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Sample records for laboratory llnl radiation

  1. Characterization of the Neutron Fields in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Radiation Calibration Laboratory Low Scatter Calibration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2009-09-04

    In June 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) revised its rule on Occupational Radiation Protection, Part 10 CFR 835. A significant aspect of the revision was the adoption of the recommendations outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 60 (ICRP-60), including new radiation weighting factors for neutrons, updated internal dosimetric models, and dose terms consistent with the newer ICRP recommendations. ICRP-60 uses the quantities defined by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) for personnel and area monitoring including the ambient dose equivalent H*(d). A Joint Task Group of ICRU and ICRP has developed various fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients which are published in ICRP-74 for both protection and operational quantities. In February 2008, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) replaced its old pneumatic transport neutron irradiation system in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RCL) Low Scatter Calibration Facility (B255, Room 183A) with a Hopewell Designs irradiator model N40. The exposure tube for the Hopewell system is located close to, but not in exactly the same position as the exposure tube for the pneumatic system. Additionally, the sources for the Hopewell system are stored in Room 183A where, prior to the change, they were stored in a separate room (Room 183C). The new source configuration and revision of the 10 CFR 835 radiation weighting factors necessitate a re-evaluation of the neutron dose rates in B255 Room 183A. This report deals only with the changes in the operational quantities ambient dose equivalent and ambient dose rate equivalent for neutrons as a result of the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. In the report, the terms 'neutron dose' and 'neutron dose rate' will be used for convenience for ambient neutron dose equivalent and ambient neutron dose rate equivalent unless otherwise stated.

  2. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  3. Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and Radiation Properties Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Chen, H; Gu, M F; Kahn, S; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; May, M; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A; Thorn, D; Widmann, K

    2005-08-18

    The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. it is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include x-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, x-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and x-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) research on cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomassen, K. I.; Holzrichter, J. F.; Aldridge, F. T.; Balke, B.; Bowers, J.; Bullen, D. B.; Cable, M. D.; Caffee, M.; Campbell, R. B.; Colmenares, C.

    1989-09-01

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion, scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (1) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (2) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (3) a collaboration with Texas A and M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10 pct excess heat (we found no by-products), and (4) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (1) and (2) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (4) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section 2, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  5. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) research on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I; Holzrichter, J F

    1989-09-14

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion,'' scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (a) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (b) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (c) a collaboration with Texas A M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10% excess heat (we found no by-products), and (d) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (a) and (b) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (d) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section II, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  6. The LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Program: Progress toward ignition in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, E.; Batha, S.H.; Bernat, T.P.; Bibeau, C.; Cable, M.D.; Caird, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Campbell, J.H.; Coleman, L.W.; Cook, R.C.; Correll, D.L.; Darrow, C.B.; Davis, J.I.; Drake, R.P.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Ellis, R.J.; Glendinning, S.G.; Haan, S.W.; Haendler, B.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hatchett, S.P.; Hermes, G.L.; Hunt, J.P.; Kania, D.R.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Kruer, W.L.; Kyrazis, D.T.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann

    1990-10-02

    The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made substantial progress in target physics, target diagnostics, and laser science and technology. In each area, progress required the development of experimental techniques and computational modeling. The objectives of the target physics experiments in the Nova laser facility are to address and understand critical physics issues that determine the conditions required to achieve ignition and gain in an ICF capsule. The LLNL experimental program primarily addresses indirect-drive implosions, in which the capsule is driven by x rays produced by the interaction of the laser light with a high-Z plasma. Experiments address both the physics of generating the radiation environment in a laser-driven hohlraum and the physics associated with imploding ICF capsules to ignition and high-gain conditions in the absence of alpha deposition. Recent experiments and modeling have established much of the physics necessary to validate the basic concept of ignition and ICF target gain in the laboratory. The rapid progress made in the past several years, and in particular, recent results showing higher radiation drive temperatures and implosion velocities than previously obtained and assumed for high-gain target designs, has led LLNL to propose an upgrade of the Nova laser to 1.5 to 2 MJ (at 0.35 {mu}m) to demonstrate ignition and energy gains of 10 to 20 -- the Nova Upgrade.

  7. Proposals for ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) support to Tiber LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). [Engineering Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.A.; Rosenthal, M.W.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-27

    This document describes the interests and capabilities of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in their proposals to support the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) project. Five individual proposals are cataloged separately. (FI)

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Boyce, R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tillotson, W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M. J.; Thorn, D.; Behar, E.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.

    2002-11-01

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, and to test the accuracy of spectral modeling packages already in use, we have developed an extensive Laboratory Astrophysics program at the LLNL electron beam ion traps ebit-i and ebit-ii.Over the last decade we have developed the ability to reproduce and isolate the radiative processes that occur in a variety of astrophysical plasmas, such as plasmas in coronal equilibrium found in stellar coronae, ionizing plasmas found in supernova remnants, and recombining plasmas found near accretion sources. In support of this work we have built a suite of spectrometers that measure radiation spanning the 1--7000 Å wavelength band, the most recent addition being the spare NASA/GSFC Astro-E 6x6 microcalorimeter array [1]. An overview of some of the results of our measurements of Fe L-shell line emission will be presented, including excitation cross sections as a function of impact electron energy and contributions from dielectronic recombination [2], absolute excitation cross sections [3], transition wavelengths [4], and relative line intensities measured under non-equilibrium conditions. Work by the University of California, LLNL was performed under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA P.O. No. S-03958G and NASA High Energy Astrophysics X-ray Astronomy Research and Analysis Grant NAGW- 4185.

  9. Applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, Kenneth E.; Bergstrom, Paul M., Jr.; Buck, Richard M.; Cullen, Dermot; Fujino, D.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine

    1999-09-01

    Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications, defense, safety and security programs, nuclear safeguards and industrial and research system design and control. The main reason such applications are interesting is that by using these tools substantial savings of time and effort (i.e. money) can be realized. In addition it is possible to separate out and investigate computationally effects which can not be isolated and studied in experiments. In model calculations, just as in real life, one must take care in order to get the correct answer to the right question. Advancing computing technology allows extensions of Monte Carlo applications in two directions. First, as computers become more powerful more problems can be accurately modeled. Second, as computing power becomes cheaper Monte Carlo methods become accessible more widely. An overview of the set of Monte Carlo radiation transport tools in use a LLNL will be presented along with a few examples of applications and future directions.

  10. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) RCRA Part B incinerator health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates several hazardous waste storage and treatment units including a hazardous waste incinerator for managing wastes generated by research programs. Research programs conducted at LLNL generate nonradioactive, radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. LLNL operates several hazardous waste storage and treatment units including a hazardous waste incinerator. Because numerous storage and treatment operations are used to manage these wastes, it was necessary to conduct this health risk assessment. This document presents the results of a detailed evaluation of the hazardous and radioactive waste incinerator and associated waste feed tank. This volume contains only appendices. 200 refs., 5 figs., 53 tabs.

  11. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2006-09-27

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  13. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): Quinquennial report, November 14-15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tweed, J.

    1996-10-01

    This Quinquennial Review Report of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) branch of the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) provides an overview of IGPP-LLNL, its mission, and research highlights of current scientific activities. This report also presents an overview of the University Collaborative Research Program (UCRP), a summary of the UCRP Fiscal Year 1997 proposal process and the project selection list, a funding summary for 1993-1996, seminars presented, and scientific publications. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps EBIT I& EBIT II

    SciTech Connect

    Beeriersdorder, P; Chen, H; May, M J; Thorn, D; Brown, G V; Boyce, K R; Kelly, R L; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E; Tillotson, W; Behar, E; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M

    2002-06-18

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I, EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the ''magnetic trapping mode''. We have also built, and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 {angstrom} wavelength band, the most recent, being the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Astro-E 6 x 6 engineering spare microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct, impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL, ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  15. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps: EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tillotson, W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I. EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the magnetic trapping mode. We have also built and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 Angstrom wavelength band, the most recent being a spectrometer based on a spare Astro-E (6 x 6) microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  16. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) multi-user Tandem Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofounded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF/sub 6/, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Assessment and cleanup of the Taxi Strip waste storage area at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Buerer, A.

    1983-01-26

    In September 1982 the Hazards Control Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a final radiological survey of a former low-level radioactive waste storage area called the Taxi Strip so that the area could be released for construction of an office building. Collection of soil samples at the location of a proposed sewer line led to the discovery of an old disposal pit containing soil contaminated with low-level radioactive waste and organic solvents. The Taxi Strip area was excavated leading to the discovery of three additional small pits. The clean-up of Pit No. 1 is considered to be complete for radioactive contamination. The results from the chlorinated solvent analysis of the borehole samples and the limited number of samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicate that solvent clean-up at this pit is complete. This is being verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of a few additional soil samples from the bottom sides and ends of the pit. As a precaution, samples are also being analyzed for metals to determine if further excavation is necessary. Clean-up of Pits No. 2 and No. 3 is considered to be complete for radioactive and solvent contamination. Results of analysis for metals will determine if excavation is complete. Excavation of Pit No. 4 which resulted from surface leakage of radioactive contamination from an evaporation tray is complete.

  18. Some LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) experience on the CRAY X-MP/24

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.

    1984-03-01

    The historical situation leading to LLNL's use of an X-P/2 is briefly covered. The configuration of the LLNL machine and its place in the Octopus network is shown. The basic equation of multi-processing performance is introduced and some typical cases are mentioned. The performance of three codes: (1) Tim Axelrods' version of SIMPLE; (2) the Class-7 test; and (3) the Cray-Blitz chess program are discussed.

  19. Computer Security Awareness Guide for Department of Energy Laboratories, Government Agencies, and others for use with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL): Computer security short subjects videos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Lonnie Moore, the Computer Security Manager, CSSM/CPPM at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Gale Warshawsky, the Coordinator for Computer Security Education & Awareness at LLNL, wanted to share topics such as computer ethics, software piracy, privacy issues, and protecting information in a format that would capture and hold an audience`s attention. Four Computer Security Short Subject videos were produced which ranged from 1-3 minutes each. These videos are very effective education and awareness tools that can be used to generate discussions about computer security concerns and good computing practices. Leaders may incorporate the Short Subjects into presentations. After talking about a subject area, one of the Short Subjects may be shown to highlight that subject matter. Another method for sharing them could be to show a Short Subject first and then lead a discussion about its topic. The cast of characters and a bit of information about their personalities in the LLNL Computer Security Short Subjects is included in this report.

  20. Overview and applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport kit at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, K E

    1999-06-23

    Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications, defense, safety and security programs, nuclear safeguards and industrial and research system design and control. The main reason such applications are interesting is that by using these tools substantial savings of time and effort (i.e. money) can be realized. In addition it is possible to separate out and investigate computationally effects which can not be isolated and studied in experiments. In model calculations, just as in real life, one must take care in order to get the correct answer to the right question. Advancing computing technology allows extensions of Monte Carlo applications in two directions. First, as computers become more powerful more problems can be accurately modeled. Second, as computing power becomes cheaper Monte Carlo methods become accessible more widely. An overview of the set of Monte Carlo radiation transport tools in use a LLNL will be presented along with a few examples of applications and future directions.

  1. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  2. Calibration of the Standards and Calibration Laboratory`s Co{sup 60} Radiation Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report measurements of dose rates at various locations in the LLNL Standards and Calibrations Laboratory`s Co{sup 60} Radiation Pool. Plots show the dependence of dose rate on radius near the bottom of the pool and the dependence of dose rate on height at a fixed distance from the pool center. The effect of varying sample location within the pool`s dry-well was also investigated.

  3. Sorption studies of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) related to soil/ground water contamination at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, D.J.; Knezovich, J.P.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    In 1980, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) initiated a preliminary ground water study beneath and in the vicinity of the LLNL site in Livermore, California. Findings from that study indicated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were present in local ground water. Subsequent sampling results showed several locations with VOCs in the parts-per-billion range, and three areas where parts-per-million concentrations were detected. Subsequently, more than 200 wells were drilled and tested during investigations to assess the lateral and stratigraphic extent of ground water contamination and to understand the hydrogeologic characteristics under the Laboratory and adjacent affected areas. Although PCE and TCE predominate, dichloroethanes, dichloroethylenes, and carbon tetrachloride have been detected in ground water at concentrations exceeding California Department of Health Services recommended action levels. In order to predict the rate and extent of movement of the VOCs in ground water, it is essential to understand the sorptive properties of these compounds in relation to the subsurface soils that exist in this area. TCE and PCE were selected for study initially because of their predominance in the contaminant plume. Additional tests were performed using 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), and chloroform (CF). 28 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Positron microprobe at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka, P; Howell, R; Stoeffl, W

    1998-11-01

    The electron linac based positron source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. We are building a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with sub-micron resolution. The widely spaced and intense positron packets from the tungsten moderator at the end of the 100 MeV LLNL linac are captured and trapped in a magnetic bottle. The positrons are then released in 1 ns bunches at a 20 MHz repetition rate. With a three-stage re-moderation we will compress the cm-sized original beam to a 1 micro-meter diameter final spot on the target. The buncher will compress the arrival time of positrons on the target to less than 100 ps. A detector array with up to 60 BaF2 crystals in paired coincidence will measure the annihilation radiation with high efficiency and low background. The energy of the positrons can be varied from less than 1 keV up to 50 keV.

  5. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2004-06-30

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  6. LLNL 1981: technical horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Research programs at LLNL for 1981 are described in broad terms. In his annual State of the Laboratory address, Director Roger Batzel projected a $481 million operating budget for fiscal year 1982, up nearly 13% from last year. In projects for the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, the Laboratory applies its technical facilities and capabilities to nuclear weapons design and development and other areas of defense research that include inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnances, and particle-beam technology. LLNL is also applying its unique experience and capabilities to a variety of projects that will help the nation meet its energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. A sampling of recent achievements by LLNL support organizations indicates their diversity. (GHT)

  7. Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Koutroumpa, D; Leutenegger, M; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Trabert, E

    2009-08-25

    We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K- and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  8. Spectroscopic Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments Conducted at the LLNL EBIT Facility in Support of NASA's X-ray Astronomy Flight Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Adams, J. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Clementson, J.; Frankel, M.; Graf, A.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Koutroumpa, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F.; Wargelin, B.

    2009-12-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for laboratory astrophysics experiments for over 15 years. During this time, several unique spectrometers and operating modes have been developed and implemented, including high resolution grating and crystal spectrometers, a high-resolution, high-efficiency NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter array, and the ability to operate and record datawith the electron beam turned off, i.e., in the so-called magnetic trapping mode. Targeted experiments conducted at this facility have addressed specific problems faced by the X-ray astrophysics community and have provided accurate, complete sets of atomic data such as relative and absolute excitation cross sections, transition wavelengths, line polarization, and X-ray signatures of charge exchange recombination. Here we will present a brief overview of our facility and some of the more recent results including 1/4 keV band X- ray emission produced by charge exchange between L-shell sulfur ions and neutral gas, wavelengths and relative intensities of satellite X- ray lines from Na-like Fe XVI and their contribution to the Fe XVII line emission, and the relative intensities of the 3s-2p/3d-2p lines in F-like Fe XVIII and Ni XX. Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and is also supported by NASA grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Stanford University.

  9. Space Radiation Effects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The SREL User's Handbook is designed to provide information needed by those who plan experiments involving the accelerators at this laboratory. Thus the Handbook will contain information on the properties of the machines, the beam parameters, the facilities and services provided for experimenters, etc. This information will be brought up to date as new equipment is added and modifications accomplished. This Handbook is influenced by the many excellent models prepared at other accelerator laboratories. In particular, the CERN Synchrocyclotron User's Handbook (November 1967) is closely followed in some sections, since the SREL Synchrocyclotron is a duplicate of the CERN machine. We wish to thank Dr. E. G. Michaelis for permission to draw so heavily on his work, particularly in Section II of this Handbook. We hope that the Handbook will prove useful, and will welcome suggestions and criticism.

  10. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  11. LLNL casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  12. Methodology of recent solid waste stream assessments and summary of current recycling endeavors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.

    1996-04-01

    Solid Waste Stream Assessments determine the components of given waste streams. An evaluation of findings allows components to be targeted for effective source reduction, reuse, or recycling. LLNL assessed 10% of its onsite dumpster locations (25 of 250). Dumpsters were selected based on location and surrounding facility use. Dumpster contents were sorted according to type into containers. The filled containers were weighed and photographed. The information was noted on field tabulation sheets. Dumpster locations, date of sort, sort categories, weight, and cubic yardage were entered into a database for review and tabulation. LLNL sorted approximately 7000 pounds of waste in each of the two assessments. A high incidence of cardboard (uncompacted) was present in most dumpsters. A high incidence of polystyrene was also present at dumpsters serving the LLNL cafeterias. Very little glass or aluminium was found. Enough waste paper was present to indicate that the paper recycling program needed increased employee awareness and a possible expansion. As a result of our assessments, LLNL has expanded its cardboard and paper recycling programs and implemented moving box and pallet reuse programs. LLNL is also studying a possible recycling program for cafeteria polystyrene and possible program expansions for magazine, newsprint, and glass recycling.

  13. The LLNL AMS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Bench, G.S.; Brown, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    The AMS facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely measures the isotopes {sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 59,63}Ni, and {sup 129}I. During the past two years, over 30,000 research samples have been measured. Of these samples, approximately 30% were for {sup 14}C bioscience tracer studies, 45% were {sup 14}C samples for archaeology and the geosciences, and the other isotopes constitute the remaining 25%. During the past two years at LLNL, a significant amount of work has gone into the development of the Projectile X-ray AMS (PXAMS) technique. PXAMS uses induced characteristic x-rays to discriminate against competing atomic isobars. PXAMS has been most fully developed for {sup 63}Ni but shows promise for the measurement of several other long lived isotopes. During the past year LLNL has also conducted an {sup 129}I interlaboratory comparison exercise. Recent hardware changes at the LLNL AMS facility include the installation and testing of a new thermal emission ion source, a new multianode gas ionization detector for general AMS use, re-alignment of the vacuum tank of the first of the two magnets that make up the high energy spectrometer, and a new cryo-vacuum system for the AMS ion source. In addition, they have begun design studies and carried out tests for a new high-resolution injector and a new beamline for heavy element AMS.

  14. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  15. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  16. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  17. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  18. Thermal management for LLNL/UC/SSRL bending magnet beamline VIII at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.; Younger, F.C.

    1986-05-01

    All the important heat loads on the elements of Beamline VIII are cataloged. The principal elements are identified and their heat loads tabulated for various loading scenarios. The expected heat loads are those from normal operations including the anticipated performance improvements planned for the SPEAR ring and from abnormal operations due to positional perturbations of the electron beam. (LEW)

  19. Serving the Nation for Fifty Years: 1952 - 2002 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], Fifty Years of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been making history and making a difference. The outstanding efforts by a dedicated work force have led to many remarkable accomplishments. Creative individuals and interdisciplinary teams at the Laboratory have sought breakthrough advances to strengthen national security and to help meet other enduring national needs. The Laboratory's rich history includes many interwoven stories -- from the first nuclear test failure to accomplishments meeting today's challenges. Many stories are tied to Livermore's national security mission, which has evolved to include ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons without conducting nuclear tests and preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction. Throughout its history and in its wide range of research activities, Livermore has achieved breakthroughs in applied and basic science, remarkable feats of engineering, and extraordinary advances in experimental and computational capabilities. From the many stories to tell, one has been selected for each year of the Laboratory's history. Together, these stories give a sense of the Laboratory -- its lasting focus on important missions, dedication to scientific and technical excellence, and drive to made the world more secure and a better place to live.

  20. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  1. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.; Bertoldo, N.; Gallegos, G.; MacQueen, D.; Wegrecki, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  2. RADCAL Operations Manual Radiation Calibration Laboratory Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research, primarily using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and the Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) in its Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Program. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and the testing of materials in a variety of radiation environments. Operations of the HPRR were terminated in 1987 and the reactor was moved to storage at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; however, RADCAL will continue to be operated in accordance with the guidelines of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Secondary Calibration Laboratory program and will meet all requirements for testing dosimeters under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's RADCAL facility. Its purpose is to (1) provide operating protocols for the RADCAL facility, (2) outline the organizational structure, (3) define the Quality Assurance Action Plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for the safe and proper operation of all routine aspects of the calibration facility.

  3. LLNL NESHAPs 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N; Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A; Wilson, K

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 {mu}Sv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 1.0, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual for the Livermore site and Site 300. The dose for the LLNL site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2008 are summarized here: {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.0013 mrem (0.013 {mu}Sv) (26% from point source emissions, 74% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.000000044 mrem (0.00000044 {mu}Sv) (100% from point source emissions).

  4. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  5. Status of LLNL granite projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  6. LLNL NESHAP's 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.; Biermann, A.H.; Harrach, R.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Berger, R.L.; Surano,K.A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1999 operations are summarized.

  7. LLNL NESHAPs 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Biermann, A.H.; Tate, P.J.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem to any member of the public. This document contains the EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1995 operations.

  8. IGPP-LLNL 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Cook, K H; Tweed, J

    1999-11-19

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Riverside, and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the five branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in tectonics, geochemistry, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and was originally organized into three centers: Geosciences, stressing seismology; High-Pressure Physics, stressing experiments using the two-stage light-gas gun at LLNL; and Astrophysics, stressing theoretical and computational astrophysics. In 1994, the activities of the Center for High-Pressure Physics were merged with those of the Center for Geosciences. The Center for Geosciences, headed by Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Astrophysics Research Center, headed by Kem

  9. Modeling and Laboratory Investigations of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Jacob; Laming, J. Martin; Manka, Charles; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Ted; Tam, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    Supernova remnants are often inhomogeneous, with knots or clumps of material expanding in ambient plasma. This structure may be initiated by hydrodynamic instabilities occurring during the explosion, but it may plausibly be amplified by instabilities of the expanding shocks such as, for example, corrugation instabilities described by D’yakov in 1954, Vishniac in 1983, and observed in the laboratory by Grun et al. in 1991. Shock instability can occur when radiation lowers the effective adiabatic index of the gas. In view of the difficulty of modeling radiation in non-equilibrium plasmas, and the dependence of shock instabilities on such radiation, we are performing a laboratory experiment to study radiative shocks. The shocks are generated in a miniature, laser-driven shock tube. The gas density inside the tube at any instant in time is measured using time and space-resolved interferometry, and the emission spectrum of the gas is measured with time-resolved spectroscopy. We simulate the experiment with a 1D code that models time dependent post-shock ionization and non-equilibrium radiative cooling. S. P. D’yakov, Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi Teoreticheskoi Fiziki 27, 288 (1954); see also section 90 in L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann 1987); E.T. Vishniac, Astrophys. J. 236, 880 (1983); J. Grun, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, 2738 (1991)

  10. The NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Reuben A.

    1997-01-01

    High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are the result of a multitude of intentional and nonintentional electromagnetic sources that currently exists in the world. Many of today's digital systems are susceptible to electronic upset if subjected to certain electromagnetic environments (EME). Modern aerospace designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on sophisticated digital electronic systems to provide critical flight control in both military, commercial, and general aviation aircraft. In an effort to understand and emulate the undesired environment that high energy RF provides modern electronics, the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) of the Flight Electronics and Technology Division (FETD) conducts research on RF and microwave measurement methods related to the understanding of HIRF. In the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory, the effects of high energy radiating electromagnetic fields on avionics and electronic systems are tested and studied.

  11. Melanoma at LLNL: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H. II; Schneider, J.S.; Bennett, D.E.; Patterson, H.W.

    1994-03-01

    From 1972 to 1977, the Laboratory experienced a diagnosis rate of malignant melanoma among its employees that was three to four times higher than expected based on rates for the surrounding Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the Bay Area. In 1984, Austin and Reynolds from the California Department of Health Services reported the results of their study comparing individuals diagnosed with melanoma and otherwise healthy controls from the Laboratory. These researchers concluded that five occupational factors were [open quotes]casually associated[close quotes] with melanoma risk at LLNL. The factors were exposure to radioactive materials, exposure to volatile photographic chemicals, work at Site 300, visits to the Pacific Test Site, and duties as a chemist. In recent years, the rate of diagnosis of the more lethal form of melanoma among LLNL workers, which was previously elevated, has returned to that of the surrounding geographical area where most employees live. If our program of employee awareness about melanoma, enhanced surveillance, and early diagnosis continues to lead to decreased mortality from this disease, then such an approach may have important public health implications for the broader community.

  12. Annual summary engineering at LLNL 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dimolitsas, S

    1998-07-01

    Established in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of the world's premier applied-science national security laboratories. The primary mission of the Laboratory is to assure through the design, development, and stewardship of nuclear weapons, that the nation's stockpile remains safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. National security is a principal integrating theme at LLNL--with stockpile stewardship, nonproliferation and arms control, and Department of Defense projects its major elements. The Stockpile Stewardship Program, the primary Laboratory program, is a science-based versus testing-based approach to maintaining stockpile safety and reliability. The idea is to replace weapons development and nuclear testing with weapons life extension and intensive computational and experimental research to provide the fundamental understanding necessary to ensure nuclear weapons safety, performance, and maintenance. Stockpile stewardship is enhanced and complimented by a second pillar of national security at the Laboratory: countering the spread of weapons of mass destruction. In the broad areas comprising nonproliferation, arms control, and international assessments, the growth of new technologies has been exponential at LLNL. Our ability to produce advanced microsensors--from scientific concept to working field model--is just one of the many contributions LLNL has made to the nation in counter proliferation against nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In addition, LLNL's unique competencies developed in support of its national security mission have become an important resource for U.S. industry and government. Programs include advanced defense technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and the basic sciences. Central to the Laboratory's success is its diverse, highly talented, and skilled workforce and its $4 billion capital invested in plant and research facilities. The University of

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  14. OASIS, LLNL version: Software maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    The OASIS laser beam propagation code has been used extensively to support design and analysis in the Free Electron Laser Master Oscillator Program, the Medium Power Solid State Laser Program, and the Active Optical Countermeasures Program. The version of OASIS currently used at LLNL is significantly enhanced compared to the initial version supplied by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. This software maintenance manual presents the details of the LLNL version of OASIS so it can be modified as necessary by new personnel. The manual presents in great detail the content and organization of the OASIS software configured for the VMS operating system.

  15. LLNL NESHAPs project. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Failor, R.A.; Biermann, A.H.; Berger, R.L.; Harrach, R.J.

    1993-05-01

    This report summarizes work conducted during FY 1992 for the Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Division of the Environmental Protection Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This document contains information regarding environmental monitoring of a wide variety of radioisotopes which are emitted to the atmosphere. These radioisotopes include transuranics, biomedical tracers, tritium, mixed fission products, and other radioisotopes used for general research and nuclear weapons research. Information regarding radionuclide air emissions for each of the 56 buildings at LLNL where radionuclides are used or activation products occur is given. Detailed information is included for all point source emissions from 43 LLNL site buildings. In addition, dose equivalents and dose assessment are evaluated. Reported annual releases are based on inventory data and unabated EPA potential release fractions for unmonitored sources, and on actual emission measurements for continuously monitored facilities.

  16. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 3. Routine Releases, 1973 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Annual mean concentrations of tritium in air moisture, calculated from data obtained from an air tritium sampler near the LLNL Discovery Center, were compared with annual mean air moisture concentrations predicted from atmospheric releases of tritium for the years 1973 through 2005. The 95% confidence intervals on the predictions and observations usually overlapped. When the distributions of predictions and observations were different, predictions were higher. Using both the observed and predicted air concentrations as input to the tritium dose model, DCART, annual doses to a hypothetical adult, child (age 10) and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) assumed to be living at LLNL's Discovery Center were calculated. Although the doses based on predicted air concentrations tended to be higher, they were nevertheless indistinguishable from doses based on observed air concentrations when uncertainties were taken into account. Annual doses, calculated by DCART and based on observed and predicted air concentrations, were compared with historical tritium doses reported annually by LLNL. Although the historical doses were calculated using various assumptions over the years, their agreement with the DCART predictions is remarkable. The Discovery Center was not the location of the site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI) from 1974 through 1978. However, doses at the location of the SW-MEI for those years were indistinguishable from those at the Discovery Center when uncertainties were taken into account. The upper confidence limits for all doses were always well below the current regulatory limit for dose to a member of the public (100 {micro}Sv or 10 mrem per year) from atmospheric releases (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Based on observed air concentrations, the 97.5% confidence limit on the cumulative dose to the hypothetical person born in 1973 and living through 2005 at the Discovery Center was 150 {micro}Sv (15 mrem), while that of the hypothetical adult who spent his

  17. Simulating Afterburn with LLNL Hydrocodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, L D

    2004-06-11

    Presented here is a working methodology for adapting a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed hydrocode, ALE3D, to simulate weapon damage effects when afterburn is a consideration in the blast propagation. Experiments have shown that afterburn is of great consequence in enclosed environments (i.e. bomb in tunnel scenario, penetrating conventional munition in a bunker, or satchel charge placed in a deep underground facility). This empirical energy deposition methodology simulates the anticipated addition of kinetic energy that has been demonstrated by experiment (Kuhl, et. al. 1998), without explicitly solving the chemistry, or resolving the mesh to capture small-scale vorticity. This effort is intended to complement the existing capability of either coupling ALE3D blast simulations with DYNA3D or performing fully coupled ALE3D simulations to predict building or component failure, for applications in National Security offensive strike planning as well as Homeland Defense infrastructure protection.

  18. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  19. LLNL NESHAPs 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Biermann, A H; Gallegos, G; Hall, L C; Harrach, R J; Surano, K A

    1999-06-14

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1998 operations are summarized here. (1) Livermore site: 0.055 mrem (0.55 {micro}Sv) (57% from point-source emissions, 43% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX and is used for compliance purposes. LLNL believes a more realistic dose for the Livermore site is 0.049 mrem (0.49 {micro}Sv) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions). This dose is based on an assessment that represents a more realistic behavior of tritium gas in the environment. (2) Site 300: 0.024 mrem (0.24 {micro}Sv) (78% from point-source emissions, 22% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  20. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lobaugh, M. L.; Hickman, D. P.; Wong, C. W.; Wysong, A. R.; Merritt, M. J.; Heinrichs, D. P.; Topper, J. D.

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  1. Directional Neutron Detection and TPC Developments and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M

    2009-03-24

    LLNL is involved with a number of TPC projects spanning basic science to homeland security. This talk outlines the TPC work at LLNL and specifically focuses on the neutron TPC. A number of TPC projects are now underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and there is currently a ramp up in the infrastructure both in equipment and people to support these efforts. In place are high pressure vessels for xenon studies up to 50bar, larger vessels up to 100 litters at 10bar, clean room facilities, extensive electronics development, dedicated lab space and a assortment of radioactive sources.

  2. Historical summary and recommendations on Melanoma in the LLNL workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H. II; Hatch, F.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a historical summary and recommendations on melanoma in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) workforce. Melanoma of the skin comprises about 3.5% of the incidence (38,000 new cases in 1991) and 1.7% of the mortality (8500 deaths in 1991) of all cancer in the U.S. However, for several decades it has shown the fastest rate of increase of any cancer site. The following areas are discussed: background and recognition of increased melanoma at LLNL, history of melanoma studies at LLNL, results from occupational factors study, overall conclusion on increased melanoma incidence, and recommendations for future management.

  3. LLNL Site 200 Risk Management PlanAgust 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, D; Johnson, M

    2008-07-30

    It is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) policy to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage using the Integrated Safety Management System. The environment, safety, and health are to take priority in the planning and execution of work activities at the Laboratory. Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements (LLNL Environment, Safety and Health Manual, Document 1.2, ES&H Policies of LLNL). The program and policies that improve LLNL's ability to prevent or mitigate accidental releases are described in the LLNL Environment, Health, and Safety Manual that is available to the public. The laboratory uses an emergency management system known as the Incident Command System, in accordance with the California Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) to respond to Operational Emergencies and to mitigate consequences resulting from them. Operational Emergencies are defined as unplanned, significant events or conditions that require time-urgent response from outside the immediate area of the incident that could seriously impact the safety or security of the public, LLNL's employees, its facilities, or the environment. The Emergency Plan contains LLNL's Operational Emergency response policies, commitments, and institutional responsibilities for managing and recovering from emergencies. It is not possible to list in the Emergency Plan all events that could occur during any given emergency situation. However, a combination of hazard assessments, an effective Emergency Plan, and Emergency Plan Implementing Procedures (EPIPs) can provide the framework for responses to postulated emergency situations. Revision 7, 2004 of the above mentioned LLNL Emergency Plan is available to the public. The most recent revision of the LLNL Emergency Plan LLNL-AM-402556, Revision 11, March 2008, has

  4. Overview of radiation protection at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Britvich, G.; Bull, J.; Coulson, L.; Coyne, J.; Mokhov, N.; Romero, V.; Stapleton, G.

    1994-03-01

    The radiation protection program at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is described. After establishing a set of stringent design guidelines for radiation protection, both normal and accidental beam losses for each accelerator were estimated. From these parameters, shielding requirements were specified using Monte-Carlo radiation transport codes. A groundwater activation model was developed to demonstrate compliance with federal drinking water standards. Finally, the environmental radiation monitoring program was implemented to determine the effect of the facility operation on the radiation environment.

  5. Radiation and Its Use in Biology: A Laboratory Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    This booklet contains a six-week series of laboratory investigations that may be used individually or in combination to complement other biology course materials or as an independent laboratory course in radiation biology. Contents include twelve activities dealing with radiation biology, five additional activities suitable for individual work,…

  6. Gap Analysis Comparing LLNL ISMS and ISO 14001

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, T B

    2004-08-09

    A gap analysis was conducted comparing the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) with the international standard ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. This analysis was accomplished as part of LLNL's assessment of the impacts of adopting DOE Order 450.1 and comprises a portion of its continuous improvement efforts under ISMS.

  7. NIF Power Conditioning System Testing at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S; Newton, M; Hulsey, s; Hammon, J; Moore, W

    2001-06-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is now under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Power Conditioning System (PCS) for NIF, when completed will consist of a 192 nearly identical 2 megajoule capacitor storage banks driving 7680 two meter long flashlamps. A fully integrated single-module test facility was completed in August of 2000 at LLNL. The purpose to the Test Facility is to conduct Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) testing of a true ''First Article'' system (built to the final drawing package as opposed to a prototype). The test facility can be fired once every ten minutes with a total peak output current of 580kA with a pulse width of 400us. To date over 4000 full power shots have been conducted at this facility.

  8. LLNL NESHAPs 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Peterson, S.-R.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Althouse, P.E.

    2002-06-18

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2001 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (34% from point-source emissions, 66% from diffuse-source emissions), The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.054 mrem (0.54 {micro}Sv) (93% from point-source emissions, 7% from diffuse-source emissions); The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  9. LLNL NESHAPs 2003 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Bowen, B

    2004-06-23

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2003 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.044 mrem (0.44 {micro}Sv) (55% from point-source emissions, 45% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (98% from point-source emissions, 2% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  10. LLNL NESHAPs 2002 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S-R; Tate, P J; Bertoldo, N A; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M

    2003-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2002 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.023 mrem (0.23 {micro}Sv) (43% from point-source emissions, 57% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.021 mrem (0.21 {micro}Sv) (85% from point-source emissions, 15% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  11. LLNL NESHAPs 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Harrach, R J; Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Peterson, S R

    2001-06-01

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 2000 operations are summarized here. {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.038 mrem (0.38 {micro}Sv) (45% from point-source emissions, 55% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX, and the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.019 mrem (0.19 {micro}Sv) (79% from point-source emissions, 21% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for four diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  12. LLNL NESHAPs 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1997-01-06

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (10 microsieverts) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1996 operations were (1) Livermore site: 0. 093 mrem (0.93 microsievert) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions); (2) Site 300: 0.033 mrem (0.33 microsievert) (99% from point-source, 1% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H E; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S J; Coty, J D; Dibley, V R; Doman, J L; Grayson, A R; MacQueen, D H; Wegrecki, A M; Armstrong, D H; Brigdon, S L; Heidecker, K R; Hollister, R K; Khan, H N; Lee, G S; Nelson, J C; Paterson, L E; Salvo, V J; Schwartz, W W; Terusaki, S H; Wilson, K R; Woods, J M; Yimbo, P O; Gallegos, G M; Terrill, A A; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Blake, R G; Woollett, J S; Kumamoto, G

    2011-09-14

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2010 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.llnl.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2010: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  14. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  15. Laboratory Astrophysics: Study of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leygnac, S.; Lanz, T.; Stehlé, C.; Michaut, C.

    2002-12-01

    Radiative shocks are high Mach number shocks with a strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. They might be encountered in various astrophysical systems: stellar accretion shocks, pulsating stars, interaction of supernovae with the intestellar medium etc. A numerical one dimensional (1D) stationary study of the coupling between hydrodynamics and radiative transfer is being performed. An estimate of the error made by the 1D approach in the radiative transfer treatment is done by an approximate short characteristics approach. It shows, for exemple, how much of the radiation escapes from the medium in the configuration of the experiment. The experimental study of these shocks has been performed with the high energy density laser of the LULI, at the École Polytechnique (France). We have observed several shocks identified as radiative shocks. The shock waves propagate at about 50 km/s in a tiny 10 mm3 shock tube filled with gaz. From the measurements, it is possible to infer several features of the shock such as the speed and the electronic density.

  16. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn; Piper, Roman K.; Peters, Jerry D.; Murphy, Mark K.; Mercado, Mike S.; Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.

    2003-07-15

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  17. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Murphy, Mark K.; Myers, Lynette E.; Piper, Roman K.; Rolph, James T.

    2005-07-09

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  18. Technical Justification for Radiation Controls at an Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DUPAQUIER, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the technical approach used to establish radiation protection controls over incoming radioactive materials to an environmental measurements laboratory at the Hanford Site. Conditions that would trigger internal dosimetry, posting.

  19. Genesis of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2016-06-01

    A personal recollection of events leading up to the construction and commissioning of NSRL, including reference to precursor facilities and the development of the NASA Space Radiation Program. PMID:27345197

  20. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment is to attempt to reproduce the unmodified, external GCR spectrum at a ground based accelerator. A possibly better approach would use the modified, shielded tissue spectrum, to select accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. NASA plans for implementation of a GCR simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will be discussed.

  1. Radiative Shocks And Plasma Jets As Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.; Loupias, B.; Vinci, T.; Ozaki, N.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Rabec le Goahec, M.; Falize, E.; Bouquet, S.; Courtois, C.; Nazarov, W.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Schiavi, A.

    2007-08-02

    Dedicated laboratory astrophysics experiments have been developed at LULI in the last few years. First, a high velocity (70 km/s) radiative shock has been generated in a xenon filled gas cell. We observed a clear radiative precursor, measure the shock temperature time evolution in the xenon. Results show the importance of 2D radiative losses. Second, we developed specific targets designs in order to generate high Mach number plasma jets. The two schemes tested are presented and discussed.

  2. Radiative Shocks And Plasma Jets As Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Loupias, B.; Vinci, T.; Ozaki, N.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Rabec Le Goahec, M.; Falize, E.; Bouquet, S.; Michaut, C.; Herpe, G.; Baroso, P.; Nazarov, W.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Courtois, C.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gregory, C. D.; Howe, J.; Schiavi, A.; Atzeni, S.

    2007-08-01

    Dedicated laboratory astrophysics experiments have been developed at LULI in the last few years. First, a high velocity (70 km/s) radiative shock has been generated in a xenon filled gas cell. We observed a clear radiative precursor, measure the shock temperature time evolution in the xenon. Results show the importance of 2D radiative losses. Second, we developed specific targets designs in order to generate high Mach number plasma jets. The two schemes tested are presented and discussed.

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Balke, B.K.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Schwoegler, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1990. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent surface water, groundwater, vegetation, and foodstuff were made at both the Livermore site and at Site 300 nearly. LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological emissions to the environment was evaluated. Aside from an August 13 observation of silver concentrations slightly above guidelines for discharges to the sanitary sewer, all the monitoring data demonstrated LLNL compliance with environmental laws and regulations governing emission and discharge of materials to the environment. In addition, the monitoring data demonstrated that the environmental impacts of LLNL are minimal and pose no threat to the public to or to the environment. 114 refs., 46 figs., 79 tabs.

  4. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 4. Routine Releases, 1953 - 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was founded in September 1952. By 1953, operations involving tritium were underway. Annual doses to an adult, a child (age 10), and an infant (age six months to one year) from tritium released routinely from the Livermore site between 1953 and 1972 were calculated using the tritium dose model, DCART. Uncertainties about sources and release rates are high, particularly for the 1950's, and it was difficult, and sometimes impossible (e.g., when a source was only assumed to have existed) to quantify them accurately. Because of this, every effort was made to assure that the uncertainties applied to the input parameters used in DCART would result in doses that could not have been exceeded. Doses were calculated at the potential locations of the hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI), which were at a residence on Vasco Road inside the present west perimeter of the Laboratory (1953 - 1958), at an automotive garage on East Avenue (1961), and at the Discovery Center (1959, 1960, 1962 - 1972, years which predate the facility). Even with the most conservative, screening model assumptions, the highest dose to the SW-MEI (in 1957) was predicted with 95% probability to have been between 27 and 370 {micro}Sv (2.7 and 37 mrem), with the most likely dose being 130 {micro}Sv (13 mrem). Using more realistic, but still conservative assumptions about what fraction of the diet could have been contaminated, these predictions were reduced by more than a factor of two. All other annual doses (at the 97.5% confidence limits) to the SW-MEI, calculated with the most conservative and health protective assumptions, were less than 200 {micro}Sv (20 mrem), and no dose after 1958 could have exceeded 100 {micro}Sv (10 mren). The cumulative dose to the hypothetical individual at the west perimeter location for 1953 through 1972 would have been no greater than 860 {micro}Sv (83 mrem), while the dose to the individual born and raised there

  5. LLNL contributions to MPD thrusters for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Edwin Bickford

    1991-01-01

    Some of the topics covered with respect to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) contributions to Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thrusters for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) include: an IR camera, plasma-induced erosion/redeposition, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B), the Thruster Lifetime Test Facility, the RACE Compact Torus Accelerator Facility, and a RACE program summary. Some of the other topics addressed include: flux contours for HAM simulation, comparison of RACE data of plasma ring formation with the HAM 2-D magnetohydrodynamic code, and the 2-D Ring Acceleration Code (TRAC).

  6. Modular High Current Test Facility at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D; Ferriera, T J

    2008-05-20

    This paper describes the 1 MA, 225 kJ test facility in operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The capacitor bank is constructed from three parallel 1.5 mF modules. The modules are capable of switching simultaneously or sequentially via solid dielectric puncture switches. The bank nominally operates up to 10 kV and reaches peak current with all three cabled modules in approximately 30 {micro}s. Parallel output plates from the bank allow for cable or busbar interfacing to the load. This versatile bank is currently in use for code validation experiments, railgun related activities, switch testing, and diagnostic development.

  7. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  8. Career development for engineers at the LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The career development program for engineers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) results from a conductive atmosphere rather than a structured program approach. Although the concern for careers first emerged about twenty years ago, in the past decade the Laboratory management has set out to create a favorable climate for its employees to retain their vitality and enhance their creativity. The goal was twofold: to strengthen the Laboratory and to provide more satisfying careers for its employees. How that climate has evolved is the subject of this discussion. What has been done at Livermore may not work at another place. Each organization's make-up, mission, and needs are different, with a unique staff of employees and managers who influence the creation of the organizational climate.

  9. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  10. LLNL E-Mail Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamaggiore, N. J.; Hamel, B. B.

    2005-10-31

    The LLNL E-mail Utilities software library is a Java API that simplifies the creation and delivery of email in Java business applications. It consists of a database-driven template engine, various strategies for composing, queuing, dispatching email and a Java Swing GUI for creating and editing email templates.

  11. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  12. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Norbury, John W; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C; Azzam, Edouard I; Badavi, Francis F; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A; Blattnig, Steve R; Boothman, David A; Borak, Thomas B; Britten, Richard A; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S; Eisch, Amelia J; Robin Elgart, S; Goodhead, Dudley T; Guida, Peter M; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Hellweg, Christine E; Huff, Janice L; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A; Norman, Ryan B; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C; Story, Michael D; Turker, Mitchell S; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J

    2016-02-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  13. Translated ENDF formatted data at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Beck, B; Hedstrom, G; Pruet, J

    2006-06-29

    The LLNL Computational Nuclear Physics (CNP) Group announces the release of translated ENDF/BVI, ENDF/B-VII, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-3.3 and other neutron incident evaluated reaction data libraries to LLNL users.

  14. Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Quian, Shinan

    1997-11-01

    New third-generation synchrotron radiation sources that are now, or will soon, come on line will need to decide how to handle the testing of optical components delivered for use in their beam lines. In many cases it is desirable to establish an in-house metrology laboratory to do the work. We review the history behind the formation of the Optical Metrology Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the rationale for its continued existence. We offer suggestions to those who may be contemplating setting up similar facilities, based on our experiences over the past two decades.

  15. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  16. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  17. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  20. A Radiation Laboratory Curriculum Development at Western Kentucky University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-01

    We present the latest developments for the radiation laboratory curriculum at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Western Kentucky University. During the last decade, the Applied Physics Institute (API) at WKU accumulated various equipment for radiation experimentation. This includes various neutron sources (computer controlled d-t and d-d neutron generators, and isotopic 252 Cf and PuBe sources), the set of gamma sources with various intensities, gamma detectors with various energy resolutions (NaI, BGO, GSO, LaBr and HPGe) and the 2.5-MeV Van de Graaff particle accelerator. XRF and XRD apparatuses are also available for students and members at the API. This equipment is currently used in numerous scientific and teaching activities. Members of the API also developed a set of laboratory activities for undergraduate students taking classes from the physics curriculum (Nuclear Physics, Atomic Physics, and Radiation Biophysics). Our goal is to develop a set of radiation laboratories, which will strengthen the curriculum of physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and environmental science at WKU. The teaching and research activities are integrated into real-world projects and hands-on activities to engage students. The proposed experiments and their relevance to the modern status of physical science are discussed.

  1. A Radiation Laboratory Curriculum Development at Western Kentucky University

    SciTech Connect

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    We present the latest developments for the radiation laboratory curriculum at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Western Kentucky University. During the last decade, the Applied Physics Institute (API) at WKU accumulated various equipment for radiation experimentation. This includes various neutron sources (computer controlled d-t and d-d neutron generators, and isotopic 252 Cf and PuBe sources), the set of gamma sources with various intensities, gamma detectors with various energy resolutions (NaI, BGO, GSO, LaBr and HPGe) and the 2.5-MeV Van de Graaff particle accelerator. XRF and XRD apparatuses are also available for students and members at the API. This equipment is currently used in numerous scientific and teaching activities. Members of the API also developed a set of laboratory activities for undergraduate students taking classes from the physics curriculum (Nuclear Physics, Atomic Physics, and Radiation Biophysics). Our goal is to develop a set of radiation laboratories, which will strengthen the curriculum of physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and environmental science at WKU. The teaching and research activities are integrated into real-world projects and hands-on activities to engage students. The proposed experiments and their relevance to the modern status of physical science are discussed.

  2. Proposed LLNL electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Egan, P.O.; Proctor, I.; Levine, M.A.; Hansen, L.; Kajiyama, Y.; Wolgast, R.

    1985-07-02

    The interaction of energetic electrons with highly charged ions is of great importance to several research fields such as astrophysics, laser fusion and magnetic fusion. In spite of this importance there are almost no measurements of electron interaction cross sections for ions more than a few times ionized. To address this problem an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is being developed at LLNL. The device is essentially an EBIS except that it is not intended as a source of extracted ions. Instead the (variable energy) electron beam interacting with the confined ions will be used to obtain measurements of ionization cross sections, dielectronic recombination cross sections, radiative recombination cross sections, energy levels and oscillator strengths. Charge-exchange recombinaion cross sections with neutral gasses could also be measured. The goal is to produce and study elements in many different charge states up to He-like xenon and Ne-like uranium. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  4. Radiative shocks: An opportunity to study laboratory astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Ozaki, N.; Ravasio, A.; Rabec le Glohaec, M.; Boireau, L.; Michaut, C.; Bouquet, S.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.; Peyrusse, O.; Batani, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this paper, experimental results on radiative shocks generated by a high power laser in a xenon gas cell are presented. Two sets of experiments have been performed at the Laser pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) laboratory. Several shock parameters were simultaneously measured: shock temperature and velocities, the precursor two-dimensional (2D) time evolution, its electron density, density gradient, and temperature. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and gas pressures. Comparisons with 1D and 2D radiative hydrodynamic simulations are shown for all measured parameters (shock velocity, shape, radial expansion, and temperature as well as precursor velocity and electron density)

  5. Radiative shocks: An opportunity to study laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Ozaki, N.; Ravasio, A.; Rabec Le Glohaec, M.; Boireau, L.; Michaut, C.; Bouquet, S.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.; Peyrusse, O.; Batani, D.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, experimental results on radiative shocks generated by a high power laser in a xenon gas cell are presented. Two sets of experiments have been performed at the Laser pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) laboratory. Several shock parameters were simultaneously measured: shock temperature and velocities, the precursor two-dimensional (2D) time evolution, its electron density, density gradient, and temperature. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and gas pressures. Comparisons with 1D and 2D radiative hydrodynamic simulations are shown for all measured parameters (shock velocity, shape, radial expansion, and temperature as well as precursor velocity and electron density).

  6. Comparisons organized by Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of FTMC, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I

    2016-03-01

    The newly established Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute (FTMC) in Lithuania organized four comparisons in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements in water. For gamma-ray emitters, the activity concentration in the samples was in the range 1-25Bq/kg, while for tritium it was around 2Bq/g. The assigned values of all comparisons were traceable to the primary standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI). PMID:26585643

  7. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  8. LLNL electro-optical mine detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.; Aimonetti, W.; Barth, M.; Buhl, M.; Bull, N.; Carter, M.; Clark, G.; Fields, D.; Fulkerson, S.; Kane, R.

    1994-09-30

    Under funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the US Marine Corps (USMC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has directed a program aimed at improving detection capabilities against buried mines and munitions. The program has provided a national test facility for buried mines in arid environments, compiled and distributed an extensive data base of infrared (IR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and other measurements made at that site, served as a host for other organizations wishing to make measurements, made considerable progress in the use of ground penetrating radar for mine detection, and worked on the difficult problem of sensor fusion as applied to buried mine detection. While the majority of our effort has been concentrated on the buried mine problem, LLNL has worked with the U.S.M.C. on surface mine problems as well, providing data and analysis to support the COBRA (Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis) program. The original aim of the experimental aspect of the program was the utilization of multiband infrared approaches for the detection of buried mines. Later the work was extended to a multisensor investigation, including sensors other than infrared imagers. After an early series of measurements, it was determined that further progress would require a larger test facility in a natural environment, so the Buried Object Test Facility (BOTF) was constructed at the Nevada Test Site. After extensive testing, with sensors spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from the near ultraviolet to radio frequencies, possible paths for improvement were: improved spatial resolution providing better ground texture discrimination; analysis which involves more complicated spatial queueing and filtering; additional IR bands using imaging spectroscopy; the use of additional sensors other than IR and the use of data fusion techniques with multi-sensor data; and utilizing time dependent observables like temperature.

  9. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  10. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  11. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven. PMID:27345198

  12. Technical developments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, D I; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a center for space radiation research in both the life and physical sciences. BNL is a multidisciplinary research facility operated for the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNL scientific research portfolio supports a large and diverse science and technology program including research in nuclear and high-energy physics, material science, chemistry, biology, medial science, and nuclear safeguards and security. NSRL, in operation since July 2003, is an accelerator-based facility which provides particle beams for radiobiology and physics studies (Lowenstein in Phys Med 17(supplement 1):26-29 2001). The program focus is to measure the risks and to ameliorate the effects of radiation encountered in space, both in low earth orbit and extended missions beyond the earth. The particle beams are produced by the Booster synchrotron, an accelerator that makes up part of the injector sequence of the DOE nuclear physics program's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Ion species from protons to gold are presently available, at energies ranging from <100 to >1,000 MeV/n. The NSRL facility has recently brought into operation the ability to rapidly switch species and beam energy to supply a varied spectrum onto a given specimen. A summary of past operation performance, plans for future operations and recent and planned hardware upgrades will be described. PMID:17211657

  13. Radiation chemistry in the Jovian stratosphere - Laboratory simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The results of the present low-pressure/continuous-flow laboratory simulations of H2/He/CH4/NH3 atmospheres' plasma-induced chemistry indicate radiation yields of both hydrocarbon and N2-containing organic compounds which increase with decreasing pressure. On the basis of these findings, upper limits of 1 million-1 billion molecules/sq cm/sec are established for production rates of major auroral-chemistry species in the Jovian stratosphere. It is noted that auroral processes may account for 10-100 percent of the total abundances of most of the observed polar-region organic species.

  14. Status Report on The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brum, J.A.; Tavares, P.F.; Tolentino, H.C.N.

    2004-05-12

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 6 year period, approximately 17000 hours of beam time were delivered to more than 600 users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and the 11 installed beamlines and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices.

  15. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  16. Scientists in the Classroom Activities at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald; Albala, Joanna; Farnsworth, Richard; Meyer, William

    2013-10-01

    LLNL fusion and plasma education activities are broadening into the ``Scientists in the Classroom'' collaboration between LLNL's Science Education Program (http://education.llnl.gov) and California's San Joaquin County Office of Education (SJCOE). Initial activities involved Grades 6-12 teachers attending the SCJOE 2013 summer workshop addressing the physical sciences content within the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as described at http://www.nextgenscience.org/. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices in Physics workshop (June 22-26, 2013) that took place at the University of the Pacific included participation by the first author using video conferencing facilities recently added to the Edward Teller Education Center adjacent to LLNL. ETEC (http://etec.llnl.gov/) is a partnership between LLNL and the UC Davis School of Education to provide professional development for STEM teachers. Current and future activities using fusion science and plasma physics to enhance science education associated with ``Scientists in the Classroom'' and NGSS will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-639990.

  17. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  18. LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.

    1995-07-01

    The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  19. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  20. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB{sub 66} crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing.

  1. Radar Cross-Section Measurements of V22 Blade Tip with and without LLNL Tipcap Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, D; Simpson, R

    2000-07-01

    It is desired to quantify the effect, in terms of radar cross-section (RCS), of the addition of a small aluminum reflector to the end of the V22 blades. This reflector was designed and manufactured in order to facilitate blade lag measurements by the 95 GHz Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Radar Blade Tracker (RBT) system. The reflector used in these measurements was designed and fabricated at LLNL and is pictured in Figure 1.

  2. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.; Cantwell, K.

    1988-12-31

    During 1987, SSRL achieved many significant advances and reached several major milestones utilizing both SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources as described in this report. Perhaps the following two are worthy of particular mention: (1) SPEAR reached an all time high of 4,190 delivered user-shifts during calendar year 1987, highlights of the many scientific results are given; (2) during a 12 day run in December of 1987, PEP was operated in a low emittance mode (calculated emittance 6.4 nanometer-radians) at 7.1 GeV with currents up to 33 mA. A second undulator beam line on PEP was commissioned during this run and used to record many spectra showing the extremely high brightness of the radiation. PEP is now by far the highest brightness synchrotron radiation source in the world. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) laboratory operations; (2) accelerator physics programs; (3) experimental facilities; (4) engineering division; (5) conferences and workshops; (6) SSRL organization; (7) experimental progress reports; (8) active proposals; (9) SSRL experiments and proposals by institution; and (10) SSRL publications.

  3. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  4. Radiative shocks: an opportunity to study Laboratory Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Michel

    2005-10-01

    A shock becomes radiative when it produces a significant upstream ionizing photons. This phenomenon occurs for shock velocities exceeding a given threshold which depend strongly on the medium. These velocities are typically or the order of 100 km/s and more, common value in astrophysics. Here we shall present a serie of experiments performed at LULI laboratory using the old 6 beams and the new LULI2000 facility. Scaling laws and hydrodynamic simulations allowed to design the target characteristics according to the available laser energy. A strong shock was driven in a layered solid target (CH-Ti-CH) which then accelerates into a gas cell ( 60km/s) filled with Xenon at low pressure (0.1-0.3bar) producing a radiative supercritical shock. A laser beam (8ns-532nm) probes the Xenon gas in the transverse direction and was injected into either a Mach-Zenhder or a VISAR interferometer. In this last case two additional optical framing cameras was used. On the rear side, self-emission and VISAR diagnostics were utilized. All these diagnostics allow to determine many relevant parameters linked to the shock or the radiative precursor. Indeed we shall present experimental data for the shock temperature and velocities, the precursor 2D time evolution, its electron density, density gradient and temperature. Data were obtained for different laser intensities and gas pressures. Comparisons with 1D (MULTI) and 2D (DUED) radiative hydrodynamic codes will be presented for all measured parameters (shock velocity, shape, radial expansion, and temperature as well as precursor velocity and precursor electron density).

  5. Assessment of sediment monitoring at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.

    1994-03-17

    Three separate sediment monitoring studies have been conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore site. ``Sediment`` is defined here as finely divided solid materials that have settled out of an active stream or standing water. Sediment samples from all three studies were analyzed for a number of contaminants including {sup 239}pu, {sup 3}H, gamma emitting radionuclides, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and pesticides. The analytical results for metals and organic compounds were compared to limits for disposal of hazardous waste, the tritium values were compared to drinking water standards, and the other radionuclides were compared to soils monitoring values. No tritium values were above (or were greater than 55% of drinking water standards), and no other radionuclides in sediments were above soils values. In all of the studies, only two metals, lead and mercury, and six organic compounds, benzo(a)-pyrene, Dieldrin, p,p{prime}-DDT, Endosulfan L endosulfan sulfate, and vinyl chloride were above waste disposal limits. Three of the high contaminants, mercury, benzo(a)-pyrene, and vinyl chloride, were found at one sampling location; the others were not connected by drainage channels or physical proximity to each other. Overall, a total of 247 samples were analyzed, and the sporadic identification of materials over disposal limits demonstrates that there is negligible contamination of sediment.

  6. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of U Oxide at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D

    2010-03-02

    In our laboratory at LLNL, an effort is underway to investigate the underlying complexity of 5f electronic structure with spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using chiral photonic excitation, i.e. Fano Spectroscopy. Our previous Fano measurements with Ce indicate the efficacy of this approach and theoretical calculations and spectral simulations suggest that Fano Spectroscopy may resolve the controversy concerning Pu electronic structure and electron correlation. To this end, we have constructed and commissioned a new Fano Spectrometer, testing it with the relativistic 5d system Pt. Here, our preliminary photoelectron spectra of the UO{sub 2} system are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to characterize a sample of UO{sub 2} grown on an underlying substrate of Uranium. Both AlK{alpha} (1487 eV) and MgK{alpha} (1254 eV) emission were utilized as the excitation. Using XPS and comparing to reference spectra, it has been shown that our sample is clearly UO{sub 2}.

  7. The new LLNL AMS sample changer

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Norman, P.J.; Garibaldi, J.L.; Hornady, R.S.

    1993-09-07

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL has installed a new 64 position AMS sample changer on our spectrometer. This new sample changer has the capability of being controlled manually by an operator or automatically by the AMS data acquisition computer. Automatic control of the sample changer by the data acquisition system is a necessary step towards unattended AMS operation in our laboratory. The sample changer uses a fiber optic shaft encoder for rough rotational indexing of the sample wheel and a series of sequenced pneumatic cylinders for final mechanical indexing of the wheel and insertion and retraction of samples. Transit time from sample to sample varies from 4 s to 19 s, depending on distance moved. Final sample location can be set to within 50 microns on the x and y axis and within 100 microns in the z axis. Changing sample wheels on the new sample changer is also easier and faster than was possible on our previous sample changer and does not require the use of any tools.

  8. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  9. Radiative transfer theory verified by controlled laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Goldstein, Dennis H; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-09-15

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2% to 10%. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to ∼2%. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5% should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination. PMID:24104804

  10. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  11. Identification and evaluation of the nonradioactive toxic components in LLNL weapon designs, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The proper industrial hygiene strategy and response to a weapons accident is dependent upon the nonradioactive toxic materials contained in each weapon system. For example, in order to use the proper sampling and support equipment, e.g., personal protective and air sampling equipment, the Accident Response Group (ARG) Team needs a detailed inventory of nonradioactive toxic and potentially toxic materials in the weapon systems. The DOE Albuquerque Office or Operations funded the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the nonradioactive toxic components of their respective weapons designs. This report summarizes LLNL`s first year`s activities and results.

  12. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  13. Optimizing Radiation Safety in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Makke, Lorenza; Christakopoulos, Georgios; Kotsia, Anna; Rangan, Bavana V; Roesle, Michele; Haagen, Donald; Kumbhani, Dharam J; Chambers, Charles E; Kapadia, Samir; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-02-01

    Reducing radiation exposure during cardiovascular catheterization is of paramount importance for both patient and staff safety. Over the years, advances in equipment and application of radiation safety protocols have significantly reduced patient dose and operator exposure. This review examines the current status of radiation protection in the cardiac and vascular catheterization laboratory and summarizes best practices for minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:26526181

  14. University of Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-15

    Research carried out at the Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory is briefly described. Research involves areas of electron transfer photoprocesses, photochemistry, pulse radiolysis, and charge transfer reactions. 13 refs.

  15. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Brekke, D.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) for 1987. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements were made of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, sewage effluents, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, foodstuff, and milk at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. Evaluations were made of LLNL's compliance with the applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicates that the only releases in excess of applicable standards were four releases to the sanitary sewer. LLNL operations had no adverse impact on the environment during 1987. 65 refs., 24 figs.

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Brekke, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental monitoring program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1986. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, milk, foodstuff, and sewage effluents were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. This report was prepared to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1. Evaluations are made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicate that no releases in excess of the applicable standards were made during 1986, and that LLNL operations had no adverse environmental impact.

  17. LLNL Location and Detection Research

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Harris, D B; Anderson, M L; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M P; Ryall, F

    2003-07-16

    We present two LLNL research projects in the topical areas of location and detection. The first project assesses epicenter accuracy using a multiple-event location algorithm, and the second project employs waveform subspace Correlation to detect and identify events at Fennoscandian mines. Accurately located seismic events are the bases of location calibration. A well-characterized set of calibration events enables new Earth model development, empirical calibration, and validation of models. In a recent study, Bondar et al. (2003) develop network coverage criteria for assessing the accuracy of event locations that are determined using single-event, linearized inversion methods. These criteria are conservative and are meant for application to large bulletins where emphasis is on catalog completeness and any given event location may be improved through detailed analysis or application of advanced algorithms. Relative event location techniques are touted as advancements that may improve absolute location accuracy by (1) ensuring an internally consistent dataset, (2) constraining a subset of events to known locations, and (3) taking advantage of station and event correlation structure. Here we present the preliminary phase of this work in which we use Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions, with known locations, to test the effect of travel-time model accuracy on relative location accuracy. Like previous studies, we find that the reference velocity-model and relative-location accuracy are highly correlated. We also find that metrics based on travel-time residual of relocated events are not a reliable for assessing either velocity-model or relative-location accuracy. In the topical area of detection, we develop specialized correlation (subspace) detectors for the principal mines surrounding the ARCES station located in the European Arctic. Our objective is to provide efficient screens for explosions occurring in the mines of the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor, Zapolyarny

  18. GCR Simulator Development Status at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, T. C.; Norbury, J. W.; Blattnig, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are large uncertainties connected to the biological response for exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on long duration deep space missions. In order to reduce the uncertainties and gain understanding about the basic mechanisms through which space radiation initiates cancer and other endpoints, radiobiology experiments are performed with mono-energetic ions beams. Some of the accelerator facilities supporting such experiments have matured to a point where simulating the broad range of particles and energies characteristic of the GCR environment in a single experiment is feasible from a technology, usage, and cost perspective. In this work, several aspects of simulating the GCR environment at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) are discussed. First, comparisons are made between direct simulation of the external, free space GCR field, and simulation of the induced tissue field behind shielding. It is found that upper energy constraints at NSRL limit the ability to simulate the external, free space field directly (i.e. shielding placed in the beam line in front of a biological target and exposed to a free space spectrum). Second, a reference environment for the GCR simulator and suitable for deep space missions is identified and described in terms of fluence and integrated dosimetric quantities. Analysis results are given to justify the use of a single reference field over a range of shielding conditions and solar activities. Third, an approach for simulating the reference field at NSRL is presented. The approach directly considers the hydrogen and helium energy spectra, and the heavier ions are collectively represented by considering the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. While many more aspects of the experimental setup need to be considered before final implementation of the GCR simulator, this preliminary study provides useful information that should aid the final design. Possible drawbacks of the proposed methodology are discussed and weighed

  19. Laboratory Studies of Supersonic Magnetized Plasma Jets and Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey

    2013-06-01

    In this talk I will focus on laboratory plasma experiments producing magnetically driven supersonic plasma jets and on the interaction of these jets with ambient media. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that the critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, the Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. In the experiments the jets are driven and collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields and it is found that the level of MHD instabilities in the jets strongly depends on the strength of the field represented by the ratio of the thermal to magnetic field pressures (plasma beta). The experiments show the possibility of formation of episodic outflows, with periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities [1,2]. We also found that it is possible to form quasi-laminar jets which are “indirectly” collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields, but this requires the presence of the lower density halo plasma surrounding the central jet [3]. Studies of the radiative shocks formed in the interaction of the supersonic magnetized plasma flows with ambient plasma will be also presented, and the development of cooling instabilities in the post-shock plasma will be discussed. This research was sponsored by EPSRC Grant No. EP/G001324/1 and by the OFES DOE under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-SC-0001063. References 1. A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009) 2. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, S.V. Lebedev, S.N. Bland et al., Physics of Plasmas, 17, 112708 (2010). 3. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, M. Bocchi, S.V. Lebedev et al., Physics of Plasmas, 19, 022708 (2012).

  20. Evaluation of OGC Standards for Use in LLNL GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Chou, R M; Chubb, K K; Schek, J L

    2006-06-23

    Over the summer of 2005, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Computer Applications and Research Department conducted a small project that examined whether Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards might be useful in meeting program mission requirements more effectively. OGC standards are intended to facilitate interoperability between geospatial processing systems to lower development costs and to avoid duplication of effort and vendor lock-in. Some OGC standards appear to be gaining traction in the geospatial data community, the Federal government, Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and so an evaluation was deemed appropriate.

  1. The NASA Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Coss, J.; Nichols, D.; Shaw, D.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to assist NASA in the selection of radiation hardened microelectronic parts for insertion in NASA space systems through radiation testing and research. Prior to presenting examples of the research and testing on Single Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, the space radiation environment and radiation requirements for the CRAFT/Cassini program, a typical JPL space project, are discussed.

  2. Response Model Based Analysis of Climate Model Sensitivities and Uncertainties using the LLNL UQ Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, S. T.; Domyancic, D. M.; Johnson, B. J.; Nimmakayala, R.; Lucas, D. D.; Tannahill, J.; Christianson, G.; McEnerney, J.; Klein, R.

    2011-12-01

    A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) multi-directorate strategic initiative is developing uncertainty quantification (UQ) tools and techniques that are being applied to climate research. The LLNL UQ Pipeline and corresponding computational tools support the ensemble-of-models approach to UQ, and these tools have enabled the production of a comprehensive set of present-day climate calculations using the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and, more recently, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) codes. Statistical analysis of the ensemble is made possible by fitting a response surface, or surrogate model, to the ensemble-of-models data. We describe the LLNL UQ Pipeline and techniques that enable the execution and analysis of climate UQ and sensitivities studies on LLNL's high performance computing (HPC) resources. The analysis techniques are applied to an ensemble consisting of 1,000 CAM4 simulations. We also present two methods, direct sampling and bootstrapping, that quantify the errors in the ability of the response function to model the CAM4 ensemble. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was funded by the Uncertainty Quantification Strategic Initiative Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project at LLNL under project tracking code 10-SI-013.

  3. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  4. Circumsolar Radiation Data: The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Reduced Data Base

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Reduced Data Base contains approximately 288 megabytes of information, including detailed intensity profiles of the solar and circumsolar region, the total and spectrally divided direct normal radiation data, as well as the total hemispherical solar radiation in the horizontal plane and the plane facing the sun. Data are available for 11 locations in the United States in the period 1976 to 1981. The measurements were made by four circumsolar telescopes operating about 16 hours per day. The Reduced Data Base represents about one-tenth of the total data taken by the circumsolar telescopes. The sites, the amount of data available for each site, and the collection dates are: • Albuquerque (STTF), New Mexico (28,971 data sets from 4/77 to 10/79 • Albuquerque (TETF), New Mexico (13,851 data sets from 5/76 to 3/77) • Argonne, Illinois (9,702 data sets from 8/77 to 8/78) • Atlanta, Georgia (38,405 data sets from 6/77 to 6/80) • Barstow, California (36,632 data sets from 7/77 to 10/79) • Boardman, Oregon (4,782 data sets from 2/77 to 5/77) • China Lake, California (10,683 data sets from 7/76 to 3/77) • Colstrip, Montana (616 data sets from 5/77 to 6/77) • Edwards Air Force Base, California (27,344 data sets from 10/79 to 6/81) • Fort Hood (Bunker), Texas (5,150 data sets from 7/76 to 11/76) • Fort Hood (TES), Texas (8,250 data sets from 11/76 to 8/77) Note that each data set is composed of 20 lines of information with each line consistingof 77 characters. These are archived ASCII files. [Information on sites, number of data sets, etc. taken from the online publication (out of print) at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/pubs/circumsolar/index.html

  5. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-11-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Magnetically Driven, Radiatively Cooled Supersonic Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey V.

    2010-05-01

    Results of the recent experiments with radiatively cooled jets performed on the pulsed power MAGPIE facility (1.5MA, 250ns) at Imperial College will be presented. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. The main part of the presentation will concentrate on the dynamics of magnetically driven jets, in particular on formation of episodic outflows [1]. The experimental results show the periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities. Experimental data on the energy balance in the magnetically driven jets, the conversion of the Poynting flux energy into kinetic energy of the outflow, will be also presented. *) In collaboration with A. CIARDI, F.A. SUZUKI-VIDAL, S.N. BLAND, M. BOCCHI, G. BURDIAK, J.P. CHITTENDEN, P. de GROUCHY, G. HALL, A. HARVEY-THOMSON, A. MAROCCHINO, G. SWADLING, A. FRANK, E. G. BLACKMAN, C. STEHLE, M. CAMENZIND. This research was sponsored by EPSRC, by the OFES DOE, by the NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-02NA00057 and by the European Community's Marie Curie Actions within the JETSET network under Contract No. MRTNCT- 2004 005592. References [1] A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009).

  7. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project; GFY technical activity summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes.

  8. Secondary standards laboratories for ionizing radiation calibrations: The national laboratory interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, P. I.; Campbell, G. W.

    1984-11-01

    The national laboratories are probable candidates to serve as secondary standards laboratories for the federal sector. Representatives of the major Department of Energy laboratories were polled concerning attitudes toward a secondary laboratory structure. Generally, the need for secondary laboratories was recognized and the development of such a program was encouraged. The secondary laboratories should be reviewed and inspected by the National Bureau of Standards. They should offer all of the essential, and preferably additional, calibration services in the field of radiological health protection. The selection of secondary laboratories should be based on economic and geographic criteria and/or be voluntary.

  9. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  10. Introduction to the Phase Transition Kinetics Program at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belof, Jonathan; Benedict, Lorin; Chernov, Alexander; Dubois, Jonathan; Hall, Burl; Hamel, Sebastien; Haxhimali, Tomorr; Levesque, George; Minich, Roger; Olson, Britton; Oppelstrup, Tomas; Sadigh, Babak; Scullard, Christian; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis

    2015-06-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) a new theoretical program has been launched with the objective of developing predictive theories and simulation codes for the description of non-equilibrium phase transitions that occur under shock and/or ramp compresion. The approach taken by our program is to formulate the precise nature of the problem at the atomistic, meso and continuum scales and to pursue a number of lines of inquiry that enable us to overcome several key theoretical barriers - this has taken the form of five cross-cutting research strands. In this talk, we will provide an overview of our program, present recent advances that our program has made on several fronts, and highlight the series of talks that members of the kinetics team will present at this conference. We will then focus on our hydrodynamically coupled multi-phase field and inline equation of state methodology that is embodied in the new LLNL code ``Samsa.'' Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2. Phase Transition Kinetics Program.

  11. Summary of LLNL Russian Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O

    2007-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate more efficient methods for solving radiation transport equations using adaptivity in angle variables. Conventional angular discretization methods require that the angular finite-difference grid be fine enough in any region. If the grid is too coarse, the well-known ''ray effects'' appear. In addition, subdomains appear with a highly anisotropic particle flux distribution over directions (where a very fine angular difference grid must be used), as well as subdomains where the distribution is nearly isotropic. In view of this, a promising approach to multi-dimensional transport solution efficiency enhancement using finite-difference approximations is one employing adaptive grids. Such adaptive methods are expected to resolve the ''ray effect'' problem in a cost-efficient manner. The algorithm for solving the radiation transport equation using an angle-adaptive method with dynamic criteria for constructing the grid was evaluated using a set of benchmark test problems (pipe, slit, vacuum, and spherical).

  12. Reverberation Chamber Uniformity Validation and Radiated Susceptibility Test Procedures for the NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory has developed a capability based on the RTCA/DO-160F Section 20 guidelines for radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing in reverberation chambers. Phase 1 of the test procedure utilizes mode-tuned stirrer techniques and E-field probe measurements to validate chamber uniformity, determines chamber loading effects, and defines a radiated susceptibility test process. The test procedure is segmented into numbered operations that are largely software controlled. This document is intended as a laboratory test reference and includes diagrams of test setups, equipment lists, as well as test results and analysis. Phase 2 of development is discussed.

  13. Radioactive ion beam research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Bauer, R.W.; Haight, R.C.; Sale, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    In this paper we discuss efforts underway at LLNL to develop the technology for the measurement of proton and alpha-particle reactions with unstable nuclei which are necessary for understanding the nucleosynthesis and energy generation in hot hydrogen-burning environments. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  14. [Radiation exposure to personnel in cardiac catheterization laboratories].

    PubMed

    von Boetticher, Heiner; Meenen, Christiane; Lachmund, Jörn; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Engel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Radiation exposure in personnel of cardiac catheterization units is based on local dosimetry during patient investigations. In the present study, dose rates were measured at various heights in representative locations, with and without fixed radiation protection shields in place. To determine the effective dose values, TLD measurements were performed using on Alderson phantom to generate radiation scatter and a second phantom in the position of the cardiologist performing the catheterization. Various types of personal radiation protection garment and fixed shields were considered in the calculations. Our results indicate on one hand that good protective standards can be achieved with effective doses below 1 mSv/year under optimized conditions. On the other hand, inappropriate radiation protection equipment can cause substantial increase of radiation doses. Alone the lack of a thyroid shield increases the effective dose of the cardiologist by a factor of 3. For the personnel, effective doses were generally higher than personal doses by a factor between 1.5 and 4.8 depending on the radiation protection situation. PMID:14732954

  15. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  16. Plutonium measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J E; Hamilton, T F; Broan, T A; Jokela, T A; Knezovich, T J; Ognibene, T J; Proctor, I D; Roberts, M L; Southon, J R; Vogel, J S; Sideras-Haddad, E

    1999-10-26

    Mass spectrometric methods provide sensitive, routine, and cost-effective analyses of long-lived radionuclides. Here the authors report on the status of work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a capability for actinide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to take advantage of the high potential of AMS for rejection of interferences. This work demonstrates that the LLNL AMS spectrometer is well-suited for providing high sensitivity, robust, high throughput measurements of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios. Present backgrounds are {approximately}2 x 10{sup 7}atoms per sample for environmental samples prepared using standard alpha spectrometry protocols. Recent measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratios in IAEA reference materials agree well with IAEA reference values and with alpha spectrometry and recently published ICP-MS results. Ongoing upgrades of the AMS spectrometer are expected to reduce backgrounds below 1 x 10{sup 6} atoms per sample while allowing simplifications of the sample preparation chemistry. These simplifications will lead to lower per-sample costs, higher throughput, faster turn around and, ultimately, to larger and more robust data sets.

  17. A Novel Approach to Semantic and Coreference Annotation at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M

    2005-02-04

    A case is made for the importance of high quality semantic and coreference annotation. The challenges of providing such annotation are described. Asperger's Syndrome is introduced, and the connections are drawn between the needs of text annotation and the abilities of persons with Asperger's Syndrome to meet those needs. Finally, a pilot program is recommended wherein semantic annotation is performed by people with Asperger's Syndrome. The primary points embodied in this paper are as follows: (1) Document annotation is essential to the Natural Language Processing (NLP) projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); (2) LLNL does not currently have a system in place to meet its need for text annotation; (3) Text annotation is challenging for a variety of reasons, many related to its very rote nature; (4) Persons with Asperger's Syndrome are particularly skilled at rote verbal tasks, and behavioral experts agree that they would excel at text annotation; and (6) A pilot study is recommend in which two to three people with Asperger's Syndrome annotate documents and then the quality and throughput of their work is evaluated relative to that of their neuro-typical peers.

  18. Magnetically collimated pair jets at the LLNL Titan laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui; Barnak, Daniel; Betti, Riccardo; Fiksel, Gennady; Hazi, Andrew; Kerr, Shaun; Krauland, Christine; Link, Anthony; Manuel, Mario; Meyerhofer, David; Nagel, Sabrina; Park, Jaebum; Peebles, Jonathan; Pollock, Bradley; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    Positron-electron pair production experiments were performed at the Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility to investigate the dependence of target thickness and atomic number on pair yield. Externally applied axial magnetic fields, generated by a Helmholtz coil, were used to collimate positrons where the signal observed at the detector increased by a factor of 20 over reference shots without a field. This enabled the detection of positrons from a range of target materials. The emitted positron yield was found to be proportional to the square of the atomic number. This scaling is reduced from the Bethe-Heitler cross section of Z4 by Compton scattering and the stopping power of the target. Monte Carlo simulations support these conclusions, providing a power-law scaling of emitted positrons for all materials and a range of mm-thick targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 12-ERD-062 and the LLNL LGSP.

  19. Developments in ground-penetrating radar at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sargis, P.D.

    1994-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a side-looking, ground-penetrating impulse radar system that will eventually be mounted on an airborne platform to locate buried minefields. Presently, the radar system is mounted on top of a 60-foot adjustable boom. Several unique as well as commercial antennas having bandwidths in the 200 to 2000 MHz range are being experimented with. Also, LLNL-developed monocycle pulse generators are tailored to be most efficient over this frequency range. A technical description of the system will be presented with details about the video pulser, the wideband antennas, the receiver hardware, and the data acquisition system. The receiver and data acquisition hardware consist of off-the-shelf components. Testing of this system is conducted on a minefield located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The minefield contains real and surrogate mines of various sizes placed in natural vegetation. Some areas of the minefield have been cleared for non-cluttered studies. In addition, both metal and plastic mines are buried in the minefield. There is room in the NTS minefield for burying additional objects, such as unexploded ordnance, and this is expected to be done in the future. Recent results indicate success in imaging the NTS minefield using the GPR system. The data has been processed using in-house image reconstruction software, and has been registered with the ground truth data. Images showing clearly visible mines, surface reference markers, and ground clutter will be presented.

  20. LLNL Workshop on TEM of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.

    1996-09-10

    On Sept. 10, 1996, LLNL hosted a workshop aimed at answering the question: Is it possible to carry out transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on plutonium metal in an electron microscope located outside the LLNL plutonium facility. The workshop focused on evaluation of a proposed plan for Pu microscopy both from a technical and environment, health, and safety point of view. After review and modification of the plan, workshop participants unanimously concluded that: (1) the technical plan is sound, (2) this technical plan, including a proposal for a new TEM, provides significant improvements and unique capabilities compared with the effort at LANL and is therefore complementary, (3) there is no significant environment, health, and safety obstacle to this plan.

  1. Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    This publication should be useful for those who are interested in the theory and application of isotopes and radiation in agriculture and entomology. There are two main parts in the publication. Part I, entitled Basic Part, includes topics which an individual should know about radioisotopes and radiation. There are laboratory exercises included in…

  2. LIFTERS-hyperspectral imaging at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.; Bennett, C.; Carter, M.

    1994-11-15

    LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, recently developed at LLNL, is an instrument which enables extremely efficient collection and analysis of hyperspectral imaging data. LIFTIRS produces a spatial format of 128x128 pixels, with spectral resolution arbitrarily variable up to a maximum of 0.25 inverse centimeters. Time resolution and spectral resolution can be traded off for each other with great flexibility. We will discuss recent measurements made with this instrument, and present typical images and spectra.

  3. Diurnal Variations of Energetic Particle Radiation Dose Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan; Kahanpää, Henrik; Hassler, Don; -Gomez, Javier E.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Brinza, David; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckhard; Burmeister, Sonka; Martin, Cesar; Müller-Mellin, Robert; Appel, Jan; Posner, Arik; Reitz, Gunter; Kharytonov, Aliksandr; Cucinotta, Francis

    2013-04-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has collected data on the interplanetary radiation environment during cruise from Earth to Mars and at the surface of Mars since its landing in August 2012. RAD's particle detection capabilities are achieved with a solid-state detector (SSD) stack (A, B, C), a CsI(Tl) scintillator (D), and a plastic scintillator (E) for neutron detection. The D and E detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence shield (F), also made of plastic scintillator. All scintillators are optically coupled to silicon diodes which convert scintillation light to electrons. RAD is capable of measuring both Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) thought to be produced by supernovae outside the heliosphere and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). GCRs are relativistic particles (100 MeV/nuc to >10 GeV/nuc) composed of roughly 89% protons, 10% alpha particles (He), and 1% heavier nuclei [1]. Because of their high energies and continuous nature, GCRs are the dominant source of background radiation at the Martian surface, and are responsible for the production of secondary particles (notably neutrons) via complex interactions in the atmosphere and regolith. SEPs are produced by coronal mass ejections. These intermittent storms are most likely to occur near solar maximum and typical fluxes are dominated by protons with energies lower than 100 MeV/nuc. Unlike the GCR flux, the SEP flux can vary by five or more orders of magnitude over timescales of a day. Even under a constant flux of energetic particle radiation at the top of the atmosphere, the radiation dose at the surface should vary as a function of surface elevation [2]. This variation is directly related to the change in the shielding provided by the total atmospheric mass column, which is to a very good approximation directly related to surface pressure. Thus, the flux of primary energetic particles should increase with altitude, all other things being equal

  4. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The results of these workshops will be discussed in this paper.

  5. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value. PMID:26827362

  6. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  7. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  8. Aircraft Radiation Shield Experiments--Preflight Laboratory Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, Donald L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Badavi, Francis F.; Conroy, Thomas; Braby, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    In the past, measurements onboard a research Boeing 57F (RB57-F) aircraft have demonstrated that the neutron environment within the aircraft structure is greater than that in the local external environment. Recent studies onboard Boeing 737 commercial flights have demonstrated cabin variations in radiation exposure up to 30 percent. These prior results were the basis of the present study to quantify the potential effects of aircraft construction materials on the internal exposures of the crew and passengers. The present study constitutes preflight measurements using an unmoderated Cf-252 fission neutron source to quantify the effects of three current and potential aircraft materials (aluminum, titanium, and graphite-epoxy composite) on the fast neutron flux. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the three selected materials for radiation shielding must wait until testing in the atmosphere is complete; however, it is clear that for shielding low-energy neutrons, the composite material is an improved shielding material over aluminum or titanium.

  9. X- and {gamma}-ray computed tomography applications at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1993-04-01

    Members of the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have implemented the advanced three-dimensional imaging technique of x and {gamma}-ray computed tomography (CAT or CT) for industrial and scientific nondestructive evaluation. This technique provides internal and external views of materials, components, and assemblies nonintrusively. Our research and development includes building CT scanners as well as data preprocessing, image reconstruction, display and analysis algorithms. These capabilities have been applied for a variety of industrial and scientific NDE applications where objects can range in size from 1 mm{sup 3} to 1 m{sup 3}. Here we discuss the usefulness of Cr to evaluate: Ballistic target materials, high-explosives shape charges, missile nosetips, and reactor-fuel tubes.

  10. Summary information and data sets for NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981 - 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, W.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program: the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, G.H.

    1980-08-01

    From early 1975 to mid 1979, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) participated in the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory was initially responsible for collecting, analyzing, and evaluating sediment and water samples from approximately 200,000 sites in seven western states. Eventually, however, the NURE program redefined its sampling priorities, objectives, schedules, and budgets, with the increasingly obvious result that LLNL objectives and methodologies were not compatible with those of the NURE program office, and the LLNL geochemical studies were not relevant to the program goal. The LLNL portion of the HSSR program was consequently terminated, and all work was suspended by June 1979. Of the 38,000 sites sampled, 30,000 were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and automated chloride-sulfate analyses (SC). Data from about 13,000 sites have been formally reported. From each site, analyses were published of about 30 of the 60 elements observed. Uranium mineralization has been identified at several places which were previously not recognized as potential uranium source areas, and a number of other geochemical anomalies were discovered.

  12. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C; Hassler, D M; Cucinotta, F A; Ehresmann, B; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F; Brinza, D E; Kang, S; Weigle, G; Böttcher, S; Böhm, E; Burmeister, S; Guo, J; Köhler, J; Martin, C; Posner, A; Rafkin, S; Reitz, G

    2013-05-31

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation hazards that would be associated with a human mission to Mars. We report measurements of the radiation dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer spectra. The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert. PMID:23723233

  13. Measurements of Energetic Particle Radiation in Transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Hassler, D. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Brinza, D. E.; Kang, S.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S.; Reitz, G.

    2013-05-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation hazards that would be associated with a human mission to Mars. We report measurements of the radiation dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer spectra. The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert.

  14. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  15. The Harold Brown view: LLNL then and now

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H. )

    1993-08-01

    Harold Brown was the Laboratory's third Director, serving from 1960 to 1961. He joined the Livermore laboratory in 1952. At Livermore, Brown worked on the Polaris warhead and on Project Plowshare, program designed to apply nuclear explosives to peaceful uses (such as excavating harbors). Brown succeeded Edward Teller as Director of the Livermore Laboratory in July 1960. His tenure as Director was particularly challenging as these were the years of the moratorium on nuclear testing. He was the driving force in expanding the Laboratory's capabilities for simulating nuclear explosions with computers. As part of LLNL's 40th anniversary observances, Brown was invited to lecture on his views of the changing world and the role of the Laboratory. He reminisced about events that occurred in the Laboratory's early years, with an eye to finding lessons for the future. In particular, he cited Project Plowshare and the MX ICBM as examples of projects that were technologically and economically feasible but unacceptable in terms of public perception. Brown also discussed the international security environment and the Laboratory's role in support of the national security goals of the United States. He defined U.S. security as protecting America against external threats to its physical survival, to its democratic form of government, or to the well-being of the people of the United States. By this definition, issues of international trade and market access have a strong bearing on national security. Thus the Laboratory can find much important and interesting work to do under the heading of national security and economic competitiveness. Brown also pointed out, however, that working effectively with the private sector will take a change in culture since the private-sector market is very different from and more competitive than the nuclear weapons world or the government's nondefense market.

  16. Establishment of the Radiation Detection Laboratory at Fisk University

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold Burger, Ph.D.

    2008-02-28

    Synthetic CdZnTe (CZT) semiconducting crystals are highly suitable for the room temperature-based detection of gamma radiation. The surface preparation of Au contacts on surfaces of CZT detectors is typically conducted after (1) polishing to remove artifacts from crystal sectioning and (2) chemical etching, which removes residual mechanical surface damage however etching results in a Te rich surface layer that is prone to oxidize. Our studies show that CZT surfaces that are only polished (as opposed to polished and etched) can be contacted with Au and will yield lower surface currents. Due to their decreased dark currents, these as-polished surfaces can be used in the fabrication of gamma detectors exhibiting a higher performance than polished and etched surfaces with relatively less peak tailing and greater energy resolution.032}

  17. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  18. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL`s history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia`s leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR`s performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY `91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL`s three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL`s users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report.

  19. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1996-01-01

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL`s users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL`s experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year.

  20. LLNL vapor phase manufacturing progress report, June--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Benterou, J.; Berzins, L.; Braun, D.; Haynam, C.; Heestand, G.; McClelland, M.

    1996-01-09

    This report gives progress made on the following milestones: demonstrate Ti and Nb monitoring at 3M site, demonstrate Al monitoring at LLNL, complete baseline melt and vapor plume model for the metal matrix process (3M fiber coating process), prototype a laser at LLNL to monitor Cu, ZrO{sub 2} monitoring demonstration at LLNL, Se monitoring demonstration, and process scale-up study for YBCO high-temperature superconductor.

  1. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.; Warren, G. A.; Runkle, R. C.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  2. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  3. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R.; and others

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  4. Implementation of a New Nonnuclear Standard at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    van Warmerdam, C

    2005-04-26

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the process and philosophies used to implement the new Work Smart Standard (WSS), ''Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard'' (UCRL-ID-150214), approved in 2003 and revised January, 2004. This work relates directly to the following workshop theme: ''Improvements in Chemical, Biological, and Non-nuclear Safety Analysis.'' This paper will describe the approach used to implement the new nonnuclear standard at LLNL and corresponding guidance manual: ES&H Manual, Document 3.1. The varied activities can be broken down into three main parts: (1) Implementation Plan Schedule. The Implementation Plan includes the due dates for revising nonnuclear facility safety analysis documentation to meet the new standard. Implementation of the new methodology is being phased over a 4-year period. Each directorate was tasked to schedule the revision date for each of their nonnuclear facilities, using agreed upon priority-ranking criteria. (2) Program Infrastructure. This includes the development of training courses, procedures, a website and tools required to perform the work (i.e. Q List, de minimus list) or tools helpful to perform the work; such as a program to automate the classification of chemical inventories and establish maximum facility inventory limits (MFILs). (3) Delegation request packages. NNSA agreed to grant delegation to LLNL for local approval of nonnuclear safety basis documents (SBDs) in a phased manner. The first package submitted was for the Tier 1 (or Screening Report SBDs), the next is for the Tier 2 SBDs, and the last package will include the Tier 3 SBDs. The packages generally include 2-4 example SBDs at the level for which NNSA delegation is being sought, relevant training course material, and applicable procedures. The Implementation Plan was approved by LLNL's Deputy Director of Operations (DDO) in August 2004 and will be reviewed, updated

  5. Technical qualification requirements and training programs for radiation protection personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.; Butler, H.M. Jr.; Bogard, J.S.; Fair, M.F.; Haynes, C.E.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    This document deals with the policies and practices of the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (EOSD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in regard to the selection, training, qualification, and requalification of radiation protection staff assigned to reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities. Included are personnel at facilities that: (1) operate reactors or particle accelerators; (2) produce, process, or store radioactive liquid or solid waste; (3) conduct separations operations; (4) engage in research with radioactive materials and radiation sources; and (5) conduct irradiated materials inspection, fuel fabrication, deconamination, or recovery operations. The EOSD personnel also have environmental surveillance and operational and industrial safety responsibilities related to the total Laboratory.

  6. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  7. RESULTS OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY BEAM STUDIES PROGRAM AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. The purpose of the NSRL Beam Studies Program is to develop a clear understanding of the beams delivered to the facility, to fully characterize those beams, and to develop new capabilities in the interest of understanding the radiation environment in space. In this report we will describe the first results from this program.

  8. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds. PMID:7107291

  9. FY15 LLNL OMEGA Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Baker, K. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Beckwith, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Fournier, K. B.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Frenje, J.; Huntington, C. M.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Smith, R. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Widmann, K.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2015-12-04

    In FY15, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 468 target shots in FY15, with 315 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, 145 shots using just the EP laser system, and 8 Joint shots using Omega and EP together. Approximately 25% of the total number of shots (56 OMEGA shots and 67 EP shots, including the 8 Joint shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 75% (267 OMEGA shots and 86 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy-Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports.

  10. BANK UPGRADE FOR SSPX AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Marchiano, M M; Cook, E G; Geer, R W; Kemptner, R O; McLean, H S; Martovetsky, N N; Moller, J M; Morris, K L; Stallard, B W; Watson, J A; Wood, R D

    2005-05-31

    A new 5kV, 1.5MJ modular capacitor bank has been designed for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) at LLNL. The new bank consists of thirty 4mF capacitors that are independently controlled by light-triggered thyristors. By closing all switches simultaneously, the bank will provide a mega-ampere discharge. The new bank will also allow additional capabilities to SSPX, including higher peak gun current, longer current pulses, and multi-pulse plasma buildup. Experiment results for a single stage prototype will be presented, deliver a single large current spike, or, switches can be triggered in sequence to deliver a longer lower current pulse. Multiple pulses can be created by triggering sections of the modular bank in intervals.

  11. MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS LONG TRACE PROFILER (LTP-MF) FOR NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LABORATORY OF CHINA.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN, S.; WANG, Q.; HONG, Y.; TAKACS, P.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a useful optical metrology instrument for measuring the figure and slope error of cylindrical aspheres commonly used as synchrotron radiation (SR) optics. It is used extensively at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. In order to improve SR beam line quality and resolution, the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) of China is developing a versatile LTP that can be used to measure both SR optics and more conventional ''normal'' optical surfaces. The optical metrology laboratories at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and NSRL are collaborating in developing a multiple functions LTP (LTP-MF). Characteristics of the LTP-MF are: a very compact and lightweight optical head, a large angular test range ({+-} 16 mad) and high accuracy. The LTP-MF can be used in various configurations: as a laboratory-based LTP, an in-situ LTP or penta-prism LTP, as an angle monitor, a portable LTP, and a small radius of curvature test instrument. The schematic design of the compact optical head and a new compact slide are introduced. Analysis of different measurements modes and systematic error correction methods are introduced.

  12. NIF Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments Investigating The Effects Of A Radiative Shock On Hydrodynamic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn; Drake, R. P.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Huntington, C. M.; Doss, F. W.; Krauland, C. M.; Harding, E. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Marion, D. C.; Myra, E.; Fryxell, B.; Kalantar, D. H.; Keane, C. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Robey, H. F.; Maddox, B. R.; Miles, A. R.; Wallace, R. J.; May, M. J.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Plewa, T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Arnett, W. D.; Giraldez, E.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-05-01

    This paper will describe ongoing laboratory astrophysics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) relevant to the complex radiation hydrodynamics that occurs in red supergiant, and core-collapse supernovae. Experiments on NIF can deliver 300 eV radiative heating that can be utilized uniquely access the regime in which radiation affects the development of hydrodynamic instabilities within an evolving object. This is relevant to the dynamics that occur during the core-collapse explosions of red supergiant stars. These stars have dense circumstellar plasma, producing a strongly radiative shock whose radiation interacts with the hydrodynamic structures produced by instabilities during the explosion. While published astrophysical simulations have not included complex, multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics, such effects are very physical and expected to affect the evolution of early stages of astrophycal objects described above. This presentation will include a summary of the two test shots that we have performed on NIF, including a 0.7 scale, gas-filled hohlraum test shot, and a description of the integrated physics shots scheduled at the facility. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas under grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548 , the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616.

  13. NIF Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments Investigating The Effects Of A Radiative Shock On Hydrodynamic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Klein, S. R.; Trantham, M. R.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Miles, A. R.; Raman, K.; Kline, J. L.; Plewa, T.

    2012-05-01

    This paper will describe ongoing laboratory astrophysics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) relevant to the complex radiation hydrodynamics that occurs in red supergiant, and core-collapse supernovae. Experiments on NIF can deliver 300 eV radiative heating that can be utilized uniquely access the regime in which radiation affects the development of hydrodynamic instabilities within an evolving object. This is relevant to the dynamics that occur during the core-collapse explosions of red supergiant stars. These stars have dense circumstellar plasma, producing a strongly radiative shock whose radiation interacts with the hydrodynamic structures produced by instabilities during the explosion. While published astrophysical simulations have not included complex, multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics, such effects are very physical and expected to affect the evolution of early stages of astrophysical objects described above. This presentation will include a summary of the two test shots that we have performed on NIF, including a 0.7 scale, gas-filled hohlraum test shot, and a description of the integrated physics shots scheduled at the facility. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas under grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548 , the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616.

  14. Training and qualification of health and safety technicians at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Egbert, W.F.; Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last 30 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has successfully implemented the concept of a multi-disciplined technician. LLNL Health and Safety Technicians have responsibilities in industrial hygiene, industrial safety, health physics, as well as fire, explosive, and criticality safety. One of the major benefits to this approach is the cost-effective use of workers who display an ownership of health and safety issues which is sometimes lacking when responsibilities are divided. Although LLNL has always promoted the concept of a multi-discipline technician, this concept is gaining interest within the Department of Energy (DOE) community. In November 1992, individuals from Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE) and RUST Geotech, joined by LLNL established a committee to address the issues of Health and Safety Technicians. In 1993, the DOE Office of Environmental, Safety and Health, in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 91-6, stated DOE projects, particularly environmental restoration, typically present hazards other than radiation such as chemicals, explosives, complex construction activities, etc., which require additional expertise by Radiological Control Technicians. They followed with a commitment that a training guide would be issued. The trend in the last two decades has been toward greater specialization in the areas of health and safety. In contrast, the LLNL has moved toward a generalist approach integrating the once separate functions of the industrial hygiene and health physics technician into one function.

  15. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  16. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment. PMID:24324275

  17. Experiences and Management of Pregnant Radiation Workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2001-03-06

    Radiation workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are divided into two classes based on whether or not they can encounter radioactive contamination in the normal course of their work. Level I workers primarily handle sealed radioactive materials such as those used to calibrate detectors. Level II workers perform benchtop chemistry. The U.S. Department of Energy has strict guidelines on the management of pregnant radiation workers. Staff members may voluntarily notify their line managers of a pregnancy and be subjected to stringent radiation exposure limits for the developing fetus. The staff member and manager develop a plan to limit and monitor radiation dose for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several examples of dose management plans and case examples of the impact of pregnancy on staff member?s technical work and projects will be presented.

  18. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and

  19. Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

    2006-12-29

    As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

  20. Dispersion of Radionuclides and Exposure Assessment in Urban Environments: A Joint CEA and LLNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, Lee; Gowardhan, Akshay; Lennox, Kristin; Simpson, Matthew; Yu, Kristen; Armand, Patrick; Duchenne, Christophe; Mariotte, Frederic; Pectorin, Xavier

    2014-12-19

    In the interest of promoting the international exchange of technical expertise, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) requested that the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California host a joint table top exercise with experts in emergency management and atmospheric transport modeling. In this table top exercise, LLNL and CEA compared each other’s flow and dispersion models. The goal of the comparison is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, capabilities, and practices, and to demonstrate the utility of modeling dispersal at different levels of computational fidelity. Two modeling approaches were examined, a regional scale modeling approach, appropriate for simple terrain and/or very large releases, and an urban scale modeling approach, appropriate for small releases in a city environment. This report is a summary of LLNL and CEA modeling efforts from this exercise. Two different types of LLNL and CEA models were employed in the analysis: urban-scale models (Aeolus CFD at LLNL/NARAC and Parallel- Micro-SWIFT-SPRAY, PMSS, at CEA) for analysis of a 5,000 Ci radiological release and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LODI at LLNL/NARAC and PSPRAY at CEA) for analysis of a much larger (500,000 Ci) regional radiological release. Two densely-populated urban locations were chosen: Chicago with its high-rise skyline and gridded street network and Paris with its more consistent, lower building height and complex unaligned street network. Each location was considered under early summer daytime and nighttime conditions. Different levels of fidelity were chosen for each scale: (1) lower fidelity mass-consistent diagnostic, intermediate fidelity Navier-Stokes RANS models, and higher fidelity Navier-Stokes LES for urban-scale analysis, and (2) lower-fidelity single

  1. An Experimental Investigation of the Role of Radiation in Laboratory Bench-Top Experiments in Thermal Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Colm; O'Riordan, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple undergraduate experiment designed to study cooling purely by radiation and cooling by a combination of convection and radiation is described. Results indicate that the contribution from radiative cooling in normal laboratory experiments is more significant than students often realize, even in the case of forced cooling. (Contains 1…

  2. Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame: Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-17

    The Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory is a facility of the Department of Energy operated for the DOE by the University of Notre Dame under contract No. DE-AC02-76ER00038. This quarterly report summarizes the progress on the programs within the Laboratory for the period of October 1, 193 through December 31, 1993. The activities of the staff during this period are noted. A list of publications is presented. A listing and a brief description of each of the reports issued during this quarter are provided.

  3. Plutonium Decontamination Using CBI Decon Gel 1101 in Highly Contaminated and Unique Areas at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Fischer, R P; Thoet, M M; O'Neill, M; Edgington, G

    2008-06-09

    A highly contaminated glove-box at LLNL containing plutonium was decontaminated using a strippable decontamination gel. 6 x 12 inch quadrants were mapped out on each of the surfaces. The gel was applied to various surfaces inside the glove-box and was allowed to cure. The radioactivity in each quadrant was measured using a LLNL Blue Alpha meter with a 1.5 inch standoff distance. The results showed decontamination factors of 130 and 210 on cast steel and Lexan{reg_sign} surfaces respectively after several applications. The gel also absorbed more than 91% of the radiation emitted from the surfaces during gel curing. The removed strippable film was analyzed by neutron multiplicity counting and gamma spectroscopy, yielding relative mass information and radioisotopic composition respectively.

  4. Comparison of Martian Surface Radiation Predictions to the Measurements of Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; Koehler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Posner, Erik

    2014-01-01

    For the analysis of radiation risks to astronauts and planning exploratory space missions, detailed knowledge of particle spectra is an important factor. Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL-RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012, and particle fluxes for a wide range of ion species (up to several hundred MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (8 - 1000 MeV) have been available for the first 200 sols. Although the data obtained on the surface of Mars for 200 sols are limited in the narrow energy spectra, the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code are compared to the data. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used, which includes direct knockout, evaporation and nuclear coalescence. Daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station are implemented into transport calculations for describing the daily column depth of atmosphere. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach the RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD by the rest of the instrument. Calculations of stopping particle spectra are in good agreement with the RAD measurements for the first 200 sols by accounting changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and thus increase the accuracy of the predictions of future radiation environments on Mars. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to

  5. Comparison of Martian Surface Radiation Predictions to the Measurements of Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H. Y.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S. C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Böttcher, S. I.; Boehm, E.; Guo, J.; Kohler, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Reitz, G.; Posner, A.

    2014-12-01

    For the analysis of radiation risks to astronauts and planning exploratory space missions, detailed knowledge of particle spectra is an important factor. Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL-RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012, and particle fluxes for a wide range of ion species (up to several hundred MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (8 - 1000 MeV) have been available for the first 200 sols. Although the data obtained on the surface of Mars for 200 sols are limited in the narrow energy spectra, the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code are compared to the data. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used, which includes direct knockout, evaporation and nuclear coalescence. Daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station are implemented into transport calculations for describing the daily column depth of atmosphere. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach the RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD by the rest of the instrument. Calculations of stopping particle spectra are in good agreement with the RAD measurements for the first 200 sols by accounting changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and thus increase the accuracy of the predictions of future radiation environments on Mars. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to

  6. Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M A

    2005-02-04

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

  7. Java Performance for Scientific Applications on LLNL Computer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfer, C; Wissink, A

    2002-05-10

    Languages in use for high performance computing at the laboratory--Fortran (f77 and f90), C, and C++--have many years of development behind them and are generally considered the fastest available. However, Fortran and C do not readily extend to object-oriented programming models, limiting their capability for very complex simulation software. C++ facilitates object-oriented programming but is a very complex and error-prone language. Java offers a number of capabilities that these other languages do not. For instance it implements cleaner (i.e., easier to use and less prone to errors) object-oriented models than C++. It also offers networking and security as part of the language standard, and cross-platform executables that make it architecture neutral, to name a few. These features have made Java very popular for industrial computing applications. The aim of this paper is to explain the trade-offs in using Java for large-scale scientific applications at LLNL. Despite its advantages, the computational science community has been reluctant to write large-scale computationally intensive applications in Java due to concerns over its poor performance. However, considerable progress has been made over the last several years. The Java Grande Forum [1] has been promoting the use of Java for large-scale computing. Members have introduced efficient array libraries, developed fast just-in-time (JIT) compilers, and built links to existing packages used in high performance parallel computing.

  8. Leveraging open-source software in large simulations at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Paul F.

    2004-03-01

    Three intersecting forces are making possible a revolution in the construction of scientific programs. Object-oriented technology has made possible the creation of truly reusable components. The Internet and its search engines have made it possible to find and obtain appropriate components and obtain help in learning to use them. The open source movement has made the components much more reliable, removed economic barriers to reuse, and allowed users to contribute to their evolution and upkeep. Staff members at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are full participants in this movement, both contributing and using reusable components in key areas of science, mathematics, and computer science. We will discuss the use of such components in two efforts in particular: Kull, an ASCI code for modeling laser fusion targets, and CDAT, a tool used world-wide for climate data analysis. We will also briefly discuss the problem of building such a wide variety of software on LLNL's wide variety of exotic hardware, and what factors make this problem more difficult than it need be.

  9. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  10. LLNL/JNC repository collaboration interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Couch, R.G.; Gansemer, J.; Halsey, W.G.; Palmer, C.E.; Sinz, K.H.; Stout, R.B.; Wijesinghe, A.; Wolery, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    Under this Annex, a research program on the near-field performance assessment related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste will be carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in close collaboration with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC). This program will focus on activities that provide direct support for PNC's near-term and long-term needs that will, in turn, utilize and further strengthen US capabilities for radioactive waste management. The work scope for two years will be designed based on the PNC's priorities for its second progress report (the H12 report) of research and development for high-level radioactive waste disposal and on the interest and capabilities of the LLNL. The work will focus on the chemical modeling for the near-field environment and long-term mechanical modeling of engineered barrier system as it evolves. Certain activities in this program will provide for a final iteration of analyses to provide additional technical basis prior to the year 2000 as determined in discussions with the PNC's technical coordinator. The work for two years will include the following activities: Activity 1: Chemical Modeling of EBS Materials Interactions--Task 1.1 Chemical Modeling of Iron Effects on Borosilicate Glass Durability; and Task 1.2 Changes in Overpack and Bentonite Properties Due to Metal, Bentonite and Water Interactions. Activity 2: Thermodynamic Database Validation and Comparison--Task 2.1 Set up EQ3/6 to Run with the Pitzer-based PNC Thermodynamic Data Base; Task 2.2 Provide Expert Consultation on the Thermodynamic Data Base; and Task 2.3 Provide Analysis of Likely Solubility Controls on Selenium. Activity 3: Engineered Barrier Performance Assessment of the Unsaturated, Oxidizing Transient--Task 3.1 Apply YMIM to PNC Transient EBS Performance; Task 3.2 Demonstrate Methods for Modeling the Return to Reducing Conditions; and Task 3.3 Evaluate the Potential for Stress Corrosion

  11. Lightning Protection System for HE Facilities at LLNL - Certification Template

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, T J; Ong, M M; Brown, C G

    2005-12-08

    This document is meant as a template to assist in the development of your own lighting certification process. Aside from this introduction and the mock representative name of the building (Building A), this document is nearly identical to a lightning certification report issued by the Engineering Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the date of this release, we have certified over 70 HE processing and storage cells at our Site 300 facilities. In Chapters 1 and 2 respectively, we address the need and methods of lightning certification for HE processing and storage facilities at LLNL. We present the preferred method of lightning protection in Chapter 3, as well as the likely building modifications that are needed to comply with this method. In Chapter 4, we present the threat assessment and resulting safe work areas within a cell. After certification, there may be changes to operations during a lightning alert, and this is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 lists the maintenance requirements for the continuation of lighting certification status. Appendices of this document are meant as an aid in developing your own certification process, and they include a bonding list, an inventory of measurement equipment, surge suppressors in use at LLNL, an Integrated Work and Safety form (IWS), and a template certification sign-off sheet. The lightning certification process involves more that what is spelled out in this document. The first steps involve considerable planning, the securing of funds, and management and explosives safety buy-in. Permits must be obtained, measurement equipment must be assembled and tested, and engineers and technicians must be trained in their use. Cursory building inspections are also recommended, and surge suppression for power systems must be addressed. Upon completion of a certification report and its sign-off by management, additional work is required. Training will be needed in order to educate workers and facility managers

  12. Summary Statistics for Fun Dough Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a Play Dough{trademark}-like product, Fun Dough{trademark}, designated as PD. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2100 LMHU{sub D} at 100kVp to a low of about 1100 LMHU{sub D} at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 1% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 3.9 to 4.6. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 8.5. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the Fun Dough{trademark} in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. Still, layers can plainly be seen in the reconstructed images, indicating that the bulk density of the material in the container is affected by voids and bubbles. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b

  13. Summary Statistics for Homemade ?Play Dough? -- Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Martz, A; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a homemade Play Dough{trademark}-like material, designated as PDA. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2700 LMHU{sub D} 100kVp to a low of about 1200 LMHUD at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 10% to 15% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 6.0 to 7.4. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the detailed chemical composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 10. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the homemade 'Play Dough' in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b) their digital gradient images. (A digital gradient image of a given image was obtained by taking the absolute value of the difference between the initial image

  14. International Collaboration for Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam; Durante, Marco; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    An international collaboration on Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) simulation is being formed to make recommendations on how to best simulate the GCR spectrum at ground based accelerators. The external GCR spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The anticipated outcome of these and other studies may be a report or journal article, written by an international collaboration, making accelerator beam recommendations for GCR simulation. This poster describes the status of GCR simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and encourages others to join the collaboration.

  15. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  16. Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

    2009-08-06

    We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and

  17. Challenges in biotechnology at LLNL: from genes to proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Albala, J S

    1999-03-11

    This effort has undertaken the task of developing a link between the genomics, DNA repair and structural biology efforts within the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. Through the advent of the I.M.A.G.E. (Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression) Consortium, a world-wide effort to catalog the largest public collection of genes, accepted and maintained within BBRP, it is now possible to systematically express the protein complement of these to further elucidate novel gene function and structure. The work has ensued in four phases, outlined as follows: (1) Gene and System selection; (2) Protein expression and purification; (3) Structural analysis; and (4) biological integration. Proteins to be expressed have been those of high programmatic interest. This includes, in particular, proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, particularly those involved in the repair of DNA damage, including ERCC1, ERCC4, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC9, HEX1, APN1, p53, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51. Full-length cDNA cognates of selected genes were isolated, and cloned into baculovirus-based expression vectors. The baculoviral expression system for protein over-expression is now well-established in the Albala laboratory. Procedures have been successfully optimized for full-length cDNA clining into expression vectors for protein expression from recombinant constructs. This includes the reagents, cell lines, techniques necessary for expression of recombinant baculoviral constructs in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The laboratory has also generated a high-throughput baculoviral expression paradigm for large scale expression and purification of human recombinant proteins amenable to automation.

  18. Estimating attenuation of ultraviolet radiation in streams: field and laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Patrick; Hargreaves, Bruce R; Morris, Donald P; Williamson, Craig E

    2007-01-01

    We adapted and tested a laboratory quantitative filter pad method and field-based microcosm method for estimating diffuse attenuation coefficients (K(d)) of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for a wide range of stream optical environments (K(d320) = 3-44 m(-1)). Logistical difficulties of direct measurements of UVR attenuation have inhibited widespread monitoring of this important parameter in streams. Suspended sediment concentrations were manipulated in a microcosm, which was used to obtain direct measurements of diffuse attenuation. Dissolved and particulate absorption measurements of samples from the microcosm experiments were used to calibrate the laboratory method. Conditions sampled cover a range of suspended sediment (0-50 mg L(-1)) and dissolved organic carbon concentrations (1-4 mg L(-1)). We evaluated four models for precision and reproducibility in calculating particulate absorption and the optimal model was used in an empirical approach to estimate diffuse attenuation coefficients from total absorption coefficients. We field-tested the laboratory method by comparing laboratory-estimated and field-measured diffuse attenuation coefficients for seven sites on the main stem and 10 tributaries of the Lehigh River, eastern Pennsylvania, USA. The laboratory-based method described here affords widespread application, which will further our understanding of how stream optical environments vary spatially and temporally and consequently influence ecological processes in streams. PMID:18028207

  19. Performance of HEPA filters at LLNL following the 1980 and 1989 earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Elliott, J.; Wilson, K.

    1994-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National laboratory has experienced two significant earthquakes for which data is available to assess the ability of HEPA filters to withstand seismic conditions. A 5.9 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter 10 miles from LLNL struck on January 24, 1980. Estimates of the peak ground accelerations ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 g. A 7.0 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter about 50 miles from LLNL struck on October 17, 1989. Measurements of the ground accelerations at LLNL averaged 0.1 g. The results from the in-place filter tests obtained after each of the earthquakes were compiled and studied to determine if the earthquakes had caused filter leakage. Our study showed that only the 1980 earthquake resulted in a small increase in the number of HEPA filters developing leaks. In the 12 months following the 1980 and 1989 earthquakes, the in-place filter tests showed 8.0% and 4.1% of all filters respectively developed leaks . The average percentage of filters developing leaks from 1980 to 1993 was 3.3% {plus_minus} 1.79%. The increase in the filter leaks is significant for the 1980 earthquake, but not for the 1989 earthquake. No contamination was detected following the earthquakes that would suggest transient releases from the filtration system.

  20. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  1. Final report for the 1996 DOE grant supporting research at the SLAC/LBNL/LLNL B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, D.; Wright, D.

    1997-08-08

    This final report discusses Department of Energy-supported research funded through Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which was performed as part of a collaboration between LLNL and Prairie View A and M University to develop part of the BaBar detector at the SLAC B Factory. This work focuses on the Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) subsystem of BaBar and involves a full range of detector development activities: computer simulations of detector performance, creation of reconstruction algorithms, and detector hardware R and D. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a leading role in the IFR subsystem and has established on-site computing and detector facilities to conduct this research. By establishing ties with the existing LLNL Research Collaboration Program and leveraging LLNL resources, the experienced Prairie View group was able to quickly achieve a more prominent role within the BaBar collaboration and make significant contributions to the detector design. In addition, this work provided the first entry point for Historically Black Colleges and Universities into the B Factory collaboration, and created an opportunity to train a new generation of minority students at the premier electron-positron high energy physics facility in the US.

  2. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  3. UV Radiation: a new first year physics/life sciences laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.; Siddaway, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unfortunately, Australia leads the world in the number of skin cancer cases per capita. Three major factors that contribute to this are: 1) the level of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Australia is higher than in many other countries. This is caused, among other factors, by the stratospheric ozone depletion and Antarctic ozone hole; 2) many people in Australia are of Irish-Scottish origin and their skin can not repair the damage caused by the UV radiation as effectively as the skin of people of other origins; 3) Australia is one of the world’s leaders in the outdoor activities where people tend to spend more time outside. As our experience has shown, most Australian University students, high school students, and even high school teachers were largely unaware of the UV damage details and effective safety measures. Therefore, a need for new ways to educate people became apparent. The general aim of this new 1st year laboratory experiment, developed and first offered at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) in 2009, is to investigate how UV-B radiation levels change under various solar illumination conditions and how effective different types of protection are. After pre-lab readings on physical concepts and biological effects of UV radiation, and after solving all pre-lab problems, the students go outside and measure the actual change in UV-B and UV-A radiation levels under various conditions. Some of these conditions are: direct sun, shade from a building, shade under the roof, reflection from various surfaces, direct sun through cheap and expensive sunglasses and eyeglasses, direct sun through various types of cloth and hair. The equipment used is the UV-Probe manufactured by sglux SolGel Technologies GmbH. The students’ feedback on this new laboratory experiment was very positive. It was ranked top among all physics experiments offered as part of that subject (Physics for Life Sciences) in 2009 and top among all physics experiments presented for

  4. Laboratory-based maximum slip rates in earthquake rupture zones and radiated energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Boettcher, M.; Beeler, N.; Boatwright, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory stick-slip friction experiments indicate that peak slip rates increase with the stresses loading the fault to cause rupture. If this applies also to earthquake fault zones, then the analysis of rupture processes is simplified inasmuch as the slip rates depend only on the local yield stress and are independent of factors specific to a particular event, including the distribution of slip in space and time. We test this hypothesis by first using it to develop an expression for radiated energy that depends primarily on the seismic moment and the maximum slip rate. From laboratory results, the maximum slip rate for any crustal earthquake, as well as various stress parameters including the yield stress, can be determined based on its seismic moment and the maximum slip within its rupture zone. After finding that our new equation for radiated energy works well for laboratory stick-slip friction experiments, we used it to estimate radiated energies for five earthquakes with magnitudes near 2 that were induced in a deep gold mine, an M 2.1 repeating earthquake near the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) site and seven major earthquakes in California and found good agreement with energies estimated independently from spectra of local and regional ground-motion data. Estimates of yield stress for the earthquakes in our study range from 12 MPa to 122 MPa with a median of 64 MPa. The lowest value was estimated for the 2004 M 6 Parkfield, California, earthquake whereas the nearby M 2.1 repeating earthquake, as recorded in the SAFOD pilot hole, showed a more typical yield stress of 64 MPa.

  5. Antenna radiation patterns in the whistler wave regime measured in a large laboratory plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Antenna radiation patterns of balanced electric dipoles and shielded magnetic loop antennas are obtained by measuring the relative wave amplitude with a small receiver antenna scanned around the exciter in a large uniform collisionless magnetized laboratory plasma in the whistler wave regime. The boundary effects are assumed to be negligible even for many farfield patterns. Characteristic differences are observed between electrically short and long antennas, the former exhibiting resonance cones and the latter showing dipole-like antenna patterns along the magnetic field. Resonance cones due to small electric dipoles and magnetic loops are observed in both the near zone and the far zone. A self-focusing process is revealed which produces a pencil-shaped field-aligned radiation pattern.

  6. EVENT DRIVEN AUTOMATIC STATE MODIFICATION OF BNL'S BOOSTER FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY SOLAR PARTICLE SIMULATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, D.; BINELLO, S.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2005-05-16

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests.

  7. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  8. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  9. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Wolery, T. J.

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-02-26

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

  11. BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

    2003-05-12

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

  12. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    A precise knowledge of the surface energy budget, which includes the solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes, is needed to accurately characterize the global energy balance which is largely determining Earth's climate. To this aim national and global monitoring networks for surface radiative fluxes have been established in recent decades. The most prominent among these networks is the so-called Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (Ohmura et al., 1998). National monitoring networks such as the Austrian RADiation Monitoring Network (ARAD), which has been established in 2010 by a consortium of the Central Agency of Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), orient themselves on BSRN standards (McArthur, 2005). ARAD comprises to date five sites (Wien Hohe Warte, Graz/University, Innsbruck/University, Kanzelhöhe Observatory and Sonnblick (which is also a BSRN site)) and aims to provide long-term monitoring of radiation budget components at highest accuracy and to capture the spatial patterns of radiation climate in Austria (Olefs et al., 2015). Given the accuracy requirement for the local monitoring of radiative fluxes instrument offsets, triggered by meteorological factors and/or instrumentation, pose a major challenge in radiation monitoring. Within this study we investigate effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems), all of which used in regular operation within the ARAD network. We focus particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation we performed a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as targeted field campaigns in 2015 and 2016. Our results indicate

  13. LLNL: Science in the National Interest

    ScienceCinema

    George Miller

    2010-09-01

    This is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. located in the Livermore Valley about 50 miles east of San Francisco, the Lab is where the nations topmost science, engineering and technology come together. National security, counter-terrorism, medical technologies, energy, climate change our researchers are working to develop solutions to these challenges. For more than 50 years, we have been keeping America strong.

  14. LLNL: Science in the National Interest

    SciTech Connect

    George Miller

    2010-01-05

    This is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. located in the Livermore Valley about 50 miles east of San Francisco, the Lab is where the nations topmost science, engineering and technology come together. National security, counter-terrorism, medical technologies, energy, climate change our researchers are working to develop solutions to these challenges. For more than 50 years, we have been keeping America strong.

  15. The Neutral Beam Test Facility and Radiation Effects Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has constructed a Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) and a Radiation Effects Facility (REF). These two facilities use the surplus capacity of the 200-MeV Linac injector for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The REF can be used to simulate radiation damage effects in space from both natural and man made radiation sources. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy, current and dimensions can be varied over a wide range leading to a broad field of application. The NBTF has been designed to carry out high precision experiments and contains an absolute reference target system for the on-line calibration of measurements carried out in the experimental hall. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy, current and dimensions can also be varied over a wide range but with tradeoffs depending on the required accuracy. Both facilities are fully operational and will be described together with details of the associated experimental programs.

  16. ER-20037 LLNL eternal pathfinder wing spar design study report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the results of a design study performed by EDO-FSD on the LLNL Eternal Pathfinder Wing Spar/Fuel Tank. The main focus of the design study was the weight minimization of the composite wall of the mid span spar section of the aircraft. The torque, shear, moment and pressure loading requirements, as well as LLNL`s preliminary drawings, were used to develop a reduced weight mid-span spar design. The design study also encompassed details such as the pressure bulkheads, wing rod connectors, and attachment flanges.

  17. Control System for the LLNL Kicker Pulse Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A

    2002-06-18

    A solid-state high voltage pulse generator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. A control system calculates a desired waveform to be applied to the kicker based on measured electron beam displacement then adjusts the pulse generators to provide the desired waveform. This paper presents the design of the control system and measure performance data from operation on the ETA-11 accelerator at LLNL.

  18. Laboratory Kinetic Studies of OH and CO2 Relevant to Upper Atmospheric Radiation Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D.; Villalta, Peter; Zahniser, Mark S.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to quantify the rates of two processes which are crucial to our understanding of radiative energy balance in the upper atmosphere. The first process is radiative emission from vibrationally hot OH radicals following the H + O3 reaction in the upper mesosphere. The importance of this process depends strongly on the OH radiative emission coefficients. Our goal was to measure the OH permanent dipole moment in excited vibrational states and to use these measurements to construct an improved OH dipole moment function and improved radiative emission coefficients. Significant progress was made on these experiments including the construction of a supersonic jet source for vibrationally excited OH radicals. Unfortunately, our efforts to transport the OH radicals into a second lower pressure vacuum chamber were not successful, and we were unable to make improved dipole moment measurements for OH. The second key kinetic process which we attempted to quantify during this project is the rate of relaxation of bend-excited CO2 by oxygen atoms. Since excitation of the bending vibrational mode of CO2 is the major cooling mechanism in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, the cooling rate of this region depends crucially on the rate of energy transfer out of this state. It is believed that the most efficient transfer mechanism is via atomic oxygen but the rate for this process has not been directly measured in the laboratory at appropriate temperatures and even the room temperature rate remains controversial. We attempted to directly measure the relaxation rate Of CO2 (010) by oxygen atoms using the discharge flow technique. This experiment was set up at Aerodyne Research. Again, significant progress was achieved in this experiment. A hot CO2 source was set up, bend excited CO2 was detected and the rate of relaxation of bend excited CO2 by He atoms was measured. Unfortunately, the project ran out of time before the oxygen atom kinetic studies could

  19. Early parathyroid hormone laboratory abnormalities related to therapeutic radiation of neck: an Egyptian experience.

    PubMed

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Aboelnaga, Engy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of neck radiation on parathyroid hormone (PTH) is studied on concern as late effect of radiotherapy for benign or malignant diseases. However, the early effect on PTH is still in debate and need further evaluations. We aimed, in our study, to assess early effect of neck radiation on PTH, and related calcium and phosphorus levels. Patients diagnosed with breast or head and neck cancer who planned to received radiotherapy to neck as a definite or a part of their treatment enrolled in this prospective single-arm study from June 2012 to June 2013. Laboratory assessment of PTH, serum calcium, phosphorus and albumin was obtained before starting radiotherapy, 3 weeks and 3 months after radiation. Fifty-two patients included 24 (46.2 %) males and 28(53.8 %) females. Median age of diagnosis was 55 years. Thirty-six patients had head and neck cancer, while 16 patients were diagnosed as breast cancer. The difference in PTH and calcium levels before and after radiotherapy was statistically significant (P = 0.014 and P = 0.001 for 3 weeks and P = 0.015 and P = 0.004 for 3 months, respectively); even after correction of calcium level according to albumin level, the same results were obtained, while there was no significant difference in their levels after 3 weeks in comparison with 3 months after radiotherapy. The variation of level of phosphorus was not significant. PTH and calcium can be affected early with neck radiation, so follow-up of calcium and PTH level is mandatory for cases that will receive neck radiotherapy. PMID:25904502

  20. Capabilities required to conduct the LLNL plutonium mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, J.; Bish, W.; Copeland, A.; West, J.; Sack, S.; Myers, B.

    1991-09-10

    This report outlines the LLNL plutonium related mission anticipated over the next decade and defines the capabilities required to meet that mission wherever the Plutonium Facility is located. If plutonium work is relocated to a place where the facility is shared, then some capabilities can be commonly used by the sharing parties. However, it is essential that LLNL independently control about 20000 sq ft of net lab space, filled with LLNL controlled equipment, and staffed by LLNL employees. It is estimated that the cost to construct this facility should range from $140M to $200M. Purchase and installation of equipment to replace that already in Bldg 332 along with additional equipment identified as being needed to meet the mission for the next ten to fifteen years, is estimated to cost $118M. About $29M of the equipment could be shared. The Hardened Engineering Test Building (HETB) with its additional 8000 sq ft of unique test capability must also be replaced. The fully equipped replacement cost is estimated to be about $10M. About 40000 sq ft of setup and support space are needed along with office and related facilities for a 130 person resident staff. The setup space is estimated to cost $8M. The annual cost of a 130 person resident staff (100 programmatic and 30 facility operation) is estimated to be $20M.

  1. The design and implementation of the LLNL gigabit testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper will look at the design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit testbed (LGTB), where various high speed networking products, can be tested in one environment. The paper will discuss the philosophy behind the design of and the need for the testbed, the tests that are performed in the testbed, and the tools used to implement those tests.

  2. LLNL metal finishing and pollution prevention activities with small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

    1996-07-01

    The Metal Finishing Facility at LLNL has emphasized using environmentally conscious manufacturing principles. Key focus items included minimizing hazardous wastes, minimization of water usage, material and process substitutions, and recycling. Joint efforts with NCAMF (Northern California Association of Metal Finishers), Technic, Inc., EPA, and UC Davis, all directed at pollution prevention, are reviewed.

  3. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1993-12-31

    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  4. Proceedings of the LLNL technical women`s symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1994-12-31

    Women from institutions such as LLNL, LBL, Sandia, and SLAC presented papers at this conference. The papers deal with many aspects of global security, global ecology, and bioscience; they also reflect the challenges faced in improving business practices, communicating effectively, and expanding collaborations in the industrial world. Approximately 87 ``abstracts`` are included in six sessions; more are included in the addendum.

  5. Waveform prediction with travel time model LLNL-G3D assessed by Spectral-Element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morency, C.; Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic monitoring requires accurate prediction of travel times, amplitudes, and whole waveforms. As a first step towards developing a model that is suited to seismic monitoring, LLNL developed the LLNL-G3D P-wave travel time model (Simmons et al., 2012, JGR) to improve seismic event location accuracy. LLNL-G3D fulfills the need to predict travel times from events occurring anywhere in the globe to stations ranging from local to teleseismic distances. Prediction over this distance range requires explicit inclusion of detailed 3-dimensional structure from Earths surface to the core. An open question is how well a model optimized to fit P-wave travel time data can predict waveforms? We begin to address this question by using the P-wave velocities in LLNL-G3D as a proxy for S-wave velocity and density, then performing waveform simulations via the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE spectral-element code. We assess the ability of LLNL-G3D to predict waveforms and draw comparisons to other 3D models available in SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package and widely used in the scientific community. Although we do not expect the P-wave model to perform as well as waveform based models, we view our effort as a first step towards accurate prediction of time times, amplitudes and full waveforms based on a single model. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. RESULTS OF THE FIRST RUN OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BRENNAN,J.M.ET. AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The results of commissioning of this new facility were reported in [l]. In this report we will describe the results of the first run. The NSRL is capable of making use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. Many modes of operation were explored during the first run, demonstrating all the capabilities designed into the system. Heavy ion intensities from 100 particles per pulse up to 12 x 10{sup 9} particles per pulse were delivered to a large variety of experiments, providing a dose range up to 70 Gy/min over a 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} area. Results presented will include those related to the production of beams that are highly uniform in both the transverse and longitudinal planes of motion [2].

  7. Rossby wave radiation by an eddy on a beta-plane: Experiments with laboratory altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D.

    2015-07-15

    Results from the laboratory experiments on the evolution of vortices (eddies) generated in a rotating tank with topographic β-effect are presented. The focus of the experiments is on the far-field flow which contains Rossby waves emitted by travelling vortices. The surface elevation and velocity fields are measured by the altimetric imaging velocimetry. The experiments are supplemented by shallow water numerical simulations as well as a linear theory which describes the Rossby wave radiation by travelling vortices. The cyclonic vortices observed in the experiments travel to the northwest and continuously radiate Rossby waves. Measurements show that initially axisymmetric vortices develop a dipolar component which enables them to perform translational motion. A pattern of alternating zonal jets to the west of the vortex is created by Rossby waves with approximately zonal crests. Energy spectra of the flows in the wavenumber space indicate that a wavenumber similar to that introduced by Rhines for turbulent flows on the β-plane can be introduced here. The wavenumber is based on the translational speed of a vortex rather than on the root-mean-square velocity of a turbulent flow. The comparison between the experiments and numerical simulations demonstrates that evolving vortices also emit inertial waves. While these essentially three-dimensional non-hydrostatic waves can be observed in the altimetric data, they are not accounted for in the shallow water simulations.

  8. Results of the Recirculator Project at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L.; Sangster, T.C.; Barnard, J.; Burkhart, C.; Craig, G.; Debeling, A.; Friedman, A.; Fritz, W.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Hanks, R.L.; Hernandez, M.; Kirbie, H.C.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Mant, G.; Molvik, W.; Sharp, W.M.; Williams, C.

    2000-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular induction accelerator designed for space charge dominated ion beams. Experiments on one quarter of the ring have been completed. The accelerator extended ten half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. A network of Capacitive Beam Probes (C-probes) was also enabled for beam position monitoring throughout the bend section. These C-probes have been instrumental in steering experiment, implementation of the acceleration stages and the dipole pulser, and the first attempts at coordinated bending and acceleration. Data from these experiments and emittance measurements will be presented.

  9. The Current Status of the LLNL Recirculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahle, L.; Sangster, T. C.; Barnard, J.; Craig, G.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Halaxa, E.; Hanks, R. L.; Hernandez, M.; Kirbie, H. C.; Logan, B. G.; Lund, S. M.; Mant, G.; Molvik, A. W.; Sharp, W. M.; Williams, C.; Debeling, A.; Fritz, W.; Burkhart, C.

    1999-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world’s first circular induction accelerator designed for space charge dominated ion beams. Currently, the machine extends to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. Beam acceleration using an inductive adder circuit to pulse the induction cores was recently achieved with no adverse effects on the beam quality. In addition, a pulser to ramp the dipole plates was also implemented. The effect of these two systems can be clearly seen by changes in transverse charge centroid positions as measured by the Capacitve Beam Probes. Data from this system and other diagnostics will be presented.

  10. 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.H.

    1985-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation facility optimized to generate soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviole (XUV) light using magnetic insertion devices, was proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1982. It consists of a 1.3-GeV injection system, an electron storage ring optimized at 1.3 GeV (with the capability of 1.9-GeV operation), and a number of photon beamlines emanating from twelve 6-meter-long straight sections, as shown in Fig. 1. In addition, 24 bending-magnet ports will be avialable for development. The ALS was conceived as a research tool whose range and power would stimulate fundamentally new research in fields from biology to materials science (1-4). The conceptual design and associated cost estimate for the ALS have been completed and reviewed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), but preliminary design activities have not yet begun. The focus in this paper is on the history of the ALS as an example of how a technical construction project was conceived, designed, proposed, and validated within the framwork of a national laboratory funded largely by the DOE.