Simultaneous measurements of the airflow velocity profiles and wind waves were carried out in the wide range of wind velocities. Airflow velocity profile was measured by WindSonic ultrasonic wind sensor. The water elevation was measured by the three-channel wave-gauge. Top and side views of the water surface were fixed by CCD-camera. Wind friction velocity and surface drag coefficients were retrieved from the measurements by the profile method. Obtained values are in good agreement with the data of measurements by Donelan et al (2004). The directional frequency-wave-number spectra of surface waves were retrieved by the wavelet directional method (Donelan et al, 1996). The obtained dependencies of parameters of the wind waves indicate existing of two regimes of the waves with the critical wind speed Ucr about 30 m/s. For U10Ucr the dependencies of peak wave period, peak wavelength, significant wave height on the wind speed tend to saturation, in the same time the peak wave slope has the maximum at approximately Ucr and then decreases with the tendency to saturation. The surface drag also tends to saturation for U10>Ucr similarly to (Donelan et al, 2004). Video filming indicates onset of wave breaking with white-capping and spray generation at wind speeds approximately equal to Ucr. We compared the obtained experimental dependencies with the predictions of the quasi-linear model of the turbulent boundary layer over the waved water surface (Reutov&Troitskaya, 1995). Comparing shows that theoretical predictions give low estimates for the measured drag coefficient and wave fields. Taking into account momentum flux associated with the spray generation yields theoretical estimations in good agreement with the experimental data. Basing on the experimental data a possible physical mechanism of the drag is suggested. Tearing of the wave crests at severe wind conditions leads to the effective smoothing (decreasing wave slopes) of the water surface, which in turn reduces the aerodynamic roughnes

  16. Effects of management on survival and growth of Stage 2 juvenile freshwater signal crayfish ( Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Sáez-Royuela; José Manuel Carral; Jesús Domingo Celada; Camino Muñoz

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in order to evaluate survival and growth rates of Stage 2 juvenile Pacifastacus leniusculus under different management conditions: effects of offspring origin (artificial incubation, maternal incubation under laboratory conditions and maternal incubation under natural conditions), of different shelter availability, of water circulation systems (partially re-circulated and full flow-through), and effects of certain flow rates. Juveniles

  17. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    After long arduous work with the simulator, measurements of the refractivity and absorptivity of nitrogen under conditions similar to those for Titan were completed. The most significant measurements, however, were those of the microwave absorption from gaseous ammonia under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmospheres over wavelengths from 1.3 to 22 cm. The results of these measurements are critical in that they confirm the theoretical calculation of the ammonia opacity using the Ben-Reuven lineshape. The application of both these results, and results obtained previously, to planetary observations at microwave frequencies were especially rewarding. Applications of the results for ammonia to radio astronomical observations of Jupiter in the 1.3 to 20 cm wavelength range and the application of results for gaseous H2SO4 under simulated Venus conditions are discussed.

  18. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase progressively, a strategy can be devised so that more and more spectral range dynamic structures and their statistical influences on evolving astrophysical flows can be progressively extended in laboratory investigations.

  19. Effects of Rain Intensity and Initial Soil Moisture on Hydrological Responses in Laboratory Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishan, Abdulvahed Khaledi; Banasik, Kazimierz; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Gholami, Leila; Hejduk, Leszek

    2015-04-01

    Although the possibility of measuring and analysing all parts of the rainfall, infiltration, runoff, and erosion process as a natural hydrologic cycle in field conditions is still one of the more unattainable goals in the hydrological sciences, it can be accomplished in laboratory conditions as a way to understand the whole process. The initial moisture content is one of the most effective factors on soil infiltration, runoff, and erosion responses. The present research was conducted on a 2 m2 laboratory plot at a slope of 9% on a typical sandy-loam soil. The effects of the initial soil moisture content on the infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes were studied at four levels of initial soil moisture content (12, 25, 33, and 40 volumetric percentage) and two rainfall intensities (60 and 120 mm h-1). The results showed a significant (p ? 0.05) correlation between rainfall intensity and downstream splash, with r = 0.87. The results reflected the theory of hydrological responses, showing significant (p ? 0.05) correlations with r =-0.93, 0.98, -0.83, 0.88, and 0.73 between the initial soil moisture content and the time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient, drainage as a part of the infiltrated water, downstream splash, and total outflow sediment, respectively.

  20. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. PMID:26185740

  1. Laboratory Evaluation and Application of Microwave Absorption Properties under Simulated Conditions for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments, entry probe radio signal absorption measurements, and earth-based or spacecraft-based radio astronomical (emission) observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically-derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or the use of laboratory measurements of such properties taken under environmental conditions that are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. Laboratory measurements have shown that the centimeter-wavelength opacity from gaseous phosphine (PH3) under simulated conditions for the outer planets far exceeds that predicted from theory over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. This fundamentally changed the resulting interpretation of Voyager radio occultation data at Saturn and Neptune. It also directly impacts planning and scientific goals for study of Saturn's atmosphere with the Cassini Radio Science Experiment and the Rossini RADAR instrument. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in both spacecraft entry probe and orbiter (or flyby) radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft- and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres,

  2. Laboratory Evaluation and Application of Microwave Absorption Properties Under Simulated Conditions for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1998-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments, entry probe radio signal absorption measurements, and earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically-derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or using laboratory measurements of such properties taken under environmental conditions which are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. For example, laboratory measurements completed recently by Kolodner and Steffes (ICARUS 132, pp. 151-169, March 1998, attached as Appendix A) under this grant (NAGS-4190), have shown that the opacity from gaseous H2SO4 under simulated Venus conditions is best described by a different formalism than was previously used. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both spacecraft entry probe and orbiter radio occultation experiments and by radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in such experiments, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation and Application of Microwave Absorption Properties under Simulated Conditions for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    2005-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments, entry probe radio signal absorption measurements, and earth- based or spacecraft-based radio astronomical (emission) observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically-derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or the use of laboratory measurements of such properties taken under environmental conditions that are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. For example, new laboratory measurements completed recently by Mohammed and Steffes (2003 and 2004) under this grant (NAG5-12122,5/1/02-4/30/05), have shown that the millimeter-wavelength opacities from both gaseous phosphine (PH3) and gaseous ammonia ("3) under simulated conditions for the outer planets vary significantly from that predicted by theory over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. These results have directly impacted planning and scientific goals for study of Saturn's atmosphere with the Cassini Radio Science Experiment, as discussed below. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in both spacecraft entry probe and orbiter (or flyby) radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres.

  4. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark F. Haussmann (Iowa State University Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)

    2007-03-01

    Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions: presentation stress, fasting stress, and competition stress

  5. Biodegradation of soluble aromatic compounds of jet fuel under anaerobic conditions: laboratory batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z; Breedveld, G; Aagaard, P

    2001-11-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were performed with contaminated aquifer sediments and four soluble aromatic components of jet fuel to assess their biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The biodegradation of four aromatic compounds, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and naphthalene, separately or together, was investigated under strictly anaerobic conditions in the dark for a period of 160 days. Of the aromatic compounds, toluene and o-xylene were degraded both as a single substrate and in a mixture with the other aromatic compounds, while TMB was not biodegraded as a single substrate, but was biodegraded in the presence of the other aromatic hydrocarbons. Substrate interaction is thus significant in the biodegradation of TMB. Biodegradation of naphthalene was not observed, either as a single substrate or in a mixture of other aromatic hydrocarbons. Although redox conditions were dominated by iron reduction, a clear relation between degradation and sulfate reduction was observed. Methanogenesis took place during the later stages of incubation. However, the large background of Fe(II) masked the increase of Fe(II) concentration due to iron reduction. Thus, although microbial reduction of Fe(III) is an important process, the evidence is not conclusive. Our results have shown that a better understanding of the degradation of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions is important in the application of natural attenuation as a remedial method for soil and groundwater contamination. PMID:11762606

  6. The effect of conditioning rice during the laboratory milling process on the quality of the milled sample

    E-print Network

    Childers, Roy Eugene

    1972-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CONDITIONING RICE DURING THE LABORATORY MILLING PROCESS ON THE QUALITY OF THE MILLED SAMPLE A Thesis by ROY EUGENE CHILDERS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering THE EFFECT OF CONDITIONING RICE DURING THE LABORATORY MILLING PROCESS ON THE I1UALITY OF THE MILLED SAMPLE A Thesis by ROY EUGENE CHILDERS, JR...

  7. Monoaromatic hydrocarbon transformation under anaerobic conditions at Seal Beach, California: Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Western Region Hazardous Substance Research Center

    1996-02-01

    Anaerobic biotransformation of several aromatic hydrocarbons found in gasoline including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) was studied in batch anaerobic laboratory microcosms. Aquifer sediment and ground water were obtained from the site of a historic gasoline spill at Seal Beach, California. Sulfate is present in the site ground water at 80 mg/L, and sulfate-reducing activity appears to be the dominant intrinsic BTEX bioremediation process where nitrate is absent. In the laboratory, the microcosms were set up with different electron acceptors (sulfate and nitrate) in site ground water and various defined anaerobic media to estimate intrinsic biodegradation rates and to suggest conditions under which anaerobic bioremediation could be enhanced. In unamended microcosms, anaerobic biotransformation of toluene and m + p-xylene occurred at a rate of 7.2 and 4.1 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively, with sulfate as the apparent electron acceptor. Addition of nitrate stimulated nitrate-reducing conditions and increased rates of toluene and m + p-xylene biotransformation to 30.1 and 5.4 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively. The catabolic substrate range was altered to include ethylbenzene in the nitrate-amended microcosms, suggesting an apparent preferential use of different BTEX compounds depending on the electron acceptor available. Under all the conditions studied, more than twice the amount of nitrate or sulfate was used than could be accounted for by the observed BTEX degradation. The results of these experiments indicate that indigenous microorganisms from the Seal Beach aquifer have significant capability to degrade BTEX hydrocarbons and that intrinsic processes in the Seal Beach aquifer may remediate a portion of the hydrocarbon contamination in situ without intervention. However, the data also suggest that intervention by nitrate addition would enhance the rate and extent of anaerobic BTEX biotransformation.

  8. A Comprehensive Subcellular Proteomic Survey of Salmonella Grown under Phagosome-Mimicking versus Standard Laboratory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Roslyn N.; Sanford, James A.; Park, Jea H.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Champion, Boyd L.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-06-01

    Towards developing a systems-level pathobiological understanding of Salmonella enterica, we performed a subcellular proteomic analysis of this pathogen grown under standard laboratory and infection-mimicking conditions in vitro. Analysis of proteins from cytoplasmic, inner membrane, periplasmic, and outer membrane fractions yielded coverage of over 30% of the theoretical proteome. Confident subcellular location could be assigned to over 1000 proteins, with good agreement between experimentally observed location and predicted/known protein properties. Comparison of protein location under the different environmental conditions provided insight into dynamic protein localization and possible moonlighting (multiple function) activities. Notable examples of dynamic localization were the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems (e.g., ArcB, PhoQ). The DNA-binding protein Dps that is generally regarded as cytoplasmic was significantly enriched in the outer membrane for all growth conditions examined, suggestive of moonlighting activities. These observations imply the existence of unknown transport mechanisms and novel functions for a subset of Salmonella proteins. Overall, this work provides a catalog of experimentally verified subcellular protein location for Salmonella and a framework for further investigations using computational modeling.

  9. Wear Independent Similarity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Adam; Davis, Alexander; Kim, Joohyung; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-06-17

    This study presents a new factor that can be used to design materials where desired surface properties must be retained under in-system wear and abrasion. To demonstrate this factor, a synthetic nonwetting coating is presented that retains chemical and geometric performance as material is removed under multiple wear conditions: a coarse vitrified abradant (similar to sanding), a smooth abradant (similar to rubbing), and a mild abradant (a blend of sanding and rubbing). With this approach, such a nonwetting material displays unprecedented mechanical durability while maintaining desired performance under a range of demanding conditions. This performance, herein termed wear independent similarity performance (WISP), is critical because multiple mechanisms and/or modes of wear can be expected to occur in many typical applications, e.g., combinations of abrasion, rubbing, contact fatigue, weathering, particle impact, etc. Furthermore, these multiple wear mechanisms tend to quickly degrade a novel surface's unique performance, and thus many promising surfaces and materials never scale out of research laboratories. Dynamic goniometry and scanning electron microscopy results presented herein provide insight into these underlying mechanisms, which may also be applied to other coatings and materials. PMID:26018058

  10. Survival Potential and Photosynthetic Activity of Lichens Under Mars-Like Conditions: A Laboratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Butina, Frederike; Lorek, Andreas; Wernecke, Roland; Ott, Sieglinde

    2010-03-01

    Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described. Natural samples of the lichen Xanthoria elegans were used to investigate their ability to survive the applied Mars-like conditions. The effects of atmospheric pressure, CO2 concentration, low temperature, water availability, and light on Mars were also studied. The results of these experiments indicate that - no significant decrease in the vitality of the lichen occurred after exposure to simulated martian conditions, which was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and - a 95% CO2 atmosphere with 100% humidity, low pressure (partial pressure of CO2 was 600 Pa), and low temperature has a balancing effect on photosynthetic activity as a function of temperature. This means a starting low photosynthetic activity at high CO2 concentrations with Earth-like pressure has a reduction of 60%. But, if the simulated atmospheric pressure is reduced to Mars-like conditions with the maintenance of the same Mars-like 95% CO2 concentration, the photosynthetic activity increases and again reaches similar values as those exhibited under terrestrial atmospheric pressure and concentration. Based on these results, we presume that, in any region on Mars where liquid water might be available, even for short periods of time, a eukaryotic symbiotic organism would have the ability to survive, at least over weeks, and to temporarily photosynthesize.

  11. Survival potential and photosynthetic activity of lichens under Mars-like conditions: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Butina, Frederike; Lorek, Andreas; Wernecke, Roland; Ott, Sieglinde

    2010-03-01

    Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described. Natural samples of the lichen Xanthoria elegans were used to investigate their ability to survive the applied Mars-like conditions. The effects of atmospheric pressure, CO(2) concentration, low temperature, water availability, and light on Mars were also studied. The results of these experiments indicate that no significant decrease in the vitality of the lichen occurred after exposure to simulated martian conditions, which was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and a 95% CO(2) atmosphere with 100% humidity, low pressure (partial pressure of CO(2) was 600 Pa), and low temperature has a balancing effect on photosynthetic activity as a function of temperature. This means a starting low photosynthetic activity at high CO(2) concentrations with Earth-like pressure has a reduction of 60%. But, if the simulated atmospheric pressure is reduced to Mars-like conditions with the maintenance of the same Mars-like 95% CO(2) concentration, the photosynthetic activity increases and again reaches similar values as those exhibited under terrestrial atmospheric pressure and concentration. Based on these results, we presume that, in any region on Mars where liquid water might be available, even for short periods of time, a eukaryotic symbiotic organism would have the ability to survive, at least over weeks, and to temporarily photosynthesize. PMID:20402583

  12. Laboratory degradation rates of 11 pyrethroids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Brian N; Lam, Chung; Moore, Sean; Jones, Russell L

    2013-05-22

    Degradation of 11 pyrethroids was measured over approximately 100 days in three sediment/water systems under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 25 °C in the dark. The three California sediments represented a range of textures and organic matter. Test compounds were bifenthrin, cypermethrin, ?-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, ?-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, ?-cyhalothrin, ?-cyhalothrin, and permethrin. A non-standard design was employed to keep conditions essentially the same for all compounds. The test compounds were applied as two test mixtures (six active ingredients per mixture, with bifenthrin common to both) at approximately 50 ?g of test compound/kg of sediment (dry weight). Extracts of sediment/water were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction, concentrated, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (except deltamethrin) against matrix-matched standards, with cyfluthrin-d6 as an internal standard. Deltamethrin was analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using deltamethrin-phenoxy-(13)C6 as an internal standard. Similar degradation rates of bifenthrin and for related isomeric compounds (e.g., cyfluthrin and ?-cyfluthrin) were generally measured in both mixtures for each sediment. First-order half-lives under aerobic conditions ranged from 2.9 to greater than 200 days, with a median value of 18 days. Under anaerobic conditions, the range was from 20 to greater than 200 days, with a median value of 70 days. PMID:23641910

  13. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments and earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing atmospheric constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or using laboratory measurements of such properties under environmental conditions which are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. The goal of this investigation was to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres.

  14. Measured and calculated evaporation losses of two petroleum hydrocarbon herbicide mixtures under laboratory and field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; Seiber, J.N.; Kim, Y.

    1986-08-01

    Evaporation rates of two weed oils were measured under laboratory and field conditions. Rates were also calculated by assuming first-order evaporation of the oil components (represented by hydrocarbon references). Beacon selective and Chevron nonselective weed oils exhibited evaporation rates 1.4-1.9 and 0.9 times the calculated rates, respectively, for 8-10 mg/cm/sup 2/ on inert surfaces in the laboratory. The relative rates were increased to 3-15 (Beacon) and 1.6 (Chevron) under a slight breeze (0.43 m/s) with turbulence. The half-life of Beacon oil applied at 6-7 mg/cm/sup 2/ to moist soil in an unplanted field was 51 min (10-20/sup 0/C), while the calculated half-life was 57 min. In an alfalfa field, 90% of the Chevron oil from a deposit of 0.15-0.22 mg/cm/sup 2/ (20-40/sup 0/C) evaporated in 26-45 and 53-127 min from glass plates and paper filters, respectively; average calculated time was 40 min. Evaporation rates from alfalfa foliage and glass plates compared well. 15 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Testing shields in the Argonne National Laboratory fuel conditioning facility support areas.

    PubMed

    Courtney, J C; Klann, R T

    1997-01-01

    Testing has been completed for two lightly shielded areas that support operations in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Operational requirements dictated the use of a radiography source containing 0.44 TBq (12 Ci) of 192Ir to challenge reinforced concrete and steel shields that surround a decontamination, maintenance, and repair area for contaminated equipment used in hot cell operations. A more intense source containing 0.89 TBq (24 Ci) of 192Ir was used to test lead shot and steel shields around tanks in a radioactive liquid waste system and the boundaries of the room that contained it. Measurement procedures were developed to find design flaws and construction deficiencies while minimizing radiation exposure to test participants. While the shields are adequate to limit gamma ray deep dose equivalents to 10 mSv y(-1) (1 rem y(-1)) or less to facility personnel, several modifications were necessary to assure that the attenuation is adequate to keep dose rates less than 5 microSv h(-1) (0.5 mrem h(-1)) in normally occupied areas. PMID:8972837

  16. Increase in developmental instability in a field-collected chironomus population maintained under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Hélène; Branchu, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    In order to be a relevant indicator of exposure towards teratogenic stressors, morphological defects should not be passed on to the next generation. In this study, we compare morphological variations in Chironomids collected from a contaminated river stretch with those of their progeny, reared in uncontaminated sediment under laboratory conditions. We focused on mentum defects (deformities, fluctuating asymmetry and mean shape change), measured by geometric morphometrics. We observed no significant variation in deformity rate between the parental generation and its progeny. On the contrary, we observed a significant increase in fluctuating asymmetry and a significant decrease in mentum centroid size in the offspring. Our results suggest that shape defects are not caused by direct exposure to teratogenic stressors alone. We propose four hypotheses to explain this: (a) teratogenic contaminants are present in egg-clutches, (b) contaminants at the sampling site have mutagenic effects, PMID:25749504

  17. Fate of thiodicarb and its metabolite methomyl in sandy loam soil under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Sushma; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena; Singh, Rajvir

    2015-07-01

    Fate of thiodicarb and its major metabolite in sandy loam soil were studied by applying thiodicarb (Larvin 75 WP) at 500 and 1000 g a.?i.?ha(-1) under laboratory conditions. Samples drawn periodically were analysed on GC-FTD equipped with capillary column. The average initial deposits of total thiodicarb (thiodicarb and methomyl) were 0.025 and 0.035 mg kg(-1) at single and double dosages, respectively. Residues of thiodicarb reached below the determination level (BDL) of 0.005 mg kg(-1) after 15 days. Half-life periods for total thiodicarb were calculated to be 5.90 and 8.29 days at two doses, respectively, following first-order kinetics. PMID:26070994

  18. Interpreting EChO's future data: biological laboratory extimates under M star's planetary surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erculiani, Marco S.; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Galletta, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Micela, Giuseppina; Billi, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The EChO Exoplanet Atmosphere Characterization mission will have in the midst of its main targets, planets that orbit M stars in their or very close to their habitable zone. In this framework at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (INAF) we are going to perform experiments that will give us an idea about the possible modification of the atmosphere by photosynthetic biota present on the planet surface. In the framework of the project "Atmosphere In a Test Tube", planetary environmental conditions are being performed. The bacteria that are being studied are Acaryochloris marina, Chroococcidiopsis sp., Cyanidium Caldarium and Halomicronema hongdechloris and tests are being performed with LISA ambient simulator in the laboratory of the Padova Astronomical Observatory.

  19. Acupuncture Improves Sleep Conditions of Minipigs Representing Diurnal Animals through an Anatomically Similar Point to the Acupoint (GV20) Effective for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Takeishi, Ka-ichiro; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Deguchi, Yoshiki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Emi; Kuchiiwa, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Akihide; Takeuchi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture, an alternative medicine, has been widely applied for people with sleep disturbances; therefore, the effects should be evaluated objectively. Micro-minipigs (MMPigs), the smallest miniature pigs for animal experiments, were used. Acupuncture was performed at two different points: Dafengmen is located on the head and is an anatomically similar point to human-Baihui (GV20), an effective acupoint for sleep disturbances in humans; pig-Baihui is on the back. The procedure was performed as follows: shallow, within 5?mm depth for several seconds; deep, 10–20?mm depth for 20?min. The sleep conditions were evaluated by actigraph, and the amount of catecholamine in pooled urine after acupuncture treatment. MMPigs with deep acupuncture at Dafengmen showed significantly efficient values on actigraph and catecholamine analysis as compared with untreated MMPigs. The effective acupoint for sleep conditions in the porcine model is at an anatomically similar point to humans, rather than the point determined by traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:22461840

  20. The Life Cycle of the Antarctic Nematode Plectus murrayi Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    de Tomasel, Cecilia Milano; Adams, Byron J; Tomasel, Fernando G; Wall, Diana H

    2013-03-01

    We study and describe the life cycle of Plectus murrayi, a free-living, bacterivorous soil nematode endemic to terrestrial Antarctica. The study was performed at 15°C, a temperature identified as optimal for growth rate studies in the laboratory. Under these conditions, we observed that the first molt occurs in the egg, and second-stage juveniles hatch 12 to 14 d after egg laying. Individuals undergo three subsequent molts to become adults 23 to 26 d after hatching with a final average length of 950 ?m. Egg-laying begins 41 to 43 d after hatching, resulting in an egg-to-egg life cycle ranging from 53 to 57 d under our experimental conditions. Considering that the average soil temperature during austral summers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys is only a few degrees above freezing, it is highly likely that many, if not most of these animals, require more than 1 yr to complete their entire life cycle. Our study supports other research that establishes P. murrayi as an important model organism for studying adaptation to extreme environmental stress. PMID:23589658

  1. Laboratory investigation of spray generation mechanism in wind-wave interaction under strong wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily

    2015-04-01

    The sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the reduction of sea surface aerodynamic drag coefficient at hurricane conditions [1]. In this paper the mechanism of generation of spray in the near-surface layer of the atmosphere in a strong wind through the mechanism of «bag-breakup instability» was investigated in laboratory conditions with the help of high-speed video shooting. The laboratory experiments were performed on the Thermostratified Wind-Wave Channel of the IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) [2]. Experiments were carried out for the wind speeds from 14 to 22 m/s. In this range spray generation characteristics change dramatically from almost no spray generation to so called catastrophic regime with multiple cascade breakups on each crest. Shooting was performed with High-speed digital camera NAC Memrecam HX-3 in two different setups to obtain both statistical data and detailed spray generation mechanism overview. In first setup bright LED spotlight with mate screen the side of a channel was used for horizontal shadow-method shooting. Camera was placed in semi-submerged box on the opposite side of the channel. Shooting was performed at the distance of 7.5 m from the beginning of the working section. Series of short records of the surface evolution were made at 10 000 fps with 55 to 119 µm/px scale revealed the dominant mechanism of spray generation - bag-breakup instability. Sequences of high resolution images allowed investigating the details of this "bags" evolution. Shadow method provided better image quality for such conditions than side illumination and fluorescence methods. To obtain statistical data on "bags" sizes and densities vertical shadow method was used. Submerged light box was created with two 300 W underwater lamps and mate screen places at the fetch of 6.5 m. Long records (up to 8 seconds) were made with 4500 fps at 124-256 µm/px scales. Specially developed software allowed finding "bags" of the records and analyzing its geometrical characteristics. Significant increase of the number of bags was observed at equivalent wind velocities exceeding 25 m/s corresponding to change of regime of surface drag dependency on wind speed. Distributions of sizes, velocities and time of life of "bags" found were obtained for wind speeds up to 22 m/s. This work was supported by the RFBR grants (13-05-00865, 14-05-91767, 13-05-12093, 14-05-31415, 15-35-20953), RSF grant 14-17-00667 and by President grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5. References: 1. Andreas, E. L. and K. A. Emanuel, (2001): Effects of sea spray on tropical cyclone intensity. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 58, No 24, p. 3741-3751. 2. Yu. I. Troitskaya, D.A. Sergeev, A.A. Kandaurov, G.A Baidakov, M.A. Vdovin, V.I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions // JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, C00J21, 13 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JC007778

  2. Performance of transient limiters under laboratory, simulated, and rocket-triggered lightning conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, R.T.; Johnson, J.P.; Breitmeier, J.

    1989-07-02

    We have designed and tested a prototype system that implements a lightning-protection method referred to as the ''fortress concept.'' The fortress, a structure similar to a Faraday cage, protects the critical system by surrounding it with a continuous metallic skin. Each electrical conductor that must enter the fortress is enclosed within a cable, which is, in turn, enclosed in a metallic shield that terminates at the entry point and is electrically bonded to the fortress' outer metallic surface. Within the fortress, each penetrating conductor is protected by a transient limiter. The system was tested by means of full-threat-level simulated lightning and actual lightening triggered by rockets. Several limited components were subsequently tested by using a laboratory-type surge generator to investigate certain anomalous responses. This paper reviews the fortress concept, discusses the operation of the limiters, and examines their performance. Explanations are offered for the anomalous responses, and several important design considerations and trade-offs are offered. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Hydrological conditions at the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.L.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the hydrological conditions of the glacial till underlying the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Lemont, Illinois. The study's purpose was to review and summarize hydrological data collected by ANL's Environment, Safety, and Health Department and to characterize, based on these data, the groundwater movement and migration of potential contaminants in the area. Recommendations for further study have been made based on the findings of this review. The 317/319 Area is located between Meridian Road and the southern border of ANL. The 317 Area was commissioned in the late 1940s for the temporary storage of radioactive waste. Low- and high-level solid radioactive waste is stored in partially buried concrete vaults. Low-level radioactive waste awaiting shipment for off-site disposal is stored in aboveground steel bins north of the vaults. The 319 Area is an inactive landfill, located east of the 317 Area that was used for the disposal of general refuse, demolition debris, and laboratory equipment. Fluorescent light bulbs, chemical containers, and suspect waste were also placed in the landfill. Liquid chemical wastes were disposed of at each site in gravel-filled trenches called French drains.'' The 317/319 Area is underlain by a silty clay glacial till. Dolomite bedrock underlies the till at an average depth of about 19.5m. Organic contaminants and radionuclides have been detected in groundwater samples from wells completed in the till. Fractures in the clay as well as sand and gravel lenses present in the till could permit these contaminants to migrate downward to the dolomite aquifer. At the time of this report, no chemical quality analyses had been made on groundwater samples from the dolomite. The study found that existing information about subsurface characteristics at the site is inadequate to identify potential pathways for contaminant migration. 14 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Methods Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Results Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. Conclusions This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus. PMID:24990394

  5. Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (?) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed. PMID:24141961

  6. Algal food selection and digestion by larvae of the pestiferous chironomid Chironomus Crassicaudatus under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, Arshad; Lobinske, Richard J

    2004-12-01

    Feeding preference of Chironomus crassicaudatus 4th instars when fed on 5 algal species, Anabaena flos-aquae, Botryococcus braunii, Lyngbia cf. aeruginosa, Microcystis sp., and Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied under laboratory conditions. The various algal species were mixed in pairs at 1:1 ratio (fresh weight) to create 10 possible test combinations. The larvae were allowed to feed individually for 8 h on each algal mixture in tissue culture plates having 4 replicates. Four identical algal mixtures were simultaneously used without larvae as controls. After feeding, larvae and excrement were removed, and remaining algae from feeding trials and controls were fixed with Lugol's solution; the final ratio of algal species in each mixture was determined microscopically. Feeding preferences of C. crassicaudatus early 4th instars, in descending order, was L. cf. aeruginosa, A. flos-aquae, B. braunii, Microcystis sp., and S. quadricaudata. To evaluate algal digestibility, larval excrement was collected and the proportion of live and dead cells was determined by microscopic observations with the use of visible and ultraviolet light (epifluorescence). Anabaena flos-aquae and L. cf. aeruginosa were the easiest to digest, followed by Microcystis sp. and S. quadricaudata, whereas no digestion of B. braunii was observed. Cultures of larval excrement revealed the presence of some viable cells of all 5 tested algal species. PMID:15669393

  7. Effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, AM; Shalaby, HA; El Khateeb, RM; Mahmoud, MS; Kutkat, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions. Methods The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid®) and myrrh volatile oil on the surface morphology of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those observed in the fluke tegument following incubation in triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), active form, (Fasinex®, Ciba-Geigy). Results Observations of the efficacy of Mirazid® oleoresin extract and myrrh volatile oil indicated that both products showed dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy. The anterior half of the fluke was consistently more severely affected than the posterior half. The surface changes induced by Mirazid® oleoresin extract were less severe than those observed after exposure to either myrrh volatile oil or TCBZ-SO. Flukes showed swelling after these treatments, but its level and blebbing were much greater with myrrh volatile oil; in which patches of tegumental sloughing were observed in the apical cone and the posterior mid-body region of flukes. This was not observed after treatment with Mirazid® oleoresin extract. Conclusions The comparatively more disruption, observed in myrrh volatile oil exposed specimens, compared to that exposed to Mirazid® oleoresin extract might suggest that the anthelmintic activity of Mirazid® oleo resin extract was attributed to its content of volatile oil. So, increasing the concentration of myrrh volatile oil in Mirazid® might possibly help to developing its anthelmintic activity. PMID:23569864

  8. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  9. [Assessment of parameters of human outside respiration by portative volumeter under field and laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Altukhov, N D; Volkov, N I

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of spirometric possibilities of lung usually happens possible only in laboratory to use of expensive equipment, besides thus it is necessary to use cycle ergometer or racetracks which make the contribution to violation of natural coordination of movements of the person. Thereof there is a desire to develop the portable device, which would measure key parameters of external breath of the person in field conditions with data recording possibility in the memory in a mode of breath-by-breath then to transfer them to the computer for the further analysis. We developed the portable device consisting of the easy and tiny sensor, fastening to a respiratory mask. The sensor incorporates by means of a cable to the tiny device to the liquid crystal screen on which serially at the choice of the operator values of pulmonary ventilation (Ve), volume of an exhalation (Vt) and frequency of breath in a mode of breath-by-breath are deduced. Metrological researches showed that the device error generally didn't exceed 5%. PMID:23885561

  10. Photochemical degradation of a brominated flame retardant (tetrabromobisphenol A) in ice under field and laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waligroski, G.; Grannas, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of brominated flame retardants have raised awareness of their potential environmental impact as toxic compounds. Because these compounds are now globally distributed, including in the Polar Regions, it is important to assess their potential fate in the environment. It has been shown that active photochemistry occurs in sunlit snow and ice, but there is little information regarding potential photochemical degradation of brominated flame retardants in snow and ice. The purpose of this research is to investigate the direct and indirect photochemical transformation pathways of a widely used brominated flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). We have conducted field-based experiments in Barrow, Alaska to investigate the potential photochemical degradation of TBBPA in snow and ice under environmentally-relevant conditions. Field-based results show that TBBPA is efficiently degraded under direct photolysis conditions in frozen aqueous samples under natural Barrow sunlight. In aqueous solution the light absorption properties of TBBPA are pH dependent. Therefore, the photodegradation of TBBPA in snow and ice will be highly pH dependent. Reactions that are pH dependent may be affected by the nature of the liquid-like layers in snow/ice as well as the presence of other solutes that may indirectly affect the local pH experienced by TBBPA in snow and ice samples. In order to establish how the effective pH of liquid-like regions in ice might impact the degradation of TBBPA, various salts (sodium chloride, sodium fluoride, sodium bromide, ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate) were added to aqueous solutions of TBBPA. Upon freezing, these different salts will induce pH differences in the liquid-like regions of the sample due to a phenomenon known as the freezing potential. Observed reactivity differences upon addition of these salts will be evaluated and discussed. Additionally, the presence of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM), an effective environmentally-relevant photosensitizer, has the potential to cause indirect photochemical degradation of TBBPA and this degradation pathway was also evaluated under laboratory conditions. The potential for both commercially-derived DOM and DOM isolated from Arctic snow samples to photosensitize TBBPA degradation in liquid and ice will be evaluated and discussed.

  11. Amplified DNAs in laboratory stocks of Leishmania tarentolae: extrachromosomal circles structurally and functionally similar to the inverted-H-region amplification of methotrexate-resistant Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Petrillo-Peixoto, M.L.; Beverley, S.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    We describe the structure of amplified DNA that was discovered in two laboratory stocks of the protozoan parasite Leishmania tarentolae. Restriction mapping and molecular cloning revealed that a region of 42 kilobases was amplified 8- to 30-fold in these lines. Southern blot analyses of digested DNAs or chromosomes separated by pulsed-field electrophoresis showed that the amplified DNA corresponded to the H region, a locus defined originally by its amplification in methotrexate-resistant Leishmania major. Similarities between the amplified DNA of the two species included (i) extensive cross-hybridization; (ii) approximate conservation of sequence order; (iii) extrachromosomal localization; (iv) an overall inverted, head-to-head configuration as a circular 140-kilobase tetrameric molecule; (v) two regions of DNA sequence rearrangement, each of which was closely associated with the two centers of the inverted repeats; (vi) association with methotrexate resistance; and (vii) phenotypically conservative amplification, in which the wild-type chromosomal arrangement was retained without apparent modification. Our data showed that amplified DNA mediating drug resistance arose in unselected L. tarentolae, although the pressures leading to apparently spontaneous amplification and maintenance of the H region are not known. The simple structure and limited extent of DNA amplified in these and other Leishmania lines suggests that the study of gene amplification in Leishmania spp. offers an attractive model system for the study of amplification in cultured mammalian cells and tumors. We also introduced a method for measuring the size of large circular DNAs, using gamma-irradiation to introduce limited double-strand breaks followed by sizing of the linear DNAs by pulsed-field electrophoresis.

  12. Similarity Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Santini; Ramesh Jain

    1999-01-01

    With complex multimedia data, we see the emergence of database systems in which thefundamental operation is similarity assessment. Before database issues can be addressed, it isnecessary to give a definition of similarity as an operation.In this paper we develop a similarity measure, based on fuzzy logic, that exhibit severalfeatures that match experimental findings in humans. The model is dubbed Fuzzy

  13. Scale effect on runoff and soil loss control using rice straw mulch under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Gholami, L.; Sharifi, E.; Khaledi Darvishan, A.; Homaee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Amendments can control the runoff and soil loss by protecting the soil surface. However, scale effects on runoff and soil loss control have not been considered yet. The present study has been formulated to determine the efficiency of two plot sizes of 6 and 0.25 m2 covered by 0.5 kg m-2 of straw mulch with regard to changing the time to runoff, runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss under laboratory conditions. The study used a sandy-loam soil taken from summer rangeland, Alborz Mountains, northern Iran, and was conducted under simulated rainfall intensities of 50 and 90 mm h-1 and in three replicates. The results of the study showed that the straw mulch had a more significant effect on reducing the runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss on a 0.25 m2 plot scale. The maximum effectiveness in time to runoff for both the scales was observed at a rainfall intensity of 90 mm h-1. The maximum increasing and decreasing rates in time to runoff and runoff coefficient were observed at a rainfall intensity of 90 mm h-1, with 367.92 and 96.71% for the 0.25 m2 plot and 110.10 and 15.08% for the 6 m2 plot. The maximum reduction in the runoff coefficient was in the 0.25 m2 plot for the two rainfall intensities of 50 and 90 mm h-1, with rates of -89.34 and -96.71%. The maximum change in soil loss at the intensities of both 50 and 90 mm h-1 occurred in the 0.25 m2 plot, with 100%, whereas in the 6 m2 plot, decreasing rates of soil loss for the intensities of both 50 and 90 mm h-1 were 46.74 and 63.24%, respectively.

  14. Pre-processing of Xeva-XS imagery for determining spectral reflectance coefficients in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Orych, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Fryskowska, A.

    2014-11-01

    There are two different methodologies which can be used to acquire imagery from which it would be possible to obtain spectral reflectance characteristics - the first based on images of a scene in which a reference panel had been included, and the second based on precisely selected exposure parameters. This paper is concerned with the first of these two methods based on experiments conducted using a 14bit XEVA XS-1.7.320 infrared sensor. The paper firstly describes the effect of different exposure settings on the accuracy with which we can later determine the spectral reflectance coefficients. The next step when working with such imagery in laboratory conditions is to eliminate the effect of the uneven distribution of illumination. In the paper we present two proposed methods for eliminating the uneven distribution of illumination - an additive method and a quotient method. After that it is essential to stretch the DN values. Once again we investigated two possible methods of doing this - firstly, by stretching the data using only the white reference panel, adjusting the maxDN value of the image of the surface of the reference panel to 95%. The second method additionally adds a second reference point - a black reference panel which reflects 5% of incident radiation. The spectral reflectance coefficients of chosen samples acquired using all of the above mentioned methods are compared with reference data obtained using a spectroradiometer. Establishing the most optimal methodologies will greatly increase the accuracy of obtained spectral response coefficients, which at the same time will increase the accuracy with which, in this case, water pollutants will be identified.

  15. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2015-01-01

    Background A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i) similar effect direction and (ii) similar effect magnitude. Methods 7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR) and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph. Results Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected. Conclusion Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials. PMID:26168274

  16. Moving from the laboratory to the field: Adding natural environmental conditions to toxicology testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been criticized for being unrealistic. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive. To ...

  17. Comparative performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insecticides used for impregnation of mosquito nets.

    PubMed Central

    Hougard, Jean-Marc; Duchon, Stéphane; Darriet, Frédéric; Zaim, Morteza; Rogier, Christophe; Guillet, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of seven pyrethroid insecticides for impregnation of mosquito nets, six currently recommended by WHO and one candidate (bifenthrin), under laboratory conditions. METHODS: Tests were conducted using pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Knock-down effect, irritancy and mortality were measured using standard WHO cone tests. Mortality and blood-feeding inhibition were also measured using a baited tunnel device. FINDINGS: For susceptible A. gambiae, alpha-cypermethrin had the fastest knock-down effect. For resistant A. gambiae, the knock- down effect was slightly slower with alpha-cypermethrin and much reduced following exposure to the other insecticides, particularly bifenthrin and permethrin. For susceptible C. quinquefasciatus, the knock-down effect was significantly slower than in A. gambiae, particularly with bifenthrin, and no knock-down effect was observed with any of the pyrethroids against the resistant strain. Bifenthrin was significantly less irritant than the other pyrethroids to susceptible and resistant A. gambiae but there was no clear ranking of pyrethroid irritancy against C. quinquefasciatus. In tunnels, all insecticides were less toxic against C. quinquefasciatus than against A. gambiae for susceptible strains. For resistant strains, mortality was significant with all the pyrethroids with A. gambiae but not with C. quinquefasciatus. Inhibition of blood-feeding was also high for susceptible strains of both species and for resistant A. gambiae but lower for resistant C. quinquefasciatus; bifenthrin had the greatest impact. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy for impregnation of mosquito nets against A. gambiae was greatest with alpha-cypermethrin. Bifenthrin is likely to have a significant comparative advantage over other pyrethroids in areas with pyrethroid resistance because of its much stronger impact on the nuisance mosquito, C. quinquefasciatus, despite its slower knock-down effect and irritancy. Selection of pyrethroids for mosquito vector control and personal protection should take into account the different effects of these insecticides, the status of pyrethroid resistance in the target area, and the importance of nuisance mosquitoes, such as C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:12856050

  18. Laboratory experiments to explore the sediment transport capacity of carbon dioxide sublimation under martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvest, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Patel, Manish; Dixon, John; Barnes, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Every spring, the solid carbon dioxide deposited over the martian high latitudes sublimates. Several, unusual surface features, including dark spots and flows on sand dunes, as well as recent activity in martian gullies, have been associated with this CO2 sublimation. Water and/or brines have also been proposed as potential agents for these events, but the timing of these phenomena suggest CO2 sublimation is more likely. However, the exact mechanism by which CO2 sublimation moves sediment is not fully understood, and this understanding is required to validate the CO2 hypothesis. Here we present the results of the first ever laboratory simulations of this process under martian conditions, and show that significant quantities of loose sediment can be transported. The centrepiece of the apparatus is a 1m diameter, 2m long Mars simulation chamber, housed at The Open University, UK. JSC Mars-1A regolith simulant was formed into a slope, inside a box, ~30 cm long, 23 cm wide by 12 cm deep. The box is constructed of coiled, copper tubing to allow cooling of the regolith by liquid nitrogen. The experimental procedure consists of four stages: 1) establishment of a dry atmosphere in the chamber, 2) cooling the regolith sufficiently to support condensation of CO2 frost at reduced pressure, 3) introduction of cooled CO2 gas above the regolith to deposit as frost, and 4) video recording the surface evolution under radiant heating (~100 mins). Two High Definition digital video cameras were mounted above the box and image pairs taken from the videos were then used to create digital elevation models (DEMs) in Agisoft Photoscan at regular intervals. In our initial experiments we performed four experimental runs where the slope was set at or near the angle of repose (~30°). In each case we observed mass wasting events triggered by the sublimation of the deposited CO2 over the whole duration of the insolation. The highest levels of activity occurred in the first third of the run (approx. 30 mins); however, activity was detected, with sporadic peaks, throughout each run. The total volume of regolith moved ranged from 164 to 216 cm3 over the four experimental runs (an average of 0.3-0.4 cm depth over the whole surface).

  19. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1988-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments and earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing atmospheric constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The key activity for this grant year has continued to be laboratory measurements of the microwave and millimeter-wave properties of the simulated atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites. A Fabry-Perot spectrometer system capable of operation from 32 to 41 GHz was developed. Initially this spectrometer was used to complete laboratory measurements of the 7.5 to 9.3 mm absorption spectrum of ammonia. Laboratory measurements were begun at wavelengths near 3.2 mm, where a large number of observations of the emission from the outer planets were made. A description of this system is presented.

  20. Study of the efficacy of a Wheaton coated bottle with permethrin and deltamethrin in laboratory conditions and a WHO impregnated paper with bendiocarb in field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aïzoun, Nazaire; Azondekon, Roseric; Aïkpon, Rock; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Osse, Razaki; Asidi, Alex; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of WHO impregnated paper and CDC coated bottle based on number of storage days and number of times of consecutive use, in the assessment of insecticide vector susceptibility tests in laboratory and field conditions. Methods Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Seme-Kpodji and Cotonou districts in Southern Benin in April 2013 during the first rainy season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were also collected from the breeding sites in Parakou district in Northern Benin in May 2013 at the beginning of the rainy season. Susceptibility tests were done using impregnated paper with bendiocarb (0.1%) following WHO protocol and stock solutions of permethrin (21.5 µg per bottle) and deltamethrin (12.5 µg per bottle) following CDC protocol on unfed female mosquitoes aged 2–5 days old. These bioassays were repeated a certain number of times. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored and recorded during the susceptibility tests. Results This study showed that a WHO impregnated paper with bendiocarb could be used four times during four consecutive days in field conditions. Regarding a Wheaton coated bottle with permethrin or deltamethrin, they could be used at least three times during four consecutive days in laboratory conditions. Conclusions The day storage and the number of times that a WHO impregnated paper and a CDC coated bottle maintained their efficacy are useful in the assessment of insecticide vectors susceptibility tests. PMID:25182952

  1. STUDY ON BIOLOGY OF ONION THRIPS, THRIPS TABACI LINDEMAN (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) ON CUCUMBER (VAR. SULTAN) IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid-Reza Pourian; Majid Mirab-balou; Marzieh Alizadeh; Szilvia Orosz

    2009-01-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of greenhouse crops in Iran. It is one of the major limiting factors affecting yield of cucumber. A study on the biology of this pest was carried out in laboratory condition (25±1°C, 70±5% RH and 16:8 h (L: D) photoperiod) on cucumber (var. Soltan) in 2007. This survey showed

  2. Modeling, analysis and experimentation of explosive and non explosive conditions for aluminum-based systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taleyarkhan

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the generic work done and capabilities developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for understanding behavior of aluminum-based mixtures during explosive and non-explosive accident conditions. Significant opportunities may be available to apply these generic capabilities for specific aluminum industry problems. The motivation at ORNL in conducting modeling and analysis of aluminum-based mixtures stems from

  3. Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of foods. I. A laboratory apparatus for frying under simulated restaurant conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Krishnamurthy; Tsukasa Kawada; S. S. Chang

    1965-01-01

    A laboratory apparatus has been designed which can be used to quantitatively collect the volatile decomposition products produced\\u000a during deep fat frying under simulated restaurant conditions. In order to study the chemical reactions of frying fat without\\u000a any inter-reaction with the food fried, moist cotton balls were fried in corn oil.\\u000a \\u000a The oil used for frying was shown to differ

  4. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS AND FATHEAD MINNOWS, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS RAFINESQUE, UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were studied in laboratory exposures to two commercial formulations, Vectobac-G and Mosquito Attack. ortality among fatheads exposed to 2.0 x 10 6 to 6.5 x 10 6 CFU/ml with bo...

  5. SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COW PATS IN PASTURE AND IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To compare survival of E. coli in bovine feces deposited in a pasture or incubated in a controlled laboratory environment at comparable temperature regimes. Methods and Results: Fecal samples were collected from three cow herds on different diets. Samples were deposited as shaded and non-sha...

  6. Selectivity of Three Miticides to Spider Mite Predator, Phytoseius plumifer (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadimi Ahmad; Kamali Karim; Arbabi Masoud; Abdoli Fateme

    2009-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseius plumifer (Canestrini & Fanzago), is one of the most abundant natural enemies and efficient predator of phytophagous mites in Iran. The miticides hexythiazox (Nisorun®, EC 10%), fenpyroximate (Ortus®, SC 5%), and abamectin (Vertimec®, EC 1.8%) were tested in the laboratory for their side effects on P. plumifer. The miticides were applied at the highest field recommended

  7. Hydrologic conditions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho - emphasis: 1974-1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Barraclough; B. D. Lewis; R. G. Jensen

    1982-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site covers about 890 square miles of the eastern Snake River Plain and overlies the Snake River Plain aquifer. Low concentrations of aqueous chemical and radioactive wastes have been discharged to shallow ponds and to shallow or deep wells on the site since 1952. A large body of perched ground water has formed in

  8. Hydrologic conditions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Emphasis: 1974-1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Barraclough; B. D. Lewis; R. G. Jensen

    1981-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site covers about 890 square miles of the eastern Snake River Plain and overlies the Snake River Plain aquifer. Low concentrations of aqueous chemical and radioactive wastes have been discharged to shallow ponds and to shallow or deep wells on the site since 1952. This report covers the water-level and water-quality data collected by

  9. Development, growth and survival of the larvae of queen conch Strombus gigas under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Brito-Manzano; Dalila Aldana Aranda

    2004-01-01

    The development, growth and survival of Strombus gigas (Linné, 1758) larvae were studied over a period of 30 days in laboratory culture. The fertilized egg masses used for the larval culture experiment were collected in Alacran's Reef from March to September. Experiments were conducted at 29±1 °C. Veligers were reared at 200 larvae l?1 in 4-l containers. Larvae were fed

  10. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

  11. LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES ON BTEX BIODEGRADATION IN A FUEL-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies were conducted in conjunction with a field demonstration project on nitrate-mediated biorestoration of a fuel-contaminated aquifer at a U.S. Coast Guard facility in Traverse City, MI. icrocosms were prepared under either aerobic or strictly anaerobic, denitrify...

  12. Life cycle and host specificity of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo B. Labruna; Eric Y. M. Fugisaki; Adriano Pinter; José Maurício B. Duarte; Matias J. P. Szabó

    2003-01-01

    We report biological data of two generations of Amblyomma triste in laboratory and compared the suitability of different host species. Infestations by larval and nymphal stages were performed\\u000a on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), chickens (Gallus gallus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), wild mice (Calomys callosus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Infestations by adult ticks were performed on

  13. Response of the green alga Oophila sp., a salamander endosymbiont, to a PSII-inhibitor under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Hosmer, Alan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In a rare example of autotroph-vertebrate endosymbiosis, eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are colonized by a green alga (Oophila sp.) that significantly enhances salamander development. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for impacts to the salamander embryo when growth of the algae is impaired by exposure to herbicides. To further investigate this relationship, the authors characterized the response of the symbiotic algae (Oophila sp.) alone to the photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor atrazine under controlled laboratory conditions. After extraction of the alga from A. maculatum eggs and optimization of culturing conditions, 4 toxicity assays (96 h each) were conducted. Recovery of the algal population was also assessed after a further 96 h in untreated media. Average median effective concentration (EC50) values of 123 µg L(-1) (PSII yield), 169 µg L(-1) (optical density), and 299 µg L(-1) (growth rate) were obtained after the 96-h exposure. Full recovery of exposed algal populations after 96 h in untreated media was observed for all endpoints, except for optical density at the greatest concentration tested (300 µg L(-1) ). Our results show that, under laboratory conditions, Oophila sp. is generally less sensitive to atrazine than standard test species. Although conditions of growth in standard toxicity tests are not identical to those in the natural environment, these results provide an understanding of the tolerance of this alga to PSII inhibitors as compared with other species. PMID:24782078

  14. Life-cycle and host specificity of Amblyomma tigrinum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo B. Labruna; Silvio L. P. Souza; Ana C. Menezes; Maurício C. Horta; Adriano Pinter; Solange M. Gennari

    2002-01-01

    Biological data of three generations of Amblyomma tigrinum in the laboratory are reported and the suitability of different host species for immature ticks are compared. Grouping the\\u000a three generations, infestations by both the larval and nymphal stages were performed on chickens (Gallus gallus), wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus),wild mice (Calomys callosus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and opossums (Didelphis albiventris).

  15. Social influences during song development in the song sparrow: a laboratory experiment simulating field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cully Nordby; S. Elizabeth Campbell; John M. Burt; Michael D. Beecher

    2000-01-01

    Oscine songbirds are exposed to many more songs than they keep for their final song repertoire and little is known about how a bird selects the particular song(s) to sing as an adult. We simulated in the laboratory the key variables of the natural song learning environment and examined the song selection process in nine hand-reared male song sparrows,Melospiza melodia

  16. The life cycle of Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877 (Acarina: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Yeruham; A Hadani; F Galker

    2000-01-01

    The biology of Rhipicephalus bursa has not been thoroughly studied. In the present study R. bursa was bred in the laboratory and its biology worked out.Larvae, nymphs and adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks were fed on sheep and were held at 28±1°C and 89±1% relative humidty (RH) in a darkened incubator. The average weight of engorged females was 0.676g (range 0.353–1.128).

  17. Survival Potential and Photosynthetic Activity of Lichens Under Mars-Like Conditions: A Laboratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre de Vera; Diedrich Möhlmann; Frederike Butina; Andreas Lorek; Roland Wernecke; Sieglinde Ott

    2010-01-01

    Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described. Natural samples of the lichen Xanthoria elegans were used to investigate their ability to survive the applied Mars-like conditions. The effects of atmospheric pressure, CO2 concentration, low temperature, water availability, and light on Mars were also studied.

  18. Comparative evaluation of laboratory compaction devices based on their ability to produce mixtures with engineering properties similar to those produced in the field 

    E-print Network

    Consuegra, Alberto Enrique

    1988-01-01

    . The devices evaluated are: 1) the Mobile steel wheel simulator, 2) the Texas gyratory compactor, 3) the California kneading compactor, and 4) the Marshall mechanical hammer. The ability of the four laboratory compaction devices to simulate field compaction... between the two. The Marshall impact hammer ranked a distant last. ACK%%LEDGEMEHTS. The author wishes to thank all those individuals who contributed in one way or another to the successful completion of this work. The guidance and encouragement...

  19. Activity, aggression, and habitat use of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and round goby (Apollonia melanostoma) under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, J.F.; Riley, S.C.; Holuszko, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Potential negative ecological interactions between ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus and round goby Apollonia melanostoma (formerly Neogobius melanostomus) might affect the colonization dynamics of these invasive species where they are sympatric in the Great Lakes. In order to determine the potential for ecological interactions between these species, we examined the activity, aggression, and habitat use of round gobies and ruffe in single species and mixed species laboratory experiments. Trials included conditions in which food was concentrated (in light or darkness) or scattered. Results showed that ruffe were more active than gobies, particularly when food was scattered. Activity of both species was significantly lower during darkness. Round gobies were significantly more aggressive than ruffe, and total aggression was lower in mixed species trials. Habitat use by ruffe and round gobies overlapped considerably, but we observed significant differences between species in their use of specific habitats that depended on experimental conditions. Overall, ruffe used open habitats more often than did round gobies, primarily when food was scattered. Round gobies used rocks significantly more frequently than did ruffe, but their use of rock habitat decreased during dark conditions. Ruffe were found more often in plant habitats and less often near the wall of the pool in trials during daylight with concentrated food. Activity and habitat use of ruffe and round goby did not significantly differ between single and mixed species trials. Overall, we found little evidence for negative ecological interactions between ruffe and round goby in these laboratory experiments.

  20. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments and earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing atmospheric constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. Work performed has shown that laboratory measurements of the millimeter-wave opacity of ammonia between 7.5 mm and 9.3 mm and also at the 3.2 mm wavelength require a different lineshape to be used in the theoretical prediction for millimeter-wave ammonia opacity than was previously used. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres.

  1. Spectroscopics database for warm Xenon and Iron in Astrophysics and Laboratory Astrophysics conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Bar-Shalom, Avi; Oreg, Josse

    2010-11-01

    The main contribution to spectral properties of astrophysics mixtures come often from Iron. On the other hand, in the so-called domain of ``Laboratory Astrophysics,'' where astrophysics phenomena are scaled down to the laboratory, Xenon (and Argon) are commonly used gases. At so called ``warm'' temperatures (T=5-50eV), L-shell Iron and M-shell Xenon present a very large number of spectral lines, originating from billions of levels. More often than not, Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium is assumed, leading to noticeable simplification of the computation. Nevertheless, complex and powerful atomic structure codes are required. We take benefit of powerful statistics and numerics, included in our atomic structure codes, STA[1] and HULLAC[2], to generate the required spectra. Recent improvements in both fields (statistics, numerics and convergence control) allow obtaining large databases (ro x T grid of > 200x200 points, and > 10000 frequencies) for temperature down to a few eV. We plan to port these improvements in the NLTE code SCROLL[3]. [1] A.Bar-Shalom, et al, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3183 (1989) [2] M.Busquet,et al, J.Phys. IV France 133, 973-975 (2006); A.Bar-Shalom, M.Klapisch, J.Oreg, J.Oreg, JQSRT 71, 169, (2001) [3] A.Bar-Shalom, et al, Phys. Rev. E 56, R70 (1997)

  2. 42 CFR 493.1771 - Condition: Inspection requirements applicable to all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. 493.1771 Section 493.1771...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. (a) Each laboratory issued...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1771 - Condition: Inspection requirements applicable to all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. 493.1771 Section 493.1771...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. (a) Each laboratory issued...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1771 - Condition: Inspection requirements applicable to all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. 493.1771 Section 493.1771...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. (a) Each laboratory issued...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1771 - Condition: Inspection requirements applicable to all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. 493.1771 Section 493.1771...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection § 493...all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. (a) Each laboratory issued...

  6. A laboratory for instruction and research in air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-print Network

    Hall, Ray Allison

    1950-01-01

    A LARORATORY FOR INSTRUCTION AND RESEARCH IN AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION A Thesis RAY ALLISON HALL Approued as to style and content by Chairman of Cosa. ittee August 1$50 A IABQRATORY FOR INSTRUCTION AI'H3 RESEARCH IN AIR CONDITIONING... Al'G3 RE. ""RIGKlkTION Ray Allison Eall I ~ A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanfcal College of' Texas in partiol f'ulfillment of' the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE lBajor Sub j oct...

  7. [Evaluation of different broiler housing conditions on the basis of clinical, pathological, anatomical and laboratory diagnostic criteria--a summary].

    PubMed

    Neumann, V U; Braune, S; Glünder, G; Haas, B; Hinz, K H; Ryll, M; Salisch, H; Sander, I

    1996-03-01

    In a cooperative study, the impact of different broiler housing conditions (see communication BUCHENAUER) on clinical, post-mortem and laboratory diagnostic (microbiological, parasitological, serological, immunological) parameters was investigated in the course of three different fattening period. Clinically, it was observed, that lower stocking densities allowed a relatively higher motility of the birds. On the other hand, necropsy findings, microbiological, parasitological, serological and immunological findings gave no indications that these parameters were influenced statistically significant by either one of the broiler keeping systems. PMID:8721325

  8. Assessing the Fate of Litter Mercury during Decomposition under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokharel, A. K.; Obrist, D.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this research is to assess the fate of mercury (Hg) in forest litter during decomposition under controlled laboratory incubations and in the field. During decomposition, Hg may be lost to the atmosphere by gaseous elemental mercury evasion, may become soluble and subject to runoff, or may remain sequestered in the remaining litter pool. We are conducting a laboratory incubation study over 18 months to monitor total litter dry mass, carbon, nitrogen, and Hg mass and concentrations, and the respective stochiometric ratios, of 100 well characterized litter samples. Fresh surface litter samples (~ 30 g) of four different forest types (mixed deciduous, aspen, pine, and blue Oak) were incubated in acid-cleaned glass jars covered by Teflon filters to allow gas exchange while avoiding particulate and dust deposition. Litter samples were kept at 25 degree celcius in the dark and kept moist by occasional addition of Hg free water. Samples were also extracted for soluble Hg to assess how decomposition may affect aqueous-phase Hg mobility. Additional litter samples were placed in the field to compare laboratory results to in situ field decomposition. Initial results after six months of decomposition show that dry mass of the four litter types decreased by 2-8% after 3 months and 3-11% after 6 months as compared to initial dry mass. Total Hg mass showed inconsistent patterns after 3 months (+3% to -6% mass change), but started to show consistent decreases (from 2 to 16%) after 6 months of incubation. Total amounts of soluble Hg extracted from litter samples showed decreasing solubility of Hg with increasing duration of incubation. Hence, our results show that dry mass and C losses during decomposition (through losses of CO2) did not lead to equal losses of atmospheric Hg during initial stages of decomposition, but that some losses of Hg are becoming visible after six months, albeit strongly dependent on litter types. Decomposition of surface litter may hence be source of Hg to the atmosphere, thereby recycling atmospheric mercury previously fixed by leaves and deposited by litterfall.

  9. Laboratory study on the survival of water hyacinth under several conditions of heavy metal concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E Soltan; M. N Rashed

    2003-01-01

    To study the survival and behaviour of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] under varying conditions of heavy metal concentrations, groups of the plants were grown in different media (distilled water, Nile water, wastewater and different concentrations of heavy metals). Simultaneously, blank experiments were carried out for comparison. Visual changes in the plants observed during each experiment were noted. The

  10. Effect of population density on reproduction in Microtus fortis under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Qunhua; Zhang, Meiwen; Guo, Cong; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Xu, Zhenggang

    2014-06-01

    Between December 2011 and March 2012, the reproductive characteristics of Microtus fortis reared in the laboratory at different population densities were assessed. In all, 258 male and female voles were randomly divided into 4 groups and reared at densities of 2, 4, 6, and 8 animals per cage (sex ratio: 1:1). The results showed that the pregnancy rate (?2 = 21.671, df = 3, P < 0.001) and first farrowing interval (F = 12.355, df = 3, P < 0.001) were significantly different among the different population density groups, but the mean litter size (mean ± SD) was not (F = 2.669, df = 3, P > 0.05). In particular, the reproductive index and sex hormone levels showed a significant difference among the different density groups studied. PMID:24873906

  11. Marks caused by the scavenging activity of Necrobia rufipes (Coleoptera: Cleridae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2015-07-01

    Insects are an important group involved in carrion consumption and are thus of forensic interest. In the laboratory we studied the taphonomic marks that Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) can produce. Pig trotters were exposed to adult beetles at 21 ± 3 °C and 12:12 h day/night cycle. We made observations and took photographs every 4-5 days for 12 months. Marks were noted after a month. We found scratches, pits, holes, and tunnels in several kinds of tissue such as integumental, connective and muscular. This work contributes preliminary data of significant application in biology, ecology, anthropology and forensics. Until now, no study has provided taphonomic information with N. rufipes. PMID:26048510

  12. Predation by odonate nymphs on larval razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, Michael J.; Marsh, Paul C.; Mueller, Gordon; Burke, Tom

    1994-01-01

    High larval mortality has plagued efforts to raise razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) in a Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada backwater. Observations indicate odonate nymph densities may be high enough to impact larval survival. In laboratory tests conducted in aquaria, damselfly (Coenagrionidae: Enallagma sp.) and dragonfly (Libellulidae: Tramea sp.) nymphs consumed 81% and 76% respectively of 11.8 ± 0.7 mm total length larval razorbacks in 7 days compared to 12% mortality in controls. Larger razorback larvae (14 to 15 mm TL) were less susceptible than smaller fish, showing 53% mortality versus 18% in controls. Extensive growth of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) may exacerbate predation effects in the backwater, by allowing odonates access to more of the water column.

  13. Containment testing of laboratory hoods in the as-used condition.

    PubMed

    Greenley, P L; Billings, C E; DiBerardinis, L J; Edwards, R W; Barkley, W E

    2000-02-01

    Airborne contaminants generated inside laboratory fume hoods during use leak into the breathing zone of the user. Concentration of the leakage is unknown and variable depending on laboratory design, work practices, arrangement of internal apparatus, face velocity, and sash height. Surrogate tracer gas tests have been developed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a manikin to estimate leakage. This study presents results of hood leakage tests using SF6 with a manikin and then a live operator performing a phenol:chloroform (P:C) extraction. Four hoods were tested in each of three institutions during normal work hours with the lab occupied. The purpose of the study was to determine leakage concentrations for the SF6-manikin with effects of sash height, hood contents as found and after being cleaned out, face velocity, and the actual P:C and SF6 exposure concentrations of the user during work. Results indicate P:C was not detectable in the breathing zone of the 12 operators (< 0.1 ppm) at their selected operating sash heights (7 to 15 inches). Simultaneous SF6 concentrations were also minimal (average 0.06 ppm). Average leakage was 0.02 percent for SF6 and less than 2 percent based on chloroform concentrations measured in the breathing zone of the operator and inside the hood. SF6 percent leakage was greater when sash height was above the breathing zone of the manikin (average 2.09 percent) and lower leakage (average 0.02 percent) when below the breathing zone (26 inches or less). Average face velocity did not appear to be a predictor of average hood leakage. Cleaning out the hoods did not reduce leakage in most tests. The data from this study shows that when providing training on proper work practices for lab hood use, lowering the sash should be stressed as being the major factor in reducing hood leakage. PMID:10675979

  14. Laboratory evaluation of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave absorbing properties of gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) under Venus atmospheric conditions are investigated. The results are applied to measurements from Mariner 5, Mariner 10, and Pioneer/Venus Radio Occultation experiments, to determine abundancies of gaseous sulfuric acid in the Venus atmosphere. The microwave properties of the vapors accompanying liquid H2SO4 are studied to estimate the vapor pressure in an atmospheric model.

  15. Differences in span task performance recorded in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) simulator compared to a standard laboratory condition 

    E-print Network

    Harcourt-Brown, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Forty-eight participants completed a working memory span task in a functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) simulator and laboratory. Differences in performance between the two conditions were investigated. The trends in the ...

  16. Comparison of linuron degradation in the presence of pesticide mixtures in soil under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Swarcewicz, Maria; Gregorczyk, Andrzej; Sobczak, Justyna

    2013-10-01

    It is widely recognised that complex interactions occur between chemicals in mixtures. In many agricultural situations, the use of tank mixes and complex spray programs is a common practice. Insecticides, fungicides and a herbicide being applied in potato protection were used in this research. Interactions between linuron and insecticides, such as thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and fungicides, such as mancozeb or chlorothalonil, were examined in soil. The degradation rate of linuron in soil during laboratory incubation in six treatments was studied. Mixtures of linuron with mancozeb in sandy loam and clay loam soils had a significant effect on the persistence of this herbicide. For example, for the same herbicide, t 1/2 values for linuron were from 37 days in sandy loam to 44 days in clay loam. These values changed (64-67 days) when thiamethoxam and mancozeb were in soil. When mancozeb was added only, the half-life values were from 59 to 62 days, respectively. Other mixtures with chlorothalonil, thiamethoxam and clothianidin did not have any effect. In order to compare linuron degradation rates in soils, a single first-order model and expanded statistical analysis were used. PMID:23525775

  17. Parasitism of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) by Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Luna, María G; Sánchez, Norma E; Pereyra, Patricia C

    2007-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to measure selected life history traits and the functional response of the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck), a major enemy of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in tomato crops in South America. Newly mated P. dignus females were individually exposed to 10 host larvae in mines for 24 h. We determined developmental time from egg to pupal formation and pupal stage duration, female adult life span, fecundity, reproductive period, daily parasitism rate, and sex ratio of offspring. For the functional response experiment, treatments consisted of six host densities: 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, or 30 larvae. The number and proportion of parasitized hosts were calculated for each density. The shape of the functional response curve was analyzed by logistic regression. P. dignus females attacked hosts daily, exhibiting modest lifetime fecundity (approximately 32 parasitized hosts per female) and a female-biased offspring sex ratio. Female adult life span was 36 d. P. dignus showed a type I functional response within the range of host densities tested. We observed that females detect and parasitize the host within a wide range of densities, including low densities. The functional response curve reached an asymptote at a mean density of six hosts per day and seemed not to be egg-limited. Percent parasitism was approximately 30%. The ecological implications of the results in relation to the potential of P. dignus for the biological control of T. absoluta in tomato are discussed. PMID:17716480

  18. Functional response analysis of Anisops sardea (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) against Culex quinquefasciatus in laboratory condition

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rajendra Prasad; Ghosh, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasis; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Culex quinquefasciatus is the principal vector of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Application of alternative vector control methodologies are aimed at reduction of mosquito breeding sites and biting activity through the use of biological control methods. In the present study, functional response of aquatic Hemipteran backswimmer, Anisops sardea was assessed against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory bioassay. Methods: The functional respons of A. sardea was assessed against IIIrd instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Respective handling times and coefficient of attack rates were determined by a non linear polynomeal regression equation. Results: The results of rates of predation in variable prey densities exhibited a ‘linear rise to plateau curve’, associated with ‘Type -II’ functional response. The logistic regression estimated a significant negative linear parameter (P1<0) which also supported the same observation. Associated ‘attack rates’ and ‘handling times’ were also calculated using the Holling Disc Equation. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of present experiments indicate that A. sardea can be used as a biocontrol agent against the larval forms of Cx. quinquefasciatus in temporarily available breeding places of mosquito with relatively clear water. However, a detailed field study has to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:25488451

  19. Vegetation-derived cues for the selection of oviposition substrates by Anopheles albimanus under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Meza-Alvarez, R Amanda; Cibrián-Tovar, Juan; Rodríguez-López, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas-Leon, Julio C

    2005-12-01

    Oviposition response of gravid Anopheles albimanus Wiedemman (Diptera: Culicidae) females to water containing Brachiaria mutica, Cynodon dactylon, Jouvea straminea, Fimbristylis spadicea, and Ceratophyllum demersum was investigated. Gravid An. albimanus females deposited similar egg numbers in cups containing natural plants in water from natural breeding sites and in cups containing natural plants in distilled water. Gravid mosquitoes deposited significantly more eggs in cups containing natural plants in water from natural breeding sites than in cups containing artificial plants in water from the corresponding natural breeding sites. These results were confirmed in experiments conducted in a wind tunnel, indicating that female response is mediated by chemical cues from plants. Bioassays with organic extracts of all 5 plant species indicated that these extracts at 100%, 10%, and 1% concentrations had an oviposition repellent effect, while attractiveness was observed at 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the organic extracts found in all 5 plants showed a mixture of terpenoid and alcohol compounds, among them: guaiacol, phenol, isoeugenol, longifolene, caryophyllene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, and p-cresol. These results suggest that middle-range volatiles from plants may function as chemical cues for the female's oviposition response in this mosquito species. PMID:16506557

  20. Effect of some diets on Macrolophus pygmaeus rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae) fitness under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Maleki, F; Ashouri, A; Mohaghegh, J; Bandani, A R

    2006-01-01

    Fitness parameters of omnivore predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus were studied on various diets consisting of green peach aphid Myzus persicae + eggplant leaf disc, eggs of Ephestia kuehniella + eggplant leafdisc, pollen + eggplant leaf disc, eggs of E. kuehniella + pollen + eggplant leaf disc. The experiments were began from 1- day nymphs until 32-day adults. The tests were done at 25 degress C, 65+/-5% RH, 16L: 8D h photoperiod. The results showed that adding floral material to the animal prey (eggs of E. kuehniella) containing treatment shortened the nymphal development time. The highest rate of mortality of M. pygmaeus nymphs was observed on pollen + eggplant leaf disc. The sex ratio of emerged adults was similar between treatments. The preoviposition period was the same in a ll treatments. T he fecundity of M . pygmaeuswas affected by feeding diets. Females fed on eggs of E. kuehniella + pollen + eggplant leaf disc have highest rate of fecundity. Based on results, diet of E. kuehniella eggs + pollen + eggplant leaf disc is the most suitable diet for rearing of this predatory insect. Obtained results somehow were expectable due to the high nitrogen extent, vitamins and mineral materials found in the pollen. PMID:17385505

  1. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Eiden, T. J.; Gerczak, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-04-01

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150?A of proton current from the source, with over 70?A on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above ˜1×1017/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  2. Laboratory studies of formation of molecules on dust grain analogues under ISM conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidali, G.; Roser, J. E.; Manicó, G.; Pirronello, V.

    2004-06-01

    Certain important molecules of the interstellar medium (ISM), such as H2 and CO2, are believed to have been formed on surfaces of dust grains. We describe experimental methods that we used to study the formation of H2 and CO2 on dust grain analogues in conditions approximating the ones found in key interstellar environments. By using state-of-the-art surface science techniques we obtained information on the efficiency of the molecular formation reactions, the reaction kinetics, and the reaction dynamics. Selected results are presented on the formation of molecular hydrogen on surfaces of silicates, amorphous carbon, and amorphous ice and on the synthesis of carbon dioxide. We then briefly show how these results have been applied to the quantitative determination of processes occurring in the ISM.

  3. 42 CFR 493.1771 - Condition: Inspection requirements applicable to all CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. 493.1771 Section 493...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Inspection...CLIA-certified and CLIA-exempt laboratories. (a) Each...

  4. Leaching of biocides used in façade coatings under laboratory test conditions.

    PubMed

    Schoknecht, Ute; Gruycheva, Jana; Mathies, Helena; Bergmann, Hannelore; Burkhardt, Michael

    2009-12-15

    The European Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC requires a risk assessment concerning possible effects of active ingredients on the environment. Biocides can be leached from treated materials exposed to outdoor use. These emissions have to be estimated and evaluated during the authorization procedure. Different immersion and irrigation tests were performed to investigate leaching of biocides from façade coatings. Several marketed formulations of textured coatings and paints spiked with a mixture of commonly used active ingredients (OIT, DCOIT, IPBC, carbendazim, isoproturon, diuron, terbutryn, and Irgarol 1051) were investigated. The emission process can be described by time-dependent functions that depend on the test conditions. The results of all test procedures confirm that leachability is related to water solubility and n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the active ingredients and that leaching of biocides from façade coatings is mainly a diffusion controlled process. Other factors like the composition of the product, availability and transport of water, concentration of active ingredients in the coatings, as well as UV-exposure of the coatings influence biocide emissions. PMID:19928801

  5. Comparative Studies on the Ecophysiological Differences of Two Green Tide Macroalgae under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, You; Zhu, Lin; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2012-01-01

    Yellow Sea green tides have occurred in coastal China almost every year from 2007 to 2011. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the causative macroalgal species. U. intestinalis, however, has been observed in the bloom areas, co-occurring with U. prolifera, but it has not been found to be causative. The Yellow Sea green tide has shown consistent phases of development that match corresponding environmental changes. U. prolifera, not U. intestinalis, is dominant. Our experimental design was based on these observed phenomena, and the results of our field investigation indicated a close relationship between changes in principal environmental factors (irradiance, temperature, and salinity) and the development of each phase of the bloom. These main environmental factors were simulated to allow estimation and comparison of the physiological responses of U. prolifera and U. intestinalis. Ecophysiological differences were found between these two species. (1) More photosynthetic activity and plasticity were detected in U. prolifera. (2) U. prolifera was found to be more sensitive to dynamic environments, especially harsh and changing environmental conditions. U. intestinalis was found to be more stable, probably due to the higher stress tolerance given by its antioxidant system. (3) Markedly higher nutrient absorption activity was observed in U. prolifera. Comparisons of the ecophysiological traits of these two species in this present study may foster understanding of their natural ecological processes. Specifically, U. prolifera seemed to be more engaged with the ephemeral blooms, while U. intestinalis seemed to be directed toward persistence. This also suggests that the ecological success of U. prolifera may be inextricably linked to its higher capacity for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and nutrient assimilation. PMID:22905087

  6. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9?months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break?=??66% in 2?years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236?days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  7. Laboratory study of microbial cleaning of oil spills under Saudi environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sayed, A.A.H.; Shebl, A.M.; Ramadan, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01

    An active strain of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from oil-contaminated soil at the Arabian Gulf was able to utilize the crude oil at a concentration of 5 mg/ml added to sterile Gulf water. microbial growth and gas chromatographic analysis of the remaining oil were used as a criteria for oil degradation by this strain. The bacteria at a cell density of 10{sup 5} CFU/ml was able to degrade the crude oil at concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 15 mg/ml in Gulf water samples. At low concentration (2.5 mg/ml), about 70% of crude oil had disappeared within 7 days. At high concentration (15 mg/ml), the extent of oil degradation decreased, where only 50% of the added oil had disappeared. The rate of degradation by the inoculated bacteria was slightly increased by the addition of inorganic nutrients, mainly P or N to the Gulf water. The degradative capacity of Pseudomonas sp. was optimum when the bacteria was incubated at 25 C, where 47% of the added oil has disappeared within 5 days of incubation. Low cell density (10{sup 3} CFU/ml) of the degrading bacteria required a long lag period before initiation of oil degradation, whereas high cell density (10{sup 6} CFU/ml) rapidly degraded oil with a short lag period under the same conditions. This strain could be useful in decontamination of spilled oil in Gulf water if it acts well under field trial test and survived for a reasonable period sufficient for oil biodegradation.

  8. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9?months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break?=?-66% in 2?years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236?days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  9. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  10. Clinician Perspectives about Molecular Genetic Testing for Heritable Conditions and Development of a Clinician-Friendly Laboratory Report

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Ira M.; McGovern, Margaret M.; Gibson, Zoe; Gross, Susan J.; Lyon, Elaine; Pagon, Roberta A.; Pratt, Victoria M.; Rashid, Jamila; Shaw, Colleen; Stoddard, Lander; Trotter, Tracy L.; Williams, Marc S.; Amos Wilson, Jean; Pass, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular genetic tests for heritable conditions is expected to increase in medical settings, where genetic knowledge is often limited. As part of a project to improve the clarity of genetic test result reports to minimize misunderstandings that could compromise patient care, we sought input about format and content from practicing primary care clinicians. In facilitated workgroup discussions, clinicians from pediatric, obstetrics-gynecology, and family practice provided their perspectives about molecular genetic testing with a focus on the laboratory reporting of test results. Common principles for enhancing the readability and comprehension of test result reports were derived from these discussions. These principles address the presentation of patient- and test-specific information, the test result interpretation, and guidance for future steps. Model test result reports for DNA-based cystic fibrosis testing are presented that were developed based on workgroup discussions, previous studies, and professional guidelines. The format of these model test reports, which are applicable to a variety of molecular genetic tests, should be useful for communicating essential information from the laboratory to health care professionals. PMID:19197001

  11. Attraction of gravid anopheles Pseudopunctipennis females to oviposition substrates by Spirogyra majuscula (Zygnematales: Zygnmataceae) algae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, José L; Meza-Alvarez, Rosa A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I

    2007-03-01

    The attraction of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis gravid females to oviposition substrates containing Spirogyra majuscula algae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Gravid females deposited significantly more eggs in cups containing natural algae in water from breeding sites than in cups containing artificial (nylon rope) life-like algae in water from the corresponding natural breeding site, or in cups containing natural algae in distilled water. Bioassays with Spirogyra majuscula organic extracts indicated that these extracts at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001% attracted more oviposition, but concentrations of 1%, 10%, and 100% were repellent. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of algae organic extracts revealed a mixture of ethyl acetate and hydrocarbons compounds. These results suggest that the attraction of gravid An. pseudopunctipennis to natural breeding sites containing filamentous algae is probably mediated by organic compounds released by the algae. PMID:17536363

  12. Investigation on some biological aspects of Chrysoperla lucasina (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) on Bemisia tabaci in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, A; Sharifi, F; Mirmoayedi, A

    2012-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important key pests of many types of cultivated plants. Lacewings (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) are predatory insects, widely used in biological control programs. Between them green lacewing is a promising biological control agent of pests in green houses and crop fields. In this study, gravid females of the green lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Lacroix) were captured from Sarepolzahab ( altitude 540m, latitude 34 degrees ,14' N 46 degrees, 9' E) in western part of Iran. Collected insects were reared in a growth chamber, under experimental conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L: D). Different diets were offered to larvae which consisted of a whitefly species B. tabaci, an aphid Myzus persica and also lyophilized powder of drone honeybee (Apis melifera). As different foods were used to nurish larvae, so for each diet, mean larval period were calculated, and finally means were compared to each other. Anova in MSTAT-C was used for analysis of variance, and Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) to compare between means. The results showed that larvae had maximum duration of 27 +/- 0.33 days when fed on honeybee lyophilized powder and the minimum value was 17.9 +/- 0.3 days for B. tabaci. 25 +/- 0.27 day recorded for M. persicae. Food preference of the 3rd instar larvae of green lacewing was surveyed, they showed a food preference to M. persicae, to compare with B. tabaci, as the former has a bigger body size, so more easily to be captured by the predator larvae. The 3rd instar larvae of lacewing were more voracious on preys, than the 1st or the 2nd instar larvae. Statistically speaking, there were a significantly difference when mean of different preys consumed by predator larvae were compared. We found, that when the predator larvae have fed on B. tabaci, their development time was shorter, and when arrived to adult stage, the adults showed, an improved fertility. The results indicated that the suitable prey not only can increase the rate of through accelerating developmental stages of the predator and by means of an increase in its pupal body weight consequently promoting the fecundity of resulting adults, but also can alter predators population density in relation to own production numbers. PMID:23885430

  13. Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzhina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

  14. A comparison of the bioaccumulation potential of three freshwater organisms exposed to sediment-associated contaminants under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, Jordana L; Poirier, David G; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2011-04-01

    In the field of sediment quality assessment, increased support has been expressed for using multiple species that represent different taxa, trophic levels, and potential routes of exposure. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of various test species over a range of sediment contaminants (hydrophobic organics and metals). As part of the development and standardization of a laboratory bioaccumulation method for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, mayfly nymph Hexagenia spp., and juvenile fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were exposed to a variety of field-contaminated sediments (n?=?10) to evaluate their relative effectiveness for accumulating different contaminants (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT] and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans [PCDD/Fs), and heavy metals). Bioaccumulation was usually highest in L. variegatus but also most variable within and (relative measures) between sediments. Bioaccumulation was similar between L. variegatus and Hexagenia spp. in most of the sediments tested. Significant differences in bioaccumulation between species were observed for DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), PAHs, and PCDD/Fs. The present study indicates that species-specific differences in bioaccumulation may, but do not always, exist and can vary with contaminant and sediment type. The choice of test species or combination to use in a standard test method may depend on the objectives of the sediment quality assessment and data requirements of an ecological risk assessment. The results of the present study provide insight for selection of test species and validation of laboratory methods for assessing bioaccumulation with these species, as well as valuable information for interpreting results of bioaccumulation tests. PMID:21194176

  15. Conditions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Christy Wyckoff; Scott E. Henke; Kurt C. VerCauteren

    Research interests in feral hogs typically involve their negative impacts on ecosystems or their potential as a disease reservoir, especially with disease transmission to domestic swine. Authors within scientific literature state that feral hogs were captured as part of their research, but usually fail to mention specific conditions in which hogs were captured. Novice researchers of feral hogs must rely

  16. Similar quartz crystallographic textures in rocks of continental earth's crust (by neutron diffraction data): III. Relation of quartz texture types with means and conditions of texture formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, A. N., E-mail: nikitin@nf.jinr.ru; Ivankina, T. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ullemeyer, K. [Universitaet Kiel, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften (Germany); Vasin, R. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15

    Examples of different rocks collected in different regions of the continental earth's crust are presented. Groups of quartz crystallographic textures of the same type are selected for these rocks. The relationship between the types of textures and the physical means and conditions of their formation is analyzed. The effect of the {alpha}-{beta} phase transition in quartz on the texture transformations in rocks is considered.

  17. Persistence of four s-triazine herbicides in river, sea and groundwater samples exposed to sunlight and darkness under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simón Navarro; Nuria Vela; M José Giménez; Ginés Navarro

    2004-01-01

    The persistence of terbuthylazine, simazine, atrazine and prometryn (s-triazine herbicides) was studied in sea, river and groundwaters during long-term laboratory incubation (127 days) under different laboratory conditions (light–darkness at 20 °C). Analysis of herbicides was performed by GC-NPD and their identity was confirmed by GC-MSD. A micro on-line method for the isolation of herbicide residues was used. The results showed

  18. Under What Conditions Does Caseworker-Caregiver Racial/Ethnic Similarity Matter for Housing Service Provision? An Application of Representative Bureaucracy Theory

    PubMed Central

    McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline; Bunger, Alicia; Blakeslee, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine child welfare caseworkers’ housing-related service strategies when they serve culturally similar versus culturally dissimilar clients. Testing hypotheses drawn from representative bureaucracy theory and using data from the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, we find that when non-Caucasian caseworkers share the same racial/ethnic background as caregivers, caseworkers use more active strategies to connect caregivers to needed housing services. The relationship between racial/ethnic matching and frontline workers’ repertoire of service strategies is most pronounced when the need for housing has been registered formally via referrals and case plans and thus legitimated institutionally. These results reinforce basic tenets of representative bureaucracy theory and provide evidence of the benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in the human service workforce. Our findings also highlight the need for research identifying institutional and frontline organizational factors that enhance the quality of service provision. PMID:25745270

  19. Value of Laboratory Tests in Employer-Sponsored Health Risk Assessments for Newly Identifying Health Conditions: Analysis of 52,270 Participants

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Harvey W.; Williams, Fred R.; Odeh, Mouneer A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Employer-sponsored health risk assessments (HRA) may include laboratory tests to provide evidence of disease and disease risks for common medical conditions. We evaluated the ability of HRA-laboratory testing to provide new disease-risk information to participants. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRA-laboratory results for participating adult employees and their eligible spouses or their domestic partners, focusing on three common health conditions: hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. HRA with laboratory results of 52,270 first-time participants were analyzed. Nearly all participants had access to health insurance coverage. Twenty-four percent (12,392) self-reported one or more of these medical conditions: 21.1% (11,017) self-identified as having hyperlipidemia, 4.7% (2,479) self-identified as having diabetes, and 0.7% (352) self-identified as having chronic kidney disease. Overall, 36% (n?=?18,540) of participants had laboratory evidence of at least one medical condition newly identified: 30.7% (16,032) had laboratory evidence of hyperlipidemia identified, 1.9% (984) had laboratory evidence of diabetes identified, and 5.5% (2,866) had laboratory evidence of chronic kidney disease identified. Of all participants with evidence of hyperlipidemia 59% (16,030 of 27,047), were newly identified through the HRA. Among those with evidence of diabetes 28% (984 of 3,463) were newly identified. The highest rate of newly identified disease risk was for chronic kidney disease: 89% (2,866 of 3,218) of participants with evidence of this condition had not self-reported it. Men (39%) were more likely than women (33%) to have at least one newly identified condition (p<0.0001). Among men, lower levels of educational achievement were associated with modestly higher rates of newly identified disease risk (p<0.0001); the association with educational achievement among women was unclear. Even among the youngest age range (20 to 29 year olds), nearly 1 in 4 participants (24%) had a newly identified risk for disease. Conclusions/Significance These results support the important role of employer-sponsored laboratory testing as an integral element of HRA for identifying evidence of previously undiagnosed common medical conditions in individuals of all working age ranges, regardless of educational level and gender. PMID:22163283

  20. Larval and juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, L.M.; Traxler, G.S.; Garver, K.A.; Richard, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Kurath, G.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) leads to periodic epidemics among certain wild and farmed fish species of the Northeast (NE) Pacific. The source of the IHN virus (IHNV) that initiates these outbreaks remains unknown; however, a leading hypothesis involves viral persistence in marine host species such as Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. Under laboratory conditions we exposed specific pathogen-free (SPF) larval and juvenile Pacific herring to 103 to 104 plaque-forming units (pfu) of IHNV ml–1 by waterborne immersion. Cumulative mortalities among exposed groups were not significantly different from those of negative control groups. After waterborne exposure, IHNV was transiently recovered from the tissues of larvae but absent in tissues of juveniles. Additionally, no evidence of viral shedding was detected in the tank water containing exposed juveniles. After intraperitoneal (IP) injection of IHNV in juvenile herring with 103 pfu, IHNV was recovered from the tissues of sub-sampled individuals for only the first 5 d post-exposure. The lack of susceptibility to overt disease and transient levels of IHNV in the tissues of exposed fish indicate that Pacific herring do not likely serve a major epizootiological role in perpetuation of IHNV among free-ranging sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the NE Pacific.

  1. Toxic cyanobacterial cells containing microcystins induce oxidative stress in exposed tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Prieto, Ana I; Repetto, Guillermo; Vázquez, Carmen M; Moreno, Isabel; Cameán, Ana M

    2005-04-30

    The effects of microcystins from cyanobacterial cells on various oxidative stress biomarkers in liver, kidney and gill tissues in freshwater tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Microcystins are a family of cyclic peptide toxins produced by species of freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Fish were exposed to the cyanobacterial cells in two ways: mixed with a commercial fish food or crushed into a commercial fish food so that the toxins were released. Two different exposure times were studied: 14 and 21 days. The oxidative status of fish was evaluated by analyzing the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). The findings of the present investigation show that microcystins induce oxidative stress in a time-dependent manner and that the type of administration of the cyanobacterial cells influences the extent of these effects. Thus, the crushed cyanobacterial cells (released toxins) induced the antioxidant defences studied and increased the LPO level to a greater extent than the non-crushed cells. The liver was the most affected organ followed by kidney and gills. These results together with reports that fish can accumulate microcystins mean that cyanobacterial blooms are an important health, environmental and economic problem. PMID:15820106

  2. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  3. Field and laboratory studies of the fate and enantiomeric enrichment of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gasser, G; Pankratov, I; Elhanany, S; Werner, P; Gun, J; Gelman, F; Lev, O

    2012-06-01

    The stereoselectivity of R,S-venlafaxine and its metabolites R,S-O-desmethylvenlafaxine, N-desmethylvenlafaxine, O,N-didesmethylvenlafaxine, N,N-didesmethylvenlafaxine and tridesmethylvenlafaxine was studied in three processes: (i) anaerobic and aerobic laboratory scale tests; (ii) six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating under different conditions; and (iii) a variety of wastewater treatments including conventional activated sludge, natural attenuation along a receiving river stream and storage in operational and seasonal reservoirs. In the laboratory and field studies, the degradation of the venlafaxine yielded O-desmethylvenalfaxine as the dominant metabolite under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Venlafaxine was almost exclusively converted to O-desmethylvenlafaxine under anaerobic conditions, but only a fraction of the drug was transformed to O-desmethylvenlafaxine under aerobic conditions. Degradation of venlafaxine involved only small stereoisomeric selectivity. In contrast, the degradation of O-desmethylvenlafaxine yielded remarkable S to R enrichment under aerobic conditions but none under anaerobic conditions. Determination of venlafaxine and its metabolites in the WWTPs agreed well with the stereoselectivity observed in the laboratory studies. Our results suggest that the levels of the drug and its metabolites and the stereoisomeric enrichment of the metabolite and its parent drug can be used for source tracking and for discrimination between domestic and nondomestic wastewater pollution. This was indeed demonstrated in the investigations carried out at the Jerusalem WWTP. PMID:22445391

  4. Corrosion behaviour of weathering steel in diluted Qinghai salt lake water in a laboratory accelerated test that involved cyclic wet\\/dry conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wang; Z. Y. Wang; W. Ke

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of CortenA weathering steel has been investigated using a laboratory accelerated test that involved cyclic wet\\/dry conditions in Qinghai salt lake water diluted 30 times. The characteristics of the rust layers on tested samples were observed by SEM and EPMA, analyzed by IRS and XRD, and studied by polarization and EIS measurements. The weight loss was almost

  5. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Bates; E. C. Buck; J. W. Emery; R. J. Finch; P. A. Finn; J. Fortner; J. C. Hoh; C. Mertz; L. A. Neimark; S. F. Wolf; D. J. Wronkiewicz

    1998-01-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in

  6. A review of hydrologic and geologic conditions related to the radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Solid waste contaminated by radioactive matter has been buried in the vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1944. By 1973, an estimated six million cubic feet of such material had been placed in six burial grounds in two valleys. The practice initially was thought of as a safe method for permanently removing these potentially hazardous substances from man's surroundings, but is now que.3tionable at this site because of known leaching of contaminants from the waste, transport in ground water, and release to the terrestrial and fluvial environments. This review attempts to bring together in a single document information from numerous published and unpublished sources regarding the past criteria used for selecting the Oak Ridge burial-ground sites, the historical development and conditions of these facilities as of 1974, the geologic framework of the Laboratory area and the movement of water and water-borne contaminants in that area, the effects of sorption and ion exchange upon radionuclide transport, and a description and evaluation of the existing monitoring system. It is intended to assist Atomic Energy Commission (now Energy Research and Development Administration) officials in the formulation of managerial decisions concerning the burial grounds and present monitoring methods. Sites for the first three burial grounds appear to have been chosen during and shortly after World War II on the basis of such factors as safety, security, and distance from sources of waste origin. By 1950, geologic criteria had been introduced, and in the latter part of that decade, geohydrologic criteria were considered. While no current criteria have been defined, it becomes evident from the historical record that the successful containment of radionuclides below land surface for long periods of time is dependent upon a complex interrelationship between many geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls, and any definition of criteria must include consideration of these factors. For the most part, the burial grounds have been developed by a simple cut and fill procedure similar to the operation of a municipal landfill. Low permeability of the residuum, high rainfall, shallow depth to ground water, the excavation of trenches below the water table, and other practices, have contributed to a condition of waste leaching in probably all of the burial grounds. Despite these conditions, only very small concentrations of radionuclides have been found in wells or otherwise attributed to the initial three, small sites in Bethel Valley. This fact, however, may be due in part to the scant extent of site monitoring of those burial grounds for transport of radionuclides in ground water, and to the discharge of liquid radioactive waste to the drainage in concentrations that probably would have masked the presence of contaminants derived from these burial grounds. In comparison to the Bethel Valley sites, larger amounts of radioactive contaminants have been found in wells, seeps, trench overflow, and the drainages that drain Burial Grounds 4 and 5 in Melton Valley. The movement of radionuclides from the trenches to the drainages show that the latter sites are not suitable for the retention of all contaminants under existing conditions, and invalidates the operational concept of long-term or permanent retention of all radionuclides in the geologic environment. The transport of many radioactive ions leached from the waste has been retarded by the very high sorptive and ion exchange capacity of the residuum with which the radionuclides have had contact. Not all radionuclides, though, will be retained in the subsurface by adsorption, absorption, or ion exchange. Among those radioactive contaminants that may be problematical with respect to trench burial at Oak Ridge are tritium and other negatively-charged nuclides, positively-charged radionuclides included in some of the complexed molecules, radioactive ions that have chemical properties si

  7. Investigating Measures for Pairwise Document Similarity

    E-print Network

    use of Information Theory, first described in 1948 by Claude Shannon of Bell Telephone Laboratories1 about general `feature' similarity integrated with Shannon's fundamental theorems. Through experiments

  8. Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-cycle, reproductive and population parameters using different diets under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-10

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica is a forensically relevant necrophagous blowfly that can aid in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) as it is the first to colonise decomposing corpses. The blowfly has been reported in several South-American countries including Colombia, in high-altitude regions ranging from 1200 to 3100 m above sea level. The present study reports this blowfly's life cycle and an analysis of its reproductive and population parameters under laboratory conditions for the first time. Six successive generations of flies were produced with an average of 65.38% adults emerging with respect to the total number of puparia. The shortest life cycle from egg to adult emergence was found in individuals fed on a lyophilised liver (LL) diet, while the longest one was found in individuals fed with an egg-powdered milk (E-PM) diet; intermediate values were found when the pig liver (PL) diet was tested. The greatest adult longevity was achieved when the PL diet was used, the LL diet giving the shortest. The population parameters based on the horizontal life table were: net reproductive rate (Ro)=447.752±9.9, mean generational time (Tc)=18.18±0.38, natural population increase rate (r(m))=0.145 and finite population increase rate (?)=1.398. This blowfly colony represents a valuable asset for both basic and applied studies. Members of the S. magellanica colony so established were used for analysing the life-cycle, reproductive and population parameters, and further medical and forensic application studies are currently underway. PMID:24314544

  9. Laboratory insights into the chemical and kinetic evolution of several organic molecules under simulated Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Kaci, S.; Stalport, F.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P.

    2014-11-01

    The search for organic carbon at the surface of Mars, as clues of past habitability or remnants of life, is a major science goal of Mars' exploration. Understanding the chemical evolution of organic molecules under current martian environmental conditions is essential to support the analyses performed in situ. What molecule can be preserved? What is the timescale of organic evolution at the surface? This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations dedicated to monitor the evolution of organic molecules when submitted to simulated Mars surface ultraviolet radiation (190-400 nm), mean temperature (218 ± 2 K) and pressure (6 ± 1 mbar) conditions. Experiments are done with the MOMIE simulation setup (for Mars Organic Molecules Irradiation and Evolution) allowing both a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the evolution the tested molecules undergo (Poch, O. et al. [2013]. Planet. Space Sci. 85, 188-197). The chemical structures of the solid products and the kinetic parameters of the photoreaction (photolysis rate, half-life and quantum efficiency of photodecomposition) are determined for glycine, urea, adenine and chrysene. Mellitic trianhydride is also studied in order to complete a previous study done with mellitic acid (Stalport, F., Coll, P., Szopa, C., Raulin, F. [2009]. Astrobiology 9, 543-549), by studying the evolution of mellitic trianhydride. The results show that solid layers of the studied molecules have half-lives of 10-103 h at the surface of Mars, when exposed directly to martian UV radiation. However, organic layers having aromatic moieties and reactive chemical groups, as adenine and mellitic acid, lead to the formation of photoresistant solid residues, probably of macromolecular nature, which could exhibit a longer photostability. Such solid organic layers are found in micrometeorites or could have been formed endogenously on Mars. Finally, the quantum efficiencies of photodecomposition at wavelengths from 200 to 250 nm, determined for each of the studied molecules, range from 10-2 to 10-6 molecule photon-1 and apply for isolated molecules exposed at the surface of Mars. These kinetic parameters provide essential inputs for numerical modeling of the evolution of Mars' current reservoir of organic molecules. Organic molecules adsorbed on martian minerals may have different kinetic parameters and lead to different endproducts. The present study paves the way for the interpretation of more complex simulation experiments where organics will be mixed with martian mineral analogs.

  10. Good Practice Recommendations in the Field of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Health Related Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1966

    1966-01-01

    A collection of laboratory design notes to set forth minimum criteria required in the design of basic medical research laboratory buildings. Recommendations contained are primarily concerned with features of design which affect quality of performance and future flexibility of facility systems. Subjects of economy and safety are discussed where…

  11. Application of a local degradation model to the analysis of brittle fracture of laboratory scale rock specimens under triaxial conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z Fang; J. P Harrison

    2002-01-01

    Development of brittle fracture and the associated macroscopic behaviour of rock specimens in laboratory tests are simulated using a local degradation model for brittle fracture in heterogeneous rocks. We examine this subject because laboratory uniaxial and triaxial tests are widely used in the rock mechanics community to both characterise rock behaviour and to interpret fracture phenomena observed in natural rock,

  12. Minimum leak size determination, under laboratory and commercial conditions, for bacterial entry into polymeric trays used for shelf-stable food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Maks, Nicole D; Teo, Alex Y L; Strassheim, Henry E; Pascall, Melvin A

    2005-11-01

    This study sought to determine the minimum leak size for entry of Enterobacter aerogenes under laboratory conditions, and normal flora under commercial conditions, into tryptic soy broth with yeast extract (TSBYE), homestyle chicken, and beef enchilada packaged in 355-ml polyethylene terephthalate/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polypropylene trays. Channel leaks (diameters of 50 to 200 microm) were made across the sealing area of the trays. Pinholes (diameters of 5 to 50 microm) were made by imbedding laser-drilled metal and plastic disks into the tray lids. For the laboratory simulation, all trays were submerged and agitated for 30 min at 25 degrees C in phosphate-buffered saline that contained 10(7) CFU/ml of E. aerogenes. Under commercial conditions, trays with channel leaks were processed in retorts to achieve commercial sterility. All trays were subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 weeks, and their contents plated onto eosin-methylene blue agar (for laboratory simulation) to enumerate E. aerogenes and brain heart infusion agar (for commercial conditions) to determine the presence of any bacteria. Under laboratory conditions, minimum pinhole sizes for E. aerogenes entry approximated 5 microm (TSBYE, metal disks; homestyle chicken, plastic disks), 20 microm (beef, plastic disks), and 30 microm (beef, metal disks). The minimum channel leak sizes for entry of E. aerogenes approximated 10 microm (TSBYE), 70 microm (chicken), and 200 microm (beef enchilada). Under commercial conditions, the minimum channel leak size for bacterial entry approximated 40 microm (TSBYE), 50 microm (homestyle chicken), and more than 200 microm (beef). Results showed that E. aerogenes can enter pinholes as small as 5 microm under a worst-case scenario. This information can be used to set pass and fail parameters for leak detection devices. PMID:16300076

  13. Growth and nitrogen utilization in seedlings of mountain birch ( Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa ?) as affected by ultraviolet radiation (UVA and UV-B) under laboratory and outdoor conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Weih; Ulf Johanson; Dylan Gwynn-Jones

    1998-01-01

    Growth patterns and nitrogen economy were studied in pot-grown seedlings of mountain birch subjected to different ultraviolet\\u000a radiation under both laboratory and outdoor conditions at Abisko in northern Sweden. In the laboratory, nutrient supply, temperature,\\u000a humidity, ultraviolet radiation-A (UV-A, 320–400 nm) and B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) were controlled, while photosynthetically active\\u000a radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and photoperiod varied naturally. Under

  14. Isolation of Typical Marine Bacteria by Dilution Culture: Growth, Maintenance, and Characteristics of Isolates under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Frits; de Vries, Egbert J.; Gottschal, Jan C.; Robertson, Betsy R.; Harder, Wim; Prins, Rudolf A.; Button, Don K.

    1993-01-01

    Marine bacteria in Resurrection Bay near Seward, Alaska, and in the central North Sea off the Dutch coast were cultured in filtered autoclaved seawater following dilution to extinction. The populations present before dilution varied from 0.11 × 109 to 1.07 × 109 cells per liter. The mean cell volume varied between 0.042 and 0.074 ?m3, and the mean apparent DNA content of the cells ranged from 2.5 to 4.7 fg of DNA per cell. All three parameters were determined by high-resolution flow cytometry. All 37 strains that were obtained from very high dilutions of Resurrection Bay and North Sea samples represented facultatively oligotrophic bacteria. However, 15 of these isolates were eventually obtained from dilution cultures that could initially be cultured only on very low-nutrient media and that could initially not form visible colonies on any of the agar media tested, indicating that these cultures contained obligately oligotrophic bacteria. It was concluded that the cells in these 15 dilution cultures had adapted to growth under laboratory conditions after several months of nutrient deprivation prior to isolation. From the North Sea experiment, it was concluded that the contribution of facultative oligotrophs and eutrophs to the total population was less than 1% and that while more than half of the population behaved as obligately oligotrophic bacteria upon first cultivation in the dilution culture media, around 50% could not be cultured at all. During one of the Resurrection Bay experiments, 53% of the dilution cultures obtained from samples diluted more than 2.5 × 105 times consisted of such obligate oligotrophs. These cultures invariably harbored a small rod-shaped bacterium with a mean cell volume of 0.05 to 0.06 ?m3 and an apparent DNA content of 1 to 1.5 fg per cell. This cell type had the dimensions of ultramicrobacteria. Isolates of these ultramicrobacterial cultures that were eventually obtained on relatively high-nutrient agar plates were, with respect to cell volume and apparent DNA content, identical to the cells in the initially obligately oligotrophic bacterial dilution culture. Determination of kinetic parameters from one of these small rod-shaped strains revealed a high specific affinity for the uptake of mixed amino acids (a°A, 1,860 liters/g of cells per h), but not for glucose or alanine as the sole source of carbon and energy (a°A, ± 200 liters/g of cells per h). The ultramicrobial strains obtained are potentially a very important part of picoplankton biomass in the areas investigated. PMID:16348992

  15. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  16. Ranking the significance of fermentation conditions on the volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation system by combination of head-space solid phase microextraction and chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dao-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Tuber melanosporum is highly appreciated in culinary contexts due to its unique and characteristic aroma. T. melanosporum fermentation has been established as a promising alternative for fruiting bodies to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this work, a technique using a combination of chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis, head-space solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography was developed to rank the significance of fermentation conditions on the VOCs profile during T. melanosporum fermentation. Omission tests indicated that the absence of major carbon source (i.e., sucrose) in the fermentation media had the most significant effect on the profile of VOCs, followed by the absence of yeast extract or peptone. Consideration of the culture conditions revealed that VOCs produced was the most significantly affected by temperature. These results indicated that it is possible to adjust the aroma of truffles via fermentation process control. PMID:23943007

  17. Kinematic Self-Similar Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Aziz, S.

    2005-04-01

    We review some kinematic self-similar solutions of spherically symmetric spacetime. This analysis has been used to investigate the kinematic self-similar solutions of cylindrically symmetric spacetime. These have been discussed for the tilted case only. We have attempted solutions for the first, second, zeroth and infinite kind. The governing equations for perfect fluid cosmological models are introduced and a set of integrability conditions for the existence of a kinematic self-similar solutions are derived.

  18. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability

  19. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae to parasitism by Romanomermis culicivorax in laboratory and field conditions in Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Santamarina Mijares, A; Pérez Pacheco, R; Honorio Martínez, S

    2000-11-01

    In June 1996 in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, larvae of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti were exposed to infective preparasites of the nematode Romanomermis culicivorax, Ross and Smith, in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory experiments larvae in instars I-IV were used; they had been collected in natural reservoirs. The laboratory experiments were carried out in triplicate, with 100 larvae of each larval stage per experiment. Three preparasite application dosage ratios were tested: 5, 10, or 15 preparasites per mosquito larva. For the field studies 13 A. aegypti outdoor breeding sites were used, with larvae in instars I-IV and a 15:1 preparasite dosage ratio. With the laboratory experiments, an increase was observed in the average infestation of the larvae as the preparasite application ratio was increased from 5:1 to 15:1. With a 10:1 ratio, the rates of parasitism were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 74% in the larvae in instars I, II, III, and IV, respectively; for the 15:1 preparasite ratio, parasitism rates were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 79%, respectively. The field tests with the 15:1 preparasite dosage ratio in the 13 outdoor reservoirs produced parasitism rates of 80% to 98%, thus demonstrating the susceptibility of this species of mosquito to parasitism by R. culicivorax in Oaxaca, Mexico. PMID:11190968

  20. Laboratory Measurements of the 2–4 mm Opacity of Sulfuric Acid Vapor Under Simulated Venus Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, P. G.

    2015-04-01

    For over 30 years sulfuric acid vapor has been recognized as a major source of the microwave and millimeter-wave absorption in the atmosphere of Venus. This paper describes a new laboratory measurement campaign to characterize the 2–4 mm opacity.

  1. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Vleck, Carol M; Farrar, Eugenia S.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation. Glucocorticoids cause the elevation of blood glucose, providing the necessary energy for the organism to cope with stress. Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to…

  2. Life cycle, feeding and defecation patterns of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León 1958) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita G Villacís; Laura Arcos-Terán; Mario J Grijalva

    2008-01-01

    Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD) in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare) the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory con- ditions of two populations of this specie (from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region) and Loja (Andean region)). Egg-to-adult (n = 57) development took an

  3. Effect of the physiological condition of cyprids and laboratory-mimicked seasonal conditions on the metamorphic successes of Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia; Thoracica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vengatesen Thiyagarajan; Tilmann Harder; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the metamorphic success of Balanus amphitrite cyprids, we investigated the effect of cyprids energy reserves and physiological age (physiological condition of cyprids) on the metamorphic success under five different combinations of water temperature and salinity mimicking different seasons in subtropical Hong Kong: 18 °C\\/30‰ (winter), 22 °C\\/34‰ (spring),

  4. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The eff...

  5. Evaluation of a bioluminescence method, contact angle measurements and topography for testing the cleanability of plastic surfaces under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redsven, I.; Kymäläinen, H.-R.; Pesonen-Leinonen, E.; Kuisma, R.; Ojala-Paloposki, T.; Hautala, M.; Sjöberg, A.-M.

    2007-04-01

    Detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by bioluminescence is used, for instance, in the food industry and in hospitals to assess the hygiene status of surfaces. The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the ATP method for estimating the cleanability of resilient floor coverings from biological soil. The surfaces were worn using a Soiling and Wearing Drum Tester, and soiled and cleaned with an Erichsen Washability and Scrubbing Resistance Tester. In the laboratory test carried out with the bioluminescence method, most of the new and worn floor coverings that were biologically soiled were cleaned efficiently. According to this study, the semiquantitative ATP screening method can be used for hygiene monitoring of flooring materials. No correlation was found between cleanability and contact angles or surface topography measured using a profilometer. However, by revealing local irregularities and damage on surfaces, scanning electron micrographs appeared useful in explaining differences in cleanability.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on early larval stages of the Alpine newt, Triturus alpestris , under natural and laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander M. Nagl; Rudolf Hofer

    1997-01-01

    Although Alpine newts (Triturus alpestris) are found at altitudes up to 2500 m, their larvae proved to be extremely sensitive to UV radiation when exposed in clear\\u000a tapwater to natural sunlight or to comparable artificial UV-B radiation in the laboratory. The experiments revealed severe\\u000a skin damages (lysis of epithelial cells) and mortality after a few days of exposure. In their

  7. Native CaCO3 Mineral Dissolution and Its Contribution to Sodic Calcareous Soil Reclamation Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahu Li; Rami Keren

    2008-01-01

    Efficient and sustainable reclamation of sodic soils is important to agricultural production. With the help of a peristaltic pump, laboratory-leaching experiments for sodic calcareous soils with exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 1, 12.5, and 19 were conducted under atmospheric CO2 partial pressure to investigate native CaCO3 mineral dissolution and its contribution to the rehabilitation of moderate sodium-affected soils at the

  8. Similarities and differences between Behçet's disease and Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Yaz?s?z, Veli

    2014-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory condition with multisystem involvement. Approximately 10%-15% of patients present with gastrointestinal involvement. Involved sites and the endoscopic view usually resemble Crohn’s disease (CD). In addition to intestinal involvement, oral mucosa, the eyes, skin, and joints are commonly affected. No pathognomonic laboratory test is available for the diagnosis of either disease. Management approaches are also similar in various aspects. Differentiating BD from CD is highly challenging. In this article, the similarities and differences between BD and CD in terms of epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical and imaging findings, and histopathological and therapeutic approaches are reviewed. PMID:25133025

  9. Characterisation of the biosand filter for E. coli reductions from household drinking water under controlled laboratory and field use conditions.

    PubMed

    Stauber, C E; Elliott, M A; Koksal, F; Ortiz, G M; DiGiano, F A; Sobsey, M D

    2006-01-01

    More than a billion people in the developing world lack access to safe and reliable sources of drinking water. Point of use (POU) household water treatment technology allows people to improve the quality of their water by treating it in the home. One emerging POU technology is the biosand filter (BSF), a household-scale, intermittently operated slow sand filter. Laboratory and field studies examined Escherichia coli reductions achieved by the BSF. During two laboratory studies, mean E. coli reductions were 94% and they improved over the period of filter use, reaching a maximum of 99%. Field analysis conducted on 55 household filters near Bonao, Dominican Republic averaged E. coli reductions of 93%. E. coli reductions by the BSF in laboratory and field studies were less than those typically observed for traditional slow sand filters (SSFs), although as for SSFs microbial reductions improved over the period of filter use. Further study is needed to determine the factors contributing to microbial reductions in BSFs and why reductions are lower than those of conventional SSFs. PMID:17037125

  10. Composed Computational Verb Similarities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yang

    2009-01-01

    Computational verb similarities are used to measure the degree of similarities between two waveforms. Since the similarities of waveforms might be measured based on their distance, trends, frequencies and many other factors, it is easy to consider the contributions of these factors to computational verb similarities separately and then combine them into composed computational verb similarities. In this paper, different

  11. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  12. Similarity spectra analysis of high-performance jet aircraft noise.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Tracianne B; Gee, Kent L; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2013-04-01

    Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation. PMID:23556581

  13. On-road and laboratory investigations on non-exhaust ultrafine particles from the interaction between the tire and road pavement under braking conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jihyun; Lee, Sunyoup; Lee, Seokhwan

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of non-exhaust ultrafine particles from on-road driving and laboratory measurements using a mobile sampling vehicle. The on-road driving and laboratory measurements during constant speed conditions revealed no enhancement of ultrafine particles. Under braking events, the total number concentrations of tire particles (TPs) sampled 90 mm above the road surface was 6 times higher with broader mode diameters when compared to 40 mm above the road surface. In contrast to braking events, under cornering conditions, the total number concentrations of TPs sampled 40 mm above the road surface were 50 times higher relative to 90 mm above the road surface. From the morphological and elemental analyses, it is likely that the ultrafine particles generated from the interaction between the tire and the road surface under braking conditions might originated from sulfur-containing materials or anti-oxidants which are contained in TPs, and/or graphite and solid lubricants which are mainly present in brake particles (BPs). However, Zn which was a distinguishing elemental marker of tire wear particles didn't show in EDS spectra. Further research would be required as to the exact emission source of ultrafine particles.

  14. Similar Triangle Proof Theorems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2011-01-01

    This lesson will teach you three theorems that are used to prove two triangles similar to each other. Now that you understand similarity, you need some additional tools (or theorems) to PROVE that two triangles are similar to each other. Take notes on the following lesson: Similar Triangle Proof Notes Here is an interactive site that will help to solidify your understanding of proving triangles similar: Similar Triangle Proofs Class Zone Activity Here are some "real life" applications of these ...

  15. Glutathione, glutathione-dependent and antioxidant enzymes in mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to metals under field and laboratory conditions: implications for the use of biochemical biomarkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Regoli; Giovanni Principato

    1995-01-01

    The effects of exposure to metals under and laboratory conditions were investigated in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The examined biological responses included the concentrations of heavy metals, the level of glutathione, and the activity of several enzymes selected among glutathione-dependent oxidoreductases and hydrolases: glutathione reductase. EC1.6.4.2; glyoxalase I, EC4.4.1.5; glyoxalase II, EC3.1.2.6; glutathione S-transferases, EC2.5.1.18; Se-dependent, EC1 11.1.9 and

  16. Biofilm Formation by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Central Venous Catheter Connectors: Effect of Conditioning Films in a Laboratory Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Murga; J. M. Miller; R. M. Donlan

    2001-01-01

    Human blood components have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of human blood on biofilm formation on the inner lumen of needleless central venous catheter connectors by several gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa, and Pantoea agglomerans. Results suggest that a conditioning film of blood components promotes biofilm formation by these

  17. A LABORATORY STUDY TO DEFINE CONDITIONS FOR LOADING STRONTIUM90 ON DECALSO FOR HAPO-1A CASK SHIPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    One of the major tasks involved in the recent Hanford strontium-90 ; recovery program was the purification of some 60,000 curies of strontium-90. One ; facet of this work was the defining of conditions necessary to contain and hold ; the strontium-90 for shipment from Hanford to Oak Ridge, where it would be ; pelletized and packaged. Of the methods

  18. Effects of age and temperature on calling behavior of carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Soofbaf, M; Nouri, G; Goldansaz, S H; Asghari-Zakaria, R

    2007-09-01

    The sexual calling behaviour of Ectomyelois ceratoniae, (zell.) was observed in the laboratory under 16L: 8D photoperiodic regime and three different constant temperatures, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. E. ceratoniae, females showed a broad late-scotophase peak of calling activity without any calling throughout the photophase. Most females started calling during the eclosion day on, regardless of the temperature. With increasing age, moths initiated calling significantly earlier at night and the mean time spent calling increased significantly on successive days of calling. There was an inverse relationship between mean time spent calling and mean onset time of calling (r = -0.8079, p < 0.0001) and these parameters significantly affected by age and square of temperature. PMID:19090212

  19. Olive-oil mill wastewater transport under unsaturated and saturated laboratory conditions using the geoelectrical resistivity tomography method and the FEFLOW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seferou, P.; Soupios, P.; Kourgialas, N. N.; Dokou, Z.; Karatzas, G. P.; Candasayar, E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Dimitriou, V.; Sarris, A.; Sauter, M.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated approach for monitoring the vertical transport of a solute into the subsurface by using a geophysical method and a simulation model is proposed and evaluated. A medium-scale (1 m3) laboratory tank experiment was constructed to represent a real subsurface system, where an olive-oil mill wastewater (OOMW) spill might occur. High-resolution cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed to monitor the OOMW transport. Time-lapse ERT images defined the spatial geometry of the interface between the contaminated and uncontaminated soil into the unsaturated and saturated zones. Knowing the subsurface characteristics, the finite element flow and transport model FEFLOW was used for simulating the contaminant movement, utilizing the ERT results as a surrogate for concentration measurements for the calibration process. A statistical analysis of the ERT measurements and the corresponding transport model results for various time steps showed a good agreement between them. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the most important parameters of the simulation model (unsaturated flow, saturated flow and transport) was performed. This laboratory-scale study emphasizes that the combined use of geophysical and transport-modeling approaches can be useful for small-scale field applications where contaminant concentration measurements are scarce, provided that its transferability from laboratory to field conditions is investigated thoroughly.

  20. Laboratory study of chemical speciation of mercury in lake sediment and water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Regnell, O.; Tunlid, A. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1991-03-01

    Chemical speciation and partitioning of radiolabeled HgCl{sub 2} were studied in model aquatic systems consisting of undisturbed eutrophic lake sediment and water in plastic cylinders. The cylinders were either gradually made anaerobic by a gentle flow of N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} or kept aerobic by air flow. The proportion of methylated {sup 203}Hg was significantly higher, in both water and sediment, in the anaerobic systems than in the aerobic systems. The composition and total concentration of fatty acids originating from bacterial phospholipids, as well as the concentration of vitamin B{sub 12}, including related cobalamins, were similar in sediments from the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Bacterial cell numbers were, on average, 3.6 times higher in the anaerobic water columns than in the aerobic ones. Volatilization of {sup 203}Hg occurred in all systems except in an autoclaved control and was of similar magnitudes in the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Incorporation of {sup 203}Hg into the sediment was significantly faster in the aerobic systems than in the anaerobic systems. These results suggest that episodes of anoxia in bottom waters and sediment cause an increase in net mercury methylation and, hence, an increase in bioavailable mercury.

  1. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  2. Methane evolution from UV-irradiated spacecraft materials under simulated martian conditions: Implications for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Schuerger; Christian Clausen; Daniel Britt

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen organic and three inorganic compounds were tested for methane (CH4) evolution under simulated martian conditions of 6.9mbar; UVC (200–280nm) flux of 4Wm?2; 20°C; simulated optical depth of 0.1; and a Mars gas composition of CO2 (95.3%), N2 (2.7%), Ar (1.7%), O2 (0.13%), and water vapor (0.03%). All three inorganic compounds (i.e., NaCl, CaCO3, graphite) failed to evolve methane at

  3. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Luz, Christian; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Russell, Tanya L

    2011-09-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf litter for up to 12 weeks at 26°C and 75%, 86% or >98% relative humidity (RH). Eggs were treated topically with M. anisopliae ICIPE-30 or B. bassiana I93-825 conidia in either water or oil-in-water formulations. Survival of eggs whether treated or not with fungus was similar, and untreated eggs generally did not survive longer than 2 weeks regardless of the substrate or humidity tested. After a minimal 5-day exposure, M. anisopliae at 5?×?10(6) conidia/cm(2) clearly reduced the number of larvae. The efficacy of the fungus increased when it was oil-in-water formulated, and eclosion was completely prevented regardless of the conidial concentration (10(5)-10(7) conidia/cm(2)) after a 10-day exposure in soils at >98% RH. Treatment of eggs with B. bassiana, however, failed to reduce the number of eclosing larvae. This is the first demonstration of the ovicidal activity by M. anisopliae against either A. gambiae s. s. or A. arabiensis and the results underline the potential of this fungus against anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:21424402

  4. Laboratory measurements of the microwave opacity of gaseous ammonia (NH3) under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, P. G.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1987-10-01

    Gaseous ammonia (NH3) has long been recognized as a primary source of microwave opacity in the atmosphere of Jupiter. In order to more accurately infer the abundance and distribution of ammonia from radio emission measurements in the 1- to 20-cm wavelength range and radio occultation measurements at 3.6 and 13 cm, the authors have made measurements of the microwave opacity from gaseous ammonia under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmosphere. Measurements of ammonia absorptivity were made at five frequencies from 1.62 to 21.7 GHz (wavelengths from 18.5 to 1.38 cm), at temperatures from 178 to 300K, and at pressures from 1 to 6 atm, in a 90% hydrogen/10% helium atmosphere.

  5. Similar Figures and Triangles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2011-01-01

    This lesson will teach the basics of similarity, and how a unit ratios can describe the relationship between the two figures. Congruence of triangles and figures has already been introduced. But what if two triangles are exactly the same shape, but not the same size? This is called Similarity of Figures. Take notes on the following lesson: Similar Triangles Lesson Now that you have some concept of similarity, here is how the ratio between two ...

  6. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Reactions of HO2 Radical with Inorganic Aerosol Particles under the Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, F.; Kanaya, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    The HO2 uptake coefficient for aerosol particles ((NH4)2SO4 and NaCl) under ambient conditions (760Torr and 296K) was measured using an aerosol flow tube(AFT) coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence(CC/LIF) technique. The CC/LIF technique enabled experiments to be performed at almost the same HO2 radical concentration as that in the atmosphere(~108 molecules cm-3). HO2 radicals were injected into the AFT through a vertically movable Pyrex tube. Injector position dependent profiles of LIF intensity were measured as a function of aerosol concentration at various relative humilities(RH). The uptake coefficients of dry aerosol (NaCl and (NH4)2SO4) particles were < 0.05, while the uptake coefficients of wet particles of NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 were estimated to be 0.10 and 0.15, respectively, which suggested that heterogeneous loss was enhanced by the particle containing water. To estimate the contribution of heterogeneous loss of HO2 by aerosol, the diurnal variation of HO2 using a box-model calculation was demonstrated. As a result, the daytime maximum concentrations of HO2 were changed to 95 and 70 %, relative to an absence of heterogeneous loss for marine and urban areas, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of NiTi dental wires: a comparison of laboratory experiments and clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Toker, S M; Canadinc, D

    2014-07-01

    Effects of intraoral environment on the surface degradation of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy orthodontic wires was simulated through ex situ static immersion experiments in artificial saliva. The tested wires were compared to companion wires retrieved from patients in terms of chemical changes and formation of new structures on the surface. Results of the ex situ experiments revealed that the acidic erosion effective at the earlier stages of immersion led to the formation of new structures as the immersion period approached 30 days. Moreover, comparison of these results with the analysis of wires utilized in clinical treatment evidenced that ex situ experiments are reliable in terms predicting C-rich structure formation on the wire surfaces. However, the formation of C pileups at the contact sites of arch wires and brackets could not be simulated with the aid of static immersion experiments, warranting the simulation of the intraoral environment in terms of both chemical and physical conditions, including mechanical loading, when evaluating the biocompatibility of NiTi orthodontic arch wires. PMID:24857476

  8. Effect of Commercial Cyanobacteria Products on the Growth and Antagonistic Ability of Some Bioagents under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    El-Mougy, Nehal S.; Abdel-Kader, Mokhtar M.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of blue-green algal compounds against the growth of either pathogenic or antagonistic microorganisms as well as their effect on the antagonistic ability of bioagents was studied under in vitro conditions. The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of commercial algal compounds, Weed-Max and Oligo-Mix, against some soil-borne pathogens. In growth medium supplemented with these algal compounds, the linear growth of pathogenic fungi decreased by increasing tested concentrations of the two algal compounds. Complete reduction in pathogenic fungal growth was observed at 2% of both Weed-Max and Oligo-Mix. Gradual significant reduction in the pathogenic fungal growth was caused by the two bioagents and by increasing the concentrations of algal compounds Weed-Max and Oligo-Mix. The present work showed that commercial algal compounds, Weed-Max and Oligo-Mix, have potential for the suppression of soil-borne fungi and enhance the antagonistic ability of fungal, bacterial, and yeast bio-agents. PMID:24307948

  9. Stratigraphy and hydrologic conditions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and vicinity, Suffolk County, New York, 1994-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scorca, Michael P.; Dorsch, William R.; Paquette, Douglas E.

    1999-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has installed many test borings as part of an effort to delineate the extent of ground-water contamination at the site. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with BNL to define the stratigraphy in the 28-square-mile area encompassing BNL, and to monitor ground-water levels in the 300 squaremile area of central Suffolk County that surrounds BNL. The uppermost geologic units at BNL are of Pleistocene age. These sediments are underlain unconformably by the Matawan Group-Magothy Formation, undifferentiated (referred to as the Magothy Formation), of Cretaceous age, which typically consists of light- to dark-gray, variably sorted sand interbedded with light- to dark-gray clay layers; it also contains beds of grayish-brown to brownish-gray sand. Bed thicknesses differ substantially within each boring and tend to be laterally discontinuous as a result of their terrestrial deltaic depositional environment, although a prominent clay unit, referred to as the ?grayish-brown clay? in this report, was encountered at many borings. Pollen-sample analyses confirm that this unit is of Cretaceous age and is the uppermost unit of Cretaceous sediments in several parts of the study area. The upper surface of the Cretaceous deposits is irregular within the 28-square-mile study area and has relief of about 120 feet. Several prominent channels and ridges in the surface are aligned generally northwest-southeast. The Cretaceous surface beneath BNL is characterized more by local erosional features than by the regional cuesta shape that was suggested by previous authors. The overlying Pleistocene-aged units include (1) a sand layer overlain by the Gardiners Clay, (2) the Gardiners Clay, and (3) upper Pleistocene deposits, which include the Upton unit, glacial outwash, glaciolacustrine deposits, and terminal moraine deposits. The sand unit below the Gardiners Clay was the first Pleistocene unit to be deposited atop the irregular surface of the Cretaceous deposits in this area. The Gardiners Clay was deposited during a major rise in sea level as the sea encroached into parts of the present-day BNL study area. The shallow part of the upper Pleistocene deposits generally consists of light-brown sand and gravel but overlies green to grayish-green, variably sorted sand, silt, and clay at altitudes of 50 to 70 feet below sea level in some parts of the study area. This lower part of the upper Pleistocene deposits in the study area was referred to by previous investigators as the unidentified unit and has been designated as the Upton unit in this report. The discharge of ground water to the Peconic and Carmans Rivers locally affects the water-table configuration. The main ground-water divide on Long Island is about 0.5 miles north of the site; a secondary divide originates near the start of flow of the Peconic River and extends east-southeastward toward the South Fork. The water-table configuration on the BNL site is affected by pumping from supply wells and remediation wells, by infiltration of the water through recharge basins, by discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, and by local near-surface clay units. The horizontal hydraulic gradient at BNL typically is 0.001 foot per foot but can steepen near recharge basins and pumping wells. Vertical flow gradients within the upper Pleistocene deposits (upper glacial aquifer) were as large as 0.007 foot per foot (downward) in the northern part of BNL and were negligible in the southern part. Downward vertical gradients between the lower part of the upper glacial aquifer and the upper part of the Magothy Formation (Magothy aquifer) were about 0.018 foot per foot throughout the site.

  10. Laboratory-scale interaction between CO2-rich brine and limestone and sandstone under supercritical CO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rios, Maria; Cama, Jordi; Luquot, Linda; Soler, Josep

    2014-05-01

    A test site for a prospective CO2 geological storage is situated in Hontomín (Burgos, northern Spain) with a reservoir rock that is composed of limestone (calcite) and sandstone (66 wt.% calcite, 28 wt.% quartz and 6 wt.% microcline). During and after CO2 injection, the resulting CO2-rich acid brine will likely promote the dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite) and aluminosilicates (microcline). Since the reservoir Hontomín brine contains sulfate, gypsum (or anhydrite at depth) may precipitate. These coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions may induce changes in porosity and pore structure of the repository rocks. Percolations experiments with mechanically fractured cores (8.6 mm in diameter and 18 mm length) were performed under CO2 supercritical conditions (Pfluid = 150 bar; pCO2 ? 90 bar and T = 60 ºC) in order to evaluate and quantify variations in fracture permeability, preferential path formation and fracture volume. The brine sulfate content and the flow rate were varied. Regarding limestone, as the synthetic brines circulated through the fracture, the fracture permeability initially increased slowly, to thereafter increase rapidly. This change was due to a localized dissolution process (wormhole formation) along the core that occurred regardless gypsum precipitation. Nonetheless, the originated fracture volume in the sulfate-rich brine experiments was a factor of two smaller than that in sulfate-free brine experiments. Also, an increase in flow rate from 0.2 to 60 mL/h increased the volume of both dissolved calcite and precipitated gypsum. Regarding sandstone, permeability increased gradually with time. Nonetheless, this increase was not always continuous due to eventual fracture clogging. Formation of wormholes was observed. Acknowledgements This study was financed by CIUDEN (Ciudad de la Energía), the Compostilla OXYCFB300 project and the PANACEA project (European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement number 282900).

  11. Wirtanen At 3au An Experimental Program In The Laboratory Under Simulated Space-conditions, Accompanying The Rosetta Space-mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochan, H.; Richter, L.; Möhlmann, D.; Drescher, J.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Tokano, T.

    Simulated Space-Conditions in an earth laboratory, e.g. in a specially designed vacuum chamber with an adjusted insolation source cannot only support the development and qualification of space mission experiment hardware, but also an "in situ" investigation of the surface-near planetary phenomena. This was already demonstrated in the comet simulation program KOSI, performed in the DLR Space Simulator from 1986 to 1993 after the successful GIOTTO Space Mission to Comet P´Halley in 1986. The results of the simulation experiments have been helpful in understanding the recorded phenomena. Based on the experiences gathered in KOSI, we are now facing the ROSETTA space mission to Comet P´Wirtanen in 2003 with an extremely long hibernation phase till 2011. At this time the ROSETTA spacecraft will meet the cometary nucleus. Laboratory Experiments with different cometary analogous materials (CAM) and with different insolation periods will be performed in the DLR-PLANETARY SIMULATION FACILITY. This chamber, automatically cooled by liquid nitrogen (77K) has an internal space for experiments of 1.5m in diameter and 1.8m in height. Gas-dust interaction phenomena, and the thermal behaviour can be studied as well as the crustal and mantle formation and the structural change of the CAM by sintering and recondensation. We invite colleagues to join this program with ideas, models and hardware.

  12. Laboratory and field studies on BTEX biodegradation in a fuel-contaminated aquifer under denitrifying conditions. Book chapter, May 88-Dec 92

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.; Wilson, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks are a major source of groundwater contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons. Of the approximately 1.4 million underground tanks storing gasoline in the United States, some petroleum experts estimate that 75,000 to 100,000 are leaking (Feliciano 1984). Gasoline and other fuels contain benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively known as BTEX), which are hazardous compounds regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1977). Laboratory studies were conducted in conjunction with a field demonstration project on nitrate-mediated biorestoration of a fuel-contaminated aquifer at a U.S. Coast Guard facility in Traverse City, MI. Microcosms were prepared under either aerobic or strictly anaerobic, denitrifying conditions using core samples aseptically obtained from the aquifer. The microcosms were spiked with aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) and incubated as 12 C. Virtually all of the aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, were degraded to below detection limits within seven days under aerobic conditions, although o-xylene was somewhat more recalcitrant. Under denitrifying conditions, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were also degraded to below detection limits, although this occurred between two to three weeks. o-Xylene was only slowly degraded and benzene was recalcitrant under denitrifying conditions. In the field demonstration project, an infiltration gallery was used to recirculate water at a rate sufficient to create a water table mound encompassing the contaminated interval. After hydraulic equilbrium was achieved nitrate and nutrients were added to the recharge water. Benzene removal occurred before nitrate addition; mass balances indicated that sufficient oxygen was recirculated to account for complete biodegradation aerobically.

  13. Practice with Similarity Proofs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Roberts

    2000-01-01

    In this worksheet of eight questions, students practice their knowledge of similarity proofs. In the first four questions, students determine which postulate or theorem works to prove triangle similarity - AA, SAS, or SSS. In the last four questions, students are asked to work through the proof of various problems. The answers are embedded in the page, and this is a helpful resource for students to work with similarity proofs.

  14. Similarity vs. Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Smyth; Paul Mcclave

    2001-01-01

    Case-based reasoning systems usually accept the conventional similarity assumption during retrieval, preferring to retrieve\\u000a a set of cases that are maximally similar to the target problem. While we accept that this works well in many domains, we\\u000a suggest that in others it is misplaced. In particular, we argue that often diversity can be as important as similarity. This\\u000a is especially

  15. Quality Assurance Program for Molecular Medicine Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hajia, M; Safadel, N; Samiee, S Mirab; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Nafisi, N; Sohrabi, A; Rafiee, M; Sabzavi, F; Entekhabi, B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Molecular diagnostic methods have played and continuing to have a critical role in clinical laboratories in recent years. Therefore, standardization is an evolutionary process that needs to be upgrade with increasing scientific knowledge, improvement of the instruments and techniques. The aim of this study was to design a quality assurance program in order to have similar conditions for all medical laboratories engaging with molecular tests. Methods: We had to design a plan for all four elements; required space conditions, equipments, training, and basic guidelines. Necessary guidelines was prepared and confirmed by the launched specific committee at the Health Reference Laboratory. Results: Several workshops were also held for medical laboratories directors and staffs, quality control manager of molecular companies, directors and nominees from universities. Accreditation of equipments and molecular material was followed parallel with rest of program. Now we are going to accredit medical laboratories and to evaluate the success of the program. Conclusion: Accreditation of medical laboratory will be succeeding if its basic elements are provided in advance. Professional practice guidelines, holding training and performing accreditation the molecular materials and equipments ensured us that laboratories are aware of best practices, proper interpretation, limitations of techniques, and technical issues. Now, active external auditing can improve the applied laboratory conditions toward the defined standard level. PMID:23865028

  16. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  17. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  18. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…

  19. Similarity and Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel L.

    This instructional unit is an introduction to the common properties of similarity and congruence. Manipulation of objects leads to a recognition of these properties. The ASA, SAS, and SSS theorems are not mentioned. Limited use is made in the application of the properties of size and shape preserved by similarity or congruence. A teacher's guide…

  20. Biosimilar insulins: how similar is similar?

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-05-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the "original" insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  1. Self-Similar Lattice Tilings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karlheinz Grochenig; Andrew Haas

    1994-01-01

    We study the general question of the existence of self-similar lattice tilings of Euclidean space. A necessary and sufficient\\u000a geometric condition on the growth of the boundary of approximate tiles is reduced to a problem in Fourier analysis that is\\u000a shown to have an elegant simple solution in dimension one. In dimension two we further prove the existence of connected

  2. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. PMID:16173891

  3. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  4. Quantifying similarity between motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shobhit; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Bailey, Timothy L; Noble, William Stafford

    2007-01-01

    A common question within the context of de novo motif discovery is whether a newly discovered, putative motif resembles any previously discovered motif in an existing database. To answer this question, we define a statistical measure of motif-motif similarity, and we describe an algorithm, called Tomtom, for searching a database of motifs with a given query motif. Experimental simulations demonstrate the accuracy of Tomtom's E values and its effectiveness in finding similar motifs. PMID:17324271

  5. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.-W.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Heath, C. M.; Ziemba, L. D.; Winstead, E. L.; Thornhill, K. L.; Tacina, K. M.; Ross, R. C.; Albo, S. E.; Bulzan, D. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after the engine exit plane (< 5 s in plume age) may be critical to ice particle properties used in large-scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on near-field formation of contrail ice particles and ice particle properties. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentration has a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation and properties. When soot particles were introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, no ice particle formation was observed, suggesting that ice particle formation from homogeneous nucleation followed by homogeneous freezing of liquid water was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher cruising altitudes were found to favor ice particle formation. The microphysical model captures trends of particle extinction measurements well, but discrepancies between the model and the optical particle counter measurements exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to particle loss and scatter during the experimental sampling process and the lack of treatment of turbulent mixing in the model. Our combined experimental and modeling work demonstrates that formation of contrail ice particles can be reproduced in the NASA PAL facility, and the parametric understanding of the ice particle properties from the model and experiments can potentially be used in large-scale models to provide better estimates of the impact of aviation contrails on climate change.

  6. Average velocity field of the air flow over the water surface in a laboratory modeling of storm and hurricane conditions in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandaurov, A. A.; Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Sergeev, D. A.; Vdovin, M. I.; Baidakov, G. A.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Channel of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), in conditions modeling the near-water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The measurements showed that the logarithmic part of the velocity profile of the air flow in the channel was observed in the immediate vicinity from the water surface (at a distance of 30 mm) and could be detected only using remote methods (PIV). According to the measured velocity profiles, dependences of aerodynamic drag factors of the water surface on the wind velocity at a height of 10 m were retrieved; they were compared with results of contact measurements carried out earlier on the same setup. It is shown that they agree with an accuracy of up to 20%; at moderate and strong wind velocities the coincidence falls within the experimental accuracy.

  7. Effects of neem and spinosad on Ceratothripoides claratris (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important vegetable pest in Thailand, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, Dammini W T S; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2005-04-01

    Toxicity of three biopesticides, i.e., two neem products and spinosad, was determined on foliage-dwelling life stages of Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major thrips pest on tomatoes, Lycopersicon spp., in central Thailand. Direct and residual contact toxicities of NeemAzal-TS (1% azadirachtin) and systemic activity of NeemAzal-MD 5 (5% azadirachtin) affected the survival of first larval stage (L1) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, neither second larval stage (L2) nor adult survival was influenced by both neem products. On the contrary, spinosad caused 100% mortality in both larval stages and adults of C. claratris regardless of the concentrations tested. No strong ovicidal effects were detected in three different age groups of eggs (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 d old) topically treated with both NeemAzal-TS and spinosad. Residual toxicity was highest with fresh residues of NeemAzal-TS compared with 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-d-old residues and in general was higher under laboratory than greenhouse conditions. Irrespective of the age of the spray residues, spinosad always caused 100% mortality in larvae and adults. Strongest systemic effects were observed in L1 larvae 1 d after soil drenching with NeemAzal-MD 5 at the highest concentration tested. Foliar and soil applications of NeemAzal-TS and NeemAzal-MD 5, respectively, did not cause any oviposition deterrent effects. PMID:15889736

  8. Similarity and Discrimination Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward S. Redhead; John M. Pearce

    1995-01-01

    The role played by similarity in discrimination learning was examined in four experiments using compound stimuli. In Experiment 1, pigeons received training in which food was presented after stimulus A, compound AB, but not compound ABC—A+ BC+ ABCo. The A+ ABCo discrimination was acquired more readily than was the BC+ ABCo discrimination. In the remaining experiments, training was of the

  9. The Google Similarity Distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi L. Cilibrasi; Paul M. B. Vitányi

    2007-01-01

    Words and phrases acquire meaning from the way they are used in society, from their relative semantics to other words and phrases. For computers the equivalent of 'society' is 'database,' and the equivalent of 'use' is 'way to search the database.' We present a new theory of similarity between words and phrases based on information distance and Kolmogorov complexity. To

  10. Discovering Similar Multidimensional Trajectories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michail Vlachos; Dimitrios Gunopulos; George Kollios

    2002-01-01

    We investigate techniques for analysis and retrieval of object trajectories in a two or three dimensional space. Such kind of data usually contain a great amount of noise, that makes all previously used metrics fail. Therefore, here we formalize non-metric similarity functions based on the Longest Common Subsequence (LCSS), which are very ro- bust to noise and furthermore provide an

  11. Reconsolidation of Crushed Salt to 250°C Under Hydrostatic and Shear Stress Conditions Scott Broome, Frank Hansen, and SJ Bauer Sandia National Laboratories, Geomechanics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    Design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste require knowledge of thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt. Mechanical properties, Bulk (K) and Elastic (E) Moduli and Poisson's ratio (?) are functions of porosity which decreases as the surrounding salt creeps inward and compresses granular salt within the rooms, drifts or shafts. To inform salt repository evaluations, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine K, E, and ? of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity and temperature and to establish the deformational processes by which the salt reconsolidates. The experiments will be used to populate the database used in the reconsolidation model developed by Callahan (1999) which accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent on effective stress to account for the effects of porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 105 °C for a few days. Undeformed right-circular cylindrical sample assemblies of unconsolidated granular salt with an initial porosity of ~ 40%, nominally 10 cm in diameter and 17.5 cm in length, are jacketed in lead. Samples are placed in a pressure vessel and kept at test temperatures of 100, 175 or 250 °C; samples are vented to the atmosphere during the entire test procedure. At these test conditions the consolidating salt is always creeping, the creep rate increases with increasing temperature and stress and decreases as porosity decreases. In hydrostatic tests, confining pressure is increased to 20 MPa with periodic unload/reload loops to determine K. Volume strain increases with increasing temperature. In shear tests at 2.5 and 5 MPa confining pressure, after confining pressure is applied, the crushed salt is subjected to a differential stress, with periodic unload/reload loops to determine E and ?. At predetermined differential stress levels the stress is held constant and the salt consolidates. Displacement gages mounted on the samples show little lateral deformation until the samples reach a porosity of ~10%. Interestingly, vapor is vented in tests at 250°C and condenses at the vent port. Release of water is not observed in the lower two test temperatures. It is hypothesized that the water originates from fluid inclusions, which were made accessible by intragranular deformational processes including decrepitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Similarities in acute temperature preferences of freshwater fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DILIP MATHUR; ROBERT M. SCHUTSKY; EDMUND J. PURDY; CARL A. SILVER

    1981-01-01

    A statistical analysis of new and published laboratory data revealed strong geographic similarities in acute (up to 4-h) temperature preferences for several freshwater fishes. Regression models developed from our laboratory studies predicted acute temperature preferences of species from other geographic areas. Species within a family (three cyprinids, two ictalurids, and six centrarchids were tested) have similar acute preferenda, except that

  13. Similarities in Acute Temperature Preferences of Freshwater Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip Mathur; Robert M. Schutsky; Edmund J. Purdy Jr; Carl A. Silver

    1981-01-01

    A statistical analysis of new and published laboratory data revealed strong geographic similarities in acute (up to 4-hour) temperature preferences for several freshwater fishes. Regression models developed from our laboratory studies predicted acute temperature preferences of species from other geographic areas. Species within a family (three cyprinids, two ictalurids, and six centrarchids were tested) have similar acute preferenda, except that

  14. Heat transfer in geometrically similar cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riekert, P; Held, A

    1941-01-01

    The power and heat-stress conditions of geometrically similar engines are discussed. The advantages accruing from smaller cylinder dimensions are higher specific horsepower, lower weight per horsepower, lower piston temperature, and less frontal area, with reduced detonation tendency.

  15. SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION Chantal Cherifi LE2I Laboratory, Burgundy is performed on a benchmark of semantically annotated Web services. Results show that this approach allows a more detailed analysis of substitutable Web services. Keywords - Semantic Web services, Functional

  16. NCBI More Information: Similarity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Center for Biotechnology Information

    This page summarizes the basic concept and vocabulary of sequence similarity searching. It is included for those new to the field who may not appreciate the importance of this technique in biology, who lack the vocabulary to understand the BLAST guide and tutorial or who require a basic rather than a sophisticated understanding of the methods involved. Sections include introduction, premise, terms, general approach, the BLAST algorithm, quantification, gaps, significance, and databases. Users can link to BLAST, BLAST tutorial, and additional BLAST information from this page.

  17. Self-Similar Modes of Coherent Diffusion

    E-print Network

    O. Firstenberg; P. London; D. Yankelev; R. Pugatch; M. Shuker; N. Davidson

    2010-08-16

    Self-similar solutions of the coherent diffusion equation are derived and measured. The set of real similarity solutions is generalized by the introduction of a nonuniform phase surface, based on the elegant Gaussian modes of optical diffraction. In an experiment of light storage in a gas of diffusing atoms, a complex initial condition is imprinted, and its diffusion dynamics is monitored. The self-similarity of both the amplitude and the phase pattern is demonstrated, and an algebraic decay associated with the mode order is measured. Notably, as opposed to a regular diffusion spreading, a self-similar contraction of a special subset of the solutions is predicted and observed.

  18. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na?S?O?) and calcium chloride (CaCl?) on changes in NH?(+)?N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg?¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O? and UN+CaCl? and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH?? disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO??-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH?(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO??-N kg?¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg?¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O?, and UN+CaCl?, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na?S?O? proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

  19. Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar PAH Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

  20. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; D. J. Ackerman; M. J. Liszewski

    1997-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical

  1. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. R. Orr; M. J. Liszewski; R. G. Jensen

    1995-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of

  2. A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking northwest, provides a closer image of the brick penthouse and other devices - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  3. Similarity Measures for Structured Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Bunke; Bruno T. Messmer

    1993-01-01

    A key concept in case-based reasoning is similarity. In this paper, we first propose a similarity measure for structured representations that is based on graph edit operations. Then we show how this similarity measure can be computed by means of state space search. Subsequently, subgraph isomorphism is considered as a special case of graph similarity and a new efficient algorithm

  4. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 1999-2001. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. Water levels in wells rose in the northern and west-central parts of the INL by 1 to 3 feet, and declined in the southwestern parts of the INL by up to 4 feet during 1999-2001. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge. Tritium concentrations in water samples decreased as much as 8.3 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL) during 1999-2001, ranging from 0.43?0.14 to 13.6?0.6 pCi/mL in October 2001. Tritium concentrations in five wells near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) increased a few picocuries per milliliter from October 2000 to October 2001. Strontium-90 concentrations decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001, ranging from 2.1?0.6 to 42.4?1.4 pCi/L in October 2001. During 1999-2001, concentrations of cesium-137, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239, -240 (undivided) were less than the reporting level in water samples from all wells sampled at the INL. The concentration of americium-241 in one sample was 0.003?0.001 pCi/L, the reporting level for that constituent. Cobalt-60 was not detected in any samples collected during 1999-2001. Changes in detectable concentrations of nonradioactive chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL varied during 1999-2001. In October 2001, water from one well south of the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) [known as the Test Reactor Area (TRA) until 2005] contained 139 micrograms per liter (?g/L) of chromium, a decrease from the concentration of 168 ?g/L detected in October 1998. Other water samples contained from less than 16.7 to 21.3 ?g/L of chromium. In October 2001, concentrations of sodium in water samples from most of the wells in the southern part of the INL were larger than the background concentration of 10 mg/L, but were similar to or slightly less than October 1998 concentrations. The largest sodium concentration was 75 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from well USGS 113. In 2001, chloride concentrations in most water samples from the INTEC and the Central Facilities Area (CFA) exceeded ambient concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/L, respectively. Chloride concentrations in water from wells near the RTC were less than 20 mg/L. At the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), chloride concentrations in water from wells USGS 88, 89, and 120 were 81, 40, and 23 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of chloride in all other wells near the RWMC were less than 19 mg/L. During 2001, concentrations of sulfate in water from two wells near the RTC, two wells near the RWMC, and one well near the CFA exceeded 40 mg/L, the estimated background concentration of sulfate in the Snake River

  5. Anatoxin-a concentration in Anabaena and Aphanizomenon under different environmental conditions and comparison of growth by toxic and non-toxic Anabaena -strains — a laboratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarkko Rapala; Kaarina Sivonen; Raija Luukkainen; Seppo I. Niemelä

    1993-01-01

    Anatoxin-a-concentration in cells ofAnabaena- andAphanizomenon-strains and in their growth media were studied in the laboratory in batch cultures at different temperatures, light fluxes, orthophosphate and nitrate concentrations and with different nitrogen sources for growth. Toxin concentrations were detected by HPLC. Also, the growth of the toxicAnabaena-strains was compared to that of a non-toxic one. The non-toxicAnabaena was never found to

  6. Similarity & Congruence, continued Similar figures have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size. Similar

    E-print Network

    White, Donald L.

    Similarity & Congruence, continued Similar figures have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size. Similar figures have all corresponding angles congruent and corresponding sides are increased by the same scale factor. 1. Are all equilateral triangles similar? Explain why you believe what

  7. Complex Wavelet Structural Similarity: A New Image Similarity Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehul P. Sampat; Zhou Wang; Shalini Gupta; Alan Conrad Bovik; Mia K. Markey

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new measure of image similarity called the complex wavelet structural similarity (CW-SSIM) index and show its applicability as a general purpose image similarity index. The key idea behind CW-SSIM is that certain image distortions lead to consistent phase changes in the local wavelet coefficients, and that a consistent phase shift of the coefficients does not change the

  8. Flowing biofilms as a transport mechanism for biomass through porous media under laminar and turbulent conditions in a laboratory reactor system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stoodley; I. Dodds; D. De Beer; H. Lappin Scott; J. D. Boyle

    2005-01-01

    Fluid flow has been shown to be important in influencing biofilm morphology and causing biofilms to flow over surfaces in flow cell experiments. However, it is not known whether similar effects may occur in porous media. Generally, it is assumed that the primary transport mechanism for biomass in porous media is through convection, as suspended particulates (cells and flocs) carried

  9. Couple similarity and marital satisfaction: are similar spouses happier?

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the role of couple similarity in spouses' marital satisfaction and affect. The associations between spousal similarity and relationship measures were examined in a sample of 248 married couples. As hypothesized, greater similarity between partners was associated with higher levels of marital satisfaction and lower levels of negative affect. In particular, similarity on the gendered personality and values domains was more strongly associated with relationship measures, whereas similarity on the attitudes and religiosity domains showed weaker and inconsistent patterns of associations. Finally, profile-based similarity tended to be a stronger and more consistent correlate of relationship measures than difference score-based similarity. The implications of these findings for processes underlying intimate relationships are discussed. PMID:16958707

  10. Learning task-specific similarity

    E-print Network

    Shakhnarovich, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The right measure of similarity between examples is important in many areas of computer science. In particular it is a critical component in example-based learning methods. Similarity is commonly defined in terms of a ...

  11. Exemplar Similarity and Rule Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ulrike; Prat-Sala, Merce; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2010-01-01

    We report four experiments examining effects of instance similarity on the application of simple explicit rules. We found effects of similarity to illustrative exemplars in error patterns and reaction times. These effects arose even though participants were given perfectly predictive rules, the similarity manipulation depended entirely on…

  12. Transformation and Alignment in Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

  13. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  14. Brownian dynamics of self-similar macromolecules M. E. Cates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1059 Brownian dynamics of self-similar macromolecules M. E. Cates Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge of a solution offlexible chain macromolecules of arbitrary self- similar connectivity (« polymeric fractals chemical groups cross-link or associate irreversibly to form larger macromolecules of a more complex

  15. Similarity Theory of Withdrawn Water Temperature Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Selective withdrawal from a thermal stratified reservoir has been widely utilized in managing reservoir water withdrawal. Besides theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was also necessary in studying the temperature of withdrawn water. However, information on the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model remains lacking. Considering flow features of selective withdrawal, the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model was analyzed theoretically based on the modification of governing equations, the Boussinesq approximation, and some simplifications. The similarity conditions between the model and the prototype were suggested. The conversion of withdrawn water temperature between the model and the prototype was proposed. Meanwhile, the fundamental theory of temperature distribution conversion was firstly proposed, which could significantly improve the experiment efficiency when the basic temperature of the model was different from the prototype. Based on the similarity theory, an experiment was performed on the withdrawn water temperature which was verified by numerical method.

  16. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alard, C., E-mail: alard@iap.fr [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-20

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M {sup 1/4}. These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  17. Laboratory measurements of the microwave and millimeter-wave opacity of gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) under simulated conditions for the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahd, Antoine K.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory measurements have been conducted of the opacity of gaseous SO2 in a CO2 atmosphere at 12.3 cm, 1.32 cm, and 0.32 cm, with a view to the effects of this gas on the mm-wave emission of the Venus atmosphere. Close agreement is noted between the results obtained and the absorptivity predicted from a Van Vleck-Weisskopf formalism at the two shortest wavelengths, but not at the longest. These results have been incorporated into a radiative transfer model in order to infer an abundance profile for gaseous SO2 in Venus' middle atmosphere, and are also used to ascertain the effects of a SO2/CO2 gaseous mixture on the mm-wavelength spectrum of Venus.

  18. Thermal Performance of Biological Substance Systems in Vitro Under Static and Dynamic Conditions at the Cryogenic Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, James E.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A unique research program, including a comprehensive study of thermal performance at cryogenic vacuum insulation systems, was performed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The main goal was to develop a new soft vacuum system (from 1 torr to 10 torr) that provides an intermediate level of performance (k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K). Liquid nitrogen boil-off methods were used to test conventional materials, novel materials, and certain combinations. The test articles included combinations of aluminum foil, fiberglass paper, polyester fabric, silica aerogel composite blanket, fumed silica, silica aerogel powder, and syntactic foam. A new LCI system was developed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory. This system performs exceptionally well at soft vacuum levels and nearly as good as an MLI at high vacuum levels. Apparent thermal conductivities for the LCI range from 2 mW/m-K at soft vacuum to 0.1 mW/m-K at high vacuum. Several cryostats were designed, constructed, and calibrated by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at KSC NASA as part of this research program. The cryostat test apparatus is a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter system for direct measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity at a fixed vacuum level between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 760 torr. The apparatus is also used for transient measurements of temperature profiles. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems has been a targeted area of research for a number of years. Improved methods of characterization, testing, and evaluation of complex biological substance systems for cryosurgery and cryobiology are the focus of this paper.

  19. Exemplar similarity and rule application.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ulrike; Prat-Sala, Mercè; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Brumby, Duncan P

    2010-01-01

    We report four experiments examining effects of instance similarity on the application of simple explicit rules. We found effects of similarity to illustrative exemplars in error patterns and reaction times. These effects arose even though participants were given perfectly predictive rules, the similarity manipulation depended entirely on rule-irrelevant features, and attention to exemplar similarity was detrimental to task performance. Comparison of results across studies suggests that the effects are mandatory, non-strategic and not subject to conscious control, and as a result, should be pervasive throughout categorization. PMID:19815187

  20. Optimal dynamic discrimination of similar quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baiqing

    2005-07-01

    The techniques for identifying and separating similar molecules have always been very important to chemistry and other branches of science and engineering. Similar quantum systems share comparable Hamiltonians, so their eigenenergy levels, transition dipole moments, and therefore their ordinary observable properties are alike. Traditional analytical methods have mostly been restricted by working with the subtle differences in the physical and chemical properties of the similar species. Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) aims at magnifying the dissimilarity of the agents by actively controlling their quantum evolution, drawing on the extremely rich information embedded in their dynamics. ODD is developed based on the tremendous flexibility of Optimal Control Theory (OCT) and on the practical implementation of closed-loop learning control, which has become a more and more indispensable tool for controlling quantum processes. The ODD experimental paradigm is designed to combat a number of factors that are detrimental to the discrimination of similar molecules: laser pulse noise, signal detection errors, finite time resolution in the signals, and environmental decoherence effects. It utilizes either static signals or time series signal, the latter capable of providing more information. Simulations are performed in this dissertation progressing from the wave function to the density matrix formulation, in order to study the decoherence effects. Analysis of the results reveals the roles of the adverse factors, unravels the underlying mechanisms of ODD, and provides insights on laboratory implementation. ODD emphasizes the incorporation of algorithmic development and laboratory design, and seeks to bridge the gap between theoretical/computational chemistry and experimental chemistry, with the help from applied mathematics and computer science.

  1. Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

    2000-09-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

  2. Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  3. Comment on genetic similarity theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Mealey

    1985-01-01

    Genetic similarity theory, a purported extension of the concept of inclusive fitness, is not only unnecessary, but also logically flawed. In this paper, the author (1) discusses the definition of inclusive fitness; (2) identifies the major logical flaw of genetic similarity theory; and (3) refers readers to earlier, more thorough discussions of several common mis-understandings of kin selection and assortment.

  4. Texture Features and Learning Similarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-ying Ma; B. S. Marijunath

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses two important issues related to texture pattern retrieval: feature extraction and similarity search. A Gabor feature representation for textured images is proposed, and its performance in pattern retrieval is evaluated on a large texture image database. These features compare favorably with other existing texture representations. A simple hybrid neural network algorithm is used to learn the similarity

  5. Discuss Similarity Using Visual Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2012-01-01

    The change in size from a smaller shape to a larger similar shape (or vice versa) is created through continuous proportional stretching or shrinking in every direction. Students cannot solve similarity tasks simply by iterating or partitioning a composed unit, strategies typically used on numerical proportional tasks. The transition to thinking…

  6. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4018048

  7. FINAL REPORT - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions:An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study and Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Peyton; James Amonette; Haluk Beyenal; Gill Geesey; Zbigniew Lewandowski; Rajesh Sani

    2005-10-07

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. In situ coupons with a variety of mineral phases were placed in monitoring wells at the NABIR FRC. These coupons showed that the mineral phase composition significantly affected the resulting attached phase microbial community. Our comparative use of both batch and open flow reactors (more representative of field conditions) indicates that hydrodynamics and continual influx of substrate and contaminants can also yield significantly different results than those obtained with closed serum bottles. To this end, the following overall experimental hypothesis tested was the following: On a mineral surface under anaerobic conditions, accumulations of secondary inorganic precipitates are controlled by a) the bacteria associated with the mineral surface, b) the electron acceptors available for anaerobic bacterial respiration, and c) local hydrodynamics and pH buffers govern micro- and meso-scale interaction of U in the presence of electron donors and acceptors, and nutrients.

  8. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  9. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  10. Exponentially self-similar impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S., E-mail: ask@vei.r [All-Russia Institute of Electrical Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    The existence of generalized self-similar solutions to the system of continuity and Poisson equations is analyzed for the problem of evolution of impact ionization waves (IIWs). It is shown that, for any physically reasonable electric-field dependence of the impact ionization coefficients, there exist only exponentially self-similar ('limiting') asymptotic solutions. These solutions describe IIWs whose spatial scales and propagation velocities increase exponentially with time. Conditions are found for the existence of plane, cylindrical, and spherical waves of this type; their structure is described; analytical relations between the key parameters are derived; and effects of recombination (or attachment) and tunnel ionization are analyzed. It is shown that these IIWs are intermediate asymptotics of numerical solutions to the corresponding Cauchy problems. The most important and interesting type of exponentially self-similar IIWs are streamers in a uniform electric field. The simplest comprehensive and explicit model describing their evolution is a spherical IIW.

  11. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  12. Metabolism and dissipation kinetics of a novel protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase herbicide [oxadiargyl] in various buffered aqueous system under laboratory-simulated condition.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Nilanjan; Alam, Samsul; Pradhan, Saswati; Banerjee, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Ashim; Aktar, Md Wasim

    2015-07-01

    Present investigation was carried out using two commercial products Raft (oxadiargyl 6 % EC) and Topstar (oxadiargyl 80 % WP) of Oxadiargyl {5-tert-butyl-3[2,4-dichloro-5-(prop-2-ynyloxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2 (3H)-one} to investigate the persistence behavior and metabolism of the herbicide in various aqueous system under different pH condition. Half-life values revealed that alkaline hydrolysis played a dominant role in hydrolytic degradation of this compound. Q-ToF micromass study with the alkaline fractions of oxadiargyl indicated the formation of five metabolites, which was further characterized from their mass fragmentation data. The nature of metabolites formed indicated that heterocyclic oxadiazoline ring cleavage was found to be the main pathway of hydrolytic transformation of oxadiargyl. PMID:26077021

  13. Renewing the respect for similarity.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction-critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be extended in the future. PMID:22811664

  14. Renewing the respect for similarity

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction—critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be extended in the future. PMID:22811664

  15. Technical Report Computer Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    JJ Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0FD United Kingdom phone +44 1223 763500 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/ #12 Laboratory are freely available via the Internet: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/techreports/ ISSN 1476-2986 #12 involves taking a lot of very similar pho- tographs with only slightly varying settings. This has

  16. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar

  17. Perturbations of self-similar Bondi accretion

    E-print Network

    Jose Gaite

    2005-11-21

    The question of stability of steady spherical accretion has been studied for many years and, recently, the concept of spatial instability has been introduced. Here we study perturbations of steady spherical accretion flows (Bondi solutions), restricting ourselves to the case of self-similar flow, as a case amenable to analytic treatment and with physical interest. We further restrict ourselves to its acoustic perturbations. The radial perturbation equation can be solved in terms of Bessel functions. We study the formulation of adequate boundary conditions and decide for no matter-flux-perturbation conditions (at the Bondi radius and at r=0). We also consider the problem of initial conditions and time evolution, in particular, of radial perturbations. No spatial instability at r=0 is found. The time evolution is such that perturbations eventually become ergodic-like and show no trace of instability or of acquiring any remarkable pattern.

  18. Further tests on the stability of analytical weights in chemical laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P H Bigg; F H Burch

    1954-01-01

    The stability, in the corrosive atmospheres of chemical laboratories, of brass weights coated electrolytically with nominal thicknesses of 13 ? and 25 ? of tin-nickel alloy (65% Sn, 35% Ni) has been compared with that of weights previously tested(1) under similar conditions. As regards appearance after exposure, the 25 ? coating was the best, and was comparable with weights of

  19. Emergency Procedure Training for Reactor Operators at the High Flux Beam Reactor for Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyer, Ronald

    A project was conducted to analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate an instructional unit intended to improve the diagnostic skills of operating personnel in responding to abnormal and emergency conditions at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Research was conducted on the occurrence of emergencies at similar

  20. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1952, radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds), evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2006-08. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March-May 2005 to March-May 2008, water levels in wells generally remained constant or rose slightly in the southwestern corner of the INL. Water levels declined in the central and northern parts of the INL. The declines ranged from about 1 to 3 feet in the central part of the INL, to as much as 9 feet in the northern part of the INL. Water levels in perched groundwater wells around the Advanced Test Reactor Complex (ATRC) also declined. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2006-08. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In April or October 2008, reportable concentrations of tritium in groundwater ranged from 810 ? 70 to 8,570 ? 190 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the tritium plume extended south-southwestward in the general direction of groundwater flow. Tritium concentrations in water from wells completed in shallow perched groundwater at the ATRC were less than the reporting levels. Tritium concentrations in deep perched groundwater exceeded the reporting level in 11 wells during at least one sampling event during 2006-08 at the ATRC. Tritium concentrations from one or more zones in each well were reportable in water samples collected at various depths in six wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems. Concentrations of strontium-90 in water from 24 of 52 aquifer wells sampled during April or October 2008 exceeded the reporting level. Concentrations ranged from 2.2 ? 0.7 to 32.7 ? 1.2 pCi/L. Strontium-90 has not been detected within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the ATRC partly because of the exclusive use of waste-disposal ponds and lined evaporation ponds rather than using the disposal well for radioactive-wastewater disposal at ATRC. At the ATRC, the strontium-90 concentration in water from one well completed in shallow perched groundwater was less than the reporting level. During at least one sampling event during 2006-08, concentrations of strontium-90 in water from nine wells completed in deep perched groundwater at the ATRC were greater than reporting levels. Concentrations ranged from 2.1?0.7 to 70.5?1.8 pCi/L. At the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), the reporting level was exceeded in water from two wells completed in deep perched groundwater. During 2006-08, concentrations of cesium-137, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241 were less than the reporting level in water samples from all wells and all zones in wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems

  1. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1215 - Condition: Hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Hematology. 493.1215 Section 493.1215...Testing § 493.1215 Condition: Hematology. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Hematology, the laboratory must meet the...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1215 - Condition: Hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Hematology. 493.1215 Section 493.1215...Testing § 493.1215 Condition: Hematology. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Hematology, the laboratory must meet the...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1215 - Condition: Hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Hematology. 493.1215 Section 493.1215...Testing § 493.1215 Condition: Hematology. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Hematology, the laboratory must meet the...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1215 - Condition: Hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Hematology. 493.1215 Section 493.1215...Testing § 493.1215 Condition: Hematology. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Hematology, the laboratory must meet the...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1215 - Condition: Hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Hematology. 493.1215 Section 493.1215...Testing § 493.1215 Condition: Hematology. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Hematology, the laboratory must meet the...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1205 - Condition: Virology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Virology. 493.1205 Section 493.1205...Testing § 493.1205 Condition: Virology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Virology, the laboratory must meet the...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1205 - Condition: Virology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Virology. 493.1205 Section 493.1205...Testing § 493.1205 Condition: Virology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Virology, the laboratory must meet the...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1205 - Condition: Virology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Virology. 493.1205 Section 493.1205...Testing § 493.1205 Condition: Virology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Virology, the laboratory must meet the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1205 - Condition: Virology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Virology. 493.1205 Section 493.1205...Testing § 493.1205 Condition: Virology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Virology, the laboratory must meet the...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1205 - Condition: Virology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Virology. 493.1205 Section 493.1205...Testing § 493.1205 Condition: Virology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Virology, the laboratory must meet the...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1211 - Condition: Urinalysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Urinalysis. 493.1211 Section 493.1211...Testing § 493.1211 Condition: Urinalysis. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Urinalysis, the laboratory must meet the...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1211 - Condition: Urinalysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Urinalysis. 493.1211 Section 493.1211...Testing § 493.1211 Condition: Urinalysis. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Urinalysis, the laboratory must meet the...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1211 - Condition: Urinalysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Urinalysis. 493.1211 Section 493.1211...Testing § 493.1211 Condition: Urinalysis. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Urinalysis, the laboratory must meet the...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1211 - Condition: Urinalysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Urinalysis. 493.1211 Section 493.1211...Testing § 493.1211 Condition: Urinalysis. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Urinalysis, the laboratory must meet the...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1211 - Condition: Urinalysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Urinalysis. 493.1211 Section 493.1211...Testing § 493.1211 Condition: Urinalysis. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Urinalysis, the laboratory must meet the...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1203 - Condition: Mycology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Mycology. 493.1203 Section 493.1203...Testing § 493.1203 Condition: Mycology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Mycology, the laboratory must meet the...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1203 - Condition: Mycology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Mycology. 493.1203 Section 493.1203...Testing § 493.1203 Condition: Mycology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Mycology, the laboratory must meet the...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1203 - Condition: Mycology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Mycology. 493.1203 Section 493.1203...Testing § 493.1203 Condition: Mycology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Mycology, the laboratory must meet the...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1203 - Condition: Mycology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Mycology. 493.1203 Section 493.1203...Testing § 493.1203 Condition: Mycology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Mycology, the laboratory must meet the...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

  6. Magnitude -7 level earthquakes: A new lower limit of self-similarity in seismic scaling relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, Nana; Kawakata, Hironori; Takahashi, Naoki

    2014-07-01

    Microfractures occurring in a rock sample that are called acoustic emission (AE) events show some similar features to earthquakes. However, it remains to be shown whether or not AE equate to ultramicroearthquakes. In this study, we show the existence of magnitude -7 level earthquakes based on seismological analyses of AE source parameters. Advances in multichannel, broadband, high-speed continuous recording of AE under seismogenic pressure conditions has facilitated increasingly robust measurement. Source parameters of AE show that AE events satisfy the same scaling relationship as natural earthquakes in which seismic moment is inversely proportional to the cube of corner frequency. This result suggests that both millimeter scale fractures and natural earthquakes of kilometer scale ruptures are highly similar as physical processes. Hence, AE events can be interpreted as ultramicroearthquakes having a magnitude of about -7. These results demonstrate that laboratory observation is an effective approach in studying natural earthquake generation process.

  7. Connecting Sparsely Distributed Similar Bloggers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitin Agarwal; Huan Liu; Shankara B. Subramanya; John J. Salerno; Philip S. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—The,nature,of the Blogosphere,determines,that the majority,of bloggers,are,only,connected,with,a small number of fellow bloggers, and similar bloggers can be largely disconnected,from,each,other. Aggregating,them,allows,for cost-effective personalized services, targeted marketing, and exploration,of new,business,opportunities. As most,bloggers have only a small number of adjacent bloggers, the problem of aggregating,similar bloggers,presents challenges that demand novel algorithms,of connecting,the non-adjacent,due,to the fragmented distributions of bloggers. In this work, we define the

  8. Accreditation or Certification for Laboratories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimillis, Kyriacos C.

    This presentation is focused on explaining the significance of accreditation and certification for laboratories and illustrates the usefulness of both procedures. The implementation of these procedures in laboratories is described, pointing out their similarities and differences. Reference is made to some publications. The discussion reflects the existing practice.

  9. Laboratory Studies of Interstellar PAH Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

  10. Methods for Similarity-based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Thomas G.; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Developing new medical drugs is expensive. Among the first steps is a screening process, in which molecules in existing chemical libraries are tested for activity against a given target. This requires a lot of resources and manpower. Therefore it has become common to perform a virtual screening, where computers are used for predicting the activity of very large libraries of molecules, to identify the most promising leads for further laboratory experiments. Since computer simulations generally require fewer resources than physical experimentation this can lower the cost of medical and biological research significantly. In this paper we review practically fast algorithms for screening databases of molecules in order to find molecules that are sufficiently similar to a query molecule. PMID:24688702

  11. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises…

  12. Hydrodynamic Scalings: from Astrophysics to Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Remington, B. A.

    2000-05-01

    A surprisingly general hydrodynamic similarity has been recently described in Refs. [1,2]. One can call it the Euler similarity because it works for the Euler equations (with MHD effects included). Although the dissipation processes are assumed to be negligible, the presence of shocks is allowed. For the polytropic medium (i.e., the medium where the energy density is proportional to the pressure), an evolution of an arbitrarily chosen 3D initial state can be scaled to another system, if a single dimensionless parameter (the Euler number) is the same for both initial states. The Euler similarity allows one to properly design laboratory experiments modeling astrophysical phenomena. We discuss several examples of such experiments related to the physics of supernovae [3]. For the problems with a single spatial scale, the condition of the smallness of dissipative processes can be adequately described in terms of the Reynolds, Peclet, and magnetic Reynolds numbers related to this scale (all three numbers must be large). However, if the system develops small-scale turbulence, dissipation may become important at these smaller scales, thereby affecting the gross behavior of the system. We analyze the corresponding constraints. We discuss also constraints imposed by the presence of interfaces between the substances with different polytropic index. Another set of similarities governs evolution of photoevaporation fronts in astrophysics. Convenient scaling laws exist in situations where the density of the ablated material is very low compared to the bulk density. We conclude that a number of hydrodynamical problems related to such objects as the Eagle Nebula can be adequately simulated in the laboratory. We discuss also possible scalings for radiative astrophysical jets (see Ref. [3] and references therein). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-Eng-48. 1. D.D. Ryutov, R.P. Drake, J. Kane, E. Liang, B. A. Remington, and W.M. Wood-Vasey. "Similarity criteria for the laboratory simulation of supernova hydrodynamics." Astrophysical Journal, v. 518, p. 821 (1999). 2. D.D. Ryutov, R.P. Drake, B.A. Remington. "Criteria for scaled laboratory simulations of astrophysical MHD phenomena." To appear in Astrophysical Journal - Supplement, April 2000. 3. Remington, B.A., Phys. Plasmas, 7, # 5 (2000).

  13. Evaluating Gender Discrimination Claims: Is There a Gender Similarity Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Teri J.; Phillips, James S.; Konopaske, Robert; Townsend, Joellyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the possible existence of a gender similarity bias in evaluations of gender discrimination allegations, using a laboratory experiment in which the strength of evidence against a defendant company and the gender of the plaintiff were manipulated. Participants were ethnically diverse undergraduate students. Although female mock jurors…

  14. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-11-01

    This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 ?m plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User Facility).

  15. Earth-Mars similarity criteria for exploring martian vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Savu

    2003-01-01

    In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers) and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper). These similarity criteria, as non dimensional numbers,

  16. Conceptual Similarity Promotes Generalization of Higher Order Fear Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; White, Allison J.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned an association between two cues that were conceptually similar, unrelated, or mismatched. Next, one of the cues was paired with a shock. The other cue was then reintroduced to…

  17. On critical values of self-similar sets

    E-print Network

    Pokorny, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we study properties of the set of critical points for self-similar sets. We introduce simple condition that implies at most countably many critical values and we construct a self-similar set with uncountable set of critical values.

  18. Environmental Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Information is provided regarding the Association of Environmental Laboratories which consists of environmental analysts concerned with the quality of laboratories charged with providing information in the field of environmental measurements. Included is a list of charter members and a statement of the goals of the organization. (MLB)

  19. Laboratory Culture of Tautog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean M. Perry; Renee Mercaldo-Allen; Catherine A. Kuropat; James B. Hughes

    1998-01-01

    Spawning of field-captured adult tautog Tautoga onitis was accomplished under laboratory conditions. Natural spawning of tautog produced more viable embryos and larvae than did strip-spawning. Embryos were cultured to hatching and raised successfully through the larval stage to juveniles. Newly hatched larvae were fed protozoans from day 0 to day 6 posthatch, rotifers from day 2 to day 20 posthatch,

  20. Similarity, convergence, and relationship satisfaction in dating and married couples.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Gian C; Campos, Belinda; Bradbury, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    The current work investigates how personality and interpersonal processes combine to predict change in relationship quality. Measures of personality and emotion similarity were collected during laboratory interactions from a cross-sectional sample of dating couples (Study 1) and a 1-year longitudinal study of newlywed married couples (Study 2). Results showed that emotion similarity mediated the association between personality similarity and relationship quality (Studies 1 and 2) and that emotion convergence mediated the association between personality convergence and relationship satisfaction (Study 2). These results indicate that similarity and convergence in personality may benefit relationships by promoting similarity and convergence in partners' shared emotional experiences. Findings also lend support to models that integrate partners' enduring traits and couples' adaptive processes as antecedents of relationship outcomes. PMID:17605587

  1. A qualitative characterization of an introductory college nonmajors biology laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cherin Ann

    The nature of an undergraduate, nonmajors biology laboratory was investigated in this study. Student participants were enrolled in a general education biology laboratory course at the University of Northern Iowa. The researcher's purpose was to gain a characterization of the instructional format and laboratory activities experienced by students. Interpretation of student and instructor responses enabled an insider's view of the biology laboratory. The laboratory period was consistently described by both students and instructors as having three parts, Beginning, Middle, and End, with the End being of special importance for conceptual development. The instructional format of the three instructors differed within the three portions of the laboratory period, ranging from an inquiry-oriented, partial learning cycle to a fairly expository model labeled inform/verify/practice. There was striking similarity in intrasectional student and teacher descriptions of instructional format. Additionally, students experiencing the alternate instructor provided the same characterizations of instructional format as those provided by the instructor's usual students. There were no discernible patterns of instructional format based on sex or reasoning level. In addition to the central role of instructional format, three areas of importance emerged: the social aspects of learning, the collaborative and cooperative nature of laboratory work and learning, and the role of self-efficacy. Theory developed from and grounded in the data showed six factors important in the introductory college biology laboratory: collaborative and cooperative learning, student-student and teacher-student interactions, attitude and self-efficacy, learning process and learning style, effective instructional format, and science content. These factors were found to be similar to factors identified in the literature as important in K-12 science education. These factors were set in the context of schooling and learning paradigms, paralleling J. J. Schwab's four conditions of a curriculum (subject matter, learners, teachers, and milieus), Benjamin Bloom's model of important factors in student achievement and schooling (cognitive entry behaviors, affective entry behaviors, and quality of instruction), and fitting a constructivist epistemological framework.

  2. When is Chemical Similarity Significant? The Statistical Distribution of Chemical Similarity Scores and Its Extreme Values

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    As repositories of chemical molecules continue to expand and become more open, it becomes increasingly important to develop tools to search them efficiently and assess the statistical significance of chemical similarity scores. Here we develop a general framework for understanding, modeling, predicting, and approximating the distribution of chemical similarity scores and its extreme values in large databases. The framework can be applied to different chemical representations and similarity measures but is demonstrated here using the most common binary fingerprints with the Tanimoto similarity measure. After introducing several probabilistic models of fingerprints, including the Conditional Gaussian Uniform model, we show that the distribution of Tanimoto scores can be approximated by the distribution of the ratio of two correlated Normal random variables associated with the corresponding unions and intersections. This remains true also when the distribution of similarity scores is conditioned on the size of the query molecules in order to derive more fine-grained results and improve chemical retrieval. The corresponding extreme value distributions for the maximum scores are approximated by Weibull distributions. From these various distributions and their analytical forms, Z-scores, E-values, and p-values are derived to assess the significance of similarity scores. In addition, the framework allows one to predict also the value of standard chemical retrieval metrics, such as Sensitivity and Specificity at fixed thresholds, or ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves at multiple thresholds, and to detect outliers in the form of atypical molecules. Numerous and diverse experiments carried in part with large sets of molecules from the ChemDB show remarkable agreement between theory and empirical results. PMID:20540577

  3. Reproduction of natural corrosion by accelerated laboratory testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    Various laboratory corrosion tests have been developed to study the behavior of glass waste forms under conditions similar to those expected in an engineered repository. The data generated by laboratory experiments are useful for understanding corrosion mechanisms and for developing chemical models to predict the long-term behavior of glass. However, it is challenging to demonstrate that these test methods produce results that can be directly related to projecting the behavior of glass waste forms over time periods of thousands of years. One method to build confidence in the applicability of the test methods is to study the natural processes that have been taking place over very long periods in environments similar to those of the repository. In this paper, we discuss whether accelerated testing methods alter the fundamental mechanisms of glass corrosion by comparing the alteration patterns that occur in naturally altered glasses with those that occur in accelerated laboratory environments. This comparison is done by (1) describing the alteration of glasses reacted in nature over long periods of time and in accelerated laboratory environments and (2) establishing the reaction kinetics of naturally altered glass and laboratory reacted glass waste forms.

  4. Similarity and MIA -Master on Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Ageno, Alicia

    Advanced Natural Language Processing Similarity and Clustering MIA - Master on Artificial Intelligence Advanced Natural Language Processing #12;Advanced Natural Language Processing Similarity-hierarchical Clustering Evaluation #12;Advanced Natural Language Processing Similarity and Clustering Similarity 1

  5. Open Laboratory for Robotics Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Fernández; Alicia Casals

    2004-01-01

    Laboratories are key components in the learning process of applied matters. The laboratory enables students to acquire methodologies, work habitude, knowledge on equipment operation and experience, in conditions as near as possible to their future professional activity. The evolution of communication and information technologies opens new possibilities in educational methods. The purpose of this paper is to present a Web

  6. Drug-induced acne and rose pearl: similarities*

    PubMed Central

    Pontello Junior, Rubens; Kondo, Rogerio Nabor

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced acne is a common skin condition whose classic symptoms can be similar to a rose pearl, as in the case of a male patient presenting with this condition after excessive use of a cream containing corticosteroids. PMID:24474128

  7. Paleomagnetics Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the California Institute of Technology's Paleomagnetics Laboratory promotes its research of weakly magnetic geologic and biological materials. Users can learn about the facilities such as the biomagnetics lab and the automatic sampler. The website features the laboratory's recent research on many topics including extraterrestrial magnetism, magnetofossils, and historical geomagnetic field behavior. Visitors can find out more about the many laboratory members' research activities through links to their home pages. Researchers can download a selection of the group's publications. Everyone can enjoy the amazing images from recent geologic field trips across the globe.

  8. Similarities Between Tinnitus and Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aage R. Møller

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Both pain and tinnitus have many different forms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Tinnitus and central neuropathic pain are phantom sensations similar to the phantom limb symptoms that occur without any physical\\u000a stimulation of sensory receptors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Tinnitus and neuropathic pain are typical examples of “plasticity disorders” where the symptoms are caused by plastic changes\\u000a that are not beneficial to an individual person.

  9. Diversity and similarity of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of comets from an early stage where they were all similar, to the later diversity is reviewed. The elemental abundances of all pristine comets are likely to be primitive, that is in solar abundance ratios for all elements including C, N, O, S, but with the exception of H (and assumedly He and Ne) that are severely depleted. The solid phase was originally in very fine grains, typically 0.1 micron or less, eventually sintered into larger grain clusters. The volatile phase contains H, C, N, O, and S molecules frozen in the pores of the grain clusters; cosmic ray plus solar irradiation changes the volatile to refractory ratio of the crust. Differences in dust tails, in plasma tails, in photometry between young and old comets, and in the variable carbon depletion of the gas phase seem to be induced by the decay processes.

  10. Self-Similar Magnetic Arcades

    E-print Network

    K. N. Gourgouliatos

    2008-02-01

    We study self-similar analytical solutions for force-free magnetic field in azimuthal symmetry and arcade topology. We assume the existence of a poloidal magnetic field, anchored on a heavy spherical conductor. The field is changed by shearing the foot points of the arcade due to differential rotation. This rotation gives rise to a toroidal component in the magnetic structure which reacts by expanding the poloidal flux outwards. This could be a slow process at the early stages, however it becomes very fast at the final stages when the poloidal flux expands to infinity. We address the question of the pressure environment confining the arcade, a pressure profile proportional to $r^{-4}$ is particularly interesting as it allows finite twist before the field expands to infinity. Finally, some time evolution estimates are made to demonstrate the limitations of this study.

  11. BROOKHAVEN LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    ............................................. 6 Child Care Options.................................................. 7 Parent's Rights, and surrogate parents seeking to support each child's unique needs. 4. Learning is a process that is guided soBROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY Child Development Center Parent Handbook Revised 2009

  12. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests This section provides ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  13. Hydromechanics Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Kriebel

    The Hydromechanics Laboratory supports midshipmen education, as well as midshipmen, faculty and staff research, in the areas of naval architecture and ocean engineering. The laboratory facilities include a large towing tank (380-ft long, 26- ft wide, and 16-ft deep), a small towing tank (120-ft long, 8-ft wide, and 5-ft deep), a coastal engineering wave basin (52-ft long, 48-ft wide, and

  14. Visgraf Laboratory IMPA Visgraf Laboratory IMPA

    E-print Network

    1 Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA CNMAC 99 CNMAC 99 jonas@impa.br @impa.br Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro www.visgraf.impa.br www.visgraf.impa.br Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf

  15. Teaching In The Laboratory A laboratory exercise to illustrate increased salivary cortisol in response to

    E-print Network

    Vleck, Carol

    Teaching In The Laboratory A laboratory exercise to illustrate increased salivary cortisol. A laboratory exercise to illustrate increased salivary cortisol in response to three stressful conditions using to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions. Twelve under

  16. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

  17. Hepatic venous outflow obstruction: Three similar syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas Darda; Seren, Soley; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a detailed review of veno-occlusive disease (VOD), Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and congestive hepatopathy (CH), all of which results in hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This is the first article in which all three syndromes have been reviewed, enabling the reader to compare the characteristics of these disorders. The histological findings in VOD, BCS, and CH are almost identical: sinusoidal congestion and cell necrosis mostly in perivenular areas of hepatic acini which eventually leads to bridging fibrosis between adjacent central veins. Tender hepatomegaly with jaundice and ascites is common to all three conditions. However, the clinical presentation depends mostly on the extent and rapidity of the outflow obstruction. Although the etiology and treatment are completely different in VOD, BCS, and CH; the similarities in clinical manifestations and liver histology may suggest a common mechanism of hepatic injury and adaptation in response to increased sinusoidal pressure. PMID:17461490

  18. Critical conditions for phytoplankton blooms.

    PubMed

    Ebert, U; Arrayás, M; Temme, N; Sommeijer, B; Huisman, J

    2001-11-01

    We motivate and analyse a reaction-advection-diffusion model for the dynamics of a phytoplankton species. The reproductive rate of the phytoplankton is determined by the local light intensity. The light intensity decreases with depth due to absorption by water and phytoplankton. Phytoplankton is transported by turbulent diffusion in a water column of given depth. Furthermore, it might be sinking or buoyant depending on its specific density. Dimensional analysis allows the reduction of the full problem to a problem with four dimensionless parameters that is fully explored. We prove that the critical parameter regime for which a stationary phytoplankton bloom ceases to exist, can be analysed by a reduced linearized equation with particular boundary conditions. This problem is mapped exactly to a Bessel function problem, which is evaluated both numerically and by asymptotic expansions. A final transformation from dimensionless parameters back to laboratory parameters results in a complete set of predictions for the conditions that allow phytoplankton bloom development. Our results show that the conditions for phytoplankton bloom development can be captured by a critical depth, a compensation depth, and zero, one or two critical values of the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient. These experimentally testable predictions take the form of similarity laws: every plankton-water-light-system characterized by the same dimensionless parameters will show the same dynamics. PMID:11732178

  19. Similarities in acute temperature preferences of freshwater fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, D. (Muddy Run Ecological Lab., Drumore, PA); Schutsky, R.M.; Purdy, E.J. Jr.; Silver, C.

    1981-01-01

    A statistical analysis of new and published laboratory data revealed strong geographic similarities in acute (up to 4-h) temperature preferences for several freshwater fishes. Regression models developed from our laboratory studies predicted acute temperature preferences of species from other geographic areas. Species within a family (three cyprinids, two ictalurids, and six centrarchids were tested) have similar acute preferenda, except that white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) differs from other centrarchids. For the species analyzed, acclimation temperature is the only significant variable affecting acute preferenda and accounted for up to 82% of the total variation. These emerging generalities should minimize the need for further site-specific studies of acute temperature preference for individual species and thus should result in substantial savings in money and time.

  20. EE 448 Laboratory Preface Laboratory Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    EE 448 Laboratory Preface Laboratory Introduction -1- EE 448 Preface 2/26/2007 Laboratory Introduction #12;EE 448 Laboratory Preface Laboratory Introduction -2- I. INTRODUCTION The electric machinery laboratory provides students with the opportunity to examine and experiment with different types

  1. Criteria for Scaled Laboratory Simulations of Astrophysical MHD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.

    2000-04-01

    We demonstrate that two systems described by the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) evolve similarly, if the initial conditions are geometrically similar and certain scaling relations hold. The thermodynamic properties of the gas must be such that the internal energy density is proportional to the pressure. The presence of the shocks is allowed. We discuss the applicability conditions of the ideal MHD and demonstrate that they are satisfied with a large margin both in a number of astrophysical objects, and in properly designed simulation experiments with high-power lasers. This allows one to perform laboratory experiments whose results can be used for quantitative interpretation of various effects of astrophysical MHD. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  2. Monitoring quality requires knowing similarity: the NICLTS experience.

    PubMed Central

    Steindel, S. J.; Granade, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory tests can appear similar from the test names but may be vastly different in the way a result is achieved. Currently, for example, cervical cancer evaluation is moving from the traditional Papanicolaou smear to new smear preparation technologies and testing for human papillomavirus. Monitoring the quality of these three tests, and of all tests, requires that computers "understand" how these tests are similar and different. The National Inventory of Clinical Laboratory Testing Services (NICLTS) found that the approximately 20,000 most commonly performed tests used combinations of 635 analytes and 1,699 methods. These analytes and methods provide the base data for a semantic model that makes the requisite similarities and differences explicit. The semantic relationships, e.g. the method principle enabling a test and the nature of the substance tested, were evaluated against empirically derived, uni-dimensional relations. The resulting multi-dimensional semantic model expands our ability to monitor the quality of laboratory testing in the face of rapid change. Use of common terminology tools and representations enable the creation, expansion and reuse of this model beyond the needs of NICLTS. PMID:11825269

  3. Appalachian Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Frostburg, Maryland, AL conducts research in aquatic ecology, landscape and watershed ecology, conservation biology and restoration ecology, behavioral and evolutionary ecology, and study both freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems of Maryland and other locations in the United States and the world. Site contains information regarding the facilities, faculty, on going research, education opportunities, and seminars. Also features information on the other UMCES laboratories.

  4. Earth–Mars similarity criteria for exploring martian vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Savu

    2006-01-01

    In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers) and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper). These similarity criteria, as non-dimensional numbers, allow

  5. Laboratory 10 Control Systems Laboratory ECE3557 Laboratory 10

    E-print Network

    Laboratory 10 Control Systems Laboratory ECE3557 Laboratory 10 State Feedback Controller for Position Control of a DC Servo 10.1 Objective The objective of this laboratory is to position the gears, we will use the state space model of the DC servo introduced in the laboratory 3 (refer to [1

  6. Scaling for stress similarity and distorted-shape similarity in bending and torsion under maximal muscle forces concurs with geometric similarity among different-sized animals.

    PubMed

    Norberg, R Ake; Aldrin, Björn S Wetterholm

    2010-08-15

    When geometric similarity, or isometry, prevails among animals of different sizes their form and proportions are similar. Weight increases as the cube of the length dimension, while cross-sectional areas increase as its square, so in load-bearing structural elements the stress, caused by the body weight, increases in direct proportion to the length dimension, both for pure axial loads and for transverse bending and torsional loads. On this account, large body sizes would be expected to set up compensatory selection on the proportions of supporting structures, making them disproportionately thicker as required to maintain similar, size-independent safety factors against breakage. Most previous scaling theories have assumed that the strength of support elements has evolved with respect to loads due to the body weight. But then, from the arguments above, a scaling principle different from the geometric similarity rule would be required in order for safety factors to remain similar among different-sized animals. Still, most comparable animals of 'similar kind' scale in accordance with the geometric similarity rule. Here, we instead argue that muscle forces cause much larger loads on structural support elements during maximum performance events (such as during prey capture or escape from predators) than do loads dictated by the body weight (such as during cruising locomotion), and that structural strength therefore might evolve with respect to maximal muscle forces rather than to the body weight. We explore how the transverse and longitudinal lengths of structural support elements must scale to one another, and to muscle transverse length, in order to satisfy each of the following, functionally based, similarity principles for support elements placed in bending, or in torsion, by maximal muscle forces during locomotion: (1) similarity in axial stress, or (2) in torsional shear stress, and (3) similarity in bent shape, or (4) in twisted shape. A dimensional relationship that satisfies all four conditions actually turns out to be the geometric similarity rule. These functional attributes may therefore help to explain the prevalence of geometric similarity among animals. Conformance of different-sized species with the geometric similarity principle has not been directly selected for as such, of course, but may have arisen as a by-product of adaptation in morphological proportions, following upon selection, in each separate species-lineage, for adequate and similar safety factors against breakage, and similar optimal distorted shapes, of structural support elements placed in bending, or in torsion, by maximal muscle forces. PMID:20675557

  7. Similarities and Differences Between Flow Boiling in Microchannels and Pool Boiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish G. Kandlikar

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that under certain conditions the heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling in microchannels is quite similar to that under pool boiling conditions. This is rather unexpected, as microchannels are believed to provide significant heat transfer enhancement under single-phase as well as flow boiling conditions. This article explores the underlying heat transfer mechanisms and illustrates the similarities and

  8. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

  9. Classical Conditioning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Palacios, Miss Miller, Mr. Rowser

    2008-04-01

    !!Classical Conditioning!! Classical conditioning is the use of Pavlovian conditioning procedures where a neutral stimulus becomes capable of evoking a response through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. Click the link below to get an introduction into classical conditioning. Introduction to Classical Conditioning Now that you\\'ve been introduced to classical conditioning, view the clip at the link below, ...

  10. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  11. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  12. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  13. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  14. The Frozen Lake: A Physical Model Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2005-04-01

    We have created laboratory conditions similar to those present in a lake when the external temperature falls below 0°C. Glaciation in lakes is described in school textbooks and classroom demonstrations.1,2 It is pointed out how the anomalous behavior of water, which reaches maximum density at about 4°C,3 makes life possible on Earth. The proposed model thus describes a physical system that, apart from being of interest in itself, is relevant to the study of biological mechanisms.

  15. Collisionless laboratory astrophysics with lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri P. Zakharov

    2003-01-01

    Possibilities of laboratory simulation of various explosive phenomena in space and cosmic plasmas with magnetic fields are analyzed on the bases of similarity criteria, properties of collisionless interactions, and parameters of laser-produced plasmas. It is shown how the physics of such widely different phenomena as barium releases in Earth's magnetosphere, collisionless deceleration of supernova remnants, and related shock-wave generation in

  16. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493...493.1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493...493.1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493...493.1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493...493.1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493...493.1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493.1210...493.1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493.1210...493.1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  8. A similarity model of nonlinear convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Alan Meyer

    1987-09-01

    The nonlinear equations for a steady axisymmetric convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a horizontal plate are analyzed using a similarity relation used in the study of geophysical vortices. The principal assumption of this model is that the components of the fluid velocity field decrease inversely with distance from a point singularity located at the intersection of the axis of symmetry and the plate. Although the tangential velocity component around the vertical axis is assumed to be zero, the model can be generalized to include unsteady swirling motion. The inverse distance scaling for the velocity field transforms the Navier-Stokes equations into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in the polar angle. No slip and impermeability conditions are imposed along the flat plate. Along the axis we exclude fluid sources and require that stresses be finite. In closing the model, it is convenient to specify to solenoidal term of the vorticity equation explicitly as a function of the polar angle and distance from the point singularity. After computing the velocity field and assuming a relevant equation of state, consideration of the energy equation then leads to a computation of the heating required to maintain the flow.

  9. On Tighter Inequalities for Efficient Similarity Search in Metric Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Ban; Youki Kadobayashi

    2008-01-01

    Similarity search consists of the efficient retrieval of relevant information satisfying user for- mulated query conditions from a database with pre- built indexing structures. Since the evaluation of the distance functions between queries and indexed ob- jects is often computationally expensive, there have been many attempts to build indexing structures that use as few distance computations as possible to an-

  10. Photovoltaic test laboratory accreditation and product certification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goblnd H. Atmaram

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the needs for laboratory accreditation and certification for quality improvement of photovoltaic products. A case study of implementing such a program by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is presented. Similar efforts worldwide are briefly discussed.

  11. Metric Embedding of Task-Specific Similarity

    E-print Network

    Roweis, Sam

    into a space where similarity corresponds to a simple distance. 2 #12;Task-specific similarity · Articulated · Learning parametrized distance metric [Xing et al; Roweis], such as Mahalanobis distances. · Lots of work

  12. Investigating Measures for Pairwise Document Similarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Isaacs

    The need for a more effective similarity measure is growing as a result of the astonishing amount of information being placed online. Most existing similarity measures are defined by empirically derived formulas and cannot easily be extended to new applications. We present a pairwise document similarity measure based on Information Theory, and present corpus dependent and independent applications of this

  13. Incremental Similarity Search in Multimedia Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G ´ isli; R. Hjaltason; Hanan Samet

    2000-01-01

    Similarity search is a very important operation in multimedia databases and other database applica- tions involving complex objects, and involves finding objects in a data setS similar to a query object q, based on some distance measure d, usually a distance metric. Existing methods for handling similarity search in this setting fall into one of two classes. The first is

  14. Distances and Similarities of Saturated Computational Verbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yang

    2006-01-01

    The distance and similarity between two computa- tional verbs are very important to many applications involving the comparison of computational verbs. For example, in computa- tional verb inferences, the similarities among computational verbs decide the firing levels of computational verb rules. In this paper, the comprehensive definitions of verb distance and similarity were given based on the saturated evolving functions

  15. Phonetic alignment and similarity Grzegorz Kondrak

    E-print Network

    Kondrak, Greg

    Phonetic alignment and similarity Grzegorz Kondrak Department of Computing Science University@cs.ualberta.ca April 4, 2003 Abstract. The computation of the optimal phonetic alignment and the phonetic similarity be that employs a scoring scheme for computing phonetic similarity between phonetic segments on the basis

  16. These results are similar to previous measures of tethered flight distances for drones. The great-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    These results are similar to previous measures of tethered flight distances for drones. The great climatic conditions. Under tropical conditions drones flew the shortest distances (mean of 556.9 ± 71 m

  17. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  18. Existence of self-similar solutions in reacting gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, J.; Singh, R.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the Lie group theoretical method is used to establish the entire class of self-similar solutions to the problem of shock wave propagation through reacting polytropic gases with the same -law. The system consists of two species, burnt gas and unburnt gas. Necessary conditions for the existence of similarity solutions for shocks of arbitrary strength as well as for strong shocks are obtained. The arbitrary constants, occurring in the expressions of the infinitesimals of Lie group of transformations give rise to different cases of possible solutions with a power law, exponential and logarithmic shock paths. For the existence of self-similar solutions, the forms of reaction rate are found out in different cases. A particular solution is considered to study the effect of reaction rate on the similarity exponent.

  19. Transferring Industrial Automation Technology to the Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Harding; David Bradford; Gavin Brown

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been much discussion about transferring industrial technology to laboratories. While it is easy to look at the superficial similarities, it is more important to examine the different requirements of different industries. In this way, it is possible to identify the technologies and techniques that can be successfully transferred to the laboratory to improve

  20. Revelations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Goods

    2005-01-01

    The author's 2 years of developing installations for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have led him to an appreciation of how similar his thinking and work process are to those of the laboratory's engineers and scientists. For both, certain ideas and processes at first appear crazy and impracticable, but vision and persistence bring them to realization. The three installations described in

  1. The first laboratory measurements of sulfur ions sputtering water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Pommerol, Antoine; Vorburger, Audrey; Wurz, Peter; Tulej, Marek; Scheer, Jürgen; Thomas, Nicolas; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas

    2015-04-01

    The upcoming JUpiter ICy moons Explorer mission to Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto has renewed the interest in the interaction of plasma with an icy surface. In particular, the surface release processes on which exosphere models of icy moons rely should be tested with realistic laboratory experiments. We therefore use an existing laboratory facility for space hardware calibration in vacuum to measure the sputtering of water ice due to hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur ions at energies from 1 keV to 100 keV. Pressure and temperature are comparable to surface conditions encountered on Jupiter's icy moons. The sputter target is a 1cm deep layer of porous, salty water ice. Our results confirm theoretical predictions that the sputter yield from oxygen and sulfur ions should be similar. Thanks to the modular set-up of our experiment we can add further surface processes relevant for icy moons, such as electron sputtering, sublimation, and photodesorption due to UV light.

  2. Thematic relations affect similarity via commonalities.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-11-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing a noninversion of similarity and difference. Experiment 2 revealed substantial individual variability in the preference for thematic relations and, consequently, in the noninversion of ratings. In sum, the experiments demonstrated a noninversion of similarity and difference that was caused by thematic relations and exhibited primarily by a subgroup of participants. These results indicate that thematic relations affect perceived similarity by increasing the contribution of commonalities rather than by decreasing the contribution of differences. PMID:19857016

  3. Virtual Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-27

    The website for the Virtual Laboratory contains a bold and direct statement: "Conventional teaching all too often accepts memorization and pattern recognition as true learning" After reading this statement, it makes sense that the goal of this site is "to help students to recognize, confront, correct, and expand their understanding of subject or a technique." The site contains five different sets of course materials that use interactive materials, short quizzes, and embedded demonstrations to assist students and teachers alike. One set of materials that should not be missed is in the Teaching & Learning Biology area. Here visitors will find links, fact sheets, and pedagogical suggestions for teaching a college-level biology course. Moving on, the Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything section contains a new perspective on how to reform the garden-variety general chemistry course.

  4. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  5. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S; Veers, P.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring based on presentations from a condition monitoring workshop organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2009 and on additional references.

  6. Scaling and self-similarity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M. Levent

    2015-07-01

    The conditions under which depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic equations system as an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) becomes self-similar are investigated by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. Self-similarity conditions due to the 2D k-? turbulence model are also investigated. The self-similarity conditions for the depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamics are found for the flow variables including the time, the longitudinal length, the transverse length, the water depth, the flow velocities in x- and y-directions, the bed shear stresses in x- and y-directions, the bed shear velocity, the Manning's roughness coefficient, the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, the eddy viscosity, the turbulent kinetic energy, the turbulent dissipation, and the production and the source terms in the k-? model. By the numerical simulations, it is shown that the IBVP of depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamic flow process in a prototype domain can be self-similar with that of a scaled domain. In fact, by changing the scaling parameter and the scaling exponents of the length dimensions, one can obtain several different scaled domains. The proposed scaling relations obtained by the Lie group scaling approach may provide additional spatial, temporal, and economical flexibility in setting up physical hydraulic models in which two-dimensional flow components are important.

  7. a Similarity Model of Nonlinear Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Alan Meyer

    The nonlinear equations for a steady axisymmetric convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a horizontal plate are analyzed using a similarity relation which has been used in the study of geophysical vortices. The principal assumption of the present model is that the components of the fluid velocity field decrease inversely with distance from a point singularity located at the intersection of the axis of symmetry and the plate. Although the tangential velocity component around the vertical axis is assumed to be zero, the model can be generalized to include unsteady swirling motion. The inverse distance scaling for the velocity field transforms the Navier-Stokes equations into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in the polar angle. No slip and impermeability conditions are imposed along the flat plate. Along the axis we exclude fluid sources and require that stresses be finite. In closing the model, it is convenient to specify to solenoidal term of the vorticity equation explicitly as a function of the polar angle and distance from the point singularity. After computing the velocity field and assuming a relevant equation of state, consideration of the energy equation then leads to a computation of the heating required to maintain the flow. Numerical results indicate that axial jets can form in association with updrafts but not with downdrafts. On the other hand, wall jets can be found in downdrafts but not in updrafts. In addition, the theory predicts that no steady state solution exists when the magnitude of the solenoidal field in the updraft exceeds a critical finite value. No such theoretical limit exists for a downdraft. These results are interpreted through a consideration of the vorticity balance. Their possible relevance for real atmospheric convective phenomena such as the downburst and tornado formation is indicated.

  8. Laboratory prototype flash evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory prototype flash evaporator that is being developed as a candidate for the space shuttle environmental control system expendable heat sink is described. The single evaporator configuration uses water as an evaporant to accommodate reentry and on-orbit peak heat loads, and Freon 22 for terrestrial flight phases below 120,000 feet altitude. The design features, fabrication techniques used for the prototype unit, redundancy considerations, and the fluid temperature control arrangement are reported in detail. The results of an extensive test program to determine the evaporator operational characteristics under a wide variety of conditions are presented.

  9. Effects of Spatial Frequency Similarity and Dissimilarity on Contour Integration

    PubMed Central

    Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of spatial frequency similarity and dissimilarity on human contour integration under various conditions of uncertainty. Participants performed a temporal 2AFC contour detection task. Spatial frequency jitter up to 3.0 octaves was applied either to background elements, or to contour and background elements, or to none of both. Results converge on four major findings. (1) Contours defined by spatial frequency similarity alone are only scarcely visible, suggesting the absence of specialized cortical routines for shape detection based on spatial frequency similarity. (2) When orientation collinearity and spatial frequency similarity are combined along a contour, performance amplifies far beyond probability summation when compared to the fully heterogenous condition but only to a margin compatible with probability summation when compared to the fully homogenous case. (3) Psychometric functions are steeper but not shifted for homogenous contours in heterogenous backgrounds indicating an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. The additional similarity cue therefore not so much improves contour detection performance but primarily reduces observer uncertainty about whether a potential candidate is a contour or just a false positive. (4) Contour integration is a broadband mechanism which is only moderately impaired by spatial frequency dissimilarity. PMID:26057620

  10. Inquiring Scaffolds in Laboratory Tasks: An Instance of a "Worked Laboratory Guide Effect"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt-Borcherding, Florian; Hänze, Martin; Wodzinski, Rita; Rincke, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The study explores if established support devices for paper-pencil problem solving, namely worked examples and incremental scaffolds, are applicable to laboratory tasks. N?=?173 grade eight students solved in dyads a physics laboratory task in one of three conditions. In condition A (unguided problem solving), students were asked to determine the…

  11. China's Qaidam Basin Landscape Similar with Mars

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Geologist, sedimentation expert and Mars Science Laboratory team member David Rubin of the USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center investigates longitudinal dunes in China's Qaidam Basin. He comments:

  12. Numerical Renormalization Group Calculations For Similarity Solutions and Travelling Waves

    E-print Network

    Lin-Yuan Chen; Nigel Goldenfeld

    1994-12-09

    We present a numerical implementation of the renormalization group (RG) for partial differential equations, constructing similarity solutions and travelling waves. We show that for a large class of well-localized initial conditions, successive iterations of an appropriately defined discrete RG transformation in space and time will drive the system towards a fixed point. This corresponds to a scale-invariant solution, such as a similarity or travelling-wave solution, which governs the long-time asymptotic behavior. We demonstrate that the numerical RG method is computationally very efficient.

  13. Similar mandibular osseous lesions in Tyrannosaurus rex and man.

    PubMed

    Neiburger, E J

    2005-01-01

    This report identifies several cases of similar-appearing multiple lesions in the mandibles of both humans and the dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex). A diagnosis and potential etiologies are discussed. The appearance of these lesions in prehistoric fossils suggests that this pathology is an ancient affliction which predates humans and our mammalian ancestors. Lytic lesions of the oral structures have occurred in man and higher animals throughout time. The causes range from congenital anomalies, trauma, and infections to benign and metastatic neoplasms. Not only mammals suffer from these conditions; reptiles and birds experience similar diseases. PMID:16350345

  14. Self-similar traffic and network dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ASHOK ERRAMILLI; MATTHEW ROUGHAN; DARRYL VEITCH; WALTER WILLINGER

    2002-01-01

    One of the most significant findings of traffic measurement studies over the last decade has been the observed self-similarity in packet network traffic. Subsequent research has focused on the origins of this self-similarity, and the network engineering significance of this phenomenon. This paper reviews what is currently known about network traffic self-similarity and its significance. We then consider a matter

  15. Reasoning about molecular similarity and properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul

    2004-01-01

    Ascertaining the similarity amongst molecules is a fundamental problem in biology and drug discovery. Since similar molecules tend to have similar biological properties, the notion of molecular similarity plays an important role in exploration of molecular structural space, query-retrieval in molecular databases, and in structure-activity modeling. This problem is related to the issue of molecular representation. Currently, approaches with high descriptive power like 3D surface-based representations are available. However, most techniques tend to focus on 2D graph-based molecular similarity due to the complexity that accompanies reasoning with more elaborate representations. This paper addresses the problem of determining similarity when molecules are described using complex surface-based representations. It proposes an intrinsic, spherical representation that systematically maps points on a molecular surface to points on a standard coordinate system (a sphere). Molecular geometry, molecular fields, and effects due to field super-positioning can then be captured as distributions on the surface of the sphere. Molecular similarity is obtained by computing the similarity of the corresponding property distributions using a novel formulation of histogram-intersection. This method is robust to noise, obviates molecular pose-optimization, can incorporate conformational variations, and facilitates highly efficient determination of similarity. Retrieval performance, applications in structure-activity modeling of complex biological properties, and comparisons with existing research and commercial methods demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the approach. PMID:16448020

  16. A comparison of student reactions to biology instruction by interactive videodisc or conventional laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, William H.

    This study was designed to learn if students perceived an interactive computer/videodisc learning system to represent a viable alternative to (or extension of) the conventional laboratory for learning biology skills and concepts normally taught under classroom laboratory conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire for introductory biology classes at a large midwestern university where students were randomly assigned to two interactive videodisc/computer lessons titled Respiration and Climate and Life or traditional laboratory investigation with the same titles and concepts. The interactive videodisc system consisted of a TRS-80 Model III microcomputer interfaced to a Pioneer laser-disc player and a color TV monitor. Students indicated an overall level satisfaction with this strategy very similar to that of conventional laboratory instruction. Students frequently remarked that videodisc instruction gave them more experimental and procedural options and more efficient use of instructional time than did the conventional laboratory mode. These two results are consistent with past CAI research. Students also had a strong perception that the images on the videodisc were not real and this factor was perceived as having both advantages and disadvantages. Students found the two approaches to be equivalent to conventional laboratory instruction in the areas of general interest, understanding of basic principles, help on examinations, and attitude toward science. The student-opinion data in this study do not suggest that interactive videodisc technology serve as a substitute to the wet laboratory experience, but that this medium may enrich the spectrum of educational experiences usually not possible in typical classroom settings.

  17. [Optimization of healthcare expenditures, centralization of laboratory determinations and laboratory information accessibility].

    PubMed

    Men'shikov, V V

    2014-04-01

    The optimization of money expenditure for healthcare is leading to the reorganization of the structure of medical organizations, to reducing of small establishments, to centralization of laboratory analyses with cessation of their performing in some hospitals and out patient offices. This tendency is based on medical (enlargement of laboratory tests spectrum) and economical (high productivity, relative reducing of net cost of laboratory determinations) reasons. But the repercussions of switch-over to centralization of laboratory analyses performance must be evaluated from the position of laboratory information accessibility tacking in account the need in express analyses for patient, situated on territories outlying from the centralized laboratory. Using of the portative analytical devices and therefore the possibility to perform the urgent analyses by non-laboratory personal in point of care and by patients themselves as a matter of self-testing can help to solve the problem of accessibility of laboratory tests in conditions of laboratory centralization in some regions. PMID:25080804

  18. Automatic Retrieval and Clustering of Similar Words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dekang Lin

    1998-01-01

    Bootstrapping semantics from text is one of the greatest challenges in natural language learning. We first define a word similarity measure based on the distributional pattern of words. The similarity measure allows us to construct a thesaurus using a parsed corpus. We then present a new evaluation methodology for the automatically constructed thesaurus. The evaluation results show that the thesaurus

  19. A Comparison of Rhythmic Similarity Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfried T. Toussaint

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, rhythmic similarity measures are compared according to how well rhythms may be recognized with them, how efficiently they can be retrieved from a data base, or how well they model human perception and cog- nition. In contrast, here similarity measures are compared on the basis of how much insight they provide about the structural inter-relationships that exist within families

  20. Measuring Semantic Similarity Between Geospatial Conceptual Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Schwering; Martin Raubal

    2005-01-01

    Determining the grade of semantic similarity between geospatial concepts is the basis for evaluating semantic interoperability of geographic information services and their users. Geometrical models, such as conceptual spaces, offer one way of representing geospatial concepts, which are modelled as n-dimensional regions. Previous approaches have suggested to measure semantic similarity between concepts based on their approximation by single points. This

  1. Genetic similarity, human altruism, and group selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Philippe Rushton

    1989-01-01

    A new theory of attraction and liking based on kin selection suggests that people detect genetic similarity in others in order to give preferential treatment to those who are most similar to themselves. There are many sources of empirical and theoretical support for this view, including (1) the inclusive fitness theory of altruism, (2) kin recognition studies of animals raised

  2. Generalized fuzzy indices for similarity matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannis A. Tolias; Stavros M. Panas; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new family of fuzzy similarity indices, referred to as the generalised Tversky index (GTI). The development of GTI is based on the theoretical findings by Amos Tversky regarding the human perception of similarity between different objects, as formulated by the Features Contrast model (FC). Although GTI was developed starting from Tversky's

  3. Using Scene Similarity for Place Labelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingmar Posner; Derik Schroeter; Paul M. Newman

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about labelling regions of a mobile robot's workspace using scene appearance similarity. We do this by operating on a single matrix which expresses the pairwise similarity between all captured scenes. We describe and motivate a sequence of algorithms which, in conjunction with spatial constraints provided by the continuous motion of the vehicle, produce meaningful workspace segmentations. We

  4. Detecting and Measuring Similarity in Code Clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Smith; Susan Horwitz

    Most previous work on code-clone detection has fo- cused on finding identical clones, or clones that are identical up to identifiers and literal values. However, it is often important to find similar clones, too. One challenge is that the definition of similarity depends on the context in which clones are being found. There- fore, we propose new techniques for finding

  5. Parents' school satisfaction: ethnic similarities and differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry A. Friedman; Paula E. Bobrowski; John Geraci

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Parent satisfaction with their children's school is an important issue in today's competitive educational environment characterized by school choice and government standards; however, few empirical studies address school satisfaction similarities and differences among parents from different ethnic groups. The purpose of this paper is to determine empirically similarities as well as differences in the factors important to parents

  6. Similarity indices, sample size and diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Wolda

    1981-01-01

    The effect of sample size and species diversity on a variety of similarity indices is explored. Real values of a similarity index must be evaluated relative to the expected maximum value of that index, which is the value obtained for samples randomly drawn from the same universe, with the diversity and sample sizes of the real samples. It is shown

  7. Self-Similar Measures for Quasicrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Baake; Robert V. Moody

    2000-01-01

    We study self-similar measures of Hutchinson type, defined by compact families of contractions, both in a single and multi-component setting. The results are applied in the context of general model sets to infer, via a generalized version of Weyl's Theorem on uniform distribution, the existence of invariant measures for families of self-similarities of regular model sets.

  8. Similarity Search in Biological and Engineering Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-peter Kriegel; Martin Pfeifle; Stefan Schönauer

    2004-01-01

    Similarity search is an important task in a wide range of scie ntific database applications. Besides being used directly, it is also used as a basic operation for many da ta mining algorithms. Example applications which are presented in this article are functional classific ation of proteins in biological databases and the similarity search of CAD parts in engineering environme

  9. Manipula math with Java : similar figures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IES, Inc

    2003-01-01

    Teachers can use this applet to give a visual demonstration of the idea of similar triangles or transformations. The applet could be used in whole class demonstrations to introduce the topic or provide varied examples of how different similar triangles can be.

  10. Discriminant analysis in correlation similarity measure space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Ma; Shihong Lao; Erina Takikawa; Masato Kawade

    2007-01-01

    Correlation is one of the most widely used similarity measures in machine learning like Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances. However, compared with proposed numerous discriminant learning algorithms in distance metric space, only a very little work has been conducted on this topic using correlation similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a novel discriminant learning algorithm in correlation measure space, Correlation

  11. Self-similarity in random collision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Daniel; Ben-Naim, Eli; Lindenberg, Katja; Rosas, Alexandre

    2003-11-01

    Kinetics of collision processes with linear mixing rules are investigated analytically. The velocity distribution becomes self-similar in the long-time limit and the similarity functions have algebraic or stretched exponential tails. The characteristic exponents are roots of transcendental equations and vary continuously with the mixing parameters. In the presence of conservation laws, the velocity distributions become universal.

  12. Similarity-Based Retrieval for Biomedical Applications

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Similarity-based image retrieval is part of the case-based reasoning scenario. It allows for the retrieval of images from a database that are similar in some way to a given query image. It has been used in case-based reasoning systems for both image segmentation and image interpretation. Whereas case-based rea- soning

  13. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  14. Exploiting MapReduce-based similarity joins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasin N. Silva; Jason M. Reed

    2012-01-01

    Cloud enabled systems have become a crucial component to efficiently process and analyze massive amounts of data. One of the key data processing and analysis operations is the Similarity Join, which retrieves all data pairs whose distances are smaller than a pre-defined threshold ?. Even though multiple algorithms and implementation techniques have been proposed for Similarity Joins, very little work

  15. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    E-print Network

    Chapman, S C

    2009-01-01

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide \\textit{in situ} observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterises this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum -with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of $\\sim 2$ in power- provides a test of this invariance.

  16. Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum - with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approx2 in power - provides a test of this invariance.

  17. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance. PMID:20366193

  18. Even perturbations of self-similar Vaidya space-time

    E-print Network

    Brien C. Nolan; Thomas J. Waters

    2005-05-09

    We study even parity metric and matter perturbations of all angular modes in self-similar Vaidya space-time. We focus on the case where the background contains a naked singularity. Initial conditions are imposed describing a finite perturbation emerging from the portion of flat space-time preceding the matter-filled region of space-time. The most general perturbation satisfying the initial conditions is allowed impinge upon the Cauchy horizon (CH), whereat the perturbation remains finite: there is no ``blue-sheet'' instability. However when the perturbation evolves through the CH and onto the second future similarity horizon of the naked singularity, divergence necessarily occurs: this surface is found to be unstable. The analysis is based on the study of individual modes following a Mellin transform of the perturbation. We present an argument that the full perturbation remains finite after resummation of the (possibly infinite number of) modes.

  19. Similarity laws of lunar and terrestrial volcanic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsu, Y.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model of a one dimensional, steady duct flow of a mixture of a gas and small solid particles (rock) was analyzed and applied to the lunar and the terrestrial volcanic flows under geometrically and dynamically similar conditions. Numerical results for the equilibrium two phase flows of lunar and terrestrial volcanoes under similar conditions are presented. The study indicates that: (1) the lunar crater is much larger than the corresponding terrestrial crater; (2) the exit velocity from the lunar volcanic flow may be higher than the lunar escape velocity but the exit velocity of terrestrial volcanic flow is much less than that of the lunar case; and (3) the thermal effects on the lunar volcanic flow are much larger than those of the terrestrial case.

  20. View-independent action recognition from temporal self-similarities.

    PubMed

    Junejo, Imran N; Dexter, Emilie; Laptev, Ivan; Pérez, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses recognition of human actions under view changes. We explore self-similarities of action sequences over time and observe the striking stability of such measures across views. Building upon this key observation, we develop an action descriptor that captures the structure of temporal similarities and dissimilarities within an action sequence. Despite this temporal self-similarity descriptor not being strictly view-invariant, we provide intuition and experimental validation demonstrating its high stability under view changes. Self-similarity descriptors are also shown to be stable under performance variations within a class of actions when individual speed fluctuations are ignored. If required, such fluctuations between two different instances of the same action class can be explicitly recovered with dynamic time warping, as will be demonstrated, to achieve cross-view action synchronization. More central to the current work, temporal ordering of local self-similarity descriptors can simply be ignored within a bag-of-features type of approach. Sufficient action discrimination is still retained in this way to build a view-independent action recognition system. Interestingly, self-similarities computed from different image features possess similar properties and can be used in a complementary fashion. Our method is simple and requires neither structure recovery nor multiview correspondence estimation. Instead, it relies on weak geometric properties and combines them with machine learning for efficient cross-view action recognition. The method is validated on three public data sets. It has similar or superior performance compared to related methods and it performs well even in extreme conditions, such as when recognizing actions from top views while using side views only for training. PMID:21088326