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Sample records for laboratory low-activity aqueous

  1. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  2. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  3. Laboratory studies of the aqueous-phase oxidation of polyols: submicron particles vs. bulk aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daumit, K. E.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.

    2014-10-01

    Oxidation in the atmospheric aqueous phase (cloud droplets and deliquesced particles) has received recent attention as a potential pathway for the formation of highly oxidized organic aerosol. Most laboratory studies of aqueous-phase oxidation, however, are carried out in bulk solutions rather than aqueous droplets. Here we describe experiments in which aqueous oxidation of polyols (water-soluble species with chemical formula CnH2n+2On) is carried out within submicron particles in an environmental chamber, allowing for significant gas-particle partitioning of reactants, intermediates, and products. Dark Fenton chemistry is used as a source of hydroxyl radicals, and oxidation is monitored using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Aqueous oxidation is rapid, and results in the formation of particulate oxalate; this is accompanied by substantial loss of carbon to the gas phase, indicating the formation of volatile products. Results are compared to those from analogous oxidation reactions carried out in bulk solution. The bulk-phase chemistry is similar to that in the particles, but with substantially less carbon loss. This is likely due to differences in partitioning of early-generation products, which evaporate out of the aqueous phase under chamber conditions (in which liquid water content is low), but remain in solution for further aqueous processing in the bulk phase. This work suggests that the product distributions from oxidation in aqueous aerosol may be substantially different from those in bulk oxidation experiments. This highlights the need for aqueous oxidation studies to be carried out under atmospherically relevant partitioning conditions, with liquid water contents mimicking those of cloud droplets or aqueous aerosol.

  4. Laboratory studies of the aqueous-phase oxidation of polyols: submicron particles vs. bulk aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daumit, K. E.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.

    2014-05-01

    Oxidation in the atmospheric aqueous phase (cloud droplets and deliquesced particles) has received recent attention as a potential pathway for the formation of highly oxidized organic aerosol. Most laboratory studies of aqueous-phase oxidation, however, are carried out in bulk solutions rather than aqueous droplets. Here we describe experiments in which aqueous oxidation of polyols (water-soluble species with chemical formula CnH2n+2On) is carried out within submicron particles in an environmental chamber, allowing for significant gas-particle partitioning of reactants, intermediates, and products. Dark Fenton chemistry is used as a source of hydroxyl radicals, and oxidation is monitored using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Aqueous oxidation is rapid, and results in the formation of particulate oxalate; this is accompanied by substantial loss of carbon to the gas phase, indicating the formation of volatile products. Results are compared to those from analogous oxidation reactions carried out in bulk solution. The bulk-phase chemistry is similar to that in the particles, but with substantially less carbon loss. This is likely due to differences in partitioning of early-generation products, which evaporate out of the aqueous phase under chamber conditions (in which liquid water content is low), but remain in solution for further aqueous processing in the bulk phase. This work suggests that the product distributions from oxidation in aqueous aerosol may be substantially different from those in bulk oxidation experiments. This highlights the need for aqueous oxidation studies to be carried out under atmospherically relevant partitioning conditions, with liquid water contents mimicking those of cloud droplets or aqueous aerosol.

  5. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  6. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  7. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; McCabe, D.

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  8. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  9. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  10. An Alternative Approach for Preparing and Standardizing Some Common Aqueous Reagents Used in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaku, Samuel; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    A guide for instructors and laboratory assistants to prepare some common aqueous reagents used in an undergraduate laboratory is presented. Dilute reagents consisting of H[superscript +](aq), I[subscript 3][superscript-](aq), Ce[superscript 4+](aq), and Ag[superscript+](aq) were prepared by electrolytic oxidation of respective precursors.…

  11. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DEPOSITION OF OXIDATION OF HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCAROBNS (HCFCS) AND HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFCS) TO AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the deposition to aqueous media of the gas phase oxidation products of the following hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): CFC-22 (CClF2H), HFC-41, (CH3F), HCFC-123 (CCl2HCF3), HCFC-124 (CClFHCF3), HFC...

  12. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  13. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  14. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  15. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF INTERACTIONS OF IRRADIATED O-XYLENE/NOX/SO2/AIR MIXTURES WITH AQUEOUS MEDIA CONTAINING SODIUM FLUORIDE, SODIUM TRIFLUOROACETATE, AMMONIUM NITRATE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate interactions between complex air mixtures and aqueous films containing hydrolysis products of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) oxidation products. he experiments consisted of exposing aqueous films con...

  16. Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dougal, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

  17. Laboratory evidence of organic peroxide and peroxyhemiacetal formation in the aqueous phase and implications for aqueous OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Y. B.; Turpin, B. J.

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous chemistry in atmospheric waters (e.g., cloud droplets or wet aerosols) is considered a potentially important atmospheric pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOAaq). Water-soluble organic compounds with small carbon numbers (C2-C3) are precursors for SOAaq; products include organic acids, organic sulfates, and high-molecular-weight compounds/oligomers. Fenton reactions and the uptake of gas-phase OH radicals are considered to be the major oxidant sources for aqueous organic chemistry. However, the sources and availability of oxidants in atmospheric waters are not well understood. The degree to which OH is produced in the aqueous phase affects the balance of radical and non-radical aqueous chemistry, the properties of the resulting aerosol, and likely its atmospheric behavior. This paper demonstrates organic peroxide formation during aqueous photooxidation of methylglyoxal using ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Organic peroxides are known to form through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds. They contribute secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation directly by forming peroxyhemiacetals and epoxides (i.e., IEPOX), and indirectly by enhancing gas-phase oxidation through OH recycling. We provide simulation results of organic peroxide/peroxyhemiacetal formation in clouds and wet aerosols and discuss organic peroxides as a source of condensed-phase OH radicals and as a contributor to aqueous SOA.

  18. The Microwave Properties of Jovian Clouds: Laboratory Measurement of Aqueous Ammonia (NH4OH) Between 2-8.5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Danny; Steffes, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory measurements of the complex dielectric properties of aqueous ammonia, under conditions characteristic of Jovian clouds, have been made in the 2-8.5 GHz range at temperatures ranging from 24-60 oC and concentrations of 0-8.5% ammonia (NH3) by volume. No previous laboratory experiments have been made to characterize the microwave dielectric properties of aqueous ammonia. Previous models of Jovian microwave emission (de Pater et al., Icarus, 2005) have assumed that for low concentrations of ammonia in solution, the dielectric properties of aqueous ammonia are approximately equal to those of water; however, these measurements suggest that even at concentrations as low as 0.5% NH3 by volume, there is a marked difference in the complex dielectric properties of aqueous ammonia. Assuming Raleigh scattering, these measurements are applied to a cloud attenuation model to calculate the opacity of the Jovian aqueous ammonia clouds. These measurements will improve our understanding of the data collected by the Juno microwave radiometer (MWR) by characterizing the absorption properties of the aqueous ammonia present in the Jovian atmosphere. This work was supported by NASA Contract NNM06AA75C from the Marshall Space Flight Center supporting the Juno Mission Science Team, under Subcontract 699054X from the South-west Research Institute.

  19. Partitioning of radiostrontium in marine aqueous suspensions: laboratory experiments and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Benkdad, A; Laissaoui, A; El Bari, H; Benmansour, M; Ibnmajah, M

    2008-04-01

    Quantitative information on the adsorption/desorption of radionuclides by suspended loads is important in the study of their environmental behavior. In this paper, controlled laboratory experiments were directed at studying the kinetic transfer and final distribution of radiostrontium in aqueous suspensions using 85Sr as tracer. The results showed that the uptake of 85Sr in seawater can be properly described by one reversible-reaction model. However, in the absence of competitive cations, it has been shown that two reactions of different characteristic times are unambiguously involved in the kinetic evolution of adsorption. Thus, a modeling approach consisting of three-box model has been applied. The model predicts in a satisfactory way the time evolution of activities in the dissolved phase and two sites in the particles. Experimental evidence showed, through comparison among kinetic and distribution coefficients corresponding to different conditions, that Ca2+ affects strongly the rate and extent of Sr uptake by suspended particles. On the other hand, distribution coefficients were found to be sensitive to changes in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration, exhibiting a reverse effect with this parameter on the adsorption. In addition, desorption from particles is important showing that Sr can be easily released due to cation-exchange processes. PMID:18061319

  20. Recovery of light, non-aqueous phase liquid from porous media: laboratory experiments and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddill, Dan W.; Parker, Jack C.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure flow of a light, non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL or simply "oil") in porous media. The objective of these experiments was to measure oil recovery as influenced by hysteresis, the oil-water capillary fringe, and an oil seepage face. Oil was infiltrated and allowed to redistribute across the horizontal length of a two-dimensional tank filled with medium sand. The first experiment involved oil recovery without water pumping, while the second experiment involved oil recovery with water pumping to increase the gradient toward the recovery well. Observed oil recovery compared favorably with the predictions of a numerical model (ARMOS). A dual-energy gamma radiation attenuation system monitored oil and water saturations throughout the experiments, while hydrophobic tensiometers measured the location of the air-oil table (Z ao). The experimental distribution of oil saturations suggested the need to incorporate an oil-water capillary fringe in the calculation of oil trapping in the saturated zone. Measurements of Z ao indicated that hysteresis influenced the liquid saturation-pressure relationships. When the effects of hysteresis were incorporated into the model, predicted and measured values of Z ao came into agreement, especially at early times during the recovery process. Experimental data also suggested the presence of an oil seepage face at the pumping well, but model results were not sensitive to this factor. Oil saturation measurements at later times suggested that the oil may have experienced delayed yield, an effect that was not modeled explicitly. A sensitivity analysis revealed that oil recovery predictions were most affected by horizontal hydraulic conductivity, fluid scaling parameters βao and βow, and van Genuchten α, n, and Sm. Overall, the numerical model appeared to match measured data for oil saturation, pressure, and recovery under two sets of boundary conditions.

  1. Cellular and aqueous microcystin-LR following laboratory exposures of Microcystis aeruginosa to copper algaecides.

    PubMed

    Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Geer, Tyler D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-03-01

    Microcystin release from algal cells influences use of copper-algaecides in water resources. Accurate data regarding relationships between copper-algaecide exposures and responses of microcystin-producing algae are needed to make informed management decisions. Responses of Microcystis aeruginosa were measured in terms of cellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR), aqueous MC-LR, and chlorophyll-a following exposure to CuSO4 and copper-ethanolamine. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated samples, and copper formulations. EC50s and slopes for M. aeruginosa responses to copper exposures were calculated. Algal responses followed a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship, and cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a were negatively related to copper concentrations. Aqueous MC-LR increased with copper concentrations, although the increase in aqueous MC-LR was not proportional to decreases in cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a. Cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll a declined at a greater rate than aqueous MC-LR increased. Total MC-LR was less than untreated controls following copper exposure. Differences were measured between copper formulations in terms of aqueous and total MC-LR concentrations at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cu L-1. Aqueous and total MC-LR were greater (10-20%) following exposure to CuSO4 compared to copper-ethanolamine one day following exposure. The positive relationship between copper concentration and aqueous MC-LR at 0.07-1.0 mg Cu L-1 demonstrates that lower copper concentrations were as effective as higher concentrations in controlling M. aeruginosa while decreasing the total amount of MC-LR, and minimizing the proportion of MC-LR released to the aqueous-phase. Results serve to support more accurate risk evaluations of MC-LR concentrations when M. aeruginosa is exposed to copper-algaecides and when it is untreated. PMID:26761600

  2. Organic peroxide and OH formation in aerosol and cloud water: laboratory evidence for this aqueous chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Y. B.; Turpin, B. J.

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous chemistry in atmospheric waters (e.g., cloud droplets or wet aerosols) is well accepted as an atmospheric pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOAaq). Water-soluble organic compounds with small carbon numbers (C2-C3) are precursors for SOAaq and products include organic acids, organic sulfates, and high molecular weight compounds/oligomers. Fenton reactions and the uptake of gas-phase OH radicals are considered to be the major oxidant sources for aqueous organic chemistry. However, the sources and availability of oxidants in atmospheric waters are not well understood. The degree to which OH is produced in the aqueous phase affects the balance of radical and non-radical aqueous chemistry, the properties of the resulting aerosol, and likely its atmospheric behavior. This paper demonstrates organic peroxide formation during aqueous photooxidation of methylglyoxal using ultra high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Organic peroxides are known to form through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds. They contribute secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation directly by forming peroxyhemiacetals, and epoxides, and indirectly by enhancing gas-phase oxidation through OH recycling. We provide simulation results of organic peroxide/peroxyhemiacetal formation in clouds and wet aerosols and discuss organic peroxides as a source of condensed-phase OH radicals and as a contributor to aqueous SOA.

  3. Photochemistry of iron(III)-carboxylato complexes in aqueous atmospheric particles - Laboratory experiments and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, C.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Iron is always present in the atmosphere in concentrations from ~10-9 M (clouds, rain) up to ~10-3 M (fog, particles). Sources are mainly mineral dust emissions. Iron complexes are very good absorbers in the UV-VIS actinic region and therefore photo-chemically reactive. Iron complex photolysis leads to radical production and can initiate radical chain reactions, which is related to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. These radical chain reactions are involved in the decomposition and transformation of a variety of chemical compounds in cloud droplets and deliquescent particles. Additionally, the photochemical reaction itself can be a degradation pathway for organic compounds with the ability to bind iron. Iron-complexes of atmospherically relevant coordination compounds like oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, tartronate, gluconate, pyruvate and glyoxalate have been investigated in laboratory experiments. Iron speciation depends on the iron-ligand ratio and the pH. The most suitable experimental conditions were calculated with a speciation program (Visual Minteq). The solutions were prepared accordingly and transferred to a 1 cm quartz cuvette and flash-photolyzed with an excimer laser at wavelengths 308 or 351 nm. Photochemically produced Fe2+ has been measured by spectrometry at 510 nm as Fe(phenantroline)32+. Fe2+ overall effective quantum yields have been calculated with the concentration of photochemically produced Fe2+ and the measured energy of the excimer laser pulse. The laser pulse energy was measured with a pyroelectric sensor. For some iron-carboxylate systems the experimental parameters like the oxygen content of the solution, the initial Iron concentration and the incident laser energy were systematically altered to observe an effect on the overall quantum yield. The dependence of some quantum yields on these parameters allows in some cases an interpretation of the underlying photochemical reaction mechanism. Quantum yields of malonate

  4. Aqueous-Phase Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling. A Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Brandy A.; Chance Rainwater, J.; Birdwhistell, Kurt; Knight, D. Andrew

    2002-06-01

    An upper-level inorganic/organic experiment presents important concepts in modern green chemistry. A water-soluble modified triphenylphosphine ligand is prepared and used to prepare a water-soluble palladium catalyst. The palladium catalyst is formed in situ and used for the aqueous, homogenous, palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of iodobenzene and diethyl phosphite. The product is diethyl phenylphosphonate.

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  5. Aqueous dissolution of laboratory and field samples from the in-situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P. ); Bates, S.O. )

    1991-08-01

    In-situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated in several countries as a remediation technology for immobilizing both hazardous and radioactive buried wastes. A combination of laboratory data and modeling results are presented that establishes the scientific basis for predicting the long-term stability of an ISV glass in the environment. Laboratory experiments included tests with ISV samples obtained from pilot- and intermediate-scale field tests, a nuclear waste glass, and a natural obsidian. 8 refs.

  6. First inter-laboratory comparison exercise for the determination of anticancer drugs in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Heath, Ester; Česen, Marjeta; Negreira, Noelia; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Blahova, Lucie; Nguyen, Tung Viet; Adahchour, Mohamed; Ruebel, Achim; Llewellyn, Neville; Ščančar, Janez; Novaković, Srdjan; Mislej, Vesna; Stražar, Marjeta; Barceló, Damià; Kosjek, Tina

    2016-08-01

    The results of an inter-laboratory comparison exercise to determine cytostatic anticancer drug residues in surface water, hospital wastewater and wastewater treatment plant effluent are reported. To obtain a critical number of participants, an invitation was sent out to potential laboratories identified to have the necessary knowledge and instrumentation. Nine laboratories worldwide confirmed their participation in the exercise. The compounds selected (based on the extent of use and laboratories capabilities) included cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, etoposide, methotrexate and cisplatinum. Samples of spiked waste (hospital and wastewater treatment plant effluent) and surface water, and additional non-spiked hospital wastewater, were prepared by the organising laboratory (Jožef Stefan Institute) and sent out to each participant partner for analysis. All analytical methods included solid phase extraction (SPE) and the use of surrogate/internal standards for quantification. Chemical analysis was performed using either liquid or gas chromatography mass (MS) or tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry. Cisplatinum was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A required minimum contribution of five laboratories meant that only cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate and etoposide could be included in the statistical evaluation. z-score and Q test revealed 3 and 4 outliers using classical and robust approach, respectively. The smallest absolute differences between the spiked values and the measured values were observed in the surface water matrix. The highest within-laboratory repeatability was observed for methotrexate in all three matrices (CV ≤ 12 %). Overall, inter-laboratory reproducibility was poor for all compounds and matrices (CV 27-143 %) with the only exception being methotrexate measured in the spiked hospital wastewater (CV = 8 %). Random and total errors were identified by means of Youden

  7. Experimental studies in high temperature aqueous chemistry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mesmer, R.E.; Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Holmes, H.F.; Ho, P.C.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Gruszkiewicz, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental research is conducted and models developed in a long- standing program at Oak Ridge on aqueous chemistry at high temperatures of broad classes of electrolytes emphasizing thermodynamics of reaction equilibria and excess thermodynamic properties of electrolytes. Experimental methods, their capabilities, data analysis, and results are summarized. Relevance of the work to problems in power plants, natural and industrial processes as well as basic solution chemistry and geochemistry are given. Progress in potentiometry, electrical conductivity, flow calorimetry, and isopiestic research is described. Future in this field demands greater precision in measurements and significant gains in our understanding of the solvation phenomena especially in the vicinity and beyond the critical point for water. The communities who do research on scattering, spectroscopy, and computer simulations can help guide these efforts through studies at extreme conditions.

  8. A Green Multicomponent Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Aqueous Passerini Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Matthew M.; DeBoef, Brenton

    2009-01-01

    Water is the ideal green solvent for organic reactions. However, most organic molecules are insoluble in it. Herein, we report a laboratory module that takes advantage of this property. The Passerini reaction, a three-component coupling involving an isocyanide, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid, typically requires [similar to] 24 h reaction times in…

  9. THE QUANTIFICATION OF AQUEOUS TRACERS IN LABORATORY AQUIFER MODELS USING A LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION METHOD - 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantification of solute concentrations in laboratory aquifer models has been largely limited to the use of sampling ports, from which samples are collected for external analysis. One of the drawbacks to this method is that the act of sampling may disturb plume dynamics and ...

  10. THE QUANTIFICATION OF AQUEOUS TRACERS IN LABORATORY AQUIFER MODELS USING A LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION METHOD - 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantification of solute concentrations in laboratory aquifer models has been largely limited to the use of sampling ports, from which samples are collected for external analysis. One of the drawbacks to this method is that the act of sampling may disturb plume dynamics and ...

  11. THE QUANTIFICATION OF AQUEOUS TRACERS IN LABORATORY AQUIFER MODELS USING LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantification of solute concentrations in laboratory aquifer models has been largely limited to the use of sampling ports, from which samples are collected for external analysis. One of the drawbacks to this method is that the act of sampling may disturb plume dynamics and ...

  12. THE QUANTIFICATION OF AQUEOUS TRACERS IN LABORATORY AQUIFER MODELS USING A LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION METHOD - 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantification of solute concentrations in laboratory aquifer models has been largely limited to the use of sampling ports, from which samples are collected for external analysis. One of the drawbacks to this method is that the act of sampling may disturb plume dynamics and ...

  13. Reversible antifertility effect of aqueous leaf extract of Allamanda cathartica L. in male laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Singh, S K

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Allamanda cathartica (150 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 14, 28 and 42 days) in inducing infertility and changes in various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain mice. The effect of the treatment on organ weight, histopathology, sperm parameters, testosterone level, haematology, serum biochemistry and on fertility indices was assessed. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules as both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same sections. The treatment also had adverse effects on motility, viability, morphology and on number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis. Serum levels of testosterone, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, haematological parameters and liver and kidney histoarchitecture were, however, not affected by the treatment. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, although the libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, however, the above parameters recovered to control levels. Our results thus suggest that A. cathartica treatment causes reversible suppression of fertility in male mice, without causing detectable toxic effects. PMID:19032682

  14. Ligand-Free Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling Reactions Using an Inexpensive Aqueous Palladium Source: A Synthetic and Computational Exercise for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nicholas J.; Bowman, Matthew D.; Esselman, Brian J.; Byron, Stephen D.; Kreitinger, Jordan; Leadbeater, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive procedure for introducing the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction into a high-enrollment undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The procedure employs an aqueous palladium solution as the catalyst and a range of para-substituted aryl bromides and arylboronic acids as substrates. The coupling reactions proceed…

  15. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  16. Effect of Humic Acid on Migration, Distribution and Remediation of Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids: A laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Wu, J.; Xu, H.; Gao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) contamination in the subsurface increases with the rapid development of oil industry and becomes the focus of many studies. The migration, distribution and remediation efficiency of DNAPLs in the subsurface environment are greatly affected by the solution chemistry besides the physical heterogeneities of aquifers. Humic acid (HA), which is ubiquitous in natural environments, is a surface active substance exhibiting solubility enhancement behavior for hydrophobic organic compounds such as DNAPLs. Here we reported a laboratory investigation to study the effects of HA on the infiltration, immobilization and subsequent recovery of DNAPL in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was selected as the representative DNAPL in this study. Two-dimensional (2-D) sandbox experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different HA concentrations on the transport, distribution of PCE and the remediation of PCE using surfactant (Tween 80) flushing in a saturated porous media system. The surfactant flushing of PCE was performed after the PCE transport and distribution had reached equilibrium. A light transmission visualization method with charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was adopted to visualize PCE distribution and quantify its saturation. In addition, the experiments were also designed to gather data for the validation of multiphase flow models. Effluent samples were collected to determine dissolved PCE concentrations. PCE solubilization and PCE-water interfacial tension were experimentally determined in aqueous solutions of varying HA concentrations. The experimental results showed that the presence of HA can have a dramatic impact on PCE flow and entrapment, and significantly improved the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). The findings are of use for better understanding of the migration and entrapment of DNAPLs and developing of SEAR technology.

  17. Aqueous-phase disappearance of atrazine, metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos in laboratory aquaria and outdoor macrocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazanti, L.; Rice, C.; Bialek, K.; Sparling, D.; Stevenson, C.; Johnson, W.E.; Kangas, P.; Rheinstein, J.

    2003-01-01

    Dissipation processes are described for a combination of commonly used pesticides--atrazine (6-chloro-4--ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl] acetamide), and chlorpyrifos (O-O diethyl O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl] phosphorothioate)--in a laboratory and outdoor pond systems. Dosing rates and timing were designed to duplicate those common in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. Treatment ranged from 2 and 2.5 mg/L to 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L respectively for atrazine and metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos was added at 1.0 and 0.1 mg/L in the aquaria and at 0.1 mg/L in the outdoor macrocosms. Chlorpyrifos disappearance was rapid in all of the systems and followed a two-phase sequence. Initial half-lives varied from 0.16 da), to 0.38 day and showed similar rates in the aquaria and the outdoor systems. The second phase of the chlorpyrifos loss pattern was slower (18-20 days) in all the treatments except for the low herbicide treatment in the outdoor test, where it was 3.4 days. Compared to the outdoor system, herbicide losses were much slower in the aquaria, e.g., 150 days for atrazine and 55 days for metolachlor, and no appreciable loss of herbicide was apparent in the high-treated aquaria. In the outdoor systems, the half-lives for the low herbicide treatment were 27 days and 12 days, respectively, for atrazine and metolachlor, and 48 and 20 days, respectively for the high herbicide-treated pond. Very low levels of CIAT (6-amino-2-chloro-4-iso-propylamino-s-triazine) and CEAT (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine), degradation products of atrazine, were observed in the outdoor studies.

  18. Laboratory characterization of non-aqueous phase liquid/tracer interaction in support of a vadose zone partitioning interwell tracer test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeds, Neil E.; McKinney, Daene C.; Pope, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminant characterization is important for successful remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the unsaturated zone. A partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) can provide a good estimate of average subsurface NAPL saturations. Screening experiments were completed in the laboratory to evaluate several gas tracers for a PITT study to be completed in the vadose zone at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, NM. Four perfluorocarbon tracers were found to be suitable for this PITT. Further laboratory column studies were completed using contaminated field soil to measure the partition coefficients between the tracers and the NAPL. The results from the column studies showed that the air/NAPL tracer partition coefficients ranged from 8.8±0.6 to 71±3. This range of partition coefficients is suitable for detection of NAPL saturations in the field of 0.002 to 0.14.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases. PMID:25771114

  20. Laboratory studies of humidity-driven phase transitions of perchlorate/chloride mixtures: Relevance to aqueous phases on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Perchlorate salts, known to exist on Mars, can readily absorb water vapor and deliquesce into aqueous solution. We have previously studied pure perchlorate and found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) is <60% regardless of cation, hydration state or temperature (223 to 273 K). We have also shown that efflorescence (recrystallization) of perchlorate solutions is kinetically hindered, allowing supersaturation to occur at RH values below the DRH. In addition to perchlorate, Phoenix instruments found chloride, sulfate, carbonate, magnesium, sodium, potassium and calcium in the Martian regolith. The vertical and spatial distributions of these ions are unknown, but all were present in a single 1 g sample. It is therefore likely that these ions coexist with perchlorate. Many salts likely present in the regolith are less deliquescent than perchlorates, and it is important to understand how these additional species will affect perchlorate deliquescence. Here we study deliquescence (solid to aqueous transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid transition) of 3 perchlorate/chloride systems: KClO4/KCl at 253 K and NaClO4/NaCl and Mg(ClO4)2/MgCl2 at 243 and 253 K. A Raman microscope and environmental cell were used to monitor phase transitions of internally mixed perchlorate/chloride particles. The eutonic RH, where an aqueous phase first forms, is 30% RH for Mg(ClO4)2/MgCl2, 38% RH for NaClO4/NaCl and 82% RH for KClO4/KCl mixtures regardless of initial composition. We observed complete deliquescence of all salt mixtures at RH values below the DRH of the least deliquescent pure salt. When humidity is lowered, efflorescence of all solutions occurred below the DRH suggesting supersaturated solutions can exist. The low eutonic RH values of the sodium and magnesium perchlorate/chloride mixtures are significant for Mars, as these humidities can be reached at the Martian surface. It is likely that some salts in the regolith may exist as stable or metastable solutions

  1. Laboratory photochemical processing of aqueous aerosols: formation and degradation of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, C. M.; Kawamura, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Swaminathan, T.

    2015-07-01

    To better understand the photochemical processing of dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds, we conducted batch UV irradiation experiments on two types of aerosol samples collected from India, which represent anthropogenic (AA) and biogenic (BA) aerosols, for time periods of 0.5 to 120 h. The irradiated samples were analyzed for molecular compositions of diacids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls. The results show that photochemical degradation of oxalic (C2), malonic (C3) and other C8-C12 diacids overwhelmed their production in aqueous aerosols, whereas succinic acid (C4) and C5-C7 diacids showed a significant increase (ca. 10 times) during the course of irradiation experiments. The photochemical formation of oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls overwhelmed their degradation during the early stages of experiment except for ω-oxooctanoic acid (ωC8), which showed a similar pattern to that of C4. We also found a gradual decrease in the relative abundance of C2 to total diacids and an increase in the relative abundance of C4 during prolonged experiment. Based on the changes in concentrations and mass ratios of selected species with the irradiation time, we hypothesize that iron-catalyzed photolysis of C2 and C3 diacids controls their concentrations in Fe-rich atmospheric waters, whereas photochemical formation of C4 diacid (via ωC8) is enhanced with photochemical processing of aqueous aerosols in the atmosphere. This study demonstrates that the ambient aerosols contain abundant precursors that produce diacids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls, although some species such as oxalic acid decompose extensively during an early stage of photochemical processing.

  2. High-Precision Laboratory Measurements Supporting Retrieval of Water Vapor, Gaseous Ammonia, and Aqueous Ammonia Clouds with the Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, Paul G.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Karpowicz, Bryan M.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Noorizadeh, Sahand; Duong, Danny; Chinsomboon, Garrett; Bellotti, Amadeo; Janssen, Michael A.; Bolton, Scott J.

    2016-08-01

    The NASA Juno mission includes a six-channel microwave radiometer system (MWR) operating in the 1.3-50 cm wavelength range in order to retrieve abundances of ammonia and water vapor from the microwave signature of Jupiter (see Janssen et al. 2016). In order to plan observations and accurately interpret data from such observations, over 6000 laboratory measurements of the microwave absorption properties of gaseous ammonia, water vapor, and aqueous ammonia solution have been conducted under simulated Jovian conditions using new laboratory systems capable of high-precision measurement under the extreme conditions of the deep atmosphere of Jupiter (up to 100 bars pressure and 505 K temperature). This is one of the most extensive laboratory measurement campaigns ever conducted in support of a microwave remote sensing instrument. New, more precise models for the microwave absorption from these constituents have and are being developed from these measurements. Application of these absorption properties to radiative transfer models for the six wavelengths involved will provide a valuable planning tool for observations, and will also make possible accurate retrievals of the abundance of these constituents during and after observations are conducted.

  3. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:26794740

  4. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

    1986-12-15

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements.

  5. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous

  6. Phytochemistry, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Cucurbitaceae) in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Adedapo, Adeolu; Adewuyi, Temitayo; Sofidiya, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    The plant, and especially the fruit of Lagenaria breviflora is widely used in folklore medicine in West Africa as a herbal remedy for the treatment of human measles, digestive disorders, and as wound antiseptics (e.g. umbilical incision wound), while livestock farmers use it for Newcastle disease and coccidiosis treatment in various animal species, especially poultry. The purpose of this study was to contribute with new information on this plant leaves extract effect, as few studies have considered their effects. We collected fresh leaves of Lagenaria breviflora from the school farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in May 2011. Dried leaves were ground and a 200g sample was used to prepare the extract. The grounded leaves material was allowed to shake in 1000mL distilled water for 48h, in an orbital shaker at room temperature of 24 degreeC. The obtained extract was filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 40 degreeC, and the thick solution was lyophilized, for a final extract yield of 12.6%. Standard phytochemical methods were used to test the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides and flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of the plant was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw edema and histamine-induced paw edema in rats. The analgesic effect was determined using the acetic acid writhing method as well as formalin test in mice. Our results showed that the extract at 100 and 200mg/ kg body weight significantly reduced the formation of the oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. The extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin, signifying its analgesic effect. These results were however less than those of

  7. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  8. Glass Formulations for Immobilizing Hanford Low-Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Elliott, Michael L.; Smith, Harry D.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-02-28

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing and testing glasses for immobilizing low-activity wastes (LAW) for the full Hanford mission. PNNL is performing testing for low-activity waste glasses for both the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and the Bulk Vitrification Plant. The objective of this work is to increase the waste content of the glasses and ultimately increase the waste throughput of the LAW vitrification plants. This paper focuses on PNNL’s development and testing of glasses for the Bulk Vitrification process. Bulk Vitrification was selected as a potential supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of LAW at Hanford. Also known as In-Container Vitrification™ (ICV™), the Bulk Vitrification process combines soil, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a batch process in a refractory lined box. The process was developed by AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AMEC). Working with AMEC, PNNL developed a glass formulation that could incorporate a broad range of Hanford LAW. The initial glass development involved a “nominal” waste composition, and a baseline glass was formulated and tested at crucible, engineering, and full scales. The performance of the baseline glass was then verified using a battery of laboratory tests as well as engineering-scale and full-scale ICV™ tests. Future testing is planned for optimizing the glass waste loading and qualifying a broader range of waste streams for treatment in the Bulk Vitrification process. This paper reviews the glass development and qualification process completed to date. This includes several series of crucible studies as well as confirmation testing at engineering-scale and full-scale. This formulation paper complements information presented by AMEC in an ICV™ processing paper.

  9. SOA Formation from Glyoxal in the Aerosol Aqueous Phase: A case study from Mexico City using an explicit laboratory-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxman, E.; Dzepina, K.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Ervens, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2012-04-01

    Glyoxal is an important contributor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via aerosol aqueous phase processing. This work takes a glyoxal-SOA model parameterization based on laboratory data and applies the box model to ambient measurements. For the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) case study on April 9, 2003 the aerosol uptake and processing of glyoxal in aerosol water is investigated, and found able to rationalize the previously observed gas phase glyoxal imbalance (Volkamer et al., 2007) for the first time based on laboratory data. Our aerosol size distribution resolving model is constrained with time resolved distributions of aerosol chemical composition, and supports a surface limited uptake mechanism of glyoxal in Mexico City. We compare the AMS-measured OOA to SOA predictions using our glyoxal model combined with background aerosol, traditional VOC precursor (e.g., aromatics) SOA, and three parameterizations for SOA formation from S/IVOC, i.e., based on (1) Robinson et al., 2007, (2) Grieshop et al., 2009, and (3) GECKO-A (Lee-Taylor et al., 2011), which account for the bulk of SOA mass, but give very different results for the O/C ratio of predicted SOA. This presents to our knowledge the first comparison of a molecular perspective of S/IVOC ageing with empirical parameterizations. We compare the mass weighted O/C ratio from these different SOA sources to AMS-measured O/C ratios, in an attempt to use the rapidly increasing O/C to test for closure, and advance our understanding of aerosol ageing in Mexico City.

  10. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported.

  11. Laboratory study of vitrinite maturation rate as a function of temperature, time, starting material, aqueous fluid pressure, and oxygen fugacity — corroboration of prior work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro Mählmann, R.; Ernst, W. G.

    2003-04-01

    Kinetic investigations were performed on disaggregated samples of angiosperm and gymnosperm xylite (mainly pure huminite fragments) at 2.0 kbar aqueous fluid pressure and oxygen fugacities defined by hematite-magnetite and magnetite + quartz-fayalite buffers. Individual experiments lasted from 5 to 204 days. The rates of vitrinite reflectance (VR) increase were evaluated at 200, 250, 300, and 400 ^oC isotherms; experimentally determined, approximately steady-state values for the mean %R_r are 0.54, 0.74, 1.10, and 2.25, respectively. For geological lengths of time, appropriate values of %R_r = K_0t0.076 (where K_0 is a function of temperature, and t is in days). The overall activation energy describing the kinetics of devolatilization reactions responsible for increase in VR measured in our experiments is 21.8 ± 0.3 kJ/mol. Combined with earlier rate studies conducted by Dalla Torre et al. (1997) we conclude that the rate of vitrinite maturation is virtually unaffected by oxidation state, "wet" versus "dry" conditions, and nature of the starting lignitic material (conifers, hardwood). To a small extent, elevated lithostatic pressure retards the rate of increase in VR. Different, nonsystematic trends are observed for the resinite-exudatinite-bituminite present in the lignite material and in low temperature and short runs. Strong disequilibrium was recognized in short runs of the 200 and 250 ^oC isotherms. These new run data demonstrate that VR is chiefly a function of temperature and time. In support of earlier field, theoretical, and laboratory studies, for all but geologically insignificant time intervals, vitrinite reflectance is an appropriate proxy for host-rock burial temperature. Reference: Dalla Torre, M., Ferreiro Mählmann, R. and Ernst, W.G. (1997): Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 61/14, 2921-2928.

  12. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  13. Analytical capabilities of laboratory, benchtop and handheld X-ray fluorescence systems for detection of metals in aqueous samples pre-concentrated with solid-phase extraction disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marguí, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Queralt, I.; Van Meel, K.; Fontàs, C.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to achieve improved instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for the analysis of several elements (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd) in aqueous samples with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The metals were pre-concentrated from aqueous solutions using commercially available organic-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks functionalized with iminodiacetate groups. These thin-layer organic materials provide an ideal support for XRF analysis. The elements were collected on the SPE extraction disks using a simple filtration procedure (starting with 1 L of aqueous sample) that allows direct XRF measurements to be performed in the field (in situ). We evaluated the analytical possibilities and drawbacks of using this pre-concentration procedure in combination with the following XRF configurations: a handheld unit, a benchtop EDXRF system and a high-energy polarized-beam EDXRF instrument (HE-P-EDXRF). Using the HE-P-EDXRF system, the detection limits for all metals were more than one order of magnitude lower than those attained using handheld and benchtop EDXRF instrumentation. For the detection of metal concentrations higher than ~ 20 μg/L, however, handheld or benchtop systems remain a very good option due to their extreme simplicity of operation and low-cost, compact design. We demonstrate the application of these methodologies, using the three equipment systems, to the analysis of trace concentrations of metals in different types of aqueous samples, including tap water and waste water.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Vitex doniana Root-Bark on the Peripheral and Central Nervous System of Laboratory Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrahman, F. I.; Onyeyili, P. A.; Sandabe, U. K.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.

    Aim of this study to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Vitrex doniana on the peripheral and central nervous systems and possibility to use it as folk medicine. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana was soxhlet extracted with distilled water and concentrated in vacuo to give a yield of 8.5% w/w. The LD50 following intraperitoneal administration was estimated to be 980 mg kgG1. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana from the study produced substantial depressant effects on both the peripheral and central nervous system. The aqueous extract induced sleep on its own at dose of 400 mg kgG1 and potentiated sodium thiopental sleeping time in a dose dependant manner. It also showed significant (p< 0.05) muscle relaxant activities and produced analgesia and weal anesthetic effect. The extract was able to confer 80% protection to rats treated with convulsive dose of PTZ, while it conferred 100% protection to rats treated with convulsion dose of strychnine.

  15. Charpy impact test results for low-activation ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Hu, W.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the shift of the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the reduction of the upper shelf energy (USE) due to neutron irradiation of low activation ferritic alloys. Six low activation ferritic alloys have been tested following irradiation at 365/sup 0/C to 10 dpa and compared with control specimens in order to assess the effect of irradiation on Charpy impact properties.

  16. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2007-08-08

    The x-ray fluorescence laboratory (XRF) in the Analytical Development Directorate (ADD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop an XRF analytical method that provides rapid turnaround time (<8 hours), while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine variations in waste.

  17. Rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium sorption were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium chemical transport properties of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine the rate of strontium sorption and strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)s) between aqueous and solid phases. Rate experiments indicate that strontium in solution reached an apparent equilibrium with the sediment in 26 h. K(d)s were derived using the linear isotherm model at initial sodium concentrations from 100 to 5,000 mg/l and initial potassium concentrations from 2 to 150 mg/l. K(d)s ranged from 56 ?? 2 to 62 ?? 3 ml/g at initial aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium equal to or less than 300 and 150 mg/l, respectively. K(d)s hinged from 4.7 ?? 0.2 to 19 ?? 1 ml/g with initial aqueous concentrations of sodium between 1,000 and 5,000 mg/l. These data indicate that sodium concentrations greater than 300 mg/l in wastewater increase the availability of strontium for transport beneath waste disposal ponds at the INEL by decreasing strontium sorption on the surficial sediment. Wastewater concentrations of sodium and potassium less than 300 and 150 mg/l, respectively, have little effect on the availability of strontium for transport.The rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium sorption were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium chemical transport properties of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine the rate of strontium sorption and strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) between aqueous and solid phases. Rate experiments indicate that strontium in solution reached an apparent equilibrium with the sediment in 26

  18. Nuclear design of a very-low-activation fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Hopkins, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the nuclear design aspects of using very-low-activation materials, such as SiC, MgO, and aluminum for fusion-reactor first wall, blanket, and shield applications. In addition to the advantage of very-low radioactive inventory, it was found that the very-low-activation fusion reactor can also offer an adequate tritium-breeding ratio and substantial amount of blanket nuclear heating as a conventional-material-structured reactor does. The most-stringent design constraint found in a very-low-activation fusion reactor is the limited space available in the inboard region of a tokamak concept for shielding to protect the superconducting toroidal field coil. A reference design was developed which mitigates the constraint by adopting a removable tungsten shield design that retains the inboard dimensions and gives the same shield performance as the reference STARFIRE tokamak reactor design.

  19. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  20. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboartory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2004-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for {approx}50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R&D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant.

  1. Aqueous production.

    PubMed

    Krupin, T; Wax, M; Moolchandani, J

    1986-01-01

    The formation of aqueous humour by the ciliary body is a complex process. Active transport of solutes by the ciliary process epithelium is an energy-dependent mechanism that selectively transports substances against an electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. Water passively follows the active solute transport. In addition to these active transport processes, ultrafiltration contributes to the formation of aqueous humour. The ciliary epithelium contains enzyme systems that function in the production of aqueous humour. The enzymes sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase [(Na+:K+)ATPase] and carbonic anhydrase participate in the active transport across this epithelium. Inhibition of these enzymes lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by decreasing aqueous humour production. the ciliary epithelium contains both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Electrophysiologic studies on the isolated iris-ciliary body (I-CB) preparation provide a means to study direct effects of the adrenergic agents on transepithelial properties of the ciliary epithelium. This paper will discuss the enzymatic and adrenergic properties of the ciliary epithelium as they relate to active transport and thereby aqueous humour production. PMID:3026067

  2. Permitting plan for the immobilized low-activity waste project

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-09-04

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage and disposal of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) and (2) interim storage of TWRS immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms. Low-activity waste (LAW), low-level waste (LLW), and high-level waste (HLW) are defined by the TWRS, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE/EIS-0189, August 1996 (TWRS, Final EIS). By definition, HLW requires permanent isolation in a deep geologic repository. Also by definition, LAW is ``the waste that remains after separating from high-level waste as much of the radioactivity as is practicable that when solidified may be disposed of as LLW in a near-surface facility according to the NRC regulations.`` It is planned to store/dispose of (ILAW) inside four empty vaults of the five that were originally constructed for the Group Program. Additional disposal facilities will be constructed to accommodate immobilized LLW packages produced after the Grout Vaults are filled. The specifications for performance of the low-activity vitrified waste form have been established with strong consideration of risk to the public. The specifications for glass waste form performance are being closely coordinated with analysis of risk. RL has pursued discussions with the NRC for a determination of the classification of the Hanford Site`s low-activity tank waste fraction. There is no known RL action to change law with respect to onsite disposal of waste.

  3. Calibration of low activity caesium tubes and needles traceable to the therapy level standard.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, N A; Wilkinson, J M

    1994-02-01

    A technique for deriving the reference air kerma rate for low activity brachytherapy sources that is traceable to the therapy level standard at the National Physical Laboratory is presented. Correction factors have been generated to account for the finite source and detector size. The air kerma rate calibration of the secondary standard for caesium quality has been derived by polynomial curve fitting. The reference air kerma rates for several caesium tubes and needles have been determined and the results compared with the manufacturers' source test reports. For all the source types used the agreement between methods was within 2%. PMID:8130983

  4. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  5. Irradiation embrittlement of neutron-irradiated low activation ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayano, H.; Kimura, A.; Narui, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Ohta, S.

    1988-07-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation and additions of small amounts of alloying elements on the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of three different groups of ferritic steels were investigated by means of the Charpy impact test in order to gain an insight into the development of low-activation ferritic steels suitable for the nuclear fusion reactor. The groups of ferritic steels used in this study were (1) basic 0-5% Cr ferritic steels, (2) low-activation ferritic steels which are FeCrW steels with additions of small amounts of V, Mn, Ta, Ti, Zr, etc. and (3) FeCrMo, Nb or V ferritic steels for comparison. In Fe-0-15% Cr and FeCrMo steels, Fe-3-9% Cr steels showed minimum brittleness and provided good resistance against irradiation embrittlement. Investigations on the effects of additions of trace amounts of alloying elements on the fracture toughness of low-activation ferritic steels made clear the optimum amounts of each alloying element to obtain higher toughness and revealed that the 9Cr-2W-Ta-Ti-B ferritic steel showed the highest toughness. This may result from the refinement of crystal grains and improvement of quenching characteristics caused by the complex effect of Ti and B.

  6. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  7. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  8. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  9. Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-03-06

    This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study.

  10. Tannin (Polyphenol) Stability in Aqueous Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the chemical stability of tannins (polyphenolics) in soils is critical to understanding their biological activities and fate. We examined the stability of chemically defined tannins in aqueous solutions under conditions simulating natural and laboratory conditions. We evaluated tanni...

  11. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  12. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  13. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  14. Aqueous Solutions and their Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-04-02

    Preface of the special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry in conjunction with the international workshop "Aqueous Solutions and their Interfaces". The topics include the structure of liquid water, the analysis of X-ray and neutron scattering experimental data, the vibrational spectroscopy of liquid water, the structure and spectroscopy of aqueous interfaces and the development of theoretical approaches to model the structure and spectra of liquid water and interfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  15. Deuterium Retention and Physical Sputtering of Low Activation Ferritic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Hino; K, Yamaguchi; Y, Yamauchi; Y, Hirohata; K, Tsuzuki; Y, Kusama

    2005-04-01

    Low activation materials have to be developed toward fusion demonstration reactors. Ferritic steel, vanadium alloy and SiC/SiC composite are candidate materials of the first wall, vacuum vessel and blanket components, respectively. Although changes of mechanical-thermal properties owing to neutron irradiation have been investigated so far, there is little data for the plasma material interactions, such as fuel hydrogen retention and erosion. In the present study, deuterium retention and physical sputtering of low activation ferritic steel, F82H, were investigated by using deuterium ion irradiation apparatus. After a ferritic steel sample was irradiated by 1.7 keV D+ ions, the weight loss was measured to obtain the physical sputtering yield. The sputtering yield was 0.04, comparable to that of stainless steel. In order to obtain the retained amount of deuterium, technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was employed to the irradiated sample. The retained deuterium desorbed at temperature ranging from 450 K to 700 K, in the forms of DHO, D2, D2O and hydrocarbons. Hence, the deuterium retained can be reduced by baking with a relatively low temperature. The fluence dependence of retained amount of deuterium was measured by changing the ion fluence. In the ferritic steel without mechanical polish, the retained amount was large even when the fluence was low. In such a case, a large amount of deuterium was trapped in the surface oxide layer containing O and C. When the fluence was large, the thickness of surface oxide layer was reduced by the ion sputtering, and then the retained amount in the oxide layer decreased. In the case of a high fluence, the retained amount of deuterium became comparable to that of ferritic steel with mechanical polish or SS 316L, and one order of magnitude smaller than that of graphite. When the ferritic steel is used, it is required to remove the surface oxide layer for reduction of fuel hydrogen retention. Ferritic steel sample was

  16. Effects of Low Activity Solar Cycle on Orbital Debris Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Samual B.; Sutton, Eric K.; Lin, chin S.; Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration of low solar activity in the last solar minimum has an undesirable consequence of extending the lifetime of orbital debris. The AFRL TacSat-2 satellite decommissioned in 2008 has finally re-entered into the atmosphere on February 5th after more than one year overdue. Concerning its demise we have monitored its orbital decay and monthly forecasted Tacsat-2 re-entry since September 2010 by using the Orbital Element Prediction (OEP) model developed by the AFRL Orbital Drag Environment program. The model combines estimates of future solar activity with neutral density models, drag coefficient models, and an orbit propagator to predict satellite lifetime. We run the OEP model with solar indices forecast by the NASA Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation model, and neutral density forecast by the MSIS-00 neutral density model. Based on the two line elements in 2010 up to mid September, we estimated at a 50% confidence level TacSat-2's re-entry time to be in early February 2011, which turned out to be in good agreement with Tacsat-2's actual re-entry date. The potential space weather effects of the coming low activity solar cycle on satellite lifetime and orbital debris population are examined. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of solar flux on the orbital debris population in the 200-600 km altitude environment. The results are discussed for developing satellite orbital drag application product.

  17. Low-Activity Waste Glass Studies: FY2000 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Rector, David R.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.

    2000-11-02

    Over 200 single-pass flow-through experiments were completed with LAWABP1 glass, the reference glass for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment. These data provided the kinetic rate law parameters and Na ion-exchange rate needed to conduct long-term performance analyses using the reactive chemical transport code STORM. Pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) experiments with five prototypic LAW glasses were also performed. The PUF test provides a means to dramatically accelerate the weathering process in a simulated vadose zone environment. The performance of these five next generation LAW glasses in the PUF test (and other accelerated tests) improved dramatically from earlier glass compositions that were being developed by BNFL, Inc. No autocatalytic corrosion rate accelerations were observed in tests that were conducted for over 1 year. SPFT and PUF experiments were run with a commercial humic acid solution, 25 to 50 times more concentrated than expected in Hanford vadose zone pore water. No difference in glass dissolution rate versus the rate measured in deionized water could be detected within experimental error. Initial development and testing of a parallelized lattice-Boltzmann method for solving reactive chemical transport problems in complex geometries was completed. This method is being examined as a means to dramatically decrease the computional time required to solve complex multidimensional reactive transport problems needed to predict long-term radionuclide release rates from LAW glasses. The results showed linear speedup behavior with number of processors for a simple test problem. Additional development and testing of the model on more realistic and complex ILAW disposal problems is planned for FY01.

  18. Endothelial human dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Filho, Artur Rangel; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from eNOS. Clinical trials using BH4 to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH4. One of the oxidation products of BH4, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2), is recycled back to BH4 by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH4 treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multi-electrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH2 and BH4 which is not possible with fluorescent-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH4 and 7,8-BH2 concentrations in human ECs is lower than bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH4 transiently increased intracellular BH4 while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH2. This was different from bovine or murine ECs that resulted in preferential BH4 increase. Using BH4 diastereomers, 6S-BH4 and 6R-BH4, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH4 was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH2 to BH4 occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supra-physiological levels of 7,8-BH2, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that hDHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH2 (DHF7,8-BH2) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH2 recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies which may be further aggravated by folate supplements. PMID:23707606

  19. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  20. Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bacon, Diana H.

    2001-09-01

    Much of the data collected to support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) simulations have been obtained in the laboratory on a relatively small scale (less than 10 cm). In addition, the PA simulations themselves are currently the only means available to integrate the chemical and hydrologic processes involved in the transport of contaminants from the disposal facility into the environment. This report describes the test plan for field experiments to provide data on the hydraulic, transport, and geochemical characteristics of the near-field materials on a more representative (i.e., larger) scale than the laboratory data currently available. The experiments will also provide results that encompass a variety of transport processes likely to occur within the actual disposal facility. These experiments will thus provide the first integrated data on the ILAW facility performance and will provide a crucial dataset to evaluate the simulation-based estimates of overall facility performance used in the PA.

  1. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  3. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  4. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  5. SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION AND MODIFICATION OF U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHODS 7470 AND 7471 FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY IN AQUEOUS AND SOLID HAZARDOUS WASTES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) protocols for mercury determinations in aqueous and solid waste samples (SW-846 Methods 7470 and 7471) using recirculating cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) have been evaluated. The U.S. EPA protocols ha...

  6. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mercier, Theresa M.; Russell, Renee L.; Cozzi, Alex; Daniel, William E.; Eibling, Russell E.; Hansen, E. K.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  7. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  8. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  9. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  10. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Cooley, Scott K.; Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  11. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  12. MIPs in Aqueous Environments.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ying-chun; Ma, Hui-ting; Lu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    When organic solvent-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are used in aqueous environment, how to reduce nonspecific binding is a major challenge. By modifying the binding solvents and introducing appropriate washing and elution steps, even relatively hydrophobic MIPs can gain optimal rebinding selectivity in aqueous conditions. Furthermore, water-compatible MIPs that can be used to treat aqueous samples directly have been prepared. The use of hydrophilic co-monomers, the controlled surface modification through controlled radical polymerization, and the new interfacial molecular imprinting methods are different strategies to prepare water-compatible MIPs. By combining MIPs with other techniques, both organic solvent-compatible and water-compatible MIPs can display better functional performances in aqueous conditions. Intensive studies on MIPs in aqueous conditions can provide new MIPs with much-improved compatibilities that will lead to more interesting applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. PMID:25796623

  13. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  14. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  15. Preparation and Properties of an Aqueous Ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzel, Patricia; Adelman, Nicholas B.; Beckman, Katie J.; Campbell, Dean J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.

    1999-07-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of surfactant-coated magnetic particles in a liquid medium. This paper describes a simple synthesis of an aqueous-based ferrofluid that may be used in an introductory science or engineering laboratory. Magnetite (Fe3O4) particles are precipitated by combining FeCl3 and FeCl2 in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio in aqueous ammonia solution. The resulting particles, ~10-20 nm in diameter based on powder X-ray diffraction, are then treated with aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which acts as a surfactant. When the resulting ferrofluid is placed near a magnet, it forms conical spikes. This paper also describes a method for repelling both oil- and water-based ferrofluid from solid surfaces that would otherwise be stained by the fluid. Finally, a demonstration of the interaction between ferrofluid and magnetic fields, in which ferrofluid is induced to leap upward by a stack of magnets, is described.

  16. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  17. Continuous aqueous tritium monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-10-01

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a unique system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillator coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (approx.25kBq/L) for tritium breakthrough detection in the aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium to the environment. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-05-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important to

  19. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  20. Corrigendum to “Laboratory studies of perchlorate phase transitions: Support for metastable aqueous perchlorate solutions on Mars” [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312 (3-4) (2011) 371-377

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V. F.; Baustian, K. J.; Wise, M. E.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Perchlorate salts, recently discovered on Mars, are known to readily absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and deliquesce into the aqueous phase at room temperature. Here we study the deliquescence (crystalline solid to liquid transition) and efflorescence (liquid to crystalline solid transition) of perchlorate salts at low temperatures relevant to Mars. A Raman microscope and environmental cell were used to determine the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of NaClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature and hydration state. We find that the deliquescence of anhydrous NaClO4 is only slightly dependent on temperature and occurs at ∼38% RH. The DRH of NaClO4ṡH2O increases with decreasing temperature from 51% at 273 K to 64% at 228 K. The DRH of Mg(ClO4)2ṡ6H2O also increases with decreasing temperature from 42% at 273 K to 55% at 223 K. The efflorescence of both NaClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2 salt solutions occurs at a lower RH than deliquescence due to the kinetic inhibition of crystallization. For all temperatures studied, the ERH values of NaClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2 are 13% and 19%, respectively. These results indicate perchlorate salts can exist as metastable, supersaturated solutions over a wide range of RH and temperature conditions. Summer diurnal temperature and relative humidity cycles at low latitudes on Mars could allow the surface salts to be aqueous for several hours per day.

  1. R&D of low activation ferritic steels for fusion in japanese universities*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Akira; Kohno, Yutaka; Asakura, Kentaro; Kayano, Hideo

    1994-09-01

    Following the brief review of the R&D of low activation ferritic steels in Japanese universities, the status of 9Cr-2W type ferritic steels development is presented. The main emphasis is on mechanical property changes by fast neutron irradiation in FFTF. Bend test, tensile test, CVN test and in-reactor creep results are provided including some data about low activation ferritic steels with Cr variation from 2.25 to 12%. The 9Cr-2W ferritic steel, denoted as JLF-1, showed excellent mechanical properties under fast neutron irradiation as high as 60 dpa. As potential materials for DEMO and beyond, innovative oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) quasi-amorphous low activation ferritic steels are introduced. The baseline properties, microstructural evolution under ion irradiation and the recent progress of new processes are provided.

  2. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  3. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing of Aqueous Iron: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Stuart, Dean; Gray, H. Neil

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory experiment to illustrate the use of spectroelectrochemical techniques for determination of aqueous iron. The experiment described in this article is applicable to an undergraduate laboratory course in analytical chemistry. Students are asked to fabricate spectroelectrochemical sensors, make electrochemical and optical…

  4. Differential skeletal muscle proteome of high- and low-active mice

    PubMed Central

    Dangott, Lawrence J.; Schmitt, Emily E.; Vellers, Heather L.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer. While the literature is clear that there is genetic regulation of physical activity with existing gene knockout data suggesting that skeletal muscle mechanisms contribute to the regulation of activity, actual differences in end-protein expression between high- and low-active mice have not been investigated. This study used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry to evaluate the proteomic differences between high-active (C57L/J) and low-active (C3H/HeJ) mice in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Furthermore, vivo-morpholinos were used to transiently knockdown candidate proteins to confirm their involvement in physical activity regulation. Proteins with higher expression patterns generally fell into the calcium-regulating and Krebs (TCA) cycle pathways in the high-active mice (e.g., annexin A6, P = 0.0031; calsequestrin 1; P = 0.000025), while the overexpressed proteins in the low-active mice generally fell into cytoskeletal structure- and electron transport chain-related pathways (e.g., ATPase, P = 0.031; NADH dehydrogenase, P = 0.027). Transient knockdown of annexin A6 and calsequestrin 1 protein of high-active mice with vivo-morpholinos resulted in decreased physical activity levels (P = 0.001). These data suggest that high- and low-active mice have unique protein expression patterns and that each pattern contributes to the peripheral capability to be either high- or low-active, suggesting that different specific mechanisms regulate activity leading to the high- or low-activity status of the animal. PMID:24505100

  5. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  6. Aqueous Alteration on Mars. Chapter 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is the change in composition of a rock, produced in response to interactions with H2O-bearing ices, liquids, and vapors by chemical weathering. A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Mineralogical indicators for aqueous alteration include goethite (lander), jarosite (lander), kieserite (orbiter), gypsum (orbiter) and other Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-sulfates (landers), halides (meteorites, lander), phyllosilicates (orbiter, meteorites), hematite and nanophase iron oxides (telescopic, orbiter, lander), and Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-carbonates (meteorites). Geochemical indicators (landers only) for aqueous alteration include Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-sulfates, halides, and secondary aluminosilicates such as smectite. Based upon these indicators, several styles of aqueous alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of jarosite, gypsum, hematite, and goethite), may occur during (1) the oxidative weathering of ultramafic igneous rocks containing sulfides, (2) sulfuric acid weathering of basaltic materials, and (3) acid fog (i.e., vapors rich in H2SO4) weathering of basaltic or basaltic-derived materials. Near-neutral or alkaline alteration occurs when solutions with pH near or above 7 move through basaltic materials and form phases such as phyllosilicates and carbonates. Very low water:rock ratios appear to have been prominent at most of the sites visited by landed missions because there is very little alteration (leaching) of the original basaltic composition (i.e., the alteration is isochemical or in a closed hydrologic system). Most of the aqueous alteration appears to have occurred early in the history of the planet (3 to 4.5 billion years ago); however, minor aqueous alteration may be occurring at the

  7. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  8. Harmonization of the quantitative determination of volatile fatty acids profile in aqueous matrix samples by direct injection using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques: Multi-laboratory validation study.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael; Cacho, Jesús A; Mumme, Jan; Mohedano, Ángel F; Battimelli, Audrey; Bolzonella, David; Schuit, Anthony D; Noguerol-Arias, Joan; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Peñuela, Gustavo A; Muehlenberg, Jana; Sambusiti, Cecilia

    2015-09-25

    The performance parameters of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) measurements were assessed for the first time by a multi-laboratory validation study among 13 laboratories. Two chromatographic techniques (GC and HPLC) and two quantification methods such as external and internal standard (ESTD/ISTD) were combined in three different methodologies GC/ESTD, HPLC/ESTD and GC/ISTD. Linearity evaluation of the calibration functions in a wide concentration range (10-1000mg/L) was carried out using different statistical parameters for the goodness of fit. Both chromatographic techniques were considered similarly accurate. The use of GC/ISTD, despite showing similar analytical performance to the other methodologies, can be considered useful for the harmonization of VFAs analytical methodology taking into account the normalization of slope values used for the calculation of VFAs concentrations. Acceptance criteria for VFAs performance parameters of the multi-laboratory validation study should be established as follows: (1) instrument precision (RSDINST≤1.5%); (2) linearity (R(2)≥0.998; RSDSENSITIVITY≤4%; REMAX≤8%; REAVER≤ 3%); (3) precision (RSD≤1.5%); (4) trueness (recovery of 97-103%); (5) LOD (≤3mg/L); and (6) LOQ (10mg/L). PMID:26306912

  9. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  10. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    SciTech Connect

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  11. Preliminary Closure Plan for the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-08-31

    This document describes the preliminary plans for closure of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) disposal facility to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The facility will provide near-surface disposal of up to 204,000 cubic meters of ILAW in engineered trenches with modified RCRA Subtitle C closure barriers.

  12. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included.

  13. MILLIMETER-WAVE MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH LEVEL AND LOW ACTIVITY GLASS MELTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the proposed multi-organizational research are to develop new real-time sensors for characterizing glass melts in high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW) melters, and to understand the scientific basis and bridge the gap between glass melt model data...

  14. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  15. Rechargeable hybrid aqueous batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Gosselink, Denise; Chen, P.

    2012-10-01

    A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal (first order electrode) anode has been developed. The concept is demonstrated using LiMn2O4 and zinc metal electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte containing two electrochemically active ions (Li+ and Zn2+). The battery operates at about 2 V and preliminarily tests show excellent cycling performance, with about 90% initial capacity retention over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Use of cation-doped LiMn2O4 cathode further improves the cyclability of the system, which reaches 95% capacity retention after 4000 cycles. The energy density for a prototype battery, estimated at 50-80 Wh kg-1, is comparable or superior to commercial 2 V rechargeable batteries. The combined performance attributes of this new rechargeable aqueous battery indicate that it constitutes a viable alternative to commercial lead-acid system and for large scale energy storage application.

  16. Responsive aqueous foams.

    PubMed

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Carl, Adrian; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-01-12

    Remarkable properties have emerged recently for aqueous foams, including ultrastability and responsiveness. Responsive aqueous foams refer to foams for which the stability can be switched between stable and unstable states with a change in environment or with external stimuli. Responsive foams have been obtained from various foam stabilizers, such as surfactants, proteins, polymers, and particles, and with various stimuli. Different strategies have been developed to design this type of soft material. We briefly review the two main approaches used to obtain responsive foams. The first approach is based on the responsiveness of the interfacial layer surrounding the gas bubbles, which leads to responsive foams. The second approach is based on modifications that occur in the aqueous phase inside the foam liquid channels to tune the foam stability. We will highlight the most sophisticated approaches, which use light, temperature, and magnetic fields and lead to switchable foam stability. PMID:25384466

  17. Rheology of aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Raufaste, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Aqueous foams are suspensions of bubbles inside aqueous phases. Their multiphasic composition leads to a complex rheological behavior that is useful in numerous applications, from oil recovery to food/cosmetic processing. Their structure is very similar to the one of emulsions, so that both materials share common mechanical properties. In particular, the presence of surfactants at the gas-liquid interfaces leads to peculiar interfacial and dissipative properties. Foam rheology has been an active research topics and is already reported in several reviews, most of them covering rheometry measurements at the scale of the foam, coupled with interpretations at the local scale of bubbles or interfaces. In this review, we start following this approach, then we try to cover the multiscale features of aqueous foam flows, emphasizing regimes where intermediate length scales need to be taken into account or regimes fast enough regarding internal time scales so that the flow goes beyond the quasi-static limit. xml:lang="fr"

  18. A smart ink for the assessment of low activity photocatalytic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; O'Rourke, Christopher; Wells, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    The azo dye, basic blue 66 (BB66) is used in a photocatalyst activity indicator ink (paii) to assess the activity of low activity photocatalytic surfaces, such as commercial photocatalytic tiles and silicone contaminated self-cleaning glass. The BB66 paii is shown to respond much faster than a previously reported, resazurin (Rz) based paii, i.e. the use of a BB66 paii on low activity self-cleaning tiles was found to be >6 times faster than the Rz paii. The BB66 paii is also shown to be effective at assessing the activity of piece of commercial self-cleaning glass contaminated with a coating of silicone, on which the Rz ink, in contrast, failed to show any significant change in colour over the same time period. PMID:25219346

  19. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  20. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Dean A.; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n=49) and non-violent (n=40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P<0.0001) association between low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles and violent crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P<0.01), but reached only a marginal trend (P=0.08) in their African American counterparts. While violent crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P<0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. PMID:25082653

  1. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders.

    PubMed

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P < 0.0001) association between low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles and violent crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P < 0.01), but reached only a marginal trend (P = 0.08) in their African American counterparts. While violent crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P < 0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. PMID:25082653

  2. Low-activation properties of novel Cr-based materials for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Merola, Mario

    1996-10-01

    Due to the low neutron-induced radioactivity of their main constituent, two novel Cr-based structural materials are examined, from the low-activation properties viewpoint, as candidate first-wall materials for fusion reactors. The two alloys are Cr sbnd 5Fe sbnd 1Y 2O 3, and Cr sbnd 44Fe sbnd 5Al sbnd 0.3Ti sbnd 0.5Y 2O 3. Their low-activation properties have been compared with those of some reference materials, in particular the austenitic steel AISI 316L, the Mn-based reduced-activation steel OPTSTAB, a V sbnd 5Ti alloy and a ceramic matrix composite (SiC/SiC). Impurities and tramp elements have been included in the calculations. Irradiation conditions envisaged for the SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power) study have been adopted. Advantages of the proposed materials with respect to steels, either reference alloys or reduced-activation ones, appear evident from the results of the activation analysis. Cr sbnd 5Fe sbnd 1Y 2O 3, in particular, show excellent low-activation characteristics. This material can be a good choice for further development and characterization of first-wall and blanket structural materials for fusion power reactors.

  3. Using isotope dilution mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, D.L.; Christman, R.F.; Johnson, J.D.; Hass, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development, verification, and application of a method based on isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) at the micrograms per litre level are described. The simultaneous determination of aqueous chloroform is also demonstrated. Trichloroacetic acid is shown to be a significant by-product of the chlorination of raw waters in the laboratory and to constitute a large fraction of the total organic halide (TOX) formed. Analysis of finished-water samples indicated that TCAA, like trihalomethanes is ubiquitous. Positive correlations exist between the levels of TCAA in laboratory-chlorinated raw waters and in finished waters and measured TOX.

  4. Non-aqueous cleaning solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of environmental, safety, and health concerns exist over use of chlorinated and fluorinated cleaning solvents. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Kansas City Division of Allied Signal have combined efforts to focus on finding alternative cleaning solvents and processes which are effective, environmentally safe, and compliant with local, state, and federal regulations. An alternative solvent has been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies, where aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes are not allowed. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, has been selected as the solvent of choice, and has been found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data. The electronics industry is constantly searching for proven methods and environmentally safe materials to use in manufacturing processes. The information in this presentation will provide another option to consider on future projects for applications requiring high levels of quality, reliability, and cleanliness from non-aqueous cleaning processes.

  5. Non-aqueous cleaning solvent substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Gerald J.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of environmental, safety, and health concerns exist over use of chlorinated and fluorinated cleaning solvents. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal have combined efforts to focus on finding alternative cleaning solvents and processes which are effective, environmentally safe, and compliant with local, state, and federal regulations. An alternative solvent has been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies, where aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes are not allowed. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, was selected as the solvent of choice, and it was found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data. The electronics industry is constantly searching for proven methods and environmentally-safe materials to use in manufacturing processes. The information in this presentation will provide another option to consider on future projects for applications requiring high levels of quality, reliability, and cleanliness from non-aqueous cleaning processes.

  6. Calculation of absorbed dose around a facility for disposing of low activity natural radioactive waste (C3-dump).

    PubMed

    Jansen, J T M; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    A C3-dump is a facility for disposing of low activity natural radioactive waste containing the uranium series 238U, the thorium series 232Th and 40K. Only the external radiation owing to gamma rays, X-rays and annihilation photons is considered in this study. For two situations--the semi-infinite slab and the tourist geometry--the conversion coefficients from specific activity to air kerma rate at 1 m above the relevant level are calculated. In the first situation the waste material is in contact with the air but in the tourist geometry it is covered with a 1.35 m thick layer. For the calculations, the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is used. The yield and photon energy for each radionuclide are according to the database of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the tourist situation, the depth-dose distribution through the covering layer is calculated and extrapolated to determine the exit dose. PMID:16604673

  7. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

  9. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  10. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational

  11. Low activation energy, high-quality oxidation of Si and Ge using neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Akira; Endo, Kazuhiko; Masahara, Meishoku; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Samukawa, Seiji

    2011-05-01

    In this letter, we investigated the mechanism that forms thin silicon and germanium oxide films with a high-quality interface using a low-temperature neutral beam oxidation (NBO) process. Because NBO has high reactivity due to bombardment by energetic oxygen-neutral beams even at low substrate temperatures, we found that an extremely low activation energy for the atomic layer oxidation reaction could be achieved during the process itself. As a result, there was little suboxide at the interface between the oxide films and the semiconductor, and device characteristics with a high performance were observed.

  12. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  13. Shear Punch Properties of Low Activation Ferritic Steels Following Irradiation in ORR

    SciTech Connect

    Ermi, Ruby M.; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.; Ermi, August M.

    2001-10-01

    Shear punch post-irradiation test results are reported for a series of low activation steels containing Mn following irradiation in the Oak Ridge Reactor at 330 and 400 degrees centigrade to {approx}10 dpa. Alloy compositions included 2Cr, 9Cr and 12Cr steels with V to 1.5% and W to 1.0%. Comparison of results with tensile test results showed good correlations with previously observed trends except where disks were improperly manufactured because they were too thin or because engraving was faulty.

  14. Improving radioactive waste management: an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's low-activity waste effort.

    PubMed

    Schultheisz, Daniel J; Czyscinski, Kenneth S; Klinger, Adam D

    2006-11-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in the United States is marked by a fragmented regulatory system, with requirements that often focus on the origin or statutory definition of the waste, rather than the hazard of the material in question. It may be possible to enhance public protection by moving toward a system that provides disposal options appropriate for the hazard presented by the waste in question. This paper summarizes aspects of an approach focusing on the potential use, with appropriate conditions, of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle-C hazardous waste landfills for disposal of "low-activity" wastes and public comments on the suggested approach. PMID:17033466

  15. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  16. Detection of EUV emission from the low activity dwarf HD 4628: Evidence for a cool corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathioudakis, M.; Drake, J. J.; Vedder, P. W.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Bowyer, S

    1994-01-01

    We present observations of low activity late-type stars obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). These stars are the slowest rotators, and acoustic heating may dominate their outer atmospheric heating process. We report detection of EUV emission from the low acitivity K dwarf HD 4628 during the EUVE Deep Survey in the Lexan/boran band. This detection, in conjunction with the non-detection of this object in the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) all-sky survey, suggests the existence of a cool corona with a characteristic temperature of less than 10(exp 6) K. The flux and spectral signature are consistent with current theories of acoustic heating.

  17. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  18. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  19. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  20. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  1. Annual Summary of Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F M

    2000-05-01

    As required by the Department of Energy (DOE) order on radioactive waste management (DOE 1999a) as implemented by the Maintenance Plan for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (Mann 2000a), an annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) must be submitted to DOE headquarters each year that a performance assessment is not submitted. Considering the results of data collection and analysis, the conclusions of the 1998 version of the ILAW PA (Mann 1998) as conditionally approved (DOE 1999b) remain valid, but new information indicates more conservatism in the results than previously estimated. A white paper (Mann 2000b) is attached as Appendix A to justify this statement. Recent ILAW performance estimates used on the waste form and geochemical data have resulted in increased confidence that the disposal of ILAW will meet performance objectives. The ILAW performance assessment program will continue to interact with science and technology activities, disposal facility design staff, and operations, as well as to continue to collect new waste form and disposal system data to further increase the understanding of the impacts of the disposal of ILAW. The next full performance assessment should be issued in the spring of 2001.

  2. Mass loading of the solar wind near comet 67P at low activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Holmstrom, Mats; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Kallio, Esa; Gunell, Herbert; Burch, Jim; Carr, Chris; Eriksson, Anders; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Henri, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta mission reached comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko early August 2014, at a distance of ~3.65AU (5.47e8 km) to the Sun as 67P was heading to its perihelion. Data presented here are collected between 3.65 to 2 AU, and at the time of submission the comet still presents a low activity case. The atmosphere of 67P at low activity is permeated by the solar wind, the plasma boundaries (bow shock, ionopause) of larger objects such as planet ionosphere are not yet observed. As long as such structures are not formed, mass loading remains the main mechanism through which the comet atmosphere affects the solar wind. We show some clear examples of the effect of mass loading on the solar wind. Due to conservation of momentum, the solar wind is deflected in the opposite direction of the accelerated comet ions. As the solar wind electric field changes direction, the direction of both the accelerated comet water ions and the solar wind ions change in a correlated manner. We examine the mass loading process in detail, and discuss whether the observations of solar wind mass loading made by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyser (RPC-ICA) are consistent with basic theories of solar wind mass loading.

  3. Soil decontamination using aqueous biphasic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Gupta, D.

    1994-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to develop a biphasic extraction process for separating ultrafine particulate contaminants from soils having high amounts of silt and clay. This work has thus far dealt with the removal of refractory uranium particles from the soils at Fernald, Ohio. The separation process involves the selective partitioning of ultra-fine particles between two immiscible aqueous phases. The authors have conducted batch extraction studies and are now beginning to scaleup the process for pilot-plant testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of these extraction studies are discussed.

  4. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Simmons, R. F.; Palethorpe, S. J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  6. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  7. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  8. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  9. Aqueous cleaning design presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltby, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

  10. Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, Clark C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an aqueous-based chemical analyzer for Martian surface materials has been demonstrated to be feasible. During the processes of analysis, design, breadboarding, and most importantly, testing, it has become quite apparent that there are many challenges in implementing such a system. Nonetheless, excellent progress has been made and a number of problems which arose have been solved. The ability to conduct this work under a development environment which is separate and which precedes the project-level development has allowed us to find solutions to these implementation realities at low cost. If the instrument had been selected for a mission without this laboratory pre-project work, the costs of implementation would be much higher. In the four areas covered in Sections D, E, F, and G of this Final Report, outstanding progress has been made. There still remains the task of flight-qualifying certain of the components. This is traditionally done under the aegis of a Flight Project, but just as the concept development can be done at much lower cost when kept small and focused, so could the qualification program of critical parts benefit. We recommend, therefore, that NASA consider means of such qualifications and brass-boarding, in advance of final flight development. This is a generic recommendation, but hardware such as the Mars aqueous chemistry experiment (MACE) and other similarly-new concepts are particularly applicable. MACE now has wide versatility, in being able to reliably dispense both liquids and solids as chemical reagents to an entire suite of samples. The hardware and the experiment is much simpler than was developed for the Viking Biology instrument, yet can accomplish all the inorganic chemical measurements that the Viking desing was capable of. In addition, it is much more flexible and versatile to new experiment protocols (and reagents) than the Viking design ever could have been. MACE opens up the opportunity for many different scientific

  11. Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Clark C.

    1995-12-01

    The concept of an aqueous-based chemical analyzer for Martian surface materials has been demonstrated to be feasible. During the processes of analysis, design, breadboarding, and most importantly, testing, it has become quite apparent that there are many challenges in implementing such a system. Nonetheless, excellent progress has been made and a number of problems which arose have been solved. The ability to conduct this work under a development environment which is separate and which precedes the project-level development has allowed us to find solutions to these implementation realities at low cost. If the instrument had been selected for a mission without this laboratory pre-project work, the costs of implementation would be much higher. In the four areas covered in Sections D, E, F, and G of this Final Report, outstanding progress has been made. There still remains the task of flight-qualifying certain of the components. This is traditionally done under the aegis of a Flight Project, but just as the concept development can be done at much lower cost when kept small and focused, so could the qualification program of critical parts benefit. We recommend, therefore, that NASA consider means of such qualifications and brass-boarding, in advance of final flight development. This is a generic recommendation, but hardware such as the Mars aqueous chemistry experiment (MACE) and other similarly-new concepts are particularly applicable. MACE now has wide versatility, in being able to reliably dispense both liquids and solids as chemical reagents to an entire suite of samples. The hardware and the experiment is much simpler than was developed for the Viking Biology instrument, yet can accomplish all the inorganic chemical measurements that the Viking design was capable of. In addition, it is much more flexible and versatile to new experiment protocols (and reagents) than the Viking design ever could have been. MACE opens up the opportunity for many different scientific

  12. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-04

    The federal facilities located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been used extensively by the U.S. government to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. Currently, the Hanford Site is under the stewardship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials has accumulated, mainly in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks located in the central plateau of the Hanford Site (Mann et al., 2001). The DOE-EM Office of River Protection (ORP) is proceeding with plans to immobilize and permanently dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction onsite in a shallow subsurface disposal facility (the Integrated Disposal Facility [IDF]). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the IDF (the source term) as part of an immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass testing program to support future IDF performance assessments (PAs).

  13. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey for the immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) project W-465

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1998-09-28

    This document provides a detailed description of the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Preoperational Survey to be conducted at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Project Site in the 200 East Area.

  15. Annual summary of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment for 2003 Incorporating the Integrated Disposal Facility Concept

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F M

    2003-09-01

    To Erik Olds 09/30/03 - An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) is necessary in each year in which a full performance assessment is not issued.

  16. Mutual information and self-control of a fully-connected low-activity neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollé, D.; Carreta, D. Dominguez

    2000-11-01

    A self-control mechanism for the dynamics of a three-state fully connected neural network is studied through the introduction of a time-dependent threshold. The self-adapting threshold is a function of both the neural and the pattern activity in the network. The time evolution of the order parameters is obtained on the basis of a recently developed dynamical recursive scheme. In the limit of low activity the mutual information is shown to be the relevant parameter in order to determine the retrieval quality. Due to self-control an improvement of this mutual information content as well as an increase of the storage capacity and an enlargement of the basins of attraction are found. These results are compared with numerical simulations.

  17. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-activity waste grout stabilization development program FY-97 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Marshall, D.W.; McCray, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-activity wastes (LAW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LAW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste, (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines, (3) facility decontamination processes, and (4) process equipment waste. Grout formulation studies for sodium-bearing LAW, including decontamination and process equipment waste, continued this fiscal year. A second task was to develop a grout formulation to solidify potential process residual heels in the tank farm vessels when the vessels are closed.

  18. Mechanical properties of low activating martensitic 8?10% CrWVTa steels of type OPTIFER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, L.; Schirra, M.; Ehrlich, K.

    1996-10-01

    A series of low activating steels (OPTIFER-Ia, Ib, II, III and IV) has been developed as materials for the first wall and blanket structures of a future fusion device. The steels have been characterized by metallurgical examinations and by tests of the mechanical properties using tensile, impact bending and creep rupture tests. In comparison with conventional martensitic 9-12% CrMoVNb steels (e.g., MANET and P91 steels) a strong improvement of upper shelf impact energy and a remarkable shift to lower DBTT = -118°C was obtained, whereas other mechanical data are similar. Fracture toughness can be optimized by proper selection of austenitization temperature, quenching and tempering treatment with a preference of a lower austenitizing temperature.

  19. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-12-21

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites.

  20. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Kim, D. S.; Vienna, J. D.; Piepel, G. F.; Schweiger, M. J.

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  1. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  2. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  3. Plasma material interaction studies on low activation materials used for plasma facing or blanket component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hashiba, M.; Kohyama, A.; Katoh, Y.; Lee, Y.; Jinushi, T.; Akiba, M.; Nakamura, K.; Yoshida, H.; Sengoku, S.; Tsuzuki, K.; Kusama, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Muroga, T.

    2004-08-01

    Numerous issues on the plasma material interactions were investigated for low activation materials. Co-deposited carbon dust was prepared and the deuterium concentration was measured. The concentration was approximately half of the present design value for ITER. For ferritic steel, the deuterium retention was observed to be comparable to that of stainless steel. Physical sputtering yield was roughly the same as that for stainless steel. For the reduction of absorption rate in vanadium alloy, titanium oxide coating was conducted, and the coating was observed to be very effective for reduction of hydrogen absorption. Helium gas permeability was measured for numerous SiC/SiC composites, and the SiC/SiC composite made by the NITE process showed quite low permeability. The SiC/SiC blanket may be able to be used without helium leakage into plasma.

  4. Low-Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2011-10-01

    Abstract Research at PNNL has been directed at high-strength, low-activation joints using solid-state displacement reactions. This paper reports on further development and optimization of displacement reaction joints for the TITAN collaboration. The results reveal that fully dense and high-quality joints between SiC-composite bars are fabricated at 1623K to 1723K using 30 MPa pressure in purified argon atmospheres. Scanning electron micrographs reveal typical interpenetrating phase microstructures in the joints, which are about 10 µm thick. Blocky SiC particles are observed to nucleate preferentially at the SiC-joint interface but are more plate-like within the joint. X-ray spectroscopy reveals a uniform distribution of constituent elements consistent with the interpenetrating phases.

  5. Production of high-purity vanadium, chromium and titanium for use in low activation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1992-09-01

    The presence of radiologically potent tramp elements must be strictly controlled if the intrinsic low activation properties of alloys based on vanadium and chromium are to be fully realized. In this study the incidence of critical impurity elements in commercial sources of vanadium, chromium and titanium metals and precursor compounds is investigated using techniques for trace element analysis. Maximum permitted concentrations corresponding to the attainment of the “hands-on” dose rate limit of 25 μSvh-1 after 100 yr cooling of first wall material were adopted as target values. Chromium and titanium from commercial sources are able to satisfy the purity target. Commercially available vanadium may contain unacceptable levels of Mo, Ag, Nb or Co and additional purification steps designed to remove these impurities are described.

  6. Mechanical property changes of low activation ferritic/martensitic steels after neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Hirose, T.; Hamilton, M. L.; Narui, M.

    Mechanical property changes of Fe- XCr-2W-0.2V,Ta ( X: 2.25-12) low activation ferritic/martensitic steels including Japanese Low Activation Ferritic/martensitic (JLF) steels and F82H after neutron irradiation were investigated with emphasis on Charpy impact property, tensile property and irradiation creep properties. Dose dependence of ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) in JLF-1 (9Cr steel) irradiated at 646-700 K increased with irradiation up to 20 dpa and then decreased with further irradiation showing highest DBTT of 260 K at 20 dpa. F82H showed similar dose dependence in DBTT to JLF-1 with higher transition temperature than that of JLF-1 at the same displacement damage. Yield strength in JLF steels and F82H showed similar dose dependence to that of DBTT. Yield strength increased with irradiation up to 15-20 dpa and then decreased to saturate above about 40 dpa. Irradiation hardening in 7-9%Cr steels (JLF-1, JLF-3, F82H) were observed to be smaller than those in steels with 2.25%Cr (JLF-4) or 12%Cr (JLF-5). Dependences of creep strain on applied hoop stress and neutron fluence were measured to be 1.5 and 1, respectively. Temperature dependence of creep coefficient showed a maximum at about 700 K which was caused by irradiation induced void formation or irradiation enhanced creep deformation. Creep coefficient of F82H was larger than those of JLF steels above 750 K. This was considered to be caused by the differences in N and Ta concentration between F82H and JLF steels.

  7. Performance and Limitations of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanners for Imaging Very Low Activity Sources

    PubMed Central

    Freedenberg, Melissa; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging applications for positron emission tomography (PET) may require the ability to image very low activity source distributions in the body. The performance of clinical PET scanners in the regime where activity in the field of view is <1 MBq has not previously been explored. In this study, we compared the counting rate performance of two clinical PET/CT scanners, the Siemens Biograph Reveal 16 scanner which is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detectors and the GE Discovery-ST scanner which is based on bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using a modified National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 protocol. Across the activity range studied (2-100 kBq/mL in a 5.5 mL line source in the NEMA scatter phantom), the BGO-based scanner significantly outperformed the LSO-based scanner. This was largely due to the effect of background counts emanating from naturally occurring but radioactive 176Lu within the LSO detector material, which dominates the observed counting rate at the lowest activities. Increasing the lower energy threshold from 350 keV to 425 keV in an attempt to reduce this background did not significantly improve the measured NECR performance. The measured singles rate due to 176Lu emissions within the scanner energy window was also found to be dependent on temperature, and to be affected by the operation of CT component, making approaches to correct or compensate for the background more challenging. We conclude that for PET studies in a very low activity range, BGO-based scanners are likely to have better performance because of the lack of significant background. PMID:23680361

  8. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Elmekawy, A; Ewell, L; Butuceanu, C; Qu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length{sup 11}C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of{sup 11}C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation.

  9. Assessing low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams

    SciTech Connect

    Page, W.D.; Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Dams have been a familiar construct in the northern Sierra Nevada range in California (north of the San Joaquin River) since the forty-niners and farmers diverted water to their gold mines and farms in the mid 19th century. Today, more than 370 dams dot the region from the Central Valley to the eastern escarpment. Fifty-five more dam streams on the eastern slope. The dams are of all types: 240 earth fill; 56 concrete gravity; 45 rock and earth fills; 35 rock fill; 14 concrete arch; 9 hydraulic fill; and 29 various other types. We use the northern Sierra Nevada to illustrate the assessment of low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams. The approach, techniques, and methods of evaluation are applicable to other regions characterized by low seismicity and low-activity faults having long recurrence intervals. Even though several moderate earthquakes had shaken the Sierra Nevada since 1849 (for example, the 1875 magnitude 5.8 Honey Lake and the 1909 magnitudes 5 and 5.5 Downieville earthquakes), seismic analyses for dams in the area generally were not performed prior to the middle of this century. Following the 1971 magnitude 6.7 San Fernando earthquake, when the hydraulic-fill Lower Van Norman Dam in southern California narrowly escaped catastrophic failure, the California Division of Safety of Dams and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required seismic safety to be addressed with increasing rigor. In 1975, the magnitude 5.7 Oroville earthquake on the Cleveland Hill fault near Oroville Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills, showed convincingly that earthquakes and surface faulting could occur within the range. Following this event, faults along the ancient Foothills fault system have been extensively investigated at dam sites.

  10. MCNPX simulation of influence of cosmic rays on low-activity spectrometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Kovář, Petr; Dryák, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Germanium gamma spectrometers are effective instruments for low-activity measurement of a mixture of radionuclides in environmental samples, food samples, in materials released from nuclear facilities to the environment, etc. In such measurements cosmic rays have a significant contribution to the background signal. A Monte Carlo code MCNPXTM was used to calculate coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector pulse-height spectra caused by cosmic rays penetrating through shielding made of concrete and lead. Simulations were compared to two different measurements, one performed inside a 10 cm thick lead shielding and another done inside a larger chamber made of low-activity concrete and with several ceiling thicknesses. In the first experiment, a discrepancy was found between simulated and measured spectra by up to the factor of 4 at 2.62 MeV and slowly decreasing to unity at 13 MeV. It is assumed that the discrepancy between the measured and simulated spectra is caused by the simplification of muon energy losses treatment resulting in the underestimation of count rate in simulated pulse-height spectrum. Good agreement was obtained between simulation and measurement of differences of detector count rates in 662 keV and 1332 keV energy windows inside a concrete chamber with varying ceiling thickness. It is assumed that due to lower effective Z of concrete, delta electron bremsstrahlung has lower yield and the muon radiation energy losses start to be important at higher energies than in lead. As a result, the total contribution of these effects to the outputs of MCNPXTM simulations of concrete chamber is not dominant in the investigated energy windows and the simulation results are in a close agreement with the measurement.

  11. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  12. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Minckler, Don; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Li, Tianjing; Mathew, Milan; Ayyala, Ramesh; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Aqueous shunts are employed for intraocular pressure (IOP) control in primary and secondary glaucomas that fail medical, laser, and other surgical therapies. Objectives This review compares aqueous shunts for IOP control and safety. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, NRR in January 2006, LILACS to February 2004 and reference lists of included trials. Selection criteria We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials in which one arm of the study involved shunts. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data for included studies and a third adjudicated discrepancies. We contacted investigators for missing information. We used fixed-effect models and summarized continuous outcomes using mean differences. Main results We included fifteen trials with a total of 1153 participants with mixed diagnoses. Five studies reported details sufficient to verify the method of randomization but only two had adequate allocation concealment. Data collection and follow-up times were variable. Meta-analysis of two trials comparing Ahmed implant with trabeculectomy found trabeculectomy resulted in lower mean IOPs 11 to 13 months later (mean difference 3.81 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.69 mm Hg). Meta-analysis of two trials comparing double-plate Molteno implant with the Schocket shunt was not done due to substantial heterogeneity. One study comparing ridged with standard double-plate Molteno implants found no clinically significant differences in outcome. Two trials investigating the effectiveness of adjunctive mitomycin (MMC) with the Molteno and Ahmed implants found no evidence of benefit with MMC. Two trials that investigated surgical technique variations with the Ahmed found no benefit with partial tube ligation or excision of Tenon's capsule. One study concluded there were outcome advantages with a double versus a single-plate Molteno implant and one trial comparing the 350 mm2 and 500 mm2 Baerveldt shunts found no

  13. The aqueous stability of a Mars salt analog: Instant Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, D. L.; Davis, R. D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Due to their stability in low-temperature conditions, aqueous salt solutions are the favored explanation for potential fluid features observed on present-day Mars. A salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations at the Phoenix landing site as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument. "Instant Mars" closely replicates correct relative concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. A Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cellprobed liquid water uptake and loss by Instant Mars particles in a Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) environment. Our experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions starting at 56 ± 5% RH between 235 K and 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution at or above 13 ± 5% RH. Particle levitation using an optical trap examined the phase state and morphology of suspended Instant Mars particles exposed to changing water vapor conditions at room temperature. Levitation experiments indicate that water uptake began at 42 ± 8% RH for Instant Mars particles at 293 K. As RH is decreased at 293 K, the aqueous Instant Mars particles transition into a crystalline solid at 18 ± 7% RH. These combined results demonstrate that Instant Mars can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in low-RH conditions.

  14. Aqueous complexes in f-element separation science

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-11-01

    Powerful and/or selective extractant molecules/sorbents are a necessary component of an efficient ion exchange or solvent extraction separation process. However, selectivity in extraction and efficiency in process design often rely on reactions occurring in or moderated by the aqueous medium. The focus of this report in on the role of the aqueous phase and reaction that occur in aquo in defining separation efficiency and metal ion selectivity. As the programmatic emphasis is on actinide solution chemistry, the separations chemistry of the f-elements will be used to illustrate the principal role of aqueous chemistry in separation science. Most of the arguments developed apply to metal ion separations chemistry and processes in general. The discussion will consider the application of aqueous complexants, incorporation of aqueous complexants into the extracted complex, and the effect of properties of the aqueous medium on separation efficiency and selectivity. Several historically important separations processes will be considered along with recent efforts in these laboratories to design and characterize new water soluble complexants for improved f-element separations.

  15. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  16. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  17. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  18. Development of aqueous tritium effluent monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been evaluated and tested in an attempt to develop a monitor for tritium at low-levels in aqueous streams. One system tested was commercially available, HPLC radioactivity monitor. This system uses crushed yttrium silicate as the scintillator and employs standard fast coincidence electronics to measure tritium in a flowing stream. Laboratory tests of this unit indicate that the monitor can sense tritium at concentrations above 600 pCi/cc using a two (2) minute counting interval. Pooling the count rate data over a longer interval, (e.g.,. 24 hours) results in a detection limit of {approximately}20 pCi/cc, under constant background conditions. Unfortunately, the cells are easily plugged with debris even under laboratory conditions. To overcome this problem, a prototype system was designed, fabricated, and is being tested in the laboratory. The prototype used unclad fibers of plastic scintillator as the detection medium. Approximately 500 1mm-diam fibers were assembled into a flow cell with two 51mm-diam photomultipliers (PMTs) coupled to the ends of the fiber bundles to detect the scintillations. Fast coincidence, pulse shaping electronics are used to minimize the single photon and dark current backgrounds. The tritium counting efficiency, background, and sensitivity will be determined in the laboratory followed by field reliability testing. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  20. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  1. Unusual mercury isotopic compositions in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Hintelmann, H.; Zheng, W.; Feng, X.; Cai, H.; Wang, Z.; Yuan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary studies have demonstrated both mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in natural samples. Laboratory experiments showed that photochemical reduction of inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MMHg) and liquid-vapour evaporation could produce MIF of odd Hg isotopes. This was thought to cause the MIF actually observed in aquatic organisms. Although isotopic measurements of Hg in aqueous environment would give direct evidence, little data was reported for surface water samples. Recent work reported, unexpectedly, positive MIF of odd Hg isotopes in both precipitation and ambient air, in contrast with the prediction of laboratory experiments and measurements of Hg accumulated in lichens . Intriguingly, MIF of even-mass Hg isotope (200Hg) was also recently determined in the atmosphere. In contrast with the now mainstream observation of odd Hg isotope anomaly that has several theoretical explanations, the hitherto mysterious even Hg isotope anomalies were neither reported in laboratory experiments, nor predicted by isotope fractionation mechanisms, highlighting the importance of further study on Hg isotopes in variable systems. Our measurements of lichens and lake water samples from different countries show for the first time significant Δ200Hg in surface terrestrial reservoirs, realizing a direct connection of even Hg isotope anomaly in the terrestrial reservoirs to the atmospheric deposition, and fulfilling the gap of Δ200Hg between the atmosphere and the terrestrial receptors. The specific odd Hg isotope compositions determined in lake waters also support the atmosphere contribution, and may be directly linked to the high Δ199Hg values largely determined and manifested on the top of aqueous food web. Our data show that the watershed Hg input is another contributing source, rather than the in-lake processes, to explain the lacustrine Hg isotope anomalies. Interestingly, lake sediments are isotopically

  2. Iodine solubility in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass at 1000 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Iovin, Cristian; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Dixon, Derek R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; McCloy, John S.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 99.4-24,005 ppm iodine (by mass). Each mixture was added to an ampoule, heated at 1000 °C for 2 h, and then air quenched. In samples with ⩾11,999 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified by X-ray diffraction as mixtures of KI, NaI, and Na2SO4. Iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10,000 ppm. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6I2, were observed in the 24,005 ppm specimen.

  3. Irradiation creep of low-activation ferritic steels in FFTF/MOTA*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, A.; Kohno, Y.; Asakura, K.; Yoshino, M.; Namba, C.; Eiholzer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Irradiation creep behavior of low-activation steels, developed as structural materials for fusion reactors (JLF series steels), was investigated to obtain a fundamental understanding of these alloys under fast neutron irradiation in FFTF. (2.25-8)Cr(1-2)W bainitic steels and 12Cr-2W ferritic steels showed superior creep resistance to type-316 stainless steels under fast neutron irradiation up to 520°C. At temperatures below 460°C the creep strain increased with increasing Cr content up to 7 Cr, and further increments of Cr content up to 12% reduced the creep strain. At temperatures between 460 and 600°C, 7-8 Cr ferritic steels showed the largest creep strain. Swelling-enhanced creep, near the peak swelling temperature of 410°C, was also observed. The 9Cr-2W ferritic steel JLF-1 presented excellent properties, suggesting it as a leading candidate alloy for structural components of fusion reactors.

  4. Neutron irradiation effects on the microstructure of low-activation ferritic alloys*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, A.; Matsui, H.

    1994-09-01

    Microstructures of low-activation ferritic alloys, such as 2.25% Cr-2% W, 7% Cr-2% W, 9% Cr-2% W and 12% Cr-2% W alloys, were observed after FFTF irradiation at 698 K to a dose of 36 dpa. Martensite in 7% Cr-2% W, 9% Cr-2% W and 12% Cr-2% W alloys and bainite in 2.25% Cr-2% W alloy were fairly stable after the irradiation. Microvoids were observed in the martensite in each alloy but not in bainite and δ-ferrite in 12% Cr-2% W alloys. An addition of 0.02% Ti to 9% Cr-2% W alloy considerably reduced the void density. Spherical (Ta, W) and Ti-rich precipitates were observed in the Ti-added 9% Cr-2% W alloy. Precipitates observed in 9% Cr-2% W and 7% Cr-2% W alloys are mainly Cr-rich M 23C 6 (Ta, W) and Ta(W)-rich M 6C and Fe-rich Laves phase. In 2.25% Cr-2% W alloy, high density of fine (Ta, W)-rich M 2C type precipitates as well as M 6C were observed. Spherical small α' Cr-rich particles were observed in both martensite and α-ferrite in 12% Cr-2% W alloys. Correlation between postirradiation microstructure and irradiation hardening is shown and discussed for these alloys.

  5. Dependence of grain boundary chemistry on the irradiation dose in low activation ferritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, A.; Charlot, L. A.; Gelles, D. S.; Jones, R. H.

    1994-09-01

    Grain boundary chemistries in low activation 9%Cr-2%Mn-1%W and 12%Cr-6%Mn-1%W steels were measured by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) after irradiations in the FFTF/MOTA at 638 K up to doses of 10 and 25 dpa. In 12%Cr-6%Mn-1%W steel, grain boundary concentration of Si increased with an increase in the irradiation dose from 10 to 25 dpa. Segregation of Mn, however, appeared to saturate or even decreased with the increase. The average size of grain boundary precipitates was increased during the irradiation from 10 to 25 dpa. It is considered that beyond the 10 dpa irradiation, Mn-rich precipitates at grain boundaries absorb Mn atoms segregated at grain boundaries, resulting in the growth of grain boundary precipitates and the reduction of segregated Mn atoms in elemental form at grain boundaries. It is possible that Si atoms which may compete site with Mn atoms at grain boundaries begin to segregate at grain boundaries. In contrast, no significant change in grain boundary chemistry was recognized in 9%Cr-2%Mn-1%W alloy with the increase in irradiation dose from 10 to 25 dpa.

  6. Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructural evolution in candidate low activation ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira; Yoshino, Masahiko; Asakura, Kentaro

    1994-09-01

    Fe-(2.25-12)Cr-2W-V, Ta low activation ferritic steels (JLF series steels) were developed in the fusion materials development program of Japanese universities. Microstructural observations, including precipitation response, were performed after neutron irradiation in the FFTF/MOTA. The preirradiation microstructure was stable after irradiation at low temperature (< 683 K). Recovery of martensitic lath structure and coarsening of precipitates took place above 733 K. Precipitates observed after irradiation were the same as those in unirradiated materials in 7-9Cr steels, and no irradiation induced phase was identified. The irradiation induced shift in DBTT in the 9Cr-2W steel proved to be very small which is a reflection of stable precipitation response in these steels. A high density of fine α' precipitates was observed in the 12Cr steel which might be responsible for the large irradiation hardening found in the 12Cr steel. Void formation was observed in 7-9Cr steels irradiated at 683 K, but the amount of void swelling was very small.

  7. Groundwater Flow and Transport Calculations Supporting the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2000-12-04

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model and its application to the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility Performance Assessment (PA). The site-wide model and supporting local-scale models are used to evaluate impacts from the transport of contaminants at a hypothetical well 100 m downgradient of the disposal facilities and to evaluate regional flow conditions and transport from the ILAW disposal facilities to the Columbia River. These models were used to well-intercept factors (WIFs) or dilution factors from a given areal flux of a hypothetical contaminant released to the unconfined aquifer from the ILAW disposal facilities for two waste-disposal options: 1) a remote-handled trench concept and 2) a concrete-vault concept. The WIF is defined as the ratio of the concentration at a well location in the aquifer to the concentration of infiltrating water entering the aquifer. These WIFs are being used in conjunction with calculations of released contaminant fluxes through the vadose zone to estimate potential impacts from radiological and hazardous chemical contaminants within the ILAW disposal facility at compliance points.

  8. Differential gene expression in high- and low-active inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Michelle; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia T; Ceaser, Tyrone; Kochan, Kelli J; Riggs, Penny K; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Numerous candidate genes have been suggested in the recent literature with proposed roles in regulation of voluntary physical activity, with little evidence of these genes' functional roles. This study compared the haplotype structure and expression profile in skeletal muscle and brain of inherently high- (C57L/J) and low- (C3H/HeJ) active mice. Expression of nine candidate genes [Actn2, Actn3, Casq1, Drd2, Lepr, Mc4r, Mstn, Papss2, and Glut4 (a.k.a. Slc2a4)] was evaluated via RT-qPCR. SNPs were observed in regions of Actn2, Casq1, Drd2, Lepr, and Papss2; however, no SNPs were located in coding sequences or associated with any known regulatory sequences. In mice exposed to a running wheel, Casq1 (P = 0.0003) and Mstn (P = 0.002) transcript levels in the soleus were higher in the low-active mice. However, when these genes were evaluated in naïve animals, differential expression was not observed, demonstrating a training effect. Among naïve mice, no genes in either tissue exhibited differential expression between strains. Considering that no obvious SNP mechanisms were determined or differential expression was observed, our results indicate that genomic structural variation or gene expression data alone is not adequate to establish any of these genes' candidacy or causality in relation to regulation of physical activity. PMID:24551844

  9. Lessons learned from reactive transport modeling of a low-activity waste glass disposal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Peter McGrail, B.

    2003-04-01

    A set of reactive chemical transport calculations were conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) code to evaluate the long-term performance of a representative low-activity waste glass in a shallow subsurface disposal system located on the Hanford site. Two different trench designs were considered, one with four rows of small waste packages (old design), the other with three layers of larger waste packages (new design). One-dimensional (1D) simulations were carried out to 20,000 yr, whereas two-dimensional (2D) simulations could only be carried out for 10,000 yr due to constraints on computational time. Both the 1D and 2D simulations predicted that the technetium release rate from the waste packages would be lower for the new trench design at times greater than 1 yr. Having fewer, larger waste packages decreases the glass surface area exposed to reaction with pore water. In the 2D simulations, water can flow around the waste packages, which causes a decrease in the water flux through the waste packages and lower release rates than predicted in the 1D simulations. This result reinforces the importance of performing multi-dimensional waste form release simulations.

  10. Study of irradiation effects in China low activation martensitic steel CLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qunying; Li, Jiangang; Chen, Yixue

    2004-08-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFM steels) are presently considered as the primary structural materials for a demonstration (DEMO) fusion plant and the first fusion power reactors because of their attractive properties. Studies on various properties of China low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) are underway. The activation level of CLAM steel was calculated with the widely used inventory code FISPACT with the latest data library FENDL/A-2 based on the first wall (FW) neutron spectrum of the fusion-driven subcritical system (FDS) from the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP/4C calculation with FENDL-2 data library. The results were compared with the activation levels of other RAFM steels, such as EUROFER97, F82H, JLF-1 and 9Cr-2WVTa etc., under the same irradiation conditions. Furthermore, the dominant nuclides to γ-ray dose rate of CLAM steel were analyzed. The required control levels of impurities in CLAM steel will soon be implemented based on the hands-on and remote recycling dose rate limits.

  11. Low-activity waste envelope definitions for the TWRS Privatization Phase I Request For Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Patello, G.K.; Lauerhass, L.; Myers, R.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    Radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. Approximately 212 million liters of waste containing approximately 240,000 metric tons of processed chemicals and 177 mega-curies of radionuclides are now stored in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes are in the form of liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludge. In 1991, the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established to manage, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of these wastes in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The Department of Energy (DOE) has believes that it is feasible to privatize portions of the TWRS Program. Under the privatization strategy embodied in the Request for Proposal (RFP), DOE will purchase services from a contractor-owned, contractor-operated facility under a fixed-price contract. Phase I of the TWRS privatization strategy is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort. The objectives of Phase I are to demonstrate the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes are identified for Phase I of the privatization contract and are representative of the range of Hanford double-shelled tank (DST) waste.

  12. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  13. Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Iovin, Cristian; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Dixon, Derek R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Mccloy, John S.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 100–24000 ppm iodine (by mass), each mixture was added to an ampoule, the ampoule was heated at 1000 °C for 2 h and then air quenched. In samples with ≥12000 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts during cooling that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified as mixtures of KI, NaI, and Na2SO4 with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10000 ppm by mass. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6I2, were observed in the 24000 ppm specimen and were verified with micro-XRD and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.

  14. Redox-Dependent Solubility of Technetium in Low Activity Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Mccloy, John S.

    2014-03-01

    The solubility of technetium was measured in a Hanford low activity waste glass simulant. The simulant glass was melted, quenched and pulverized to make a stock of powdered glass. A series of glass samples were prepared using the powdered glass and varying amounts of solid potassium pertechnetate. Samples were melted at 1000°C in sealed fused quartz ampoules. After cooling, the bulk glass and the salt phase above the glass (when present) were sampled for physical and chemical characterization. Technetium was found in the bulk glass up to 2000 ppm (using the glass as prepared) and 3000 ppm (using slightly reducing conditions). The chemical form of technetium obtained by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy can be mainly assigned to isolated Tc(IV), with a minority of Tc(VII) in some glasses and TcO2 in two glasses. The concentration and speciation of technetium depends on glass redox and amount of technetium added. Solid crystals of pertechnetate salts were found in the salt cake layer that formed at the top of some glasses during the melt.

  15. Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Liu, Juan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility of rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.

  16. Studies on A-TIG welding of Low Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (LAFM) steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasantharaja, P.; Vasudevan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Low Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steels (LAFM) are chosen as the candidate material for structural components in fusion reactors. The structural components are generally fabricated by welding processes. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas (A-TIG) welding is an emerging process for welding of thicker components. In the present work, attempt was made to develop A-TIG welding technology for LAFM steel plates of 10 mm thick. Activated flux was developed for LAFM steel by carrying out various bead-on-plate TIG welds without flux and with flux. The optimum flux was identified as one which gave maximum depth of penetration at minimum heat input values. With the optimized flux composition, LAFM steel plate of 10 mm thickness was welded in square butt weld joint configuration using double side welding technique. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy was used for characterizing the microstructures. Microhardness measurements were made across the weld cross section for as welded and post weld heat treated samples. Tensile and impact toughness properties were determined. The mechanical properties values obtained in A-TIG weld joint were comparable to that obtained in weld joints of LAFM steel made by Electron beam welding process.

  17. Interdiffusion behaviors of iron aluminide coatings on China low activation martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. X.; Yang, H. G.; Yuan, X. M.; Zhao, W. W.; Zhan, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The iron aluminide coating on China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was prepared by pack cementation and subsequent heat treatment. A surface Fe2Al5 layer was formed on CLAM substrate by pack cementation process with Fe2Al5 donor powder and NH4Cl activator. Diffusion heat treatment was performed in order to allow the phase transformation from Fe2Al5 to a phase with lower aluminum content. Morphology and composition of the coatings were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). There is a need to study the interdiffusion behaviors in these Al containing systems, as a basis for controlling the formation and subsequent degradation of the coating. In this paper, a predictive model was developed to describe the phase transformation of Fe2Al5 as a function of processing parameters. The Wagner's equation was used to calculate the interdiffusion coefficients based on the analysis of the Al concentration profiles. The results showed that the interdiffusion coefficients in the FeAl and α-Fe(Al) phase strongly depends on Al content and showed a maximum at about 28 at.% Al.

  18. NMR Studies on the Aqueous Phase Photochemical Degradation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2008-04-06

    Aqueous phase photochemical degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important pathway in several environments, including washout lagoon soils, impact craters from partially detonated munitions that fill with rain or groundwater, and shallow marine environments containing unexploded munitions that have corroded. Knowledge of the degradation products is necessary for compliance issues on military firing ranges and formerly used defense sites. Previous laboratory studies have indicated that UV irradiation of aqueous TNT solutions results in a multicomponent product mixture, including polymerization compounds, that has been only partially resolved by mass spectrometric analyses. This study illustrates how a combination of solid and liquid state 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy, including two dimensional analyses, provides complementary information on the total product mixture from aqueous photolysis of TNT, and the effect of reaction conditions. Among the degradation products detected were amine, amide, azoxy, azo, and carboxylic acid compounds.

  19. Aqueous photolysis of niclosamide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graebing, P.W.; Chib, J.S.; Hubert, T.D.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The photodegradation of [14C]niclosamide was studied in sterile, pH 5, 7, and 9 buffered aqueous solutions under artificial sunlight at 25.0 A? 1.0 A?C. Photolysis in pH 5 buffer is 4.3 times faster than in pH 9 buffer and 1.5 times faster than in pH 7 buffer. In the dark controls, niclosamide degraded only in the pH 5 buffer. After 360 h of continuous irradiation in pH 9 buffer, the chromatographic pattern of the degradates was the same regardless of which ring contained the radiolabel. An HPLC method was developed that confirmed these degradates to be carbon dioxide and two- and four-carbon aliphatic acids formed by cleavage of both aromatic rings. Carbon dioxide was the major degradate, comprising 40% of the initial radioactivity in the 360 h samples from both labels. The other degradates formed were oxalic acid, maleic acid, glyoxylic acid, and glyoxal. In addition, in the chloronitroaniline-labeled irradiated test solution, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was observed and identified after 48 h of irradiation but was not detected thereafter. No other aromatic compounds were isolated or observed in either labeled test system.

  20. Aqueous chlorination of resorcinol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heasley, V.L.; Burns, M.D.; Kemalyan, N.A.; Mckee, T.C.; Schroeter, H.; Teegarden, B.R.; Whitney, S.E.; Wershaw, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the aqueous chlorination (NaOCl) of resorcinol is reported. The following intermediates were detected in moderate to high yield at different pH values and varying percentages of chlorination: 2-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,4-dichloro-, 4,6-dichloro- and 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. Only trace amounts of the intermediates were detected when the chlorination was conducted in the presence of phosphate buffer. This result has significant implications since resorcinol in phosphate buffer has been used as a model compound in several recent studies on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during chlorination of drinking water. Relative rates of chlorination were determined for resorcinol and several of the chlorinated resorcinols. Resorcinol was found to chlorinate only three times faster than 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. The structure 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol was established as a monohydrate even after sublimation. A tetrachloro or pentachloro intermediate was not detected, suggesting that the ring-opening step of such an intermediate must be rapid. ?? 1989.

  1. White paper: cleanout of tank 241-AP-108 for storage of phase 1 pretreated low-activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, D.E.

    1999-06-24

    This white paper evaluates the feasibility of cleaning tank 241-AP-108 for storage of pretreated low-activity waste. The maximum allowable heel inventories for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, and TRu are established. Cesium-137 was found to be the limiting radionuclide for tank 241-AP-108 cleanout. Equipment requirements for cleanout are identified and risks associated with extended storage of pretreated low-activity waste are discussed. This evaluation assumes that tank 241-AP-108 will be used for storage of pretreated low-activity waste from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 in accordance with the 1996 Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract with BNFL Inc. Alternatives are currently under development that would not require this storage function. This document is being issued to capture the work performed to date.

  2. Rate of organic film formation and oxidation on aqueous drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, E.; Tabazadeh, A.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that saturated fatty acids or other lipids, which are known to be strong film-forming agents, form condensed films on aqueous drops. Specifically, stearic acid (SA) has been used in laboratory and modeling studies to mimic the surface composition of some particles in the atmosphere. In this study, laboratory measurements were used to determine the rate of SA spreading from a solid on aqueous surfaces,ranging in composition from ammonium sulfate to highly acidic sulfuric acid. Maximum spreading rates were measured on neutral electrolyte solutions, while spreading was not observed on aqueous sulfuric and hydrochloric acids (pH < 0). Also, the spreading rates on water and electrolyte surfaces declined sharply as the solution pH was lowered from 7 to 3. Spreading rates are reported with a dependence on the length of solid-aqueous-air boundary (triple interface perimeter). Spreading rates measured on bulk solutions were modeled on atmospheric particles to determine the time constant of organic film formation on aqueous drops. The time required for a saturated fatty acid to spread and coat a submicron salt particle or a cloud drop is on the order of seconds to minutes or minutes to hours, respectively. In conclusion, lipid coatings can form quickly on neutral or slightly acidic salt drops if a sufficient amount of lipid is present in the drop and the lipid is in direct contact with the aqueous solution surface. Rapid film formation and fast heterogeneous oxidation can provide an efficient way of converting water-insoluble organic films into more water-soluble components in aerosols or cloud drops.

  3. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  4. CAPSULE REPORT: AQUEOUS MERCURY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes established technologies and identifies evolving methods for treating aqueous mercury. The information provided encompasses full-, pilot- and bench-scale treatment results as presented in the technical literature. The report describes alternative technologi...

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  7. Use of Pseudophase TLC in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Daniel W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that pseudophase liquid chromatography, which uses aqueous surfactant solutions instead of organic solvents for the mobile phase, can be substituted for thin-layer chromatography in the introductory organic course. Outlines the method as it applies to common separations in the laboratory. (JN)

  8. Viscosity-stabilized aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, D. R.

    1981-01-27

    Thiourea functions as a solution viscosity stabilizer in aqueous compositions comprising thiourea, nonionic polymers such as polyalkylene oxides and anionic surfactants such as petroleum sulfonates. The aqueous compositions are useful in connection with fluid-drive oil recovery processes, processes for drilling, completing, or working over wells, or the like processes in which a thickened fluid is injected into or brought into contact with a subterranean earth formation.

  9. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  10. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  11. Human Aqueous Humor Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dismuke, W. Michael; Challa, Pratap; Navarro, Iris; Stamer, W. Daniel; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) is a dynamic intraocular fluid that supports the vitality of tissues that regulate intraocular pressure. We recently discovered that extracellular nanovesicles called exosomes are a major constituent of AH. Exosomes function in extracellular communication and contain proteins and small RNA. Our goal was to characterize the physical properties of AH exosomes and their exosomal RNA (esRNA) content. We isolated exosomes from human AH collected during cataract surgery from five patients using serial ultracentrifugation. We measured the size and concentration of AH exosomes in solution using nanoparticle tracking analysis. We found a single population of vesicles having a mean size of 121±11nm in the unprocessed AH. Data show that centrifugation does not significantly affect the mean particle size (121±11nm versus 124±21nm), but does impact the final number of exosomes in solution (87% loss from the unprocessed AH; n=5). We extracted esRNA from the pooled human AH samples using miRCURY RNA isolation kit from Exiqon. The quality of extracted esRNA was evaluated using Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100 and was used to generate a sequencing library for small RNA sequencing with Illumina MiSeq sequencer. More than 10 different miRNAs were identified; abundant species included miR-486-5p, miR-204, and miR-184. We found that the majority of extracellular vesicles in the AH were in the exosome size range, suggesting that miRNAs housed within exosomes may function in communication between AH inflow and outflow tissues. PMID:25619138

  12. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  13. All-aqueous multiphase microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Sauret, Alban; Cheung Shum, Ho

    2013-01-01

    Immiscible aqueous phases, formed by dissolving incompatible solutes in water, have been used in green chemical synthesis, molecular extraction and mimicking of cellular cytoplasm. Recently, a microfluidic approach has been introduced to generate all-aqueous emulsions and jets based on these immiscible aqueous phases; due to their biocompatibility, these all-aqueous structures have shown great promises as templates for fabricating biomaterials. The physico-chemical nature of interfaces between two immiscible aqueous phases leads to unique interfacial properties, such as an ultra-low interfacial tension. Strategies to manipulate components and direct their assembly at these interfaces needs to be explored. In this paper, we review progress on the topic over the past few years, with a focus on the fabrication and stabilization of all-aqueous structures in a multiphase microfluidic platform. We also discuss future efforts needed from the perspectives of fluidic physics, materials engineering, and biology for fulfilling potential applications ranging from materials fabrication to biomedical engineering. PMID:24454609

  14. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  15. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation, frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness, the two types of transducers, and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  16. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation; frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness; the two types of transducers; and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  17. Simulator for SUPO, a Benchmark Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-10-14

    A simulator has been developed for SUPO (Super Power) an aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) that operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1951 to 1974. During that period SUPO accumulated approximately 600,000 kWh of operation. It is considered the benchmark for steady-state operation of an AHR. The SUPO simulator was developed using the process that resulted in a simulator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system, which has been previously reported.

  18. Conductive polymer coatings for anodes in aqueous electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfantazi, A. M.; Moskalyk, R. R.

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the potential application of electrically conductive polymers as protective coatings for permanent lead anodes employed in aqueous electrowinning processes. Also presented are results from a preliminary study of the performance of two intrinsically conductive polymers (polyaniline and poly 3,4,5-trifluorophenylthiophene [TFPT]) under mild copper electrowinning conditions as conductive and protective coatings on anodic surfaces. The laboratory results indicated that using lead alloy anodes coated with TFPT merits continued research.

  19. Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment 2001 Version [Formerly DOE/RL-97-69] [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-08-01

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-activity fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the byproduct of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste is stored in underground single- and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low-activity and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by vitrification. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at the Hanford Site until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to modify the current Disposal Authorization Statement for the Hanford Site that would allow the following: construction of disposal trenches; and filling of these trenches with ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers.

  20. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  1. Effect of Sulfate on Rhenium Partitioning during Melting of Low-Activity Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tongan; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    The volatile loss of technetium-99 (99Tc) is a major concern of the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification at Hanford. We investigated the incorporation and volatile loss of Re (a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc) during batch-to-glass conversion up to 1100°C. The AN-102 feed, which is one of the representative Hanford LAW feeds, containing 0.59 wt% of SO3 (in glass if 100% retained) was used. The modified sulfate-free AN-102_0S feed was also tested to investigate the effect of sulfate on Re partitioning and retention during melting. After heating of the dried melter feed (mixture of LAW simulant and glass forming/modifying additives) to different temperatures, the heat-treated samples were quenched. For each heat-treated sample, the salts (soluble components in room temperature leaching), early glass forming melt (soluble components in 80°C leaching), and insoluble solids were separated by a two-step leaching and the chemical compositions of each phase were quantitatively analyzed. The final retention ratio of AN-102 and AN-102_0S in glass (insoluble solids) are 32% and 63% respectively. The presence of sulfate in the salt phase between 600 and 800°C leads to a significantly higher Re loss via volatilization from the salt layer. At ≥800°C, for both samples, there is no more incorporation of Re into the insoluble phase because: for AN-102_0S there is no salt left i.e., the split into the insoluble and gas phases is complete by 800°C and for AN-102 all the Re contained in the remaining salt phase is lost through volatilization. The present results on the effect of sulfate, although not directly applicable to LAW vitrification in the melter, will be used to understand the mechanism of Re incorporation into glass to eventually develop the methods that can increase the 99Tc retention during LAW vitrification at Hanford.

  2. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ≈ P2O5 > Na2O ≈ B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ≈ SnO2 > Others ≈ SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  3. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore » turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ≈ P2O5 > Na2O ≈ B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ≈ SnO2 > Others ≈ SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  4. Reduction of noise in the beta camera for low activity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ljunggren, K.L.; Strand, S.E. . Radiation Physics Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    The Beta-camera'' is a position sensitive light detector based on a photocathode, microchannel plates and a resistive anode adapted with a plastic scintillator (0.3 mm NE102A). The light from the scintillator is collected in a manner similar to conventional scintillation (Anger-type) cameras. The Beta-camera'' used in the past in the authors laboratory for imaging of biomedical samples, has a noise level of about 50 counts per second. It is desirable to reduce this noise, in order to improve the detectability in the biological samples. Accordingly in this paper, the authors report on a coincidence technique that reduces the noise level to almost zero.

  5. Low-activity radioactive materials management at the U.S. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    Marcinowski, Frank; Tonkay, Douglas W

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is making significant progress with the cleanup of its legacy radioactively-contaminated facilities and sites left from research and development and production of nuclear materials and weapons. Sites like Rocky Flats, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Fernald, Mound, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are faced daily with decisions related to disposition of waste and radioactive material. One key to this success is the disposition of waste arising from cleanup. Most of the generated waste volume has very low levels of radioactive contamination. The waste includes contaminated soil, debris from demolition, or scrap metal and equipment. The cost of disposing of large volumes of waste can be prohibitive, so there is incentive to find innovative ways to disposition wastes. This paper describes the current status of policy development in this area, such as development of a draft programmatic environmental impact statement and monitoring of related rulemaking at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper also provides an overview of draft U.S. DOE guidance on control and release of property with residual radioactive material, and site-specific applications of DOE guidance. PMID:17033462

  6. Laboratory for Characterization of Irradiated Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A. Moore

    2010-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center (IRC). The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research is in support of the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment — a major material irradiation experiment within the NGNP Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials.

  7. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  8. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  9. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluent which has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion for analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, a toluene-based cocktail showed the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%). In another technique, the sensitivity of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium in aqueous solutions was measured. The most efficient solid scintillator had a 2% tritium detection efficiency. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency.

  10. Amphoteric Aqueous Hafnium Cluster Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Park, Deok-Hie; Amador, Jenn M; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May

    2016-05-17

    Selective dissolution of hafnium-peroxo-sulfate films in aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide enables extreme UV lithographic patterning of sub-10 nm HfO2 structures. Hafnium speciation under these basic conditions (pH>10), however, is unknown, as studies of hafnium aqueous chemistry have been limited to acid. Here, we report synthesis, crystal growth, and structural characterization of the first polynuclear hydroxo hafnium cluster isolated from base, [TMA]6 [Hf6 (μ-O2 )6 (μ-OH)6 (OH)12 ]⋅38 H2 O. The solution behavior of the cluster, including supramolecular assembly via hydrogen bonding is detailed via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The study opens a new chapter in the aqueous chemistry of hafnium, exemplifying the concept of amphoteric clusters and informing a critical process in single-digit-nm lithography. PMID:27094575

  11. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  12. Novel insights about salting-effects and reactivity of soluble molecules in aqueous aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Organic carbon in the atmosphere modifies the lifetime of climate active gases such as O3, and CH4 (oxidative capacity), and forms aerosols that affect Earth's radiation balance. Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) molecules are well established to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in cloud water. However, the chemistry and rate of SOA formation in aqueous aerosol is less well known, and is typically ignored in atmospheric models. Aqueous particles provide a very different chemical environment than clouds, i.e., they are the most concentrated aqueous salt solution that can be found on Earth. As a result of high ionic strength, phase separations of inorganic and organic phases, mass transfer limitations and viscosity effects affect the chemistry in aqueous particles, which proceeds via essentially different reaction pathways than in clouds. Of particular importance in this context is the Henry's law partitioning coefficient. Laboratory experiments show activity coefficients of 1/500 for Henry's law partitioning coefficients of glyoxal in concentrated aqueous aerosol- salt solutions. This salting-in mechanism is investigated in laboratory experiments, and shown to be a major driver in the rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the multiphase chemistry of soluble species like glyoxal. This solicited talk will summarize and discuss new experimental findings from simulation chamber experiments, and bulk reactor experiments to assess the Setschenow salting behavior of soluble molecules in different aqueous seed types, and study the effect of anthropogenic triggers such as sulfate and ammonium for the reactivity of multiphase reactions in the aerosol aqueous phase.

  13. Aqueous slurries of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

    1984-03-13

    Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of carbonaceous material in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of sodium alginate, guar gum, locust bean gum, carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar gum, hydroxypropyl guar gum and guarpak guar gum. For example, a mixture of 96.8% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 3.2% by weight of sodium alginate can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.31% by weight of the slurry.

  14. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION TREATMENT PROCESS FOR THE LOW ACTIVITY FRACTION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Lowery, P.S.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Snyder, T.; McElroy, J.L.

    2003-02-27

    AMEC Earth & Environmental, Inc. and RWE NUKEM Corporation have teamed to develop and apply a waste pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process for low activity waste (LAW) from Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The pretreatment and bulk vitrification process utilizes technologies that have been successfully deployed to remediate both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes at nuclear power plants, DOE sites, and commercial waste sites in the US and abroad. The process represents an integrated systems approach. The proposed AMEC/NUKEM process follow the extraction and initial segregation activities applied to the tank wastes carried out by others. The first stage of the process will utilize NUKEM's concentrate dryer (CD) system to concentrate the liquid waste stream. The concentrate will then be mixed with soil or glass formers and loaded into refractory-lined steel containers for bulk vitrification treatment using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process. Following the vitrification step, a lid will be placed on the container of cooled, solidified vitrified waste, and the container transported to the disposal site. The container serves as the melter vessel, the transport container and the disposal container. AMEC and NUKEM participated in the Mission Acceleration Initiative Workshop held in Richland, Washington in April 2000 [1]. An objective of the workshop was to identify selected technologies that could be combined into viable treatment options for treatment of the LAW fraction from selected Hanford waste tanks. AMEC's ICV process combined with NUKEM's CD system and other remote operating capabilities were presented as an integrated solution. The Team's proposed process received some of the highest ratings from the Workshop's review panel. The proposed approach compliments the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) by reducing the amount of waste that the WTP would have to process. When combined with the capabilities of the WTP, the proposed approach

  16. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    BP McGrail, WL Ebert, DH Bacon, DM Strachan

    1998-02-18

    Privatized services are being procured to vitrify low-activity tank wastes for eventual disposal in a shallow subsurface facility at the Hanford Site. Over 500,000 metric tons of low-activity waste glass will be generated, which is among the largest volumes of waste within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and is one of the largest inventories of long-lived radionuclides planned for disposal in a low-level waste facility. Before immobilized waste can be disposed, DOE must approve a "performance assessment," which is a document that describes the impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Because the release rate of radionuclides from the glass waste form is a key factor determining these impacts, a sound scientific basis for determining their long-term release rates must be developed if this disposal action is to be accepted by regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and the public. In part, the scientific basis is determined from a sound testing strategy. The foundation of the proposed testing strategy is a well accepted mechanistic model that is being used to calculate the glass corrosion behavior over the geologic time scales required for performance assessment. This model requires that six parameters be determined, and the testing program is defined by an appropriate set of laboratory experiments to determine these parameters, and is combined with a set of field experiments to validate the model as a whole. Three general classes of laboratory tests are proposed in this strategy: 1) characterization, 2) accelerated, and 3) service condition. Characterization tests isolate and provide specific information about processes or parameters in theoretical models. Accelerated tests investigate corrosion behavior that will be important over the regulated service life of a disposal system within a laboratory time frame of a few years or less. Service condition tests verify that the techniques used in accelerated tests do not change

  17. State of Supported Nickel Nanoparticles during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, Zizwe; Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Yong; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-11-09

    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was determined during aqueous phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, the NiO and Ni(OH)2 were readily reduced to Ni(0) under reaction conditions (~35 bar H2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5 wt. % phosphoric acid at 473 K). On the silica support, less than 70% of the Ni was converted to Ni(0) under reaction conditions, which is attributed to the formation of Ni phyllosilicates. Over a broad range of reaction conditions there was no leaching of Ni from the supports. In contrast, rapid leaching of the Ni(II) from HZSM-5 was observed, when 15 wt. % aqueous acetic acid was substituted for the aqueous phenol solution. Once the metallic state of Ni was established there was no leaching in 15 wt. % acetic acid at 473 K and 35 bar H2. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The STEM was supported under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program: Chemical Imaging Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. STEM was performed at EMSL, a DOE Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL.

  18. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  19. Statement of Work (SOW) for FY 2001 to FY 2006 for the Hanford Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH, R.J.

    2000-07-25

    This document describes the tasks included in the Hanford Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment activity though the close of the project in 2028. Near-term (2001-2006) tasks are described in detail, while tasks further in the future are simply grouped by year. The major tasks are displayed in the table provided. The major goals of the performance assessment activity are to provide the technical basis for the Department of Energy to continue to authorize the construction of disposal facilities, the onsite disposal of immobilized low-activity Hanford tank waste in those facilities, and the closure of the disposal facilities. Other significant goals are to provide the technical basis for the setting of the specifications of the immobilized waste and to support permitting of the disposal facilities.

  20. Development of a low activation concrete shielding wall by multi-layered structure for a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Maegawa, Toshio; Yoshimatsu, Kenji; Sato, Koichi; Nonaka, Akira; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-10-01

    A multi-layered concrete structure has been developed to reduce induced activity in the shielding for neutron generating facilities such as a fusion reactor. The multi-layered concrete structure is composed of: (1) an inner low activation concrete, (2) a boron-doped low activation concrete as the second layer, and (3) ordinary concrete as the outer layer of the neutron shield. With the multi-layered concrete structure the volume of boron is drastically decreased compared to a monolithic boron-doped concrete. A 14 MeV neutron shielding experiment with multi-layered concrete structure mockups was performed at FNS and several reaction rates and induced activity in the mockups were measured. This demonstrated that the multi-layered concrete effectively reduced low energy neutrons and induced activity.

  1. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  2. Aqueous Zinc Bromide Waste Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2002-07-23

    The goal of this study was to select one or more commercially available aqueous sorbents to solidify the zinc bromide solution stored in C-Area, identify the polymer to zinc bromide solution ratio (waste loading) for the selected sorbents, and identify processing issues that require further testing in pilot-scale testing.

  3. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  4. Germanium: An aqueous processing review

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, R.J.M. van; Dreisinger, D.B.

    1995-08-01

    In industrial aqueous solutions, germanium generally occurs in trace amounts amid high concentrations of other metals, such as zinc, copper and iron. Separation of germanium from these metals as well as its isolation from gallium and indium pose a real challenge to the hydrometallurgist. After a brief discussion of the aqueous chemistry of germanium, this paper reviews the flowsheet of the Apex Mine in Utah. The Apex property was the only mine in the world to be operated primarily for production of gallium and germanium, but apparently closed due to great operating difficulties. Several process variants proposed for the treatment of the Apex ore, including bioleaching methods, are addressed. Following a more general description of the behavior of germanium in hydrometallurgical zinc processing streams, available technology for its recovery from aqueous solutions is summarized. Precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electrowinning, ion flotation and liquid-membrane separation are all outlined in terms of the aqueous chemistry of germanium. Finally, the production of high purity germanium dioxide and metal is briefly discussed. 61 refs.

  5. A High-Conduction Ge Substituted Li3AsS4 Solid Electrolyte with Exceptional Low Activation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Gayatri; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Li, Juchuan; Chen, Yan; An, Ke; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes show potential to enable high-energy-density secondary batteries and offer distinctive safety features as an advantage over traditional liquid electrolytes. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity, low activation energy, and outstanding electrochemical stability in crystalline solid electrolytes is a challenge for the synthesis of novel solid electrolytes. Herein we report an exceptionally low activation energy (Ea) and high room temperature superionic conductivity via facile aliovalent substitution of Li3AsS4 by Ge, which increased the conductivity by two orders of magnitude as compared to the parent compound. The composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 mScm-1 at 27oC. Local Li+ hopping in this material is accompanied by distinctive low activation energy Ea of 0.17 eV being the lowest of Li+ solid conductors. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the efficacy of surface passivation of solid electrolyte to achieve compatibility with metallic lithium electrodes.

  6. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  7. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  8. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Low-Activity Waste Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2003-02-14

    This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes containing a high concentration of I-129 in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vaults at the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These wastes were analyzed by computer modeling incorporating a laboratory-measured I-129 Kd. A Kd represents partitioning of a contaminant between solid particles (i.e., the waste) and liquid that can transport the contaminant. These wastes exhibited high Kds indicating a slow release rate that typically is manifested as low aquifer concentrations and high vault-inventory limits. This SA applies to ER and ETF wastes and any type of future waste that contains a high concentration of I-129. This SA was prepared to meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE 1999). Because the Performance Assessment (PA, McDowell-Boyer, et al., 2000) analyzes generic wastes, this report focuses on wastes with a high I-129 concentration. Common information from the PA is not duplicate d in this report.

  9. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aqueous shunt. 886.3920 Section 886.3920 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3920 Aqueous shunt. (a) Identification. An aqueous shunt is an... Review Guidance of 2/12/90 (K90-1),” and (3) “Aqueous Shunts—510(k) Submissions.”...

  10. Sporostatic and sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; David, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous formaldehyde is shown to exert both sporostatic and sporocidal effects on Bacillus subtilis spores. The sporostatic effect is a result of the reversible inhibition of spore germination occasioned by aqueous formaldehyde; the sporocidal effect is due to the temperature-dependent inactivation of these spores in aqueous formaldehyde. The physicochemical state of formaldehyde in solution provides a framework with which to interpret both the sporostatic and sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde.

  11. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  12. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 μg m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  13. Stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, M.J.; Sciafani, L.D.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution having a pH below 7 and an amount of Ferric ion up to about 2 ppm comprising hydrogen peroxide, acetanilide having a concentration which ranges between 0.74 M Mol/L and 2.22 mMol/L, and o-benzene disulfonic acid or salt thereof at a concentration between about 0.86 mMol/L to about 1.62 mMol/L.

  14. The Melting of Aqueous Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durian, Douglas J.; Gopal, Anthony D.; Vera, Moin U.; Langer, Stephen A.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy measurements show that ordinarily solid aqueous foams flow by a series of stick-slip avalanche-like rearrangements of neighboring bubbles from one tight packing configuration to another. Contrary to a recent prediction, the distribution of avalanche sizes do not obey a power-law distribution characteristic of self-organized criticality. This can be understood from a simple model of foam mechanics based on bubble-bubble interactions.

  15. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  16. Non-aqueous electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, G.E.; Kronenberg, M.L.

    1983-08-23

    The invention relates to the use in a non-aqueous electrochemical cell of an electrolyte comprising a solute dissolved in a solvent which is an oxyhalide of an element of Group V or Group VI of the Periodic Table. The oxyhalide solvent serves the dual function of acting as the solvent for the electrolyte salt and as the active cathode depolarizer of the cell.

  17. Non-aqueous electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, G.E.; Kronenberg, M.L.

    1984-04-24

    The invention relates to the use in a non-aqueous electrochemical cell of a conductive electrolyte comprising an ionizing solute dissolved in a mixture of a selected halide of an element of Group IV to Group VI of the Periodic Table and a cosolvent. The selected halide serves the dual function of acting as a solvent for the solute and as the active cathode depolarizer of the cell.

  18. Modeling reactive geochemical transport of concentrated aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Zuoping; Wan, Jiamin

    2005-02-01

    Aqueous solutions with ionic strength larger than 1 M are usually considered concentrated aqueous solutions. These solutions can be found in some natural systems and are also industrially produced and released into accessible natural environments, and as such, they pose a big environmental problem. Concentrated aqueous solutions have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. They are usually strongly acidic or strongly alkaline, with the ionic strength possibly reaching 30 M or higher. Chemical components in such solutions are incompletely dissociated. The thermodynamic activities of both ionic and molecular species in these solutions are determined by the ionic interactions. In geological media the problem is further complicated by the interactions between the solutions and sediments and rocks. The chemical composition of concentrated aqueous solutions when migrating through the geological media may be drastically altered by these strong fluid-rock interactions. To effectively model reactive transport of concentrated aqueous solutions, we must take into account the ionic interactions. For this purpose we substantially extended an existing reactive transport code, BIO-CORE2D©, by incorporating a Pitzer ion interaction model to calculate the ionic activity. In the present paper, the model and two test cases of the model are briefly introduced. We also simulate a laboratory column experiment in which the leakage of highly alkaline waste fluid stored at Hanford (a U.S. Department of Energy site, located in Washington State) was studied. Our simulation captures the measured pH evolution and indicates that all the reactions controlling the pH evolution, including cation exchanges and mineral dissolution/precipitation, are coupled.

  19. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  20. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  1. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn; Piper, Roman K.; Peters, Jerry D.; Murphy, Mark K.; Mercado, Mike S.; Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.

    2003-07-15

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  2. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Murphy, Mark K.; Myers, Lynette E.; Piper, Roman K.; Rolph, James T.

    2005-07-09

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  3. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  4. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  5. Geochemical Modeling Of Aqueous Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-09-07

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This description pertains to version 7.2b. It addresses aqueous speciation, thermodynamic equilibrium, disequilibrium, and chemical kinetics. The major components of the package are EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code, and EQ6 a reaction path code. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of equilibrium or disequilibrium. It also initializes EQ6 calculations. EQ6 models themore » consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a specified set of reactants (e.g., minerals or waste forms). It can also model fluid mixing and the effects of changes in temperature. Each of five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer''s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25 degrees C only to 0-300 degrees C.« less

  6. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J

    2016-07-28

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  7. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  8. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  9. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  10. Aqueous cleaning and verification processes for precision cleaning of small parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gale J.; Fishell, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) has developed a totally aqueous process for precision cleaning and verification of small components. In 1990 the Precision Cleaning Facility at KSC used approximately 228,000 kg (500,000 lbs) of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 113 in the cleaning operations. It is estimated that current CFC 113 usage has been reduced by 75 percent and it is projected that a 90 percent reduction will be achieved by the end of calendar year 1994. The cleaning process developed utilizes aqueous degreasers, aqueous surfactants, and ultrasonics in the cleaning operation and an aqueous surfactant, ultrasonics, and Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) in the nonvolatile residue (NVR) and particulate analysis for verification of cleanliness. The cleaning and verification process is presented in its entirety, with comparison to the CFC 113 cleaning and verification process, including economic and labor costs/savings.

  11. Sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors from low temperature to high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Md; Somer, M.

    2016-08-01

    As the "low activation" superconductor, Mg11B2 has a potential application in superconducting coils for fusion reactor. In present work, the sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors were systemically studied from low temperature to high temperature. It was found that the Jc and Hirr values of Mg11B2 bulks in present work are both obviously higher than that of those samples prepared in previous studies. Furthermore, the low-temperature sintered samples exhibit better Jc performance at high fields than the high-temperature sintered samples, due to strong grain boundaries pinning. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintered samples have higher Jc at low fields compared to low-temperature sintered samples, mainly owing to their better crystallinity and grain connectivity. The highest Jc value (2.20 ×105 A cm-2 at 20 K, self-field) is obtained in the Mg11B2 sample sintered at 850 °C for 45 min.

  12. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-05-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields.

  13. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M; Somer, M

    2016-01-01

    Mg(11)B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the "low activation superconductors". The un-doped Mg(11)B2 and Cu-doped Mg(11)B2 bulks using (11)B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg(11)B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg(11)B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg(11)B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg(11)B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  14. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  15. A data base and a standard material for use in acceptance testing of low-activity waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.F.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.; Strachan, D.M.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have conducted replicate dissolution tests following the product consistency test (PCT) procedure to measure the mean and standard deviation of the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si at various combinations of temperature, duration, and glass/water mass ratio. Tests were conducted with a glass formulated to be compositionally similar to low-activity waste products anticipated for Hanford to evaluate the adequacy of test methods that have been designated in privatization contracts for use in product acceptance. An important finding from this set of tests is that the solution concentrations generated in tests at 20 C will likely be too low to measure the dissolution rates of waste products reliably. Based on these results, the authors recommend that the acceptance test be conducted at 40 C. Tests at 40 C generated higher solution concentrations, were more easily conducted, and the measured rates were easily related to those at 20 C. Replicate measurements of other glass properties were made to evaluate the possible use of LRM-1 as a standard material. These include its composition, homogeneity, density, compressive strength, the Na leachability index with the ANSI/ANS 16.1 leach test, and if the glass is characteristically hazardous with the toxicity characteristic leach procedure. The values of these properties were within the acceptable limits identified for Hanford low-activity waste products. The reproducibility of replicate tests and analyses indicates that the glass would be a suitable standard material.

  16. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  17. Evaluation of aqueous preparations from herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Vitková, Zuzana; Brázdovicová, Bronislava; Ralbovská, Katarína; Halenárová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results obtained within analysis of aqueous preparations obtained from the herbal drugs, (APHD) which are available in pharmacy as mass produced drugs. In particular, the following drugs were analyzed: CYNAROFIT, L'ALIAFIT, Tinctura belladonnae, Tinctura gentianae, Tinctura chinae a Tinctura valerianae made by Calendula, j.s.c.--Slovakia and Tinctura valerianae made by IVAX-Czech republic. Tictura valerianae magistraliter was prepared in a laboratory. The APHDs were analyzed under the following aspects: amount of dry matter, density, index of refraction, pH value, content of ethanol, influence of the light on these parameters as well as the global appearance of samples. In parallel to that, the stability of samples Tinctura valerianae prepared by two different manufacturers and the samples of magistraliter preparations were compared. It was found that storing samples delivered by Calendula j.s.c. does not significantly influenced their stability neither in the light nor in the dark, kept at the temperature of 20-25 degrees C over the time interval of 6 months. All samples were in agreement with the norms of companies as well as with both Czechoslovak (CSL 4) and Slovak (SL 1) pharmacopoeias. Besides, the results obtained show that a kind of extraction methods (percolation, maceration) does not influence neither quality nor stability of the samples Tinctura valerianae. PMID:20210084

  18. Degradation of Sodium-Polyacrylate in Dilute Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, Takao

    1980-12-01

    It is shown using a capillary viscometer that the viscosity of a dilute aqueous solution of sodium-polyacrylate at 20°C decreases gradually for each flow time measurement and also decreases with the time of rest. Assuming that the polymer degradation is caused by shearing stress and oxidation, their effects are discussed with the data obtained using a closed-type capillary viscometer derived for this investigation. It is proved from the results that rupture of the Na-PAA molecule is caused by mechanochemical degradation, and also photo-degradation under the usual illumination and sunlight in a laboratory.

  19. Development of the Aqueous Processes for Removing NOx from Flue Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Gilford A.

    A screening study was conducted to evaluate the capability of aqueous solutions to scrub NOx from the flue gases emitted by stationary power plants fired with fossil fuels. The report summarizes the findings of this laboratory program. The experimental program studied the following media for absorption of NOx from flue gases containing no NOx:…

  20. ADIPIC ACID DEGRADATION MECHANISM IN AQUEOUS FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field and laboratory study of the adipic acid degradation mechanism in aqueous flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. (Adding adipic acid to limestone-based, SO2 wet scrubbers increases SO2 removal and limestone utilization. However, as much as 80% ...

  1. Remote measurements of actinide species in aqueous solutions using an optical fiber photoacoustic spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.E. ); Robouch, P.B.; Silva, R.J. )

    1990-09-26

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, equipped with an 85 meter optical fiber, was used to perform absorption measurements of lanthanide and actinide samples, located in a glovebox. The spectrometer was tested using aqueous solutions of praseodymium and americium ions; the sensitivity for remote measurements was found to be similar to that achieved in the laboratory without the fiber. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Aqueous photocatalytic oxidation of sulfamethizole.

    PubMed

    Klauson, D; Krichevskaya, M; Borissova, M; Preis, S

    2010-12-14

    Aqueous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of a non-biodegradable sulphonamide antibiotic sulfamethizole was studied. The impacts of photocatalyst dose, initial pH, and substrate concentration in the range from 1 to 100 mg L(-1) were examined with a number of organic and inorganic by-products determined, suggesting the initial break-up of the SMZ molecule at the sulphonamide bond. The experiments were carried out under artificial near-UV and visible light, and solar radiation using Degussa P25 and less efficient visible light-sensitive C-doped titanium dioxide as photocatalysts. PMID:21275251

  3. Supramolecular Polymers in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Elisha; Bastings, Maartje M C; Besenius, Pol; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2016-02-24

    This review discusses one-dimensional supramolecular polymers that form in aqueous media. First, naturally occurring supramolecular polymers are described, in particular, amyloid fibrils, actin filaments, and microtubules. Their structural, thermodynamic, kinetic, and nanomechanical properties are highlighted, as well as their importance for the advancement of biologically inspired supramolecular polymer materials. Second, five classes of synthetic supramolecular polymers are described: systems based on (1) hydrogen-bond motifs, (2) large π-conjugated surfaces, (3) host-guest interactions, (4) peptides, and (5) DNA. We focus on recent studies that address key challenges in the field, providing mechanistic understanding, rational polymer design, important functionality, robustness, or unusual thermodynamic and kinetic properties. PMID:26727633

  4. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  5. Thermosensitive aqueous solutions of polyvinylacetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Tai; Wang, Yusong; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Qingren; Pang, Wenmin; Xu, Guoyong; Lu, Fei

    2006-04-01

    The dimethylketals of poly(vinyl alcohol), termed polyvinylacetone (PVKA), of moderate ketalization degree in the range from 0.28 to 0.6 exhibited temperature-induced phase transition in aqueous solution, as revealed by cloud point measurements and electron micrographs, which was then further investigated on molecular level using solution-state 1H NMR measurements. The present phase transition is caused by the amphiphilic characteristics in the polymer chain. Moreover, this finding could be further applied as a novel strategy in the syntheses of thermosensitive polymer by the hydrophobic functionalities of linear polyol.

  6. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-03-03

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE’s initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost.

  7. Ultrasound induced aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wheat, P E; Tumeo, M A

    1997-01-01

    An investigation to determine the ability of ultrasonic radiation to chemically alter polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous solution has been conducted. The data indicate that chemical alteration of PAHs can be induced under intense ultrasonic treatment. The extent and outcome of reaction is a function of irridation time and aqueous solution parameters. Reaction products were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Reaction products from ultrasonic treatment of aqueous solutions of biphenyl include ortho, meta, and para-1,1 biphenols. The principal product from ultrasonic treatment of aqueous phenanthrene solutions appears to be a phenanthrene-diol. The number and composition of reaction products for both PAHs tested suggest that a free radical mechanism is likely during aqueous high intensity ultrasonic treatment. The use of ultrasound to treat PAH contaminated aqueous solutions in tandem with other methodologies appears promising. However, the toxicity of reaction products produced by treatment remains to be determined. PMID:11233926

  8. Chondritic Asteroids--When Did Aqueous Alteration Happen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Using a synthesized fayalite (Fe2SiO4) standard for improved 53Mn-53Cr radiometric age dating, Patricia Doyle (previously at the University of Hawaii and now at the University of Cape Town, South Africa) and coauthors from Hawaii, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, University of Chicago, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, analyzed aqueously formed fayalite in the ordinary chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 (L3.05) and in the carbonaceous chondrites Asuka 881317 (CV3) and MacAlpine Hills 88107 (CO3-like) from Antarctica. The data obtained indicate that liquid water existed - and aqueous alteration started - on the chondritic parent bodies about three million years earlier than previously determined. This discovery has implications for understanding when and where the asteroids accreted. The 53Mn-53Cr chronology of chondrite aqueous alteration, combined with thermodynamic calculations and physical modeling, signifies that hydrated asteroids, at least those sampled by meteorites, accreted in the inner Solar System (2-4 AU) near the main asteroid belt 2-4 million years after the beginning of the Solar System, rather than migrating inward after forming in the Solar System's colder, outer regions beyond Jupiter's present orbit (5-15 AU).

  9. Advanced oxidation of alkylphenol ethoxylates in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Nagarnaik, Pranav M; Boulanger, Bryan

    2011-10-01

    Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates are ubiquitous wastewater contaminants. In this study the oxidation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO) by oxidant systems generating hydroxide radicals was evaluated. The reaction of each oxidant with a technical mixture of NPEO (Tergitol™) and OPEO (Triton X-100™) in ultrapure laboratory water and four aqueous environmental matrices was carried out in order to develop an understanding of reaction kinetics. The oxidation of APEOs was evaluated by hydroxyl radical generated by (1) hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ultraviolet light, (2) Fenton's reagent, and (3) a photo-Fenton's process. The second order kinetic rate constant for both NPEO and OPEO with hydroxyl radical was calculated to be 1.1×10¹⁰ M⁻¹ s⁻¹. The efficacy of the AOPs within an aqueous environmental matrix was dependent on the rate of formation of hydroxyl radical and the scavenging capacity of the matrix. A model based on the hydroxyl radical formation, scavenging capacity and the kinetic rate constant of target APEO was developed from the existing literature and applied to predict the concentration of APEOs in solution during advanced oxidation in different aqueous environmental matrices. PMID:21784502

  10. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE IN LOW ACTIVATION MARTENSITIC STEELS F82H AND OPTIMAX AFTER 800 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Y. DAI; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    Low-activation martensitic steels, F82H (mod.) and Optimax-A, have been irradiated with 800-MeV protons up to 5.9 dpa. The tensile properties and microstructure have been studied. The results show that radiation hardening increases continuously with irradiation dose. F82H has lesser irradiation hardening as compared to Optimax-A in the present work and DIN1.4926 from a previous study. The irradiation embrittlement effects are evident in the materials since the uniform elongation is reduced sharply to less than 2%. However, all the irradiated samples ruptured in a ductile-fracture mode. Defect clusters have been observed. The size and the density of defect clusters increase with the irradiation dose. Precipitates are amorphous after irradiation.

  11. High and Low Activity Rats: Elevated intrinsic physical activity drives resistance to diet induced obesity in non-bred rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Boland, Kelsey; Billington, Charles; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and rodents show large variability in their individual sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, which has been associated with differences in intrinsic spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Evidence from genetic and out-bred rat obesity models shows that higher activity of the orexin peptides results in higher intrinsic SPA and protection against diet-induced obesity. Based on this, we hypothesized that naturally occurring variation in SPA and orexin signaling activity is sufficient to drive differences in sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. We analyzed orexin activity and sensitivity to diet-induced obesity in non-manipulated male Sprague Dawley rats selected for high and low intrinsic SPA. Our results defined a new model of differential DIO sensitivity, the high-activity and low activity-rats, and suggest that naturally occurring variations in intrinsic SPA cause differences in energy expenditure that are mediated by orexin signaling and alter DIO sensitivity. PMID:23404834

  12. Further Charpy impact test results of low activation ferritic alloys, irradiated at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four ferritic alloys, GA3X, F82H, GA4X and HT9, have been impact tested following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of the previously tested lower dose irradiation condition indicates that the GA3X and F82H alloys, two primary candidate low activation alloys, exhibit virtually identical behavior following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa and at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa. Very little shift is observed in either DBTT or USE relative to the unirradiated condition. The shifts in DBTT and USE observed in both GA4X and HT9 were smaller after irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa than after irradiation at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa.

  13. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  14. When comets get old: A synthesis of comet and meteor observations of the low activity comet 209P/LINEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Hui, Man-To; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Pokorný, Petr; Wiegert, Paul A.; Gao, Xing

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that some weakly active comets may be transitional objects between active and dormant comets. These objects are at a unique stage of the evolution of cometary nuclei, as they are still identifiable as active comets, in contrast to inactive comets that are observationally indistinguishable from low albedo asteroids. In this paper, we present a synthesis of comet and meteor observations of Jupiter-family Comet 209P/LINEAR, one of the most weakly active comets recorded to-date. Images taken by the Xingming 0.35-m telescope and the Gemini Flamingo-2 camera are modeled by a Monte Carlo dust model, which yields a low dust ejection speed (1/10 of that of moderately active comets), dominance of large dust grains, and a low dust production of 0.4kgs-1 at 19 d after the 2014 perihelion passage. We also find a reddish nucleus of 209P/LINEAR that is similar to D-type asteroids and most Trojan asteroids. Meteor observations with the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), coupled with meteoroid stream modeling, suggest a low dust production of the parent over the past few hundred orbits, although there are hints of a some temporary increase in activity in the 18th century. Dynamical simulations indicate 209P/LINEAR may have resided in a stable near-Earth orbit for ∼104 yr, which is significantly longer than typical JFCs. All these lines of evidence imply that 209P/LINEAR as an aging comet quietly exhausting its remaining near surface volatiles. We also compare 209P/LINEAR to other low activity comets, where evidence for a diversity of the origin of low activity is seen.

  15. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-02-14

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification{trademark} (ICV{trademark}) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  16. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    SciTech Connect

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be

  17. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Readiness to Receive Irradiated Graphite Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A. Moore

    2011-05-01

    The Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research conducted in this laboratory will support the Advanced Graphite Creep experiments—a major series of material irradiation experiments within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, silicon-carbide composite, and ceramic materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials. Major infrastructural modifications were undertaken to support this new radiological facility at Idaho National Laboratory. Facility modifications are complete, equipment has been installed, radiological controls and operating procedures have been established and work management documents have been created to place the CCL in readiness to receive irradiated graphite samples.

  18. Absorption Optics of Aqueous Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini; Gittings, Alex; Durian, D. J.

    2002-11-01

    Aqueous foams are composed of gas bubbles packed together in a small volume of soapy water. The large number of gas-liquid interfaces in foams results in very strong scattering of light, which explains the opaque nature of conventional aqueous foams such as shaving foams and mousse. For dry foams, the interfaces can take the following three forms: the soap films where two bubbles meet, the triangular plateau borders where three soap films meet and the vertices where four plateau borders meet. Previous experiments have shown that most of the scattering occurs from the plateau borders 2,3 and the transport mean free path of light (l*), the bubble radius (R) and the liquid fraction of foam (epsilon) is related through the relation l*=R/(epsilon0.5). To understand the reflection and scattering of light at the gas-bubble interfaces, we study the absorption of photons in the liquid network as a function of the foam absorptivity. We do this to confirm if the time spent by the photons in the liquid phase is proportional to the liquid fraction of the foam. Our results indicate that for a specific range of liquid fractions (0.05 is less than e is less than 0.1), the photons seem to get trapped in the liquid network. This result is independent of the absorptivity of the foam and leads us to conclude that under appropriate conditions, an aqueous foam behaves very much like an optical fiber network. Aqueous foam is generated in the lab by the method of turbulent mixing of N2 gas with a jet of alpha-olefin-sulfonate (AOS) solution. The foam has been made absorbing by dissolving small quantities of rhodamine dye (R = 0.005 g/l, R = 0.01 g/l and R = 0.0124 g/l) in the AOS solution. The transmission of photons through the foams of liquid fractions 0.0297 is less than e is less than 0.35 has been studied using Diffuse Transmission Spectroscopy (DTS). For each liquid fraction, the transport mean free path l* (the length over which the photon travels before it gets completely

  19. Dynamics of Aqueous Foam Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhatov, Iskander; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn

    2001-01-01

    We develop a model for the nonlinear oscillations of spherical drops composed of aqueous foam. Beginning with a simple mixture law, and utilizing a mass-conserving bubble-in-cell scheme, we obtain a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for the dynamics of bubbles in a foam mixture. The dispersion relation for sound waves in a bubbly liquid is then coupled with a normal modes expansion to derive expressions for the frequencies of eigenmodal oscillations. These eigenmodal (breathing plus higher-order shape modes) frequencies are elicited as a function of the void fraction of the foam. A Mathieu-like equation is obtained for the dynamics of the higher-order shape modes and their parametric coupling to the breathing mode. The proposed model is used to explain recently obtained experimental data.

  20. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  1. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Beederman, M.; Vogler, S.; Hyman, H.H.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from a rathenium containing aqueous solution is described. The separation is accomplished by adding sodium nitrite, silver nitrate and ozone to the ruthenium containing aqueous solution to form ruthenium tetroxide and ihen volatilizing off the ruthenium tetroxide.

  2. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  4. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  5. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.96 Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity....

  6. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-05-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  7. Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-01-01

    Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media have been surveyed. While the original Mukaiyama aldol reactions entailed stoichiometric use of Lewis acids in organic solvents under strictly anhydrous conditions, Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media are not only suitable for green sustainable chemistry but are found to produce singular phenomena. These findings led to the discovery of a series of water-compatible Lewis acids such as lanthanide triflates in 1991. Our understanding on these beneficial effects in the presence of water will be deepened through the brilliant examples collected in this review. 1 Introduction 2 Rate Enhancement by Water in the Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction 3 Lewis Acid Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 3.1 Water-Compatible Lewis Acids 4 Lewis-Base Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 5 The Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in 100% Water 6 Asymmetric Catalysts in Aqueous Media and Water 7 Conclusions and Perspective PMID:24971045

  8. Aqueous photooxidation of ambient Po Valley Italy air samples: Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Sullivan, A. P.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.; Collett, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Turpin, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments with ambient samples in order to develop insights concerning the formation of secondary organic aerosol through gas followed by aqueous chemistry (SOAaq). Water-soluble organics (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone) are formed through gas phase oxidation of alkene and aromatic emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. Their further oxidation in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols can form lower volatility products (e.g., oligomers, organic acids) that remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, thus producing SOA. The aqueous OH radical oxidation of several individual potentially important precursors has been studied in the laboratory. In this work, we used a mist-chamber apparatus to collect atmospheric mixtures of water-soluble gases from the ambient air at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy during the PEGASOS field campaign. We measured the concentration dynamics after addition of OH radicals, in order to develop new insights regarding formation of SOA through aqueous chemistry. Specifically, batch aqueous reactions were conducted with 33 ml mist-chamber samples (TOC ~ 50-100μM) and OH radicals (~10-12M) in a new low-volume aqueous reaction vessel. OH radicals were formed in-situ, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS +/-), and ESI-MS with IC pre-separation (IC/ESI-MS-). Reproducible formation of pyruvate and oxalate were observed both by IC and ESI-MS. These compounds are known to form from aldehyde oxidation in the aqueous phase. New insights regarding the aqueous chemistry of these "more atmospherically-realistic" experiments will be discussed.

  9. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  10. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  11. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Active Adolescents via Facebook: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Test Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web is an effective method for delivering health behavior programs, yet major limitations remain (eg, cost of development, time and resource requirements, limited interactivity). Social media, however, has the potential to deliver highly customizable and socially interactive behavioral interventions with fewer constraints. Thus, the evaluation of social media as a means to influence health behaviors is warranted. Objective The objective of this trial was to examine and demonstrate the feasibility of using an established social networking platform (ie, Facebook) to deliver an 8 week physical activity intervention to a sample of low-active adolescents (N=21; estimated marginal mean age 13.48 years). Methods Participants were randomized to either an experimental (ie, Behavioral) or attentional control (ie, Informational) condition. Both conditions received access to a restricted-access, study-specific Facebook group where the group’s administrator made two daily wall posts containing youth-based physical activity information and resources. Primary outcomes included physical activity as assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Interactions and main effects were examined, as well as mean differences in effect sizes. Results Analyses revealed significant improvements over time on subjectively reported weekly leisure-time physical activity (F 1,18=8.426, P=.009, η2 = .319). However, there was no interaction between time and condition (F 1,18=0.002, P=.968, η2 = .000). There were no significant time or interaction effects among the objectively measured physical activity variables. Examination of effect sizes revealed moderate-to-large changes in physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Results provide initial support for the feasibility of delivery of a physical activity intervention to low-active adolescents via social media. Whether by employing behavioral interventions via social media can result in statistically meaningful changes in

  12. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  13. Formation of α-alumina scales in the Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion coating on China low activation martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Qin; Zhao, Weiwei; Yang, Hongguang; Hatano, Yuji; Yuan, Xiaoming; Nozaki, Teo; Zhu, Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    To study the formation mechanism of stable α-Al2O3 scales, the oxidation behavior of Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion coating on China low activation martensitic steel has been investigated under the oxygen partial pressure ranging from 1 to 20,000 Pa at 1253 K. A single, continuous Al2O3 scale with the maximum thickness of about 2000 nm was formed on the Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion layer. The phase transformation of alumina scales on the surface of Fe-Al(Cr) layer was studied at different oxidation times ranging from 3 to 180 min. With the increase in oxygen partial pressure, the phase transformation time of α-Al2O3 is decreased. The metastable γ-Al2O3 and transition α-(Al0.948Cr0.052)2O3 phases were formed in the earlier oxidation process and finally transformed to the stable α-Al2O3 phase, which were detected by grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. This implies that Cr shows the third element effect and serves as a template for the nucleation of the stable α-Al2O3.

  14. High-throughput design of low-activation, high-strength creep-resistant steels for nuclear-reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are prime candidate materials for structural applications in nuclear power reactors. However, their creep strength is much lower than that of creep-resistant steel developed for conventional fossil-fired power plants as alloying elements with a high neutron activation cannot be used. To improve the creep strength and to maintain a low activation, a high-throughput computational alloy design model coupling thermodynamics, precipitate-coarsening kinetics and an optimization genetic algorithm, is developed. Twelve relevant alloying elements with either low or high activation are considered simultaneously. The activity levels at 0-10 year after the end of irradiation are taken as optimization parameter. The creep-strength values (after exposure for 10 years at 650 °C) are estimated on the basis of the solid-solution strengthening and the precipitation hardening (taking into account precipitate coarsening). Potential alloy compositions leading to a high austenite fraction or a high percentage of undesirable second phase particles are rejected automatically in the optimization cycle. The newly identified alloys have a much higher precipitation hardening and solid-solution strengthening at the same activity level as existing reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels.

  15. Suzaku Observes Weak Flares from IGRJ17391-3021 Representing a Common Low-Activity State in this SFXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriquez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.; Romano, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of a 37-ks observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGRJ17391 -3021 (=XTEJ1739-302) gathered with Suzaku. The source evolved from quiescence to a low-activity level culminating in three weak flares lasting approx.3 ks each in which the peak luminosity is only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare luminosity. The minimum observed luminosity was 1.3 x 10(exp 33) erg/s (d/2.7 kpc)(exp 2) in the 0.5-10 keV range. The weak flares are accompanied by significant changes in the spectral parameters including a column density (N(sub H) = (4.1(+0.4/-0.5)) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm) that is approx.2-9 times the absorption measured during quiescence. Accretion of obscuring clumps of stellar wind material can explain both the small flares and the increase in NH. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we find that weak-flaring episodes, or at least epochs of enhanced activity just above the quiescent level but well below the moderately bright or high-luminosity outbursts, represent more than 60+/-5% of all observations in the 0.5-10keV energy range making this the most common state in the emission behavior of IGRJ17391 -3021.

  16. Trade study for the feed tank fill status issue for low-activity waste feed issue 19D

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1998-05-18

    This document identifies and evaluates alternatives that will provide DOE-RL sufficient information from which a decision can be negotiated regarding the Project Hanford Management Contractor team`s use of tanks 241-AP-106 and -108 versus the private contractors need to upgrade them for their purposes. The desired alternatives to be evaluated and the measures for comparison were selected in a separate meeting with the customer (RL). These are defined in the sections that follow. The following summarizes the results of this study. More detailed explanations of the results can be found later in Section 6.0 of the document. Relinquishing the use of tanks early increases the programmatic risk when compared to the baseline via the following areas: (1) Tank Space -- The amount of usable tank space decreases. This also impacts the amount of spare and contingency space available. (2) Waste Transfer Complexity -- The complexity of tankfarm transfers increases. As double-shell tank (DST) space becomes limited, the number and interdependency of waste transfers increases. (3) Float -- Float time for low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging operations decreases. (4) Waste Segregation -- The segregation of tank wastes may be violated.

  17. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Meyer, Philip D.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2015-02-28

    Current plans for treatment and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) from Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks include vitrification and storage of the glass waste form in a nearsurface disposal facility. This Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Central Plateau. Performance assessment (PA) of the IDF requires numerical modeling of subsurface flow and reactive transport processes over very long periods (thousands of years). The models used to predict facility performance require parameters describing various physical, hydraulic, and transport properties. This report provides updated estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport properties and parameters for both near- and far-field materials, intended for use in future IDF PA modeling efforts. Previous work on physical and hydraulic property characterization for earlier IDF PA analyses is reviewed and summarized. For near-field materials, portions of this document and parameter estimates are taken from an earlier data package. For far-field materials, a critical review is provided of methodologies used in previous data packages. Alternative methods are described and associated parameters are provided.

  18. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  19. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume III, Appendices C through J. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) provides a portabler laboratory for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface water. This report presents data from a soils sample TCLP VOA and SVOA report, aqueous sample RCRA metals report, soils sample total and isotopic uranium report, SVOA sample analytical performance report, and and RCRA metal sample analytical performance report.

  20. Simultaneous microemulsion-aqueous phase flooding process

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. L.

    1980-12-23

    A method of enhanced oil recovery is disclosed wherein an upper-phase or a middle-phase microemulsion and an immiscible aqueous phase are simultaneously injected into a subterranean formation. The viscosities of the injected phases are adjusted so that the aqueous phase/microemulsion viscosity ratio approximates the reservoir brine/oil viscosity ratio. The injection rates of the injected phases are such that similar oil, microemulsion and aqueous phase velocities are achieved in the reservoir. Oil is displaced to a production well and recovered.

  1. Aqueous processing in materials science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooiman, Michael B.; Sole, Kathryn C.

    1994-06-01

    Reviews of aqueous processing in JOM have traditionally focused on hydrometallurgical process routes. This article, however, addresses the application of aqueous processing in materials engineering and presents some promising developments that employ aqueous-based routes for the manufacture of high-tech components and specialty products. Such applications include producing metallic and ceramic powders; etching; surface modification by electroplating and electroless plating; manufacturing jewelry and intricate components by electroforming; and producing advanced ceramics, composites, and nanophase materials by sol-gel and biomimetic processing.

  2. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  3. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Langton, C.A.; Harley, W.W.

    1993-12-28

    A method is presented for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply. 4 figures.

  4. Aqueous Alteration of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ziegler, K.; Weisberg, M. K.; Gounelle, M.; Berger, E. L.; Le, L.; Ivanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kaidun meteorite is different from all other meteorites [1], consisting largely of a mixture of “incompatible” types of meteoritic material – carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, i.e. corre-sponding to the most oxidized and the most reduced samples of meteorite materials, including CI1, CM1-2, CV3, EH3-5, and EL3. In addition to these, minor amounts of ordinary and R chondrites are present. In addition, approximately half of the Kaidun lithologies are new materials not known as separate meteorites. Among these are aqueously altered enstatite chondrites [1], which are of considerable interest because they testify that not all reduced asteroids escaped late-stage oxidation, and hydrolysis, and also because hydrated poorly crystalline Si-Fe phase, which in turn is re-placed by serpentine (Figs 3-5). In the end the only indication of the original presence of metal is the re-sidual carbides. In other enstatite chondrite lithogies (of uncertain type) original silicates and metal have been thoroughly replaced by an assemblage of authi-genic plagioclase laths, calcite boxwork, and occasion-al residual grains of silica, Cr-rich troilite, ilmenite, and rare sulfides including heideite (Fig. 6). Fe and S have been largely leached from the rock (Fig. 4). Again the accessory phases are the first clue to the original character of the rock, which can be verified by O isotopes. It is fortunate that Kaidun displays every step of the alteration process.

  5. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Method for processing aqueous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, John B.; Martin, Hollis L.; Langton, Christine A.; Harley, Willie W.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating waste water such as that from an industrial processing facility comprising the separation of the waste water into a dilute waste stream and a concentrated waste stream. The concentrated waste stream is treated chemically to enhance precipitation and then allowed to separate into a sludge and a supernate. The supernate is skimmed or filtered from the sludge and blended with the dilute waste stream to form a second dilute waste stream. The sludge remaining is mixed with cementitious material, rinsed to dissolve soluble components, then pressed to remove excess water and dissolved solids before being allowed to cure. The dilute waste stream is also chemically treated to decompose carbonate complexes and metal ions and then mixed with cationic polymer to cause the precipitated solids to flocculate. Filtration of the flocculant removes sufficient solids to allow the waste water to be discharged to the surface of a stream. The filtered material is added to the sludge of the concentrated waste stream. The method is also applicable to the treatment and removal of soluble uranium from aqueous streams, such that the treated stream may be used as a potable water supply.

  7. Densities of aqueous blended amines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.H.; Li, M.H.

    1997-05-01

    Solutions of alkanolamines are an industrially important class of compounds used in the natural gas and synthetic ammonia industries and petroleum chemical plants for the removal of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams. The densities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) + water, DEA + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) + water, and monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) + water were measured from 30 C to 80 C. A Redlich-Kister equation of the excess volume was applied to represent the density. Based on the available density data for five ternary systems: MEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, MEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, DEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, DEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, and MEA + 2-PE + H{sub 2}O, a generalized set of binary parameters were determined. The density calculations show quite satisfactory results. The overall average absolute percent deviation is about 0.04% for a total of 686 data points.

  8. Viscosities of aqueous blended amines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.H.; Li, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    Solutions of alkanolamines are an industrially important class of compounds used in the natural gas, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia industries for the removal of acidic components like CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams. The viscosities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), DEA + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), and monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) were measured from 30 C to 80 C. A Redlich-Kister equation for the viscosity deviation was applied to represent the viscosity. On the basis of the available viscosity data for five ternary systems, MEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, MEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, DEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, DEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, and MEA + 2-PE + H{sub 2}O, a generalized set of binary parameters were determined. For the viscosity calculation of the systems tested, the overall average absolute percent deviation is about 1.0% for a total of 499 data points.

  9. STATUS & DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-12

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  10. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  11. Aqueous phase processing of secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Tritscher, T.; Praplan, A. P.; Decarlo, P. F.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Quivet, E.; Marchand, N.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Monod, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by photooxidation in the aqueous phase was experimentally investigated. To simulate multiphase processes, the following experiments were sequentially performed in a smog chamber and in an aqueous phase photoreactor: (1) Gas-phase photooxidation of three different volatile organic compounds (VOC): isoprene, α-pinene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) in the presence of NOx, leading to the formation of SOA which was subjected to on-line physical and chemical analysis; (2) particle-to-liquid transfer of water soluble species of SOA using filter sampling and aqueous extraction; (3) aqueous-phase photooxidation of the obtained water extracts; and (4) nebulization of the solutions for a repetition of the on-line characterization. SOA concentrations in the chamber measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were higher than 200 μg m-3, as the experiments were conducted under high initial concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and NOx. The aging of SOA through aqueous phase processing was investigated by measuring the physical and chemical properties of the particles online before and after processing using a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). It was shown that, after aqueous phase processing, the particles were significantly more hygroscopic, and contained more fragmentation ions at m/z = 44 and less ions at m/z = 43, thus showing a significant impact on SOA aging for the three different precursors. Additionally, the particles were analyzed with a thermal desorption atmospheric pressure ionization aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-API-AMS). Comparing the smog chamber SOA composition and non processed nebulized aqueous extracts with this technique revealed that sampling, extraction and/or nebulization did not significantly impact the chemical composition of SOA formed from isoprene and α-pinene, whereas it

  12. Precipitation of neptunium dioxide from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K E

    1999-12-01

    Tens of thousands of metric tons of highly radioactive, nuclear waste have been generated in the US. Currently, there is no treatment or disposal facility for these wastes. Of the radioactive elements in high-level nuclear waste, neptunium (Np) is of particular concern because it has a long half-life and may potentially be very mobile in groundwaters associated with a proposed underground disposal site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Aqueous Np concentrations observed in previous, short-term solubility experiments led to calculated potential doses exceeding proposed long-term regulatory limits. However, thermodynamic data for Np at 25 C showed that these observed aqueous Np concentrations were supersaturated with respect to crystalline NpO{sub 2}. It was hypothesized that NpO{sub 2} is the thermodynamically stable solid phase in aqueous solution, but it is slow to form in an aqueous solution of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} on the time scale of previous experiments. The precipitation of NpO{sub 2} would provide significantly lower aqueous Np concentrations leading to calculated doses below proposed regulatory limits. To test this hypothesis, solubility experiments were performed at elevated temperature to accelerate any slow precipitation kinetics. Ionic NpO{sub 2}{sup +} (aq) was introduced into very dilute aqueous solutions of NaCl with initial pH values ranging from 6 to 10. The reaction vessels were placed in an oven and allowed to react at 200 C until steady-state aqueous Np concentrations were observed. In all cases, aqueous Np concentrations decreased significantly from the initial value of 10{sup {minus}4} M. The solids that formed were analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The solids were determined to be high-purity crystals of NpO{sub 2}. This is the first time that crystalline NpO{sub 2} has been observed to precipitate from NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq) in near-neutral aqueous solutions. The results obtained

  13. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26065785

  14. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  15. RECOVERY OF TETRAVALENT CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-05-01

    The recovery of plutonium, zirconium, and tetravalent cerium values from aqueous solutions is described. It consists of adding an alkyl phosphate to a nnineral acid aqueous solution containing the metal to be recovered, whereby a precipitate forms with the tetravalent values, and separating the precipitate from the solution. All alkyl phosphates, if water-soluble, are suitable for the process; however, monobutyl phosphate has been found best.

  16. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  17. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  18. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  19. Fenton chemistry at aqueous interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Enami, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Colussi, Agustín J.

    2014-01-01

    In a fundamental process throughout nature, reduced iron unleashes the oxidative power of hydrogen peroxide into reactive intermediates. However, notwithstanding much work, the mechanism by which Fe2+ catalyzes H2O2 oxidations and the identity of the participating intermediates remain controversial. Here we report the prompt formation of O=FeIVCl3− and chloride-bridged di-iron O=FeIV·Cl·FeIICl4− and O=FeIV·Cl·FeIIICl5− ferryl species, in addition to FeIIICl4−, on the surface of aqueous FeCl2 microjets exposed to gaseous H2O2 or O3 beams for <50 μs. The unambiguous identification of such species in situ via online electrospray mass spectrometry let us investigate their individual dependences on Fe2+, H2O2, O3, and H+ concentrations, and their responses to tert-butanol (an ·OH scavenger) and DMSO (an O-atom acceptor) cosolutes. We found that (i) mass spectra are not affected by excess tert-butanol, i.e., the detected species are primary products whose formation does not involve ·OH radicals, and (ii) the di-iron ferryls, but not O=FeIVCl3−, can be fully quenched by DMSO under present conditions. We infer that interfacial Fe(H2O)n2+ ions react with H2O2 and O3 >103 times faster than Fe(H2O)62+ in bulk water via a process that favors inner-sphere two-electron O-atom over outer-sphere one-electron transfers. The higher reactivity of di-iron ferryls vs. O=FeIVCl3− as O-atom donors implicates the electronic coupling of mixed-valence iron centers in the weakening of the FeIV–O bond in poly-iron ferryl species. PMID:24379389

  20. Immersion freezing of aqueous suspensions of K-feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Recent laboratory measurements showed an increased ice nucleation ability of Kalium-rich feldspar particles in the immersion freezing mode [1]. It was suggested that the proportion of K-feldspar in atmospherically relevant ice nuclei is related to their ice nucleation ability. The importance of K-feldspar is further supported by the field measurements, indicating that it can make a mass fraction of up to 24% in Asian and African mineral dusts [2]. In this contribution we present results of immersion freezing experiments with monodisperse droplets of aqueous suspensions of K-feldspar on a cold stage. We show that the ice nucleation activity strongly depends on i) the particle size distribution (in particular the ice nucleation properties of submicron feldspar particles) ii) the weight concentration of the particles in the aqueous suspension and thus on the total particle surface immersed into the droplets and iii) the age of the particles in an aqueous environment. Further a comparison of different K-feldspars is presented indicating that the origin and the processing methods have a significant impact on the IN activity. The mineralogical composition of feldspar samples is analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy and a quantification of the particle surface is carried out with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results of freezing experiments are interpreted within the concept of ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) density, which allows a comparison with data obtained with different experimental methods (IN counters, expansion chambers, etc.) 1. Atkinson, J.D., et al., The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds. Nature, 2013. 498(7454): p. 355-358. 2. Nickovic, S., et al., Technical Note: High-resolution mineralogical database of dust-productive soils for atmospheric dust modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2012. 12(2): p. 845-855.

  1. Autoxidation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution at groundwater contamination concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbeis, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a commonly used industrial degreaser and solvent, is one of the most frequently detected contaminants of soils and groundwater. One aspect of the subsurface behavior of TCE involves the types and rates of degradation processes the various phases undergo. While biological degradation of TCE has received much recent attention in the research, very little research has been directed at autoxidation of TCE in dilute aqueous solutions at concentrations typical of subsurface contamination. Dilute aqueous solutions of TCE were examined under laboratory conditions to evaluate the kinetics of aqueous phase autoxidation. The concentrations and temperatures used were within the range of those typically found in contaminated groundwater and soils. Autoxidation was carried out in 44 ml glass reaction vials and the degradation rate was monitored by measuring the loss of TCE by gas chromatography. Results indicated that autoxidation occurred despite the addition of an antioxidant to the pure solvent by the manufacturer. Autoxidation of TCE is suspected to occur via a sequence of free radical reactions. The overall reaction order determined for the sequence was approximately 0.8. The overall reaction was found to proceed at two rates, an initial rate from 0 to 24 hours and a long term rate thereafter. The rate coefficients corresponding to these two rate thereafter. The rate coefficients corresponding to these two reaction rates were approximately 2 and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}mol{sup 0.2}1{sup {minus}0.2}hr{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The rate coefficient and reaction order were used to determine an equation to calculate half life. Solutions of 10 ppb and 1 ppm were calculated to have half lives of approximately 10 days and 25 days, respectively.

  2. Ion solvation in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslanargin, Ayse

    The thermodynamics of ion solvation is studied in both water and some organic solvents using computational and theoretical techniques. Free energy partitioning analysis is employed to explore the driving forces for ions interacting with the water liquid/vapor interface using optimized point charge models for the Na+ and I- ions and the extended simple point charge water model. The absolute hydration free energy is partitioned into cavity formation, attractive van der Waals, local electrostatic, and far-field electrostatic contributions. The bulk hydration free energy of the ions is computed first, followed by the free energy to insert the ions at the center of a water slab. Shifts of the ion free energies occur in the slab geometry are consistent with the extended simple point charge water model surface potential of the water liquid/vapor interface. Then the free energy profiles are examined for ion passage from the slab center to the dividing surface. The profiles show that, for the large chaotropic I- ion, the relatively flat total free energy profile results from the near cancellation of several large contributions. On the other hand, the small Na+ ion is repelled from the liquid/vapor interface mainly by the far field electrostatic term. The far-field electrostatic part of the free energy, largely due to the water liquid/vapor interface potential, has an important effect on ion distributions near the surface in the classical model. However, that the individual forms of the local and far-field electrostatic contributions are expected to be model dependent when comparing classical and quantum results. Non-aqueous solvents such as ethylene carbonate, and propylene carbonate are widely used as liquid electrolytes in electrochemical energy storage systems. The electrolyte structure affects the efficiency of the ion transport, and understanding the solvent structure is essential for battery performance enhancements. Free energy and enthalpy of solvation calculations

  3. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  4. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  5. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  6. Pilot-scale fermentation of aqueous-ammonia-soaked switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Isci, Asli; Himmelsbach, Jennifer N; Strohl, John; Pometto, Anthony L; Raman, D Raj; Anex, Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Aqueous-ammonia-steeped switchgrass was subject to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in two pilot-scale bioreactors (50- and 350-L working volume). Switchgrass was pretreated by soaking in ammonium hydroxide (30%) with solid to liquid ratio of 5 L ammonium hydroxide per kilogram dry switchgrass for 5 days in 75-L steeping vessels without agitation at ambient temperatures (15 to 33 degrees C). SSF of the pretreated biomass was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D(5)A) at approximately 2% glucan and 77 filter paper units per gram cellulose enzyme loading (Spezyme CP). The 50-L fermentation was carried out aseptically, whereas the 350-L fermentation was semiaseptic. The percentage of maximum theoretical ethanol yields achieved was 73% in the 50-L reactor and 52-74% in the 350-L reactor due to the difference in asepsis. The 350-L fermentation was contaminated by acid-producing bacteria (lactic and acetic acid concentrations approaching 10 g/L), and this resulted in lower ethanol production. Despite this problem, the pilot-scale SSF of aqueous-ammonia-pretreated switchgrass has shown promising results similar to laboratory-scale experiments. This work demonstrates challenges in pilot-scale fermentations with material handling, aseptic conditions, and bacterial contamination for cellulosic fermentations to biofuels. PMID:18716923

  7. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  8. Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in aqueous and soil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.L.; Kaplan, A.M.

    1985-10-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was mineralized by microorganisms in aqueous and soil systems. Initial rates of mineralization (micrograms per milliliter per day) were calculated for a wide range of initial concentrations of NDMA (micrograms per milliliter to picograms per milliliter). Log-log plots of the data were fitted with both linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses; however, linear models provided better fits for the kinetic data in all cases. The slopes of the linear fits were not significantly different than 1.0 (P < 0.05); thus, first-order reaction kinetics were in effect over the range of concentrations tested, and saturation kinetics were not achieved. Rate constants (day/sup -1/) and total percent mineralized increased with decreasing initial concentrations of NDMA. Rates of mineralization were reduced in aqueous systems when supplemental carbon was available, whereas in soils, percentages of organic matter and supplemental carbon had little effect on rates of mineralization. Implications of these results for predictions of rates and threshold limits of mineralization activity in natural systems are discussed. A laboratory scale simulated trickling filter containing an activated charcoal bed provided a suitable environment for mineralization of NDMA at concentrations of 50 and 100 ..mu..g/ml on a continuous basis. NDMA was not toxic to natural populations of microorganisms at concentrations up to 10 mg/ml. Using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with radioactivity detection. The authors identified formaldehyde and methylamine as intermediates produced during the biodegradation of NDMA.

  9. Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E.

    1996-04-01

    Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.

  10. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Charles L.; Gholami, Mohammad R.; Bhave, Ravindra N.; Hanrahan, Robert J.

    1994-09-01

    In previous work on the 60Co γ-radiolysis of aqueous tetraphenylborate (TPB -) solutions carried out in this laboratory, it was found that several organic products, including benzene, phenol and biphenyl, are produced with substantial yield. However, the reaction mechanism was not established. In the present study, reactions initiated by OḢ radicals, N 3 radicals and e -aq in aqueous TPB - solutions were studied by pulse radiolysis using a 600 keV Febetron electron accelerator. The lack of reactivity between TPB - and e -aq was demonstrated by directly monitoring the transient optical absorbance of e -aq. Concerning the reaction with O Ḣ, two schemes were considered: (1) electron transfer from B(C 6H 5) -4 to O Ḣ; or (2) O Ḣ addition to B(C 6H 5) -4. Comparison of observed transient absorption spectra with expectations based on two different schemes suggests that O Ḣ addition is the dominant reaction pathway under conditions of N 2O saturation, with an experimentally determined second-order rate constant of 6.2×10 9M -1s -1. A mechanism based on an initial first-order self-decomposition of the O Ḣ adduct, (C 6H 5) 3BC 6H 5OH -· with a measured rate constant of 4×10 4s -1 is proposed. Kinetic modeling on the proposed mechanistic scheme gives good agreement with our experimental results.

  11. The Effects of Environmental Stimulation on the Perceptual Thresholds of High-Active and Low-Active Mentally Retarded Persons. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, William Glasgow

    In order to assess the effects of environmental stimulation on the perceptual thresholds of high active and low active mentally retarded persons, 36 male and female residents from a state institution (mean IQ 56 and 60 for high and low groups, respectively) were observed under three conditions of environmental stimulation: no noise, white noise,…

  12. Bioactive contaminants leach from disposable laboratory plasticware.

    PubMed

    McDonald, G Reid; Hudson, Alan L; Dunn, Susan M J; You, Haitao; Baker, Glen B; Whittal, Randy M; Martin, Jonathan W; Jha, Amitabh; Edmondson, Dale E; Holt, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Disposable plasticware such as test tubes, pipette tips, and multiwell assay or culture plates are used routinely in most biological research laboratories. Manufacturing of plastics requires the inclusion of numerous chemicals to enhance stability, durability, and performance. Some lubricating (slip) agents, exemplified by oleamide, also occur endogenously in humans and are biologically active, and cationic biocides are included to prevent bacterial colonization of the plastic surface. We demonstrate that these manufacturing agents leach from laboratory plasticware into a standard aqueous buffer, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol and can have profound effects on proteins and thus on results from bioassays of protein function. These findings have far-reaching implications for the use of disposable plasticware in biological research. PMID:18988846

  13. Laboratory Simulations of Mars Evaporite Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Newsom, Horton; Nelson, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Evaporite-rich sedimentary deposits on Mars were formed under chemical conditions quite different from those on Earth. Their unique chemistries record the chemical and aqueous conditions under which they were formed and possibly subsequent conditions to which they were subjected. We have produced evaporite salt mineral suites in the laboratory under two simulated Martian atmospheres: (1) present-day and (2) a model of an ancient Matian atmosphere rich in volcanic gases. The composition of these synthetic Mars evaporites depends on the atmospheres under which they were desiccated as well as the chemistries of their precursor brines. In this report, we describe a Mars analog evaporite laboratory apparatus and the experimental methods we used to produce and analyze the evaporite mineral suites.

  14. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  15. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  16. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  17. Employment at National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    E. S. Peterson; C. A. Allen

    2007-04-01

    Scientists enter the National Laboratory System for many different reasons. For some, faculty positions are scarce, so they take staff-scientist position at national laboratories (i.e. Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Los Alamos, and Brookhaven). Many plan to work at the National Laboratory for 5 to 7 years and then seek an academic post. For many (these authors included), before they know it it’s 15 or 20 years later and they never seriously considered leaving the laboratory system.

  18. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  19. The impact of aqueous medium on zeolite framework integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Burton, Sarah D.; Arslan, Ilke; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the zeolite framework stability in aqueous phase is crucial to develop stable catalysts. Al K–edge, extended X–ray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations have been used to monitor both qualitative and quantitative structural changes of two well–characterized samples with BEA structure. The effects of various properties on stability were explored, including Al concentration, Al distribution, particle size and structural defects. As the samples were degraded by treatment in hot liquid water, the local structure about the Al T–site remained mostly intact, including the Al–O–Si angles and bond distances, while the nano–scale crystalline structure as measured by XRD and TEM was disrupted. The combined data suggest a three–step mechanism in which, initially, the HBEA framework crystallinity decreases via hydrolysis of T–O bonds along polymorph stacking faults and inter–grain boundaries in a mode similar to crack propagation in glass. With prolonged exposure, amorphization occurs via hydrolysis of surface Si–OH groups propagating inward through the zeolite lattice. In parallel, cracks propagate within the crystalline micro–domains along paths through specific T–O–T groups. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland) and M. Y. Hu (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and Physical Science Laboratory both located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi–program national laboratory

  20. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  1. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  2. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  3. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  4. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  5. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  7. The kinetics and mechanism of an aqueous phase isoprene reaction with hydroxy radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhao, Y.; Shen, X. L.

    2011-03-01

    Aqueous phase chemical processes of organic compounds in the atmosphere have received increasing attention, partly due to their potential contribution to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here, we analyzed the aqueous oxidation of isoprene in clouds and its reaction products, including carbonyl compounds and organic acids. We also performed a laboratory simulation to improve our understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms for the products of aqueous isoprene oxidation that are significant precursors of SOA; these included methacrolein (MACR), methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methyl glyoxal (MG), and glyoxal (GL). We used a novel chemical titration method to monitor the concentration of isoprene in the aqueous phase. We used a box model to interpret the mechanistic differences between aqueous- and gas-phase OH radical-initiated isoprene oxidations. Our results were the first demonstration of the rate constant for the reaction between isoprene and OH radical in water, 3.50 (± 0.98) × 109 M-1 s-1 at 283 K. Molar yields were determined based on consumed isoprene. Of note, the ratio of the yields of MVK (18.9 ± 0.8%) to MACR (9.0 ± 1.1%) in the aqueous phase isoprene oxidation was approximately double that observed for the corresponding gas phase reaction. We hypothesized that this might be explained by a water-induced enhancement in the self-reaction of a hydroxy isoprene peroxyl radical (HOCH2C(CH3)(O2)CH = CH2) produced in the aqueous reaction. The observed yields for MG and GL were 11.4 ± 0.3% and 3.8 ± 0.1%, respectively. Model simulations indicated that several potential pathways may contribute to the formation of MG and GL. Finally, oxalic acid increased steadily throughout the course of the study, even after isoprene was consumed completely. The observed yield of oxalic acid was 26.2 ± 0.8% at 6 h. The observed carbon balance accounted for ~50% of the consumed isoprene. The presence of high-molecular-weight compounds may have accounted for a

  8. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Callis, C.F.; Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    >The separation of ruthenium from aqueous solutions containing uranium plutonium, ruthenium, and fission products is described. The separation is accomplished by providing a nitric acid solution of plutonium, uranium, ruthenium, and fission products, oxidizing plutonium to the hexavalent state with sodium dichromate, contacting the solution with a water-immiscible organic solvent, such as hexone, to extract plutonyl, uranyl, ruthenium, and fission products, reducing with sodium ferrite the plutonyl in the solvent phase to trivalent plutonium, reextracting from the solvent phase the trivalent plutonium, ruthenium, and some fission products with an aqueous solution containing a salting out agent, introducing ozone into the aqueous acid solution to oxidize plutonium to the hexavalent state and ruthenium to ruthenium tetraoxide, and volatizing off the ruthenium tetraoxide.

  9. RECOVERY OF PROTACTINIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Elson, R.E.

    1959-07-14

    The recovery of fluoride complexed protactinium from aqueous acidic solutions by solvent extraction is described. Generally the prccess of the invention com rises mixing an aqueous solution containing protactinium in a complexed form with an organic solvent which is specific for protactinium, such as diisopropyl carbinol, then decomposing the protactinium complex by adjusting the acidity of the aqueous solution to between 0-3 to 0-9 M in hydrogen ion concentration, and introducing a source of aluminum ions in sufficient quantity to establish a concentration of 0.5 to 1.2 M aluminum ion, whereupon decomposition of the protactinium fluoride complex takes place and the protactinium ion is taken up by the organic solvent phase.

  10. A new Am-Be PGNAA setup for element determination in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yongsheng, Ling; Wenbao, Jia; Daqian, Hei; Qing, Shan; Can, Cheng; Haojia, Zhang; Wenyu, Hou; Yanquan, He; Da, Chen

    2014-11-12

    A new prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been designed for element determination in aqueous solution with a 300 mCi (241)Am-Be neutron source and a 4in.×3in. (diameter×height) BGO detector, uncooled. A polyethylene cylindrical sample container approximately 40cm in outer radius and 80cm in height was used. To reduce the neutron dose in the detector, a block of 5cm thickness Li2CO3 was placed between the source and the detector for separation, but no gamma-blocker was used. By adjusting the position of the detector and optimizing the geometrical conditions of the setup, the element detection limit with a low activity neutron source was further improved. This methodology was checked by simulations with chlorine, mercury and cadmium determination and by experiments with chlorine determination in aqueous samples. The results show a good linear relationship between chlorine concentration and the count of its characteristic peak, and the detection limit of chlorine can reach 41.7mg/L with a collection time of 3600s for each spectrum. Additionally, a linear relationship was identified between mercury concentration and the count of its characteristic peak, but for cadmium, a non-linear relationship was observed in the simulations. PMID:25464204

  11. Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S.

    2011-06-21

    Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

  12. [Aqueous Fingerprint of Printing and Dyeing Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-feng; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Yu-fei; Lü, Qing; Fu, Xin-mei

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous fingerprint has an advantage to represent the organic components of water samples as compared to traditional parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Printing and dyeing wastewater is one of the major types of industrial wastewater in China. It is of huge volume and heavy pollution, containing large numbers of luminescent components and being difficult to be degraded. In this study the aqueous fingerprint of printing and dyeing wastewater was investigated with the fluorescent spectrometry. The experimental results showed that there existed two peaks in the aqueous fingerprint of the printing and dyeing wastewater, locating at the excitation/emission wavelength around 230/340 nm and 280/310 nm respectively. The intensity of the excitation/emission wavelength at 230/340 nm was higher than that of 280/310 nm. The locations and intensities of peaks varied within small range. The intensities of the two peaks linearly correlated with coefficient of 0.910 8 and slope of 1.506. The intensity ratio of Peak at 280/310 nm to Peak at 230/340 nm averagely was 0.777, ranging between 0.712 and 0.829. It was found that the aqueous fingerprints of sewage and aniline compounds were significantly different from that of the printing and dyeing wastewater, but the aqueous fingerprints of several types of widely-used dye were similar to that of the printing and dyeing wastewater. Thus dye may be the main luminescent components in the wastewater. The aqueous fingerprint can be used as a novel tool of early warning of waterbodies. PMID:26964226

  13. Laboratory Turnaround Time

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT. PMID:18392122

  14. Reductive dehalogenation of bromoform in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Betterton, E A; Arnold, R G; Kuhler, R J; Santo, G A

    1995-01-01

    The hybrid semiconducter-macrocycle catalyst TiO2-cobalt phthalocyanine promotes the solar photolysis of aqueous bromoform under anaerobic conditions. The major decomposition products are dibromoethane and HBr. Bromomethane and methane were produced only after prolonged photolysis (30 hr). Acetone, derived from added 2-propanol, was the only observed oxidation product. Preliminary experiments showed that electrolytic reduction of aqueous carbon tetrachloride at a vitamin B12-modified silver electrode produced the expected lower homologues but with surprisingly high yields of methane. PMID:8565919

  15. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C.

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  16. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of thiamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijate, C.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    1998-06-01

    The results of the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of thiamine (vitamin B 1) are presented. The yields for decomposition of thiamine and the product of radiolytic products were determined. The G values decrease as the dose increases. Some radiolytic products were identified. Decomposition of thiamine was slightly dependent on the presence of oxygen and on the pH of the solution. At pH 4.4 with a concentration of 2.5 × 10 -4 mol L -1 of thiamine in an oxygen free aqueous solution, the G 0 value for decomposition is 5.0.

  17. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  18. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  19. Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid

  20. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  1. PHOTOREACTION OF VALEROPHENONE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics and products of the photoreaction of the phenyl ketone valerophenone were investigated as a function of temperature, pH, and wavelength in aqueous solution. Under these conditions (<10-4M), the photoreactions are pseudo-first-order with respect to valerophenone concentra...

  2. Hematin crystallization from aqueous and organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Megan A.; Olafson, Katy N.; Petrova, Elena V.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2013-09-01

    Hematin crystallization is the main mechanism of detoxification of heme that is released in malaria-infected erythrocytes as a byproduct of the hemoglobin catabolism by the parasite. A controversy exists over whether hematin crystals grow from the aqueous medium of the parasite's digestive vacuole or in the lipid bodies present in the vacuole. To this end, we compare the basic thermodynamic and structural features of hematin crystallization in an aqueous buffer at pH 4.8, as in the digestive vacuole, and in water-saturated octanol that mimics the environment of the lipid nanospheres. We show that in aqueous solutions, hematin aggregation into mesoscopic disordered clusters is insignificant. We determine the solubility of the β-hematin crystals in the pH range 4.8-7.6. We image by atomic force microscopy crystals grown at pH 4.8 and show that their macroscopic and mesoscopic morphology features are incompatible with those reported for biological hemozoin. In contrast, crystals grown in the presence of octanol are very similar to those extracted from parasites. We determine the hematin solubility in water-saturated octanol at three temperatures. These solubilities are four orders of magnitude higher than that at pH 4.8, providing for faster crystallization from organic than from aqueous solvents. These observations further suggest that the lipid bodies play a role in mediating biological hemozoin crystal growth to ensure faster heme detoxification.

  3. ACUTE TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS AND CHIRNONOMUS DECORUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth instar larvae of the midge, Chironomus decorus, were exposed copper in water and copper in food and substrate (bound forms). opper present in aqueous forms was more toxic than when it was present in bound forms. he relationship between copper in water and copper in midges ...

  4. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  5. Novel aqueous aluminum/sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Peramunage, D. )

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum sulfur batteries based on concentrated polysulfide catholytes and an alkaline aluminum anode are introduced and investigated. The new battery is expressed by aluminum oxidation and aqueous sulfur reduction for an overall battery discharge consisting of 2Al + S[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  6. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN AQUEOUS SURFACE LAYERS: 1-NAPHTHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    1-Naphthol was reactive toward direct photolysis in buffered aqueous solutions (at pH 7, halflife in sunlight was about 90 min) and in cyclohexane (halflife about 15 min). The reaction rate in water increased with pH. The mechanisms of the principal photolysis pathways in both so...

  7. Water & Aqueous Solutions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-09

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Water & Aqueous Solutions was held at Holderness School, New Hampshire, 8/4/02 thru 8/9/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  8. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  9. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. osch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so far...

  10. AQUEOUS RELAXATION REAGENTS IN NITROGEN-15 NMR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron-nuclear relaxation times T(1)supe's for 15N and 13C in natural abundance are measured for a series of amines in aqueous solution using Gd(III) complexes of a series of polyaminocarboxylate ligands as paramagnetic relaxation reagents (PARRs). The PARRs are classified by t...

  11. The cellular basis of aqueous outflow regulation.

    PubMed

    Francis, B A; Alvarado, J

    1997-04-01

    This review begins with an introduction to the concept of the cellular regulation of aqueous outflow, current methods used for its study, and the cell types that are known to participate in this process. Current research in the field is divided into work on cell properties, cell products and extracellular matrix, cytoskeletal and structural changes, and drug interactions. PMID:10168352

  12. AQUEOUS CLEANING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD STENCILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA through NRMRL has partnered with the California Dept. of Toxic Substance Control under an ETV Pilot Project to verigy polllution prevention, recycling and waste treatment technologies. One of the projects selected for verification was the ultrasonic aqueous cleaning tec...

  13. Heat capacity of alkanolamine aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.F.; Li, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Heat capacities of monoethanoloamine, diglycolamine, diethanolamine, di-w propanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol, and 2-piperidineethanol aqueous solutions were measured from 30 to 80 C with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mole fractions of alkanolamines studied are 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. Heat capacities of N-methyldiethanolamine aqueous solutions have been measured to verify the validity of C{sub p} measurements for alkanolamine aqueous solutions. The estimated uncertainty of the measured heat capacities is {plus{underscore}minus}3%, including the effect of up to 5% impurities in a substance. An excess molar heat capacity expression using the Redlich-Kister equation for the composition dependence is used to represent the measured C{sub p} of alkanolamine aqueous solutions. For a total of 374 data points, the calculation results for eight alkanolamine solutions give the overall average absolute deviations of 11.9% and 0.29% for the excess molar heat capacity and the heat capacity, respectively. The heat capacities presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations. Solutions of alkanolamines are industrially important mixtures used in the natural gas industry, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia plants for the removal of acidic components such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams.

  14. The molecular velocity of sound. [aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslaender, D.; Onitiu, L.

    1974-01-01

    The molecular velocity of sound was calculated according to Rao's formula and the temperature and concentration dependences of this value were studied in aqueous solutions of alkali and alkaline-earth halides. Study of relative association brought to light characteristic effects of ions. The variation of the relative association can be explained by a breaking of hydrogen bonds by ions and thermal agitation.

  15. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  16. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  17. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  18. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Burger, Leland L.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  19. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  20. Method for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous systems

    DOEpatents

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous systems containing components composed of aluminum, copper, iron, or alloys thereof. The method comprises (a) incorporating in the aqueous medium 2-10 ppm by weight of tolyltriazole; an effective amount of a biodegradable organic biocide; 500-1000 ppm by weight of sodium metasilicate; 500-2000 ppm by weight of sodium nitrite; and 500-2000 ppm by weight of sodium tetraborate, all of these concentrations being based on the weight of water in the system; and (b) maintaining the pH of the resulting system in the range of 7.5 to 8.0. The method permits longterm operation with very low corrosion rates and bacteria counts. All of the additives to the system are biodegradable, permitting the treated aqueous medium to be discharged to the environment without violating current regulations. The method has special application to solar systems in which an aqueous medium is circulated through aluminum-alloy heat exchangers.

  1. Chemical Equilibrium Composition of Aqueous Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-30

    MINEQL is a subroutine package to calculate equilibrium composition of an aqueous system, accounting for mass transfer. MINEQL-EIR contains an additional base on enthalpy and heat capacity data and has the option to do calculations at temperatures different from 25 degrees C.

  2. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  3. ADSORPTION OF CERIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, F.P.

    1963-08-13

    Cerium can be removed from aqueous nitric acid (2 to 13 M) solutions by passing the latter over a PbO/sub 2/-containing anion exchange resin. The cerium is taken up by the resin, while any lanthanides, yttrium, and strontium present remain in the solution. (AEC)

  4. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, Douglas J.; Stern, Abraham C.; Baer, Marcel D.; Levin, Yan; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-04-01

    Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly useful for gaining atomic-scale insight into the structure and reactivity of aqueous interfaces in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces, with an emphasis on ions that play important roles in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. In addition to surveying results from simulation studies, we discuss challenges to the refinement and experimental validation of the methodology for simulating ion adsorption to the air-water interface, and recent advances in elucidating the driving forces for adsorption. We also review the recent development of a dielectric continuum theory that is capable of reproducing simulation and experimental data on ion behavior at aqueous interfaces. MDB and CJM acknowledge support from the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. MDB is supported by the Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program at PNNL.

  5. A novel amylose corn-starch dispersion as an aqueous film coating for tablets.

    PubMed

    Krogars, Karin; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Karjalainen, Milja; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-08-01

    A novel aqueous coating dispersion of amylose-rich corn starch (Hylon VII) was evaluated in an aqueous film-coating process of tablets using an instrumented laboratory-scale pan-coating apparatus. The influence of two independent process variables, the coating temperature and the atomizing air pressure, on the properties of the coated tablets were investigated. The preuse stability of aqueous coating dispersion (i.e., amylose corn-starch precipitate) was studied using a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The crystallinity of amylose starch in the coating dispersion was found to increase slightly during 9 months of storage (in a refrigerator 6 +/- 2 degrees C). The film coatings of an aqueous amylose-rich starch dispersion were successfully applied onto tablets without any significant drawbacks, such as nozzle blockage or related problems. It was found that the temperature in the coating pan had a significant influence on the film surface roughness, mechanical strength, and drug release in vitro. When the lowest coating temperature (30 degrees C) was used, rougher film coatings were obtained due to overwetting. At higher temperatures (up to 50-60 degrees C), lower surface roughness and higher mechanical strength values for the coated tablets were obtained. With the present amylose starch dispersion, the atomizing air pressure had a minor influence on the quality of the coating. Under appropriate coating conditions, a smooth tablet film coating was produced with this new, natural, and inexpensive amylose starch dispersion. PMID:12901687

  6. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous humour samples in necrotising retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T H C; Rozenberg, F; Cassoux, N; Rao, N A; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on aqueous humour for the detection of viral DNA in patients with necrotising herpetic retinitis. Methods: The clinical features and laboratory results of 22 patients (29 eyes) presenting with necrotising herpetic retinitis between March 1999 and June 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. Aqueous humour was obtained after anterior chamber paracentesis and PCR was performed in all cases. Results: Viral DNA was detected in the aqueous humour of 19 patients (86.4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroconversion was evidenced in one additional patient. In the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) group (n = 19), varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was identified in six patients, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) DNA in two patients, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) DNA in four patients, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome in four patients. In the progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) group (n = 3), VZV DNA was detected in all patients. No sample was positive for more than one virus. Conclusions: PCR analysis of aqueous humour in patients with clinical features of necrotising viral retinitis can provide specific aetiological orientation and the method appears to be safe and highly sensitive. PMID:12488268

  7. Enhanced resistance to oxidative decomposition of aqueous electrolytes for aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kohei; Shimada, Toshiki; Ito, Satomi; Yokoyama, Yuko; Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-04-11

    An efficient electrolyte solution containing organic sulfonates for use in aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (ARLBs) is shown to provide a wide potential window and enable a high operating voltage for ARLBs. PMID:26911197

  8. Analytical Laboratory Science on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Odyssey Missions orbital maps of near surface ice abundance using neutron spectroscopy (Boynton et al., 2002), the Mars Exploration Rover s confirmation of aqueous processing (Squyres et al., 2004), and the Mars Express detailed infrared maps of specific mineral types that were likely formed in aqueous environments (Bibring et al., 2005) have dramatically expanded our tool set for understanding of aqueous processes on Mars. The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory is designed to extend the "follow the water" crosscutting theme of the Mars Exploration Program toward an even more detailed exploration of habitability - the potential of the Mars environment to support life. The next steps in understanding the habitability of Mars are a more detailed in situ analysis of the chemical state of elements such as C, H, O, N, S, P, Ca, and Fe that are essential for terrestrial life. Of particular interest are experiments that establish definitive mineralogy for a wider range of compounds and those that implement a more comprehensive and sensitive search for organic molecules both in the atmosphere and in surface or near surface rocks, soils, and fines. The recent reports of atmospheric methane in the Martian atmosphere make the organics exploration even more compelling. The substantial mass and power resources of MSL combined with its mobility and powerful sample acquisition and processing tools will enable it to locate a variety of near-surface samples and analyze these in some detail. NASA is presently considering the possibility of landing a second MSL rover in 2011.

  9. Aggregation and Deposition of C60 in Aqueous Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extremely low water solubility of many fullerenes precludes aqueous solution processing for engineering applications and minimizes the potential for fullerene environmental effects in aqueous environments. However, studies have shown that C60 fullerene can form stable colloi...

  10. Modeling metabolic reductive dechlorination in dense non-aqueous phase liquid source-zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, John A.; Abriola, Linda M.

    2007-06-01

    Recent laboratory experimental evidence has suggested that bioremediation may be an attractive management strategy for dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source-zones. In particular, metabolic reductive dechlorination has been shown to reduce aqueous phase chlorinated ethene contaminant concentrations and enhance DNAPL dissolution, reducing source longevity. Transitioning this technology from the laboratory to the field will be facilitated by tools capable of simulating bioenhanced dissolution. This work presents a mathematical model for metabolic reductive dechlorination in a macroscale two-phase (aqueous-organic) environment. The model is implemented through adaptation of an existing multi-phase compositional simulator, which has been modified to incorporate eight chemical components and four microbial populations: a fermentative population, two dechlorinating populations, and a competitor population (e.g., methanogens). Monod kinetics, modified to incorporate electron donor thresholds, electron acceptor competition, and competitor inhibition, are used to simulate microbial growth and component degradation. The developed model is numerically verified and demonstrated through comparisons with published column-scale dechlorination data. Dechlorination kinetics, electron donor concentrations, and DNAPL saturation and distribution are all found to affect the extent of dissolution enhancement, with enhancements ranging from 1.0 to ˜1.9. Comparison of simulation results with those from a simplified analytic modeling approach suggest that the analytical model may tend to over-predict dissolution enhancement and fail to account for the transient nature of dissolution enhancement, leading to significant (70%) under-prediction of source longevity.

  11. Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Fuchs, C.; Järvinen, E.; Saathoff, H.; Dias, A.; El Haddad, I.; Gysel, M.; Coburn, S. C.; Tröstl, J.; Bernhammer, A.-K.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Corbin, J. C.; Craven, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Frege, C.; Gordon, H.; Höppel, N.; Heinritzi, M.; Kristensen, T. B.; Molteni, U.; Nichman, L.; Pinterich, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Simon, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Steiner, G.; Tomé, A.; Vogel, A. L.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, A. C.; Wagner, R.; Wexler, A. S.; Williamson, C.; Winkler, P. M.; Yan, C.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Curtius, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Flagan, R. C.; Hansel, A.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Möhler, O.; Stratmann, F.; Worsnop, D.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-12-01

    The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 by O3 was measured in laboratory generated clouds created in the CLOUD chamber at CERN. Experiments were performed at 10 and -10 °C, on acidic (sulphuric acid) and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulphate) seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion - pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted by oxidation rates previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and -10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in a dispersed aqueous system are well represented by accepted rates, based on bulk measurements. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first laboratory based measurements of aqueous phase oxidation in a dispersed, super-cooled population of droplets. The measurements are therefore important in confirming that the extrapolation of currently accepted reaction rates to temperatures below 0 °C is correct.

  12. Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Fuchs, C.; Järvinen, E.; Saathoff, H.; Dias, A.; El Haddad, I.; Gysel, M.; Coburn, S. C.; Tröstl, J.; Bernhammer, A.-K.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Corbin, J. C.; Craven, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Frege, C.; Gordon, H.; Höppel, N.; Heinritzi, M.; Kristensen, T. B.; Molteni, U.; Nichman, L.; Pinterich, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Simon, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Steiner, G.; Tomé, A.; Vogel, A. L.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, A. C.; Wagner, R.; Wexler, A. S.; Williamson, C.; Winkler, P. M.; Yan, C.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Curtius, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Flagan, R. C.; Hansel, A.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Möhler, O.; Stratmann, F.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.

    2016-02-01

    The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone was measured in laboratory-generated clouds created in the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Experiments were performed at 10 and -10 °C, on acidic (sulfuric acid) and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulfate) seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion - pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted using oxidation rate constants previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and -10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in a dispersed aqueous system can be well represented by using accepted rate constants, based on bulk measurements. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first laboratory-based measurements of aqueous phase oxidation in a dispersed, super-cooled population of droplets. The measurements are therefore important in confirming that the extrapolation of currently accepted reaction rate constants to temperatures below 0 °C is correct.

  13. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  15. First-principles Study of Phenol Hydrogenation on Pt and Ni Catalysts in Aqueous Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Yeohoon; Rousseau, Roger J.; Weber, Robert S.; Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2014-07-23

    The effects of aqueous phase on the reactivity of phenol hydrogenation over Pt and Ni catalysts were investigated using density functional theory based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations. The adsorption of phenol and the first hydrogenation steps via three carbon positions (ortho, meta and para) with respect to the phenolic OH group were studied in both vacuum and liquid phase conditions. To gain insight into how the aqueous phase affects the metal catalyst surface, increasing water environments including singly adsorbed water molecule, mono- (9 water molecules), double layers (24 water molecules), and the bulk liquid water which (52 water molecules) on the Pt(111) and the Ni(111) surfaces were modeled. Compared to the vacuum/metal interfaces, AIMD simulation results suggest that the aqueous Pt(111) and Ni(111) interfaces have a lower metal work function in the order of 0.8 - 0.9 eV, thus, making the metals in aqueous phase stronger reducing agents and poorer oxidizing agents. Phenol adsorption from the aqueous phase is found to be slightly weaker that from the vapor phase. The first hydrogenation step of phenol at the ortho position of the phenolic ring is slightly favored over the other two positions. The polarization induced by the surrounding water molecules and the solvation effect play important roles in stabilizing the transition states associated with phenol hydrogenation by lowering the barriers of 0.1 - 0.4 eV. The detailed discussion on the basis of the interfacial electrostatics from the current study is very useful to understand the nature of a broader class of metal catalyzed reactions in liquid solution phase. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing

  16. Absorption of chlorine into aqueous bicarbonate solutions and aqueous hydroxide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ashour, S.S.; Rinker, E.B.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-03-01

    Removal of chlorine from certain gas streams may be of industrial importance for certain chemical processes. The absorption of Cl{sub 2} into aqueous bicarbonate and aqueous hydroxide solutions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The rate coefficient of the reaction between Cl{sub 2} and OH{sup {minus}} was estimated over the temperature range of 293--312 K and fitted by the Arrhenius equation: k{sub 24} = 3.56 {times} 10{sup 11} exp({minus}1,617/T). If Cl{sub 2} were assumed to react only with water and OH{sup {minus}} in an aqueous bicarbonate solution, the predicted absorption rate would be much lower than that experimentally measured. This suggests that Cl{sub 2} reacts with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} in an aqueous bicarbonate solution. The rate coefficient of the reaction between Cl{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was estimated over the temperature range of 293--313 K and fitted by the Arrhenius equation: k{sub 21} = 5.63 {times} 10{sup 10} exp({minus}4,925/T). More importantly, under absorption conditions, the amount of hydroxide consumed for absorbing a specific amount of Cl{sub 2} into an aqueous hydroxide solution is almost twice the amount of bicarbonate consumed for absorbing the same amount of Cl{sub 2} into an aqueous bicarbonate solution.

  17. Catalytic destruction of hazardous organics in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a process for destroying hazardous organics and chlorinated organics in aqueous solutions. The process is targeted at liquid waste streams that are difficult and costly to treat with conventional or developing technologies. Examples of these waste streams include contaminated groundwater and surface water and industrial wastewater. Aqueous solutions are treated with a transition metal catalyst at 300/degree/C to 460/degree/C and 2000 to 5000 psig pressure to convert the wastes to innocuous gases. During proof-of-principle tests conducted in a 1-L batch reactor, destruction of over 99/percent/ (in most cases approaching 99.9/percent/) of the organic material was achieved. Hexone (methyl is isobutyl ketone, MIBK), p-cresol, hexane, benzene, and naphthalene were used as model waste materials. The only major product with all of the organic compounds was a gas containing 50/percent/ to 75/percent/ methane, 25/percent/ to 45/percent/ carbon dioxide, and 0/percent) to 5/percent/ hydrogen. Reduced nickel was the only effective catalyst and that the optimal operating conditions for destroying nonchlorinated organics were 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C, 2000 to 4000 psig, and 30/endash/ to 60/endash/min residence time. These tests also indicated that catalyst deactivation or fouling would not be a problem at these conditions. Chlorobenzene and trichloroethylene (TEC), were also tested. Destruction of both compounds was 99/percent/ or greater, but the products were different from those obtained from hydrocarbons. With TCE, the major product was carbon dioxide; with chlorobenzene the major product identified was benzene. In the tests with the chlorinated hydrocarbons, the chlorine was converted to HC1 and the reduced nickel was converted to nickel hydroxide, which may be detrimental to long-term catalyst activity. (15 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs).

  18. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams...

  20. 46 CFR 108.474 - Aqueous film forming foam systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aqueous film forming foam systems. 108.474 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.474 Aqueous film forming foam systems. Aqueous film forming foam systems may be installed if approved by the Commandant....

  1. 46 CFR 108.474 - Aqueous film forming foam systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aqueous film forming foam systems. 108.474 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.474 Aqueous film forming foam systems. Aqueous film forming foam systems may be installed if approved by the Commandant....

  2. 46 CFR 108.474 - Aqueous film forming foam systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aqueous film forming foam systems. 108.474 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.474 Aqueous film forming foam systems. Aqueous film forming foam systems may be installed if approved by the Commandant....

  3. 46 CFR 108.474 - Aqueous film forming foam systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aqueous film forming foam systems. 108.474 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.474 Aqueous film forming foam systems. Aqueous film forming foam systems may be installed if approved by the Commandant....

  4. 46 CFR 108.474 - Aqueous film forming foam systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aqueous film forming foam systems. 108.474 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.474 Aqueous film forming foam systems. Aqueous film forming foam systems may be installed if approved by the Commandant....

  5. RECOVERY OF ACTINIDES FROM AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ader, M.

    1963-11-19

    A process of recovering actinides is presented. Tetravalent actinides are extracted from rare earths in an aqueous nitric acid solution with a ketone and back-extracted from the ketone into an aqueous medium. The aqueous actinide solution thus obtained, prior to concentration by boiling, is sparged with steam to reduce its ketone to a maximum content of 3 grams per liter. (AEC)

  6. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  7. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  8. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  9. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  10. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  11. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  12. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  13. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  14. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  15. LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

    THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

  16. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  17. Medical Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

  18. Practical Laboratory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. R.

    This book is intended as a guide for people who are planning chemistry and physics research laboratories. It deals with the importance of effective communication between client and architect, the value of preliminary planning, and the role of the project officer. It also discusses the size and layout of individual laboratories, the design of…

  19. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  20. Laboratory for Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the activities of the Laboratory for Oceans. The staff and the research activities are nearly evenly divided between engineering and scientific endeavors. The Laboratory contributes engineering design skills to aircraft and ground based experiments in terrestrial and atmospheric sciences in cooperation with scientists from labs in Earth sciences.

  1. Dehydration of Methanediol in Aqueous Solution: An ONIOM(QM/MM) Study.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Satoshi; Sameera, W M C

    2016-08-25

    We used ONIOM(QM/MM) method to examine the dehydration of a methanediol in aqueous solution. A methanediol and a small number of water molecules in the proximity of the methanediol are calculated with quantum mechanics (QM), while a number of water molecules far from the methanediol are calculated with molecular mechanics (MM). A molecular dynamical simulation shows that 12 water molecules are located within the hydration shell of a methanediol. The energy barrier for the dehydration of a methanediol decreases when we increase the number of water molecules in the QM region and converges toward a finite value when 12 water molecules are included in the QM region. This indicates a significant effect of water molecules within the hydration shell on the dehydration process of a methanediol in aqueous solution. The dehydration rate calculated with the ONIOM(QM/MM) method agrees well with that obtained from a laboratory experiment. PMID:27490867

  2. Cadmium and lead accumulation by goldfish exposed to aqueous refuse incinerator fly ash leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The increased use of incineration with modern emission control devices for reducing the mass of municipal solid waste is resulting in ever greater quantities of ash to be disposed. Heavy metals present in the original refuse are concentrated in the ash and landfill disposal of it has prompted public concern of possible contamination of groundwater through leaching. Several investigators have reported the presence of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium in aqueous leachates of refuse incinerator ashes in laboratory studies. It was of interest to determine the effect of such leachates on fish. In the work reporter here, goldfish were exposed to aqueous leachates of municipal refuse incinerator ash. Visual observations of fish behavior, heavy metal analysis and histologic examination of tissues were then carried out.

  3. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  4. Ancient aqueous environments at Endeavour crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F., III; Catalano, J.G.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.S.; de Souza, P.A., Jr.; Fairén, A.G.; Farrand, W. H.; Fox, V.K.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Golombeck, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Parker, T.J.; Paulsen, G.; Rice, J.W.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe+3-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias, and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  5. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  6. Fluorescence of tryptophan in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, Hairong; Jin, Bing

    2013-04-01

    In this work, the absorption and emission spectra of Tryptophan (Trp) in aqueous solution were studied. Moreover, a hydrogen-bonded zwitterionic Trpsbnd (H2O)9 model was proposed and its ground-state and excited-state properties were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods, respectively. All spectroscopic data in our experiments can be well explained by the hydrogen bond strengthening in the excited state of the model complex. The delocalization of electron density between indole moiety and neighboring H2O molecules in fluorescent state was proposed to be facilitated by the strengthened hydrogen-bond chain, and thus resulting in the large red-shift fluorescence of Trp in aqueous solution.

  7. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes a method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and apparatus used in effecting the removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  8. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  9. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1988-08-26

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  10. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1990-11-13

    A method is disclosed of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 fig.

  11. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  12. Absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghawas, H.A.; Ruiz-Ibanez, G.; Sandall, O.C. )

    1988-01-01

    The absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was studied over a range of temperatures and MDEA concentrations. MDEA is commonly used for selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of carbon dioxide. However, sulfur in the form of COS may also be present and it is necessary that estimates of absorption rates of this compound be made. The objective of this study is to determine the physiochemical properties needed to predict COS absorption rates in aqueous MDEA. Free gas solubility and the diffusivity of COS in MDEA solutions were measured over the temperature range 15 to 40{sup 0}C for MDEA concentrations up to 30 weight per cent using the nitrous oxide analogy method. Solubilities were measured volumetrically in an equilibrium cell and diffusivities were measured using a laminar liquid jet absorber. The kinetics of the reaction between COS and MDEA were studied by measuring absorption rates in a single wetted-sphere absorber.

  13. Supercritical waste oxidation of aqueous wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.

    1986-01-01

    For aqueous wastes containing 1 to 20 wt% organics, supercritical water oxidation is less costly than controlled incineration or activated carbon treatment and far more efficient than wet oxidation. Above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (218 atm) of water, organic materials and gases are completely miscible with water. In supercritical water oxidation, organics, air and water are brought together in a mixture at 250 atm and temperatures above 400 C. Organic oxidation is initiated spontaneously at these conditions. The heat of combustion is released within the fluid and results in a rise in temperature 600 to 650 C. Under these conditions, organics are destroyed rapidly with efficiencies in excess of 99.999%. Heteroatoms are oxidized to acids, which can be precipitated out as salts by adding a base to the feed. Examples are given for process configurations to treat aqueous wastes with 10 and 2 wt% organics.

  14. Aqueous trivalent chromium photoproduction in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczynski, S.E.; Kieber, R.J. )

    1993-08-01

    Field studies indicate Cr(III) is photochemically produced at two freshwater lakes in southeastern North Carolina. Results of controlled photolysis experiments with marine and estuarine samples suggest this process may be common to many natural water systems. This photogeneration mechanism sheds new insight into the existence of the thermodynamically unstable Cr(III) ion in oxygenated surface waters. Sixty-eight water samples from seven water bodies in the southeastern United States (fresh, estuarine, and marine) displayed a range of total aqueous inorganic chromium from <0.01 nM to 1.05 nM, with variable amounts of the trivalent and hexavalent species. These are the first Cr(III) and Cr(VI) values reported for all these aqueous systems and some of the first ever for nonmarine environments. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ancient aqueous environments at Endeavour crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    Arvidson, R E; Squyres, S W; Bell, J F; Catalano, J G; Clark, B C; Crumpler, L S; de Souza, P A; Fairén, A G; Farrand, W H; Fox, V K; Gellert, R; Ghosh, A; Golombek, M P; Grotzinger, J P; Guinness, E A; Herkenhoff, K E; Jolliff, B L; Knoll, A H; Li, R; McLennan, S M; Ming, D W; Mittlefehldt, D W; Moore, J M; Morris, R V; Murchie, S L; Parker, T J; Paulsen, G; Rice, J W; Ruff, S W; Smith, M D; Wolff, M J

    2014-01-24

    Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe(+3)-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias, and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum. PMID:24458648

  16. Aqueous Alteration and Martian Bulk Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Boynton, W. V.; McLennan, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The bulk compositions of the terrestrial planets are fundamentally important in testing models for planetary accretion. This is particularly true for the abundances of volatile elements. In the absence of direct samples of the mantle, we must rely on samples of surface materials obtained from orbit (specifically from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, GRS), Martian meteorites, and in situ analyses. Use of these databases requires understanding the processes that formed and modified the igneous rocks composing the crust; aqueous processes are particularly important. Halogens are useful elements for understanding Martian bulk composition and surface aqueous alteration. Here, we focus on Cl, which is an incompatible element during partial melting. Cosmochemically, Cl is a moderately volatile element with a condensation temperature of 948 Kelvin, only slightly below that of K (1006 Kelvin), another incompatible lithophile element. Cl is substantially lost during magma degassing at or near the surface, making it difficult to determine its abundances in the interior through analyses of rocks, leading to an underestimate of Cl abundance in bulk silicate Mars. GRS data for Mars between approximately 52 degrees north and south show that K and Cl are uncorrelated. This is not surprising as they fractionate easily by release of Cl-bearing gases from magmas near the surface and during eruptions, by aqueous alteration of surface materials, and by the large solubility of Cl salts in water. A positive correlation of Cl with H supports the role of water in Cl redistribution. In spite of the lack of correlation between K and Cl, the mean Cl/K ratio is roughly chondritic: 1.5 ±0.1 compared to 1.28 in CI chondrites. However, Cl appears to be enriched at least in the uppermost few tens of cm analyzed by the GRS: Cl correlates with both H and S, but a linear fit to the data shows a positive Cl intercept of about 0.3, which suggests a decoupling of Cl from S and H. Adjusting the

  17. Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, William L.; Dey, Arabinda N.

    1985-05-07

    A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

  18. Continuous environmental monitoring for aqueous effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Jones, G. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    An aquatic environmental monitor has been developed that will continuously monitor aqueous waste streams from coal processing plants. The monitor contains three different instruments: a continuous chemical oxygen demand monitor and two continuous-flow fluorometers with different excitation-emission characteristics. A prototype instrument was fabricated and evaluated for several different applications. The details of the instrument design and results of its evaluation are presented in this report.

  19. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  20. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  1. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Nachtman, E.S.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to a process for the separation of scandium from yttrium, thorium, and trivalent rare earths and with their separation from each other. It has been found that scandium and yttrium can be separated from trivalent rare earths in acidic solution, for example, a solution 6 M in HCl, by contacting with tributyl phosphate, whereupon the scandum is preferentially extracted into the organic phase, leaving the yttrium and trivalent rare earths in the aqueous phase.

  2. Aqueous SOA formation from radical oligomerization of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Siekmann, F.; Ravier, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Clément, J.; Ervens, B.; Monod, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is now accepted that one of the important pathways of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurs through aqueous phase chemistry in the atmosphere. However, the chemical mechanisms leading to macromolecules are still not well understood. It was recently shown that oligomer production by OH radical oxidation in the aerosol aqueous phase from α-dicarbonyl precursors, such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal, is irreversible and fast. We have investigated the aqueous phase photooxidation of MACR and MVK, which are biogenic organic compounds derived from isoprene. Aqueous phase photooxidation of MVK and MACR was investigated in a photoreactor using photolysis of H2O2 as OH radical source. Electrospray high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the solutions brought clear evidence for the formation of oligomer systems having a mass range of up to 1800 Da within less than 15 minutes of reaction. Highest oligomer formation rates were obtained under conditions of low dissolved oxygen, highest temperature (T = 298 K) and highest precursor initial concentrations ([MVK]0 = 20 mM). A radical mechanism of oligomerization is proposed to explain the formation of the high molecular weight products. Furthermore, we quantified the total amount of carbon present in oligomers. Kinetic parameters of the proposed oligomerization mechanism are constrained by means of a box model that is able to reproduce the temporal evolution of intermediates and products as observed in the laboratory experiments. Additional model simulations for atmospherically-relevant conditions will be presented that show the extent to which these radical processes contribute to SOA formation in the atmospheric multiphase system as compared to other aqueous phase as well as traditional SOA sources. MVK time profile (as measured by UV Spectroscopy) and mass spectra (obtained using UPLC-ESI-MS for the retention time range 0-5 min in the positive mode) at 5, 10 and 50 min of reaction (MVK 20 mM, 25° C, under

  3. Kinetics, Mechanism, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yield of Aqueous Phase Photo-oxidation of α-Pinene Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Aljawhary, Dana; Zhao, Ran; Lee, Alex K Y; Wang, Chen; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-03-10

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) involves atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the majority of which are emitted from biogenic sources. Oxidation can occur not only in the gas-phase but also in atmospheric aqueous phases such as cloudwater and aerosol liquid water. This study explores for the first time the aqueous-phase OH oxidation chemistry of oxidation products of α-pinene, a major biogenic VOC species emitted to the atmosphere. The kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and formation of SOA compounds in the aqueous phase of two model compounds, cis-pinonic acid (PIN) and tricarballylic acid (TCA), were investigated in the laboratory; TCA was used as a surrogate for 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA), a known α-pinene oxidation product. Aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS) was used to follow the kinetics and reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. Room-temperature second-order rate constants of PIN and TCA were determined to be 3.3 (±0.5) × 10(9) and 3.1 (±0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, from which were estimated their condensed-phase atmospheric lifetimes. Aerosol-ToF-CIMS detected a large number of products leading to detailed reaction mechanisms for PIN and MBTCA. By monitoring the particle size distribution after drying, the amount of SOA material remaining in the particle phase was determined. An aqueous SOA yield of 40 to 60% was determined for PIN OH oxidation. Although recent laboratory studies have focused primarily on aqueous-phase processing of isoprene-related compounds, we demonstrate that aqueous formation of SOA materials also occurs from monoterpene oxidation products, thus representing an additional source of biogenically driven aerosol formation. PMID:26299576

  4. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2013-01-01

    Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction. PMID:23998303

  5. Aqueous photooxidation of isoprene hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, J. C.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    Under pristine atmospheric conditions, Isoprene Hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOHs) are the main first generation products of isoprene oxidation. ISOPOOHs contain two highly hydrophilic functional groups that enable it to partition into atmospheric waters. There it can be further oxidized or act as a source of OH. In order to study this process, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments aimed at understanding the role of ISOPOOH, and hydroperoxides in general, in atmospheric waters. ISOPOOH standards were irradiated in the presence of H2O2 in order to simulate aqueous processing. The solutions were analyzed online via HR-ToF-CIMS and HR-ToF AMS. We were able to determine that the main products of ISOPOOH oxidation in water are isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX). Side products formed during the photooxidation were detected as well, including products of direct photolysis and highly oxygenated compounds. ISOPOOH was also confirmed to produce OH in the condensed phase both, via direct photolysis of the peroxide bond and as a co-product of IEPOX formation. Competition experiments with Levoglucosan allowed for the measurement of ISOPOOHs OH reaction rate constant in the condensed phase. Finally, experiments using an OH trap enabled the measurement of the yield of OH from ISOPOOH photolysis that escapes the solvent cage. Together these experiments provide new insights into the role that hydrophilic products of atmospheric oxidation, especially peroxides, can play in SOA formation via aqueous processing.

  6. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-10-10

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as much as 2-3% higher than pure water density. This density variation might produce an influence on the groundwater flow regime. For instance, in geologic sequestration of CO2, convective transport mixing might occur when, several years after injection of carbon dioxide has stopped, the CO2-rich gas phase is concentrated at the top of the formation, just below an overlaying caprock. In this particular case the heavier CO2 saturated water will flow downward and will be replaced by water with a lesser CO2 content.

  7. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×1010 cells mL-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms. PMID:26070088

  8. Spectroscopic studies of solutes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chai, Bing-hua; Zheng, Jian-ming; Zhao, Qing; Pollack, Gerald H

    2008-03-20

    Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of aqueous solutions of salts, sugars, and amino acids were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Motivation stemmed from unanticipated absorption spectral and fluorescence features of the "exclusion zone" seen adjacent to various hydrophilic surfaces. Those features implied a structure distinct from that of bulk water (Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 127, 19). Absorption peaks at approximately 270 nm similar to those observed in the exclusion zone were seen in solutions of the following substances: salts, Nafion 117 solution/film, l-lysine, d-alanine, d-glucose and sucrose. To determine the fate of the absorbed energy, we studied the fluorescence properties of these solutions. The salts showed fluorescence emission around 480-490 nm under different excitation wavelengths. The fluorescence intensity of LiCl was higher than NaCl, which was in turn higher than KCl-the same ordering as the absorption intensities. Fluorescence of Nafion 117 solution/film, l-lysine, d-alanine, d-glucose and sucrose were observed as well, with multiple excitation wavelengths. Hence, at least some of the absorbed energy is released as fluorescence. The results show features closely similar to those observed in the exclusion zone, implying that the aqueous region around the solutes resembles the aqueous zone adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces. Both may be more extensively ordered than previously thought. PMID:18298105

  9. Microstructural examination of low activation ferritic steels following irradiation in ORR at 330 and 400 °C to ˜10 dpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelles, D. S.

    2004-08-01

    Microstructural examinations are reported for a series of low activation steels containing Mn following irradiation in the Oak Ridge Reactor at 330 and 400 °C to ˜10 dpa. Alloy compositions included 2% Cr, 9% Cr and 12% Cr steels with V to 1.5% and W to 1.0%. Results include compositional changes in precipitates and microstructural changes as a function of composition and irradiation temperature. It is concluded that temperatures in ORR are on the order of 50 °C higher than anticipated.

  10. Fe sub 3 Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  11. Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G.

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  12. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  13. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  14. Photocatalytical oxidation of de-icing agents in aqueous solutions and aqueous extract of jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Krichevskaya, M; Malygina, T; Preis, S; Kallas, J

    2001-01-01

    Improper handling of jet fuel at abandoned military bases has resulted in heavy pollution of the soil and groundwater. Experimental research of photocatalytical oxidation (PCO) of jet fuel aqueous extract and aqueous solutions of de-icing agents was undertaken. The influence of different parameters - pH, concentration of substances to be oxidised, presence of inorganic admixtures, effect of OH. radical generators--on the PCO of solutions of de-icing agents and jet fuel aqueous extract was determined. The role of OH. radicals was found to be less important in determining the PCO rate. The PCO of organic pollutants was also investigated using a catalyst immobilised onto the surface of buoyant hollow glass microspheres. Attached titanium dioxide (TiO2) showed lower photocatalytical activity than when suspended in slurry, although it allows waters to be treated in simple shallow ponds without intensive stirring. The biodegradability of aqueous solutions of de-icing agents and jet fuel aqueous extract increased as PCO proceeded. PMID:11695445

  15. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  16. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  17. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  18. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  19. Exploring Fundamental Concepts in Aqueous Solution Conductivity: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Stevanov, Kelly; Barlag, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Using a conductivity sensor, a temperature sensor, and a datalogger, fundamental factors that affect conductivity are explored. These factors are (i) concentration, (ii) temperature, (iii) ion charge, and (iv) size and or mass of anion. In addition, the conductivities of a number of other solutions are measured. This lab has been designed to…

  20. Aqueous phase oligomerization of methyl vinyl ketone through photooxidation - Part 2: Development of the chemical mechanism and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervens, B.; Renard, P.; Ravier, S.; Clément, J.-L.; Monod, A.

    2014-08-01

    We developed a chemical mechanism based on laboratory experiments that have shown efficient oligomerization from methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) in the bulk aqueous phase. Kinetic data are applied (if known) or fitted to the observed MVK decay and oligomer mass increase. The mechanism is then implemented into a multiphase box model that simulates (i) oligomer formation upon uptake of MVK from the gas phase, and (ii) SOA formation from isoprene, as a precursor of MVK and methacrolein (MACR) in the aqueous and gas phases. Model results show that under atmospheric conditions, the oligomer formation rate strongly depends on the availability of dissolved oxygen. If oxygen is consumed too quickly or its solubility is kinetically or thermodynamically limited, oligomerization is accelerated, in agreement with the laboratory studies. The comparison of predicted oligomer formation shows that for most model assumptions (e.g. depending on the assumed partitioning of MVK and MACR), SOA formation from isoprene in the gas phase exceeds aqueous SOA formation by a factor 3-4. However, at high aerosol liquid water content and potentially high partitioning of oligomer precursors into the aqueous phase, SOA formation in both phases might be equally efficient.

  1. HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT ENHANCED MISSION PLANNING THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOOLS LIFECYCLE COST MODELING AND AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMIC MODELING - 12134

    SciTech Connect

    PIERSON KL; MEINERT FL

    2012-01-26

    Two notable modeling efforts within the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) are currently underway to (1) increase the robustness of the underlying chemistry approximations through the development and implementation of an aqueous thermodynamic model, and (2) add enhanced planning capabilities to the HTWOS model through development and incorporation of the lifecycle cost model (LCM). Since even seemingly small changes in apparent waste composition or treatment parameters can result in large changes in quantities of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass, mission duration or lifecycle cost, a solubility model that more accurately depicts the phases and concentrations of constituents in tank waste is required. The LCM enables evaluation of the interactions of proposed changes on lifecycle mission costs, which is critical for decision makers.

  2. The kinetics and mechanism of an aqueous phase isoprene reaction with hydroxyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhao, Y.; Shen, X. L.

    2011-08-01

    Aqueous phase chemical processes of organic compounds in the atmosphere have received increasing attention, partly due to their potential contribution to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here, we analyzed the aqueous OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene and its reaction products including carbonyl compounds and organic acids, regarding the acidity and temperature as in-cloudy conditions. We also performed a laboratory simulation to improve our understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms for the products of aqueous isoprene oxidation that are significant precursors of SOA; these included methacrolein (MACR), methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methyl glyoxal (MG), and glyoxal (GL). We used a novel chemical titration method to monitor the concentration of isoprene in the aqueous phase. We used a box model to interpret the mechanistic differences between aqueous and gas phase OH radical-initiated isoprene oxidations. Our results were the first demonstration of the rate constant for the reaction between isoprene and OH radical in water, 1.2 ± 0.4) × 1010 M-1 s-1 at 283 K. Molar yields were determined based on consumed isoprene. Of note, the ratio of the yields of MVK (24.1 ± 0.8 %) to MACR (10.9 ± 1.1%) in the aqueous phase isoprene oxidation was approximately double that observed for the corresponding gas phase reaction. We hypothesized that this might be explained by a water-induced enhancement in the self-reaction of a hydroxy isoprene peroxyl radical (HOCH2C(CH3)(O2)CH = CH2) produced in the aqueous reaction. The observed yields for MG and GL were 11.4 ± 0.3 % and 3.8 ± 0.1 %, respectively. Model simulations indicated that several potential pathways may contribute to the formation of MG and GL. Finally, oxalic acid increased steadily throughout the course of the study, even after isoprene was consumed completely. The observed yield of oxalic acid was 26.2 ± 0.8 % at 6 h. The observed carbon balance accounted for ~50 % of the consumed isoprene. The

  3. Unexpected high yields of carbonyl and peroxide products of aqueous isoprene ozonolysis and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. L.; Huang, D.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, Z. M.

    2012-03-01

    The aqueous phase reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has not been considered in most analyses of atmospheric chemical processes. However, some experimental evidence has shown that, compared to the corresponding gas phase reaction, the aqueous chemical processes of VOCs in the bulk solutions and surfaces of ambient wet particles (cloud, fog, and wet aerosols) may potentially contribute to the products and formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In the present study, we performed a laboratory experiment of the aqueous ozonolysis of isoprene at different pHs (3-7) and temperatures (4-25 °C). We detected three important kinds of products, including carbonyl compounds, peroxide compounds, and organic acids. Our results showed that the molar yields of these products were nearly independent of the investigated pHs and temperatures. These products included (1) carbonyls: 56.7 ± 6.7% formaldehyde, 42.8 ± 2.5% methacrolein (MAC), and 57.7 ± 3.4% methyl vinyl ketone (MVK); (2) peroxides: 53.4 ± 4.1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 15.1 ± 3.1% hydroxylmethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP); and (3) organic acids: undetectable (< 1% estimated by the detection limit). Based on the amounts of products formed and the isoprene consumed, the total carbon yield was estimated to be 95 ± 4%. This implied that most of the products in the reaction system were detected. Of note, the combined yields of both MAC + MVK and H2O2 + HMHP in the aqueous isoprene ozonolysis were much higher than those observed in the corresponding gas phase reaction. We suggested that these unexpected high yields of carbonyls and peroxides were related to the greater capability of condensed water, compared to water vapor, to stabilize energy-rich Criegee radicals. This aqueous ozonolysis of isoprene (and possibly other biogenic VOCs) could potentially occur on the surfaces of ambient wet particles and plants. Moreover, the high-yield carbonyl and peroxide products might provide a considerable source of

  4. SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHOD 8080 -ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design, execution and results of the improvement and single-laboratory evaluation of SW-846 Method 8080, 'Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs', are described. In the study, the application of the method to the analysis of aqueous and solid samples for organochlorine pesticides...

  5. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  6. Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    A microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound and the reduction of a metal ion are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO[subscript 2] irradiated with UV light. This experiment can be performed in the laboratory session with simple chemicals and equipments.

  7. Microfluidics Meets Dilute Solution Viscometry: An Undergraduate Laboratory to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pety, Stephen J.; Lu, Hang; Thio, Yonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory experiment to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by measuring the viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in a PDMS microfluidic viscometer. Sample data are given for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A demonstration of shear thinning behavior using the microviscometer is…

  8. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  9. Organic Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherrel

    1990-01-01

    Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

  10. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  11. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  12. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  13. Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

  14. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - CORVALLIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory - Corvallis is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's - national research center for terrestrial and watershed ecology, aquatic ecoregions, and for the ecological effects of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and atmospheric p...

  16. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  17. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  18. NETL - Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, George

    2013-06-12

    Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are investigating chemical looping combustion. As a clean and efficient fossil fuel technology, chemical looping combustion controls CO2 emissions and offers a promising alternative to traditional combustion.

  19. Affect and self-efficacy responses during moderate-intensity exercise among low-active women: the effect of cognitive appraisal.

    PubMed

    Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie; Beauchamp, Mark

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program. PMID:20479476

  20. Theory and laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Alcock, Charles; Allamandola, Lou; Chevalier, Roger A.; Cline, David B.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Fall, S. Michael; Ferland, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Science opportunities in the 1990's are discussed. Topics covered include the large scale structure of the universe, galaxies, stars, star formation and the interstellar medium, high energy astrophysics, and the solar system. Laboratory astrophysics in the 1990's is briefly surveyed, covering such topics as molecular, atomic, optical, nuclear and optical physics. Funding recommendations are given for the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Department of Energy. Recommendations for laboratory astrophysics research are given.