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1

BNL multiparticle spectrometer software  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed.

Saulys, A.C.

1984-01-01

2

MPS (Multiparticle Spectrometer) data acquisition software system  

SciTech Connect

A description of the software for a FASTBUS based data acquisition system in use at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer is presented. Data reading and formatting is done by the SLAC Scanner Processors (SSP's) resident in the FASTBUS system. A multiprocess software system on VAX computers is used to communicate with the SSP's, record the data, and monitor on-line the progress of high energy and heavy ion experiments. The structure and the performance of this system are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Saulys, A.C.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.

1989-04-04

3

The BNL multiparticle spectrometer software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both "on-line" and "off-line" operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed.

Saulys, Alfred C.

1985-10-01

4

Effective mass trigger at the Brookhaven Multi-Particle Spectrometer (MPS)  

SciTech Connect

An effective mass trigger for use at the Brookhaven Multiparticle Spectrometer (MPS) is described. It is a microprocessor based device using extensive fast memory attached to proportional wire chambers in the MPS magnetic field. It will select kinematic quantities unique to the reaction being studied, thereby permitting higher sensitivities and a reduction in data-processing cost for MPS experiments. The principles of operation for this trigger, and the results of simulations to assess its performance, are presented.

Willen, E H

1980-01-01

5

Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

1982-01-01

6

Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a for- mat suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064nm DeltaNu rst generation, eld-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064nm Bruker spectrometer and a 785nm Kaiser spectrometer. The steps taken to compensate for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and wavenumber sensitivity variation are described.

Weatherall, James; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D.; Smith, Barry; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

2013-02-01

7

High efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer: Construction and laboratory testing  

SciTech Connect

The new high efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer system (HEXOS) has been developed to study impurity concentrations and impurity transport properties in the plasma of the stellarator W7-X. The HEXOS system consists of four different grating based spectrometers, which provide large etendue and good spectral resolution over a broad wavelength range (2.5-160 nm, divided into four subsections with some overlapping). The mechanical arrangement as two double spectrometers allows for a compact installation geometry on W7-X. Laboratory testing and wavelength and intensity calibrations have been performed using a dc hollow cathode discharge (24-150 nm) and a pinch discharge (2.5-30 nm)

Biel, W.; Greiche, A.; Burhenn, R.; Jourdain, E.; Lepere, D. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Jobin-Yvon SAS, F-91165 Longjumeau (France)

2006-10-15

8

Use of the Raman spectrometer in gemmological laboratories: Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current paper gives an overview of the development of Raman spectrometry in gemmological laboratories. While before 1990s, no commercial gemmological laboratory possessed such an instrument, all larger international labs have acquired these instruments by now. The Raman spectrometer is routinely used for the detection of emerald fillers, HPHT treatment of diamonds, analysis of the nature of a gemstone, analysis of gemstone inclusions and treatments, and the characterisation of natural or colour enhanced pearls and corals. Future developments in gemstone research lie in the closer analysis of the features of Raman and PL spectra and in the combination of several instruments.

Kiefert, Lore; Karampelas, Stefanos

2011-10-01

9

DIANE multiparticle transport code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

2014-06-01

10

Taming multiparticle entanglement.  

PubMed

We present an approach to characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement by using appropriate approximations in the space of quantum states. This leads to a criterion for entanglement which can easily be calculated by using semidefinite programing and improves all existing approaches significantly. Experimentally, it can also be evaluated when only some observables are measured. Furthermore, it results in a computable entanglement monotone for genuine multiparticle entanglement. Based on this, we develop an analytical approach for the entanglement detection in cluster states, leading to an exponential improvement compared with existing schemes. PMID:21668133

Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

2011-05-13

11

The Los Alamos National Laboratory precision double crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on the LANL precision double crystal X-ray spectrometer: Motivation for construction of the instrument; a brief history of the instrument; mechanical systems; motion control systems; computer control system; vacuum system; alignment program; scan programs; observations of the copper K{alpha} lines; and characteristics and specifications.

Morgan, D.V.; Stevens, C.J.; Liefield, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-03-01

12

The Los Alamos National Laboratory precision double crystal spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the following topics on the LANL precision double crystal x ray spectrometer: motivation for construction of the instrument, a brief history of the instrument, mechanical systems, motion control systems, computer control system, vacuum system, alignment program, scan programs, observations of the copper K alpha lines, and characteristics and specifications.

Morgan, D. V.; Stevens, C. J.; Liefield, R. J.

1994-02-01

13

Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

SciTech Connect

The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

Ayers, S L

2010-04-07

14

Laboratory calibration and inflight validation of the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer DAIS 7915  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past various authors pointed out, that the value of imaging spectrometer data is closely related to the accuracy with which the data are calibrated to represent physical parameters. the AVIRIS team at JPL gave good examples on how the calibration can be performed in the laboratory and how its accuracy can be evaluated independently by means of an

Peter Strobl; Andreas Mueller; D. Schlaepfer; Michael E. Schaepman

1997-01-01

15

GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 ?Bq/kg sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg){sup ?1} is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT’s under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-08-08

16

GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 ?Bq/kg sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg)-1 is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT's under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J.

2013-08-01

17

Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K- and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Brown, G V; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Koutroumpa, D; Leutenegger, M; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Trabert, E

2009-08-25

18

Wide-field-of-view imaging spectrometer (WFIS) engineering model laboratory tests and field demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide Field-of View Imaging Spectrometer (WFIS) is a patented optical design allowing horizon to horizon imaging of the earth and earth"s atmosphere in the pushbroom-imaging mode from an aircraft or space platform. The design couples a fast, F/2.8, unobstructed all reflective telescope to an all-reflective three element imaging spectrometer using a unique field coupling mirror arrangement. Early laboratory demonstrations of the technology covered fields of view exceeding 70 degrees. The latest instrument, the incubator WFIS, demonstrate the field of view can be extended to 120 degrees. This paper summarizes the current ongoing work with the engineering model WFIS covering this field of view and a spectral range from 360 nm to 1000 nm. Also presented are the results of the latest laboratory and field demonstrations. The paper also identifies specific applications the technology is now addressing.

Haring, Robert E.; Pollock, Randy; Cross, Richard M.

2003-12-01

19

Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance.

Talman, R.

1987-02-25

20

A novel von Hamos spectrometer for efficient X-ray emission spectroscopy in the laboratory.  

PubMed

We present a novel, highly efficient von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in the laboratory using highly annealed pyrolitic graphite crystals as the dispersive element. The spectrometer covers an energy range from 2.5 keV to 15 keV giving access to chemical speciation and information about the electronic configuration of 3d transition metals by means of the K? multiplet. XES spectra of Ti compounds are presented to demonstrate the speciation capabilities of the instrument. A spectral resolving power of E/?E = 2000 at 8 keV was achieved. Typical acquisition times range from 10?min for bulk material to hours for thin samples below 1??m. PMID:24880356

Anklamm, Lars; Schlesiger, Christopher; Malzer, Wolfgang; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Kanngießer, Birgit

2014-05-01

21

The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

Campbell, J. L.

2012-10-01

22

Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SoXS) development at Physical Research Laboratory/ISRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), an institute of Indian Space Research Organisation/Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, is a premier institute to pioneer space research programmes in India. PRL has vast experience in designing and developing rocket, balloon and satellite-borne experiments. PRL has state-of-the-art observatories for conducting research in the fields of solar physics, astrophysics and aeronomy. One of the current projects includes - "Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SoXS)" payload to be flown on GSAT-2 Indian mission to study the high spectral and temporal resolution X-ray spectra from solar flares. This mission is expected to fly in early 2002. We present SoXS payload description in detail along with a brief approach to extend simultaneous observations with SoXS experiment and ground-based observations in optical and radio wavebands. PRL is in a unique position to contribute positively to Solar Orbiter Mission in design and development of instrumentation for EUV imager and spectrometer (EUS) payload, and Energetic Particle Detector (EPD).

Jain, Rajmal; Dave, Hemant; Deshpande, M. R.

2001-09-01

23

Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF  

SciTech Connect

SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

Yoneda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2012-11-12

24

Multiparticle production by 200GeV\\/c hadrons on gold, silver, and magnesium targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the Fermilab 30-in. bubble-chamber hybrid spectrometer to study multiparticle production in the interactions of 200-GeV\\/c protons and ..pi..\\/sup +\\/ and K\\/sup +\\/ mesons with nuclei of gold, silver, and magnesium. We find that the multiplicities of produced particles and negative particles increase linearly with the number of projectile collisions, with no beam or target dependence. The number

D. H. Brick; M. Widgoff; P. Beilliere; P. Lutz; J. L. Narjoux; N. Gelfand; E. D. Alyea Jr.; M. Bloomer; J. Bober; W. Busza; B. Cole; T. A. Frank; T. A. Fuess; L. Grodzins; E. S. Hafen; D. Huang; H. Huang; R. Hulsizer; V. Kistiakowsky; R. Ledoux; C. Milstene; S. Noguchi; S. Oh; I. Pless; S. Steadman; T. Stoughton; V. Suchorebrow; S. Tether; P. Trepagnier; B. Wadsworth; Y. Wu; R. Yamamoto; H. Cohn; E. Calligarich; C. Castoldi; R. Dolfini; L. Introzzi; S. Ratti; M. Badiak; R. DiMarco; P. Jacques; M. Kalelkar; R. Plano; P. Stamer; E. Brucker; E. Koller; G. Alexander; J. Grunhaus; A. Levy; J. Brau; W. Bugg; G. Condo; T. Handler; H. Hargis; E. Hart; A. Rafatian; A. Rogers; T. Kitagaki; S. Tanaka; H. Yuta; K. Abe; K. Hasegawa; A. Yamaguchi; K. Tamai; Y. Hayaschino; Y. Otani; M. Higuchi; M. Sato; T. Ludlam; R. Steiner; H. Taft

1989-01-01

25

The characteristics of a low background germanium gamma ray spectrometer at China JinPing underground laboratory.  

PubMed

A low background germanium gamma ray spectrometer, GeTHU, has been installed at China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The integral background count rate of the spectrometer was 0.629cpm between 40 and 2700keV, the origins of which were studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Detection limits and efficiencies were calculated for selected gamma peaks. Some samples of rare event experiments were measured and (137)Cs contamination was found in boric acid. GeTHU will be mainly used to measure environmental samples and screen materials in dark matter and double beta decay experiments. PMID:24950199

Zeng, Zhi; Mi, Yuhao; Ma, Hao; Cheng, Jianping; Su, Jian; Yue, Qian

2014-09-01

26

Comparison of spectral data gathered from a laboratory spectrometer and TM images with and without shadow correction  

SciTech Connect

Spectral reflectance data from field samples were determined with a laboratory spectrometer (Beckman DK-2A). The spectral curves obtained with the spectrometer were correlated with the histograms determined from the images. The tightly defined histograms from the shadow corrected TM provided the best correlation with the rock data. Several units, including the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, showed multiple spectral patterns on both images and rock spectra. This difference was evaluated versus geochemistry, hematitic alteration, devitrification, pumice content, and degree of welding. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

1989-01-01

27

Laboratory calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for the Solar-B satellite  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory end-to-end testing of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) for the Solar-B satellite is reported. A short overview of the EIS, which observes in two bands in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength range, is given. The calibration apparatus is described, including details of the light sources used.The data reduction and analysis procedure are outlined. The wavelength calibration using a Penning source to illuminate the aperture fully is presented. We discuss the aperture determination using a radiometrically calibrated hollow-cathode-based source. We then give an account of the predicted and measured efficiencies from consideration of the efficiencies of individual optical elements in first order, an account of efficiencies out of band when radiation incident in one band is detected in the other, and efficiencies in multiple orders. The efficiencies measured in first order for in band and out of band are compared with the predictions and the sensitivity, and its uncertainties are derived. Application of the radiometric calibration is discussed.

Lang, James; Kent, Barry J.; Paustian, Wolfgang; Brown, Charles M.; Keyser, Christian; Anderson, Mark R.; Case, Giles C. R.; Chaudry, Rahil A.; James, Adrian M.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Pike, C. David; Probyn, Brian J.; Rippington, David J.; Seely, John F.; Tandy, Jason A.; Whillock, Matthew C. R

2006-12-01

28

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission was calibrated for routine analysis of: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Y. The following elements were also calibrated, but may be too low to be measured (10s-100s ppm) for their usual abundance on Mars: V, Cu, Ga, As, Se and W. An extensive suite of geological reference materials, supplemented by pure chemical elements and compounds was used. Special attention was paid to include phyllosilicates, sulfates and a broad selection of basalts as these are predicted minerals and rocks at the Gale Crater landing site. The calibration approach is from first principles, using fundamental physics parameters and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix to calculate expected elemental signals for a given instrument setup and sample composition. Resulting concentrations for most elements accord with expected values. Deviations in elements of lower atomic number (Na, Mg, Al) indicate significant influences of mineral phases, especially in basalts, ultramafic rocks and trachytes. The systematics of these deviations help us to derive empirical, iterative corrections for different rock groups, based on a preliminary APXS analysis which assumes a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as the X-ray diffraction data from CheMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Campbell, John L.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Gellert, Ralf; Andrushenko, Stefan M.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Maxwell, John A.; King, Penelope L.; Schofield, Céleste D. M.

2012-09-01

29

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a suite of over 60 geochemical reference standards for the calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). For the elements P, S, Cl and Br we have supplemented this suite by adding various amounts of relevant chemical compounds to a powdered basalt standard. Special attention has been paid to include phyllosilicates, sulphates and a broad selection of igneous basalts as these are predicted key deposits at the MSL landing site, Gale Crater. The calibration is performed from first principles using x-ray excitation cross sections for the alpha particle and x-ray radiation source and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix. Remaining deviations indicate significant influences of mineral phases especially for light elements in basalts, ultra-mafic rocks and trachytes. Supporting x-ray diffraction work has helped to derive empirical, iterative corrections for distinct rock types, based on the first APXS analysis, assuming a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as x-ray diffraction data from ChemMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Perrett, G. M.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; Andrushenko, S. M.

2011-12-01

30

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF SIX NEW/MODIFIED PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETERS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN CHARACTERIZED PAINT FILMS AND RESEARCH MATERIAL BOARDS (APPENDICES)  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory study was performed in 1994-1995 to identify and estimate the influence of key characteristics for evaluating the performance of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers. Six new/modified spectrometers, including HNU SEFA-Pb, Metorex X-MET, Niton X-L, Radiat...

31

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF SIX NEW/MODIFIED PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETERS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN CHARACTERIZED PAINT FILMS AND RESEARCH MATERIAL BOARDS (TECHNICAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory study was performed in 1994-1995 to identify and estimate the influence of key characteristics for evaluating the performance of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers. Six new/modified spectrometers, including HNU SEFA-Pb, Metorex X-MET, Niton X-L, Radiat...

32

Wide-field-of-view imaging spectrometer (WFIS): from a laboratory demonstration to a fully functional engineering model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the status of the ongoing development of the laboratory Wide Field-of-view Imaging Spectrometer (WFIS) and the new engineering model WFIS. The design is shown to provide a unique solution to wide field hyperspectral imaging with several advantages over traditional scanning systems. Tests of the engineering model, funded under NASA's Instrument Incubator program, take the WFIS to the next level of technology readiness. The WFIS is based on a patented optical design intended for optical remote sensing of the earth and the earth's atmosphere in the hyperspectral-imaging mode. The design of the laboratory spectrometer and the initial test results obtained with it were presented at the 1999 SPIE Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado (3759-32). Since that time, the laboratory unit has undergone several upgrades in the optical path and continues to be a pathfinder for the new engineering model instrument. The WFIS engineering model incorporates several improvements to provide increased wavelength coverage from the UV to the NIR and an increase in the field-of-view coverage to 120 degrees. It differs most significantly from the laboratory unit in that it is designed for flight. The status of the hardware, software, and the assembly of the engineering WFIS is discussed as well as an overview of the planned demonstration tests.

Haring, Robert E.; Pollock, Randy; Cross, Richard M.; Greenlee, Terri

2002-02-01

33

Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment. The high-time resolution data shows that rapid concentration changes of a common individual species can be lost with traditional bulk sampling, and a time resolution of 30 minutes is suggested to accurately represent these changes. Using the mass spectra collected from the extended sampling campaign, source apportionment was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF). The resulting model features six factors either correlated to specific sources (meat cooking, car emissions/road dust, diesel exhaust) or types of compounds (phthalates, alkanes/alkanoic acids, PAHs). The high-time resolution data allowed for the observation of specific trends in each factor's behavior as a function of time and wind direction relative to the receptor site. Elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) data is used to calculate the percentages of primary and secondary organic aerosol. Primary organic aerosol (POA) constituted the vast majority of the total carbon at 91% (an average of 2.8 +/- 1.1mug/m 3); 30% of which came from combustion, and 70% from non-combustion sources. These results can be explained by the PIAMS data: the diesel factor contributes to the combustion-related POA; the car/road dust, meat cooking, and alkane/alkanoic acid factors contribute the majority of non-combustion POA. The remaining factors represent <5% of the remaining OC. Considering the compatibility of data from the EC/OC and PIAMS, the ability of PIAMS to yield molecular species information to further define the primary and secondary organic aerosol factions is a distinct advantage in describing the behavior of the Wilmington organic aerosol. PIAMS was also applied to laboratory experiments. These experiments simulated complex environmental processes in order to focus on answering a central question. By mixing cholesterol aerosol with ozone in a smog chamber, and monitoring the concentration of cholesterol with PIAMS, the rate of reaction was determined. This rate indicates that cholesterol aerosol, which is a suggested source tracer, will remain in the ambient air for a few days under norma

Dreyfus, Matthew A.

34

Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological…

Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

2007-01-01

35

Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional XRF technology, to evaluate the handheld technology. All of these samples are fine-grained and homogeneous, and were selected to eliminate effects introduced to the data by inconsistencies in the sample matrix, or added complexities like increased vesicularity or phenocryst content. Our calibration curves are built from smooth, sawed surfaces. We have examined all major elements, minus Na (which falls below the instrument sensitivity). Initial tests show that reproducible and reliable calibration curves are produced for Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, and Si, but the curves produced for Mg, Mn, K and P include greater uncertainties. We are currently investigating how the instrument signal variably drops off as a function of surface roughness and distance to the instrument window. Through studies such as these in the simulated GeoLab setting, we can better understand the instrument's capabilities in a field environment, both on Earth and for potential future missions to other planetary surfaces.

Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

2011-12-01

36

Airborne and laboratory remote sensing applications of the CSIRO CO2 laser spectrometer MIRACO2LAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mid-infrared airborne CO2 laser spectrometer (MIRACO2LAS) was developed by CSIRO Division of Exploration and Mining to investigate the potential role of high spectral resolution thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing for improved remote sensing of minerals, especially those silicate minerals that do not have diagnostic features at shorter wavelengths, such as quartz, feldspars, pyroxenes and garnets. Other objectives include testing

L. B. Whitbourn; T. J. Cudahy; J. F. Huntington; P. M. Connor; P. Mason; R. N. Phillips; Peter Hausknecht

1997-01-01

37

Magnet system of the 500 MHz NMR spectrometer at the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory: I. Design and development of the magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer has been put into operation at the MIT, Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory. The spectrometer is built around a high homogeneity magnet, the design field of which was 11.74 T, and which in fact operates in persistent mode at a field of 11.71 T. The magnet is wound using niobium–titanium superconductor cooled to

J. E. C. Williams; L. J. Neuringer; E. Bobrov; R. Weggel; D. J. Ruben; W. G. Harrison

1981-01-01

38

The Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory UV–visible Ground-Based Spectrometer: First measurements of O 3 , NO 2 , BrO, and OClO columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PEARL-GBS (Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory-Ground-Based Spectrometer) was permanently installed at Eureka, Nunavut (80.05?N, 86.42?W) in August 2006 as part of the establishment of PEARL by CANDAC (Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change). The instrument is a ground-based, UV–visible, triple-grating spectrometer and is very similar to the UT-GBS (University of Toronto-GBS), which has an 11-year heritage of

Annemarie Fraser; Cristen Adams; James R. Drummond; Florence Goutail; Gloria Manney; Kimberly Strong

2009-01-01

39

Multiple detector focal plane array ultraviolet spectrometer for the AMPS laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of meeting the requirements of the amps spectroscopic instrumentation by using a multi-element focal plane detector array in a conventional spectrograph mount was examined. The requirements of the detector array were determined from the optical design of the spectrometer which in turn depends on the desired level of resolution and sensitivity required. The choice of available detectors and their associated electronics and controls was surveyed, bearing in mind that the data collection rate from this system is so great that on-board processing and reduction of data are absolutely essential. Finally, parallel developments in instrumentation for imaging in astronomy were examined, both in the ultraviolet (for the Large Space Telescope as well as other rocket and satellite programs) and in the visible, to determine what progress in that area can have direct bearing on atmospheric spectroscopy.

Feldman, P. D.

1975-01-01

40

For geological investigations with airborne thermal infrared multispectral images: Transfer of calibration from laboratory spectrometer to TIMS as alternative for removing atmospheric effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an empirical method to correct TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data for atmospheric effects by transferring calibration from a laboratory thermal emission spectrometer to the TIMS multispectral image. The method does so by comparing the laboratory spectra of samples gathered in the field with TIMS 6-point spectra for pixels at the location of field sampling sites. The transference of calibration also makes it possible to use spectra from the laboratory as endmembers in unmixing studies of TIMS data.

Edgett, Kenneth S.; Anderson, Donald L.

1995-01-01

41

Accuracy of the spectral and radiometric laboratory calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory procedures, algorithms, measurements, and uncertainties associated with generation of the spectral and radiometric calibration of data acquired by AVIRIS are described. AVIRIS is an airborne sensor that obtains high-spatial-resolution image data of the earth in 224 spectral channels in four spectrometers covering the range from 400 to 2450 nm. The spectral calibration of AVIRIS agrees with the in-flight data to within two nanometers, and the absolute radiometric calibration is consistent with the in-flight verification to 10 percent over the spectral range. In-flight radiometric stability as measured by five consecutive passes over the surface calibration site is reported to be between three and five percent.

Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael L.

1990-01-01

42

Calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer in the Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging spectrometry data must be spectrally, radiometrically and geometrically calibrated in order to: 1) derive physical parameters from measured spectral radiance, 2) compare data acquired from different regions and at different times, 3) compare and analyze the imaging spectrometry data with data acquired from other calibrated sensors, and 4) compare and analyze data with results from computer models. The calibration of AVIRIS data is the process by which laboratory characterization data are applied to raw instrument data (digitized number versus spectral channels) to produce quantitative spectra (radiance versus wavelength) for each image pixel in units of spectral radiance. The AVIRIS sensor and calibration process are described by Vane and the application of the calibration data to the raw digital data is described by Green. This calibration process is validated for in-flight performance of the sensor using a rigorous ground-truth campaign. This workshop paper reviews the laboratory characterization data set that is used in the AVIRIS calibration process. The laboratory measurements used to acquire the calibration data are divided into three classes: 1) spectral calibration, 2) radiometric calibration, and 3) spatial calibration.

Green Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Chovit, Christopher J.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.

1996-01-01

43

HISS spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

Greiner, D.E.

1984-11-01

44

Negative chemiions formed in jet fuel combustion: new insights from jet engine and laboratory measurements using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made of mass numbers and composition of negative chemiions produced in jet fuel combustion in the exhaust of a jet engine and of a burner in the laboratory. The measurements made by a novel quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus revealed the presence of three major ion families: ions containing an HSO4? “core” or an NO3? “core”, and

A Kiendler; St Aberle; F Arnold

2000-01-01

45

Anderson Localization for a Multi-Particle Quantum Graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a multi-particle quantum graph with random potential. Taking the approach of multiscale analysis, we prove exponential and strong dynamical localization of any order in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm near the spectral edge. Apart from the results on multi-particle systems, we also prove Lifshitz-type asymptotics for single-particle systems. This shows in particular that localization for single-particle quantum graphs holds under a weaker assumption on the random potential than previously known.

Sabri, Mostafa

2014-11-01

46

SAMURAI spectrometer for RI beam experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-acceptance multiparticle spectrometer SAMURAI has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for RI beam experiments. It was designed primarily for kinematically complete experiments such as the invariant-mass spectroscopy of particle-unbound states in exotic nuclei, by detecting heavy fragments and projectile-rapidity nucleons in coincidence. The system consists of a superconducting dipole magnet, beam line detectors, heavy fragment detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. The SAMURAI spectrometer was commissioned in March 2012, and a rigidity resolution of about 1/1500 was obtained for RI beams up to 2.4 GeV/c.

Kobayashi, T.; Chiga, N.; Isobe, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H.; Sako, T.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, R.; Yoneda, K.

2013-12-01

47

Multiparticle states in deformed special relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of multiparticle states in deformed special relativity (DSR). Starting from the Lagrangian formalism with an energy dependent metric, the conserved Noether current can be derived which is additive in the usual way. The integrated Noether current had previously been discarded as a conserved quantity, because it was correctly realized that it does no longer obey the DSR transformations. We identify the reason for this mismatch in the fact that DSR depends only on the extensive quantity of total four momentum instead of the energy-momentum densities as would be appropriate for a field theory. We argue that the reason for the failure of DSR to reproduce the standard transformation behavior in the well established limits is due to the missing sensitivity to the volume inside which energy is accumulated. We show that the soccer-ball problem is absent if one formulates DSR instead for the field densities. As a consequence, estimates for predicted effects have to be corrected by many orders of magnitude. Further, we derive that the modified quantum field theory implies a locality bound.

Hossenfelder, S.

2007-05-01

48

Multiparticle collision dynamics modeling of viscoelastic fluids.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the rheological properties of viscoelastic fluids by mesoscopic hydrodynamics methods, we develop a multiparticle collision (MPC) dynamics model for a fluid of harmonic dumbbells. The algorithm consists of alternating streaming and collision steps. The advantage of the harmonic interactions is that the integration of the equations of motion in the streaming step can be performed analytically. Therefore, the algorithm is computationally as efficient as the original MPC algorithm for Newtonian fluids. The collision step is the same as in the original MPC method. All particles are confined between two solid walls moving oppositely, so that both steady and oscillatory shear flows can be investigated. Attractive wall potentials are applied to obtain a nearly uniform density everywhere in the simulation box. We find that both in steady and oscillatory shear flows, a boundary layer develops near the wall, with a higher velocity gradient than in the bulk. The thickness of this layer is proportional to the average dumbbell size. We determine the zero-shear viscosities as a function of the spring constant of the dumbbells and the mean free path. For very high shear rates, a very weak "shear thickening" behavior is observed. Moreover, storage and loss moduli are calculated in oscillatory shear, which show that the viscoelastic properties at low and moderate frequencies are consistent with a Maxwell fluid behavior. We compare our results with a kinetic theory of dumbbells in solution, and generally find good agreement. PMID:18412477

Tao, Yu-Guo; Götze, Ingo O; Gompper, Gerhard

2008-04-14

49

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

Vane, Gregg (editor)

1987-01-01

50

Simultaneous atmospheric measurements using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometers at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory during spring 2006, and comparisons with the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2006 Canadian Arctic ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) Validation Campaign collected measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, 80.05° N, 86.42° W, 610 m above sea level) at Eureka, Canada from 17 February to 31 March 2006. Two of the ten instruments involved in the campaign, both Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs), were operated simultaneously, recording atmospheric solar absorption spectra. The first instrument was an ABB Bomem DA8 high-resolution infrared FTS. The second instrument was the Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared (PARIS-IR), the ground-based version of the satellite-borne FTS on the ACE satellite (ACE-FTS). From the measurements collected by these two ground-based instruments, total column densities of seven stratospheric trace gases (O3, HNO3, NO2, HCl, HF, NO, and ClONO2 were retrieved using the optimal estimation method and these results were compared. Since the two instruments sampled the same portions of atmosphere by synchronizing observations during the campaign, the biases in retrieved columns from the two spectrometers represent the instrumental differences. These differences were consistent with those seen in previous FTS intercomparison studies. Partial column results from the ground-based spectrometers were also compared with partial columns derived from ACE-FTS version 2.2 (including updates for O3, HDO and N2O5 profiles and the differences found were consistent with the other validation comparison studies for the ACE-FTS version 2.2 data products. Column densities of O3, HCl, ClONO2, and HNO3 from the three FTSs were normalized with respect to HF and used to probe the time evolution of the chemical constituents in the atmosphere over Eureka during spring 2006.

Fu, D.; Walker, K. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Strong, K.; Sung, K.; Fast, H.; Daffner, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Fogal, P.; Kolonjari, F.; Loewen, P.; Manney, G. L.; Mikhailov, O.

2008-03-01

51

Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.  

PubMed

The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers. PMID:24784587

Kayser, Y; B?achucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

2014-04-01

52

Thin-window high-efficiency position sensitive proportional counter for the vacuum flat crystal spectrometers on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

We have mounted 1 {mu}m thick aluminized polyimide windows onto the position sensitive proportional counters employed by the wide-band flat crystal spectrometers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap experiment. The aluminized polyimide, supported by thin wires across the short axis of the window, is used to isolate the detection chamber of the proportional counters, which operate at a pressure of 760 Torr, from the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer. The windows are modified versions of those developed for the proportional counters which were used during ground calibration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The transmission properties of these windows are, therefore, well known. The increased transmission efficiency of the polyimide windows relative to the 4 {mu}m thick polypropylene window material previously employed by our proportional counters has extended the useful range of the spectrometer from roughly 20 to 30 Aa at energies below the carbon edge, as well as increasing detection efficiency at wavelengths beyond the carbon edge. Using an octadecyl hydrogen maleate crystal with 2d=63.5Aa, we demonstrate the increased wavelength coverage by measuring the resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines in helium-like NVII in two different density regimes. The thin polyimide windows have also increased the efficiency of the spectrometers entire wavelength range. To demonstrate the increased efficiency we compare the FeXVII spectrum in the 15--17 Aa band measured with the 1 {mu}m aluminized polyimide windows to the 4 {mu}m aluminized polypropylene windows. The comparison shows an average increase in efficiency of {approx}40%. The polyimide windows have a significantly lower leak rate than the polypropylene windows making it possible to achieve approximately an order of magnitude lower pressure in the spectrometer vacuum chamber which reduces the gas load on the trap region.

Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Goddard, R.; Wargelin, B.; Utter, S. B.

2001-01-01

53

Analytical techniques for retrieval of atmospheric composition with the quadrupole mass spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on Mars Science Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is the largest scientific payload on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, which landed in Mars? Gale Crater in August 2012. As a miniature geochemical laboratory, SAM is well-equipped to address multiple aspects of MSL?s primary science goal, characterizing the potential past or present habitability of Gale Crater. Atmospheric measurements support this goal through compositional investigations relevant to martian climate evolution. SAM instruments include a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a gas chromatograph that are used to analyze martian atmospheric gases as well as volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials (Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report presents analytical methods for retrieving the chemical and isotopic composition of Mars? atmosphere from measurements obtained with SAM?s quadrupole mass spectrometer. It provides empirical calibration constants for computing volume mixing ratios of the most abundant atmospheric species and analytical functions to correct for instrument artifacts and to characterize measurement uncertainties. Finally, we discuss differences in volume mixing ratios of the martian atmosphere as determined by SAM (Mahaffy et al., 2013) and Viking (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977) from an analytical perspective. Although the focus of this paper is atmospheric observations, much of the material concerning corrections for instrumental effects also applies to reduction of data acquired with SAM from analysis of solid samples. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument measures the composition of the martian atmosphere. Rigorous calibration of SAM?s mass spectrometer was performed with relevant gas mixtures. Calibration included derivation of a new model to correct for electron multiplier effects. Volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 obtained with SAM differ from those obtained with Viking. Differences between SAM and Viking volume mixing ratios are under investigation.

B. Franz, Heather; G. Trainer, Melissa; H. Wong, Michael; L. K. Manning, Heidi; C. Stern, Jennifer; R. Mahaffy, Paul; K. Atreya, Sushil; Benna, Mehdi; G. Conrad, Pamela; N. Harpold, Dan; A. Leshin, Laurie; A. Malespin, Charles; P. McKay, Christopher; Thomas Nolan, J.; Raaen, Eric

2014-06-01

54

Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires Part 2: Analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit mass resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to

A. P. Grieshop; N. M. Donahue; A. L. Robinson

2008-01-01

55

Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate the non-monotonic dependence of genuine many-particle interference signals on the particles' mutual distinguishability. Our theoretical analysis shows that such non-monotonicity is a generic feature of the quantum to classical transition in multiparticle correlation functions of more than two particles.

Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte C.; Lim, Hyang-Tag; Kwon, Osung; Mintert, Florian; Buchleitner, Andreas; Kim, Yoon-Ho

2014-02-01

56

Double Auger effect in the multiparticle perturbation theory framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of multiparticle perturbation theory (MPT), we investigate the correlation process of decay of an interior atomic vacancy accompanied by emission of two electrons simultaneously, i.e., the double Auger effect. In the lowest nonvanishing order of MPT, with respect to the interelectron interaction, expressions are obtained for calculation of the partial amplitudes and the probability of transitions in

V. A. Kilin; I. S. Li

1989-01-01

57

Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires 2: analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit-mass-resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to considerable evolution

A. P. Grieshop; N. M. Donahue; A. L. Robinson

2009-01-01

58

Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Aerospace Corporation, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have jointly formed the Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR) program to meet two primary objectives: to measure the high-energy proton spectrum by placing the Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) instrument on board the Radiation

D. Dyers; J. Mazur; P. O'Brien; G. Ginet; G. Reeves

2008-01-01

59

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this outstanding problem. Experiments on lepton-induced jet-phenomenology in TRISTAN (KEK) have started already and further development will be expected also at LEP (CERN), SLC (Stanford) and others. For the hadronic and nuclear reactions, we would encounter many new exciting physics, in near future, at Tevatron (Fermi Lab.), the dream facility SSC (under planning), RHIC (Brookhaven) and others. Experiments on proton-antiproton collisions at TeV energies and on relativistic heavy-ion collisions have already started. The latter investigates the possible phase transition of hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma. Experimental confirmation of this phase transition would give big effects on many branches of physics. As a whole, the future of physics on multiparticle production will be quite promising. Therefore, we especially expect a fresh power by many young theorists in this field of physics. Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics, and it utilizes variety of methods and models. It well be therefore a rather troublesome task to grasp the present status of this widely extended physics as a whole. There are many excellent review papers. However, they are concerned with rather restricted topics with current interest. At this situation, it will be useful if there is a comprehensive review which covers a whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. This is the point of the author's motivation for writing the present review article. We hope that this article will contribute to a partial resolution of the above mentioned situation and in particular, young theorists then become more interested in this field. In writing the present article, the authors have put their attention to the following points: It should cover most of important topics of multiparticle dynamics at high energies, including e^+e^- annihilation, lepton-hadron and nuclear reactions; it should be described on the basis of modern viewpoint, especially, of QCD as far as we can; it should also cover good phenomenological models or pictures even though their theoretical foundatio

Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

60

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this outstanding problem. Experiments on lepton-induced jet-phenomenology in TRISTAN (KEK) have started already and further development will be expected also at LEP (CERN), SLC (Stanford) and others. For the hadronic and nuclear reactions, we would encounter many new exciting physics, in near future, at Tevatron (Fermi Lab.), the dream facility SSC (under planning), RHIC (Brookhaven) and others. Experiments on proton-antiproton collisions at TeV energies and on relativistic heavy-ion collisions have already started. The latter investigates the possible phase transition of hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma. Experimental confirmation of this phase transition would give big effects on many branches of physics. As a whole, the future of physics on multiparticle production will be quite promising. Therefore, we especially expect a fresh power by many young theorists in this field of physics. Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics, and it utilizes variety of methods and models. It well be therefore a rather troublesome task to grasp the present status of this widely extended physics as a whole. There are many excellent review papers. However, they are concerned with rather restricted topics with current interest. At this situation, it will be useful if there is a comprehensive review which covers a whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. This is the point of the author's motivation for writing the present review article. We hope that this article will contribute to a partial resolution of the above mentioned situation and in particular, young theorists then become more interested in this field. In writing the present article, the authors have put their attention to the following points: It should cover most of important topics of multiparticle dynamics at high energies, including e^+e^- annihilation, lepton-hadron and nuclear reactions; it should be described on the basis of modern viewpoint, especially, of QCD as far as we can; it should also cover good phenomenological models or pictures even though their theoretical foundatio

Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

61

Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and Radiation Properties Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. it is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include x-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, x-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and x-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

Brown, G; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Chen, H; Gu, M F; Kahn, S; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; May, M; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A; Thorn, D; Widmann, K

2005-08-18

62

Multiparticle dynamics in the E-phi tracking code ESME  

SciTech Connect

ESME has developed over a twenty year period from its origins as a program for modeling rf gymnastics to a rather general facility for that fraction of beam dynamics of synchrotrons and storage rings which can be properly treated in the two dimensional longitudinal phase space. The features of this program which serve particularly for multiparticle calculations are described, some underling principles are noted, and illustrative results are given.

James A. MacLachlan

2002-06-21

63

Description of multiparticle production by gluon-dominance mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameters of Gluon-Dominance Model (GDM) for ? - and charged particles are obtained in the multiplicity distributions of pA, pd, pp, p bar p , and ? - p, ? - n interactions. We have undertaken an attempt to give description of different processes of multiparticle production by means of a unifed approach based on quark-gluon picture using the phenomenological hadronization. We have obtained agreement of GDM with experimental data in a very wide energy range.

Abesalashvili, L. N.; Akhobadze, L. T.

2009-01-01

64

Laboratory evaluation of the Fabry-Perot interferometers for the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are reported from a performance evaluation of the 45-90-micron and 90-180-micron Fabry-Perot interferometers being developed for the Long-Wavelength Spectrometer of the ESA IR Space Observatory (scheduled launch 1993). A tunable continuous-flow CO2 laser is used to pump a sealed FIR laser cavity filled with CH3OH at pressures of a few times 100 microtorr; the chopped FIR output line is detected by a Golay cell with a phase-sensitive module, and the resulting signal is recorded as the Fabry-Perot interferometer is scanned under computer control. The results are presented in graphs, and it is shown that the instrument profiles are in good agreement with calculations based on classical Airy functions.

Naylor, D. A.; Furniss, I.; Glencross, W. M.; Towlson, W. A.

1989-05-01

65

Multiparticle production in the Fermilab bubble chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past two years many new data have been collected from experiments in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory bubble chambers. While some of the important new results are from second generation, high statistics pp experiments, much of the new data come from interactions initiated by pi+\\/- and p beams on proton targets. In addition, preliminary results are now available

J. Whitmore

1976-01-01

66

Monolithic spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

1998-05-19

67

Monolithic spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

68

A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

Deturck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K.

1999-06-01

69

Acquisition of a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for Laboratory Study of Prebiotic Organic Geochemical Processes on the Early Earth, Mars, and Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This was a major equipment grant that provided funds ($72K) for purchase of a benchtop gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use in experimental studies of prebiotic organic compounds. An Agilent model 689015973 GC-MS was purchased and installed in the PI's lab in August of 2003. The instrument is now being used for a variety of research projects. The primary use of the instrument is to analyze and quantify organic products of laboratory experiments conducted by the PI. One example is shown, which shows organic products (predominantly n-alkanes) formed during Fischer-Tropsch-type abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. The analytical capabilities of the GC- MS allowed identification of the numerous organic products of this as well as other laboratory experiments. A key use of the instrument in this research is that the mass spectrometer capabilities allow use of isotopically labeled reactants to trace the progress of reactions and evaluate background contaminants. collaborative projects with other scientists involved in exobiology & astrobiology research (e.g., Mitch Schulte, NASA Ames; Katrina Edwards, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). For instance, an analysis of membrane lipids of an lithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria being grown on basalt as a source of metabolic energy, a project where the instrument is being used to evaluate possible biomarker compounds from these organisms is shown. These iron oxidizers are thought to be similar to those living within the ocean crust, and are being investigated as possible analog organisms to those on the early Earth or crust of Mars. The instrument has also been used by an outside investigator (graduate student Brandon Canfeld, Arizona State University) for identification and isotopic characterization of experimental products of abiotic organic synthesis experiments he is conducting with Dr. John Holloway. analysis of quality control samples for other NASA-funded projects. For instance, an analysis of residual hydrocarbon contaminants on the internal surface of the shell of an atmospheric sounding rocket is shown. This analysis was used to help determine the source of the contaminating compounds. In the future, the instrument will continue to be used for quality control analysis in clean rooms and instrument construction facilities within the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, where the GC-MS is housed.

McCollom, Thomas

2004-01-01

70

Multiparticle production in a two-component dual parton model  

SciTech Connect

The dual parton model (DPM) describes soft and semihard multiparticle production. The version of the DPM presented in this paper includes soft and hard mechanisms as well as diffractive processes. The model is formulated as a Monte Carlo event generator. We calculate in this model, in the energy range of the hadron colliders, rapidity distributions and the rise of the rapidity plateau with the collision energy, transverse-momentum distributions and the rise of average transverse momenta with the collision energy, multiplicity distributions in different pseudorapidity regions, and transverse-energy distributions. For most of these quantities we find a reasonable agreement with experimental data.

Aurenche, P. (Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, Institut Nacional de Physique Nucleare et de Physique des Particules, Annecy (France)); Bopp, F.W. (Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, Siegen (Germany)); Capella, A. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Orsay (France)); Kwiecinski, J. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)); Maire, M. (Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, Institut Nacional de Physique Nucleare et de Physique des Particules, Annecy (France)); Ranft, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Orsay (France))

1992-01-01

71

Correlation spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM) [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM) [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2010-04-13

72

Multiparticle entanglement in graph-diagonal states: Necessary and sufficient conditions for four qubits  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.

Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Weinstein, Yaakov S. [Quantum Information Science Group, MITRE, 260 Industrial Way West, Eatontown, New Jersey 07724 (United States)

2011-11-15

73

Efficient shortcuts to adiabatic passage for fast population transfer in multiparticle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving fast population transfer (FPT) in multiparticle systems based on the cavity quantum electronic dynamics is an outstanding challenge. In this paper, motivated by the quantum Zeno dynamics, a shortcut for performing the FPT of ground states in multiparticle systems with the invariant-based inverse engineering is proposed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect population transfer of ground states in multiparticle systems can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the FPT is robust to both the cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission. Additionally, this scheme is not only implemented without requiring extra complex conditions, but also insensitive to variations of the parameters.

Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Chen, Qing-Qin; Song, Jie

2014-03-01

74

Multidimensional spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

Zanni, Martin Thomas (Madison, WI); Damrauer, Niels H. (Boulder, CO)

2010-07-20

75

Multiparticle production and thermalization in high-energy QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that multiparticle production in high energy hadron and nuclear collisions can be considered as proceeding through the production of gluons in the background classical field. In this approach we derive the gluon spectrum immediately after the collision and find that at high energies it is parametrically enhanced by ln(1/x) with respect to the quasiclassical result (x is the Bjorken variable). We show that the produced gluon spectrum becomes thermal (in three dimensions) with an effective temperature determined by the saturation momentum Qs,T=cQs/2? during the time ˜1/T; we estimate c=2?/2?1.2. Although this result by itself does not imply that the gluon spectrum will remain thermal at later times, it has an interesting applications to heavy ion collisions. In particular, we discuss the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation of the produced gluon pairs and estimate the viscosity of the produced gluon system.

Kharzeev, Dmitri; Levin, Eugene; Tuchin, Kirill

2007-04-01

76

Inertial microfluidics with multi-particle collision dynamics.  

PubMed

Using the method of multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD), we investigate inertial focussing in microfluidic channels that gives rise to the Segré-Silberberg effect. At intermediate Reynolds numbers, we model the motion of a spherical colloid in a circular microchannel under pressure-driven flow. We determine the radial distribution function and show how its width and the location of its maximum are strongly influenced by the colloid size and the Reynolds number of the Poiseuille flow. We demonstrate that MPCD is well suited for calculating mean values for the lift force acting on the colloid in the cross-sectional plane and for its mean axial velocity. We introduce a Langevin equation for the cross-sectional motion whose steady state is the Boltzmann distribution that contains the integrated lift force as potential energy. It perfectly coincides with the simulated radial distribution function. PMID:22926809

Prohm, C; Gierlak, M; Stark, H

2012-08-01

77

Chapman-Enskog expansion for multi-particle collision models.  

PubMed

Particle-based simulation methods for fluid flow follow a discrete time dynamics of subsequent streaming and collision events. The algorithm considered here, called stochastic rotation dynamics, involves collisions between an arbitrary number of partners; all particles that happen to be in the same cell of a randomly positioned grid interact at once by prescribed rules. I show, in two dimensions, how a multi-particle generalization of the Enskog equation can be derived from the Liouville equation and how the hydrodynamic equations can be obtained by a Chapman-Enskog expansion. The resulting macroscopic equations contain a collisional contribution to the transport coefficients, absent in earlier Chapman-Enskog approaches, which agrees exactly with previously known results from other kinetic theories. This approach opens up a powerful, systematic route to deriving hydrodynamic equations for particle-based models, which is generalizable to models with active particles. PMID:19851544

Ihle, Thomas

2009-11-14

78

Simulating strongly correlated multiparticle systems in a truncated Hilbert space  

SciTech Connect

Representing a strongly interacting multiparticle wave function in a finite product basis leads to errors. Simple rescaling of the contact interaction can preserve the low-lying energy spectrum and long-wavelength structure of wave functions in one-dimensional systems and thus correct for the basis set truncation error. The analytic form of the rescaling is found for a two-particle system where the rescaling is exact. A detailed comparison between finite Hilbert space calculations and exact results for up to five particles show that rescaling can significantly improve the accuracy of numerical calculations in various external potentials. In addition to ground-state energies, the low-lying excitation spectrum, density profile, and correlation functions are studied. The results give a promising outlook for numerical simulations of trapped ultracold atoms.

Ernst, Thomas; Hallwood, David W.; Gulliksen, Jake; Brand, Joachim [New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Meyer, Hans-Dieter [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-08-15

79

Multiparticle Solutions in 2+1 Gravity and Time Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle solutions for sources moving at the speed of light and corresponding to superpositions of single-particle plane-wave solutions are constructed in 2+1 gravity. It is shown that the two-particle spacetimes admit closed timelike curves provided the center-of-momentum energy exceeds a certain critical value. This occurs, however, at the cost of unphysical boundary conditions which are analogous to those affecting Gott’s time machine. As the energy exceeds the critical value, the closed timelike curves first occur at spatial infinity, then migrate inward as the energy is further increased. The total mass of the system also becomes imaginary for particle energies greater than the critical value.

Steif, Alan R.

80

JIMWLK evolution for multi-particle production with rapidity correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study multi-particle production with rapidity correlations in proton-nucleus collisions at high energy in the Color Glass Condensate framework. The high-energy evolution responsible for such correlations is governed by a generalization of the JIMWLK equation describing the simultaneous evolution of the strong nuclear color fields in the direct amplitude and the complex conjugate amplitude. This functional equation can be used to derive ordinary evolution equations for the cross-sections for particle production, but the ensuing equations appear to be too complicated to be useful in practice, including in the limit of a large number of colors Nc. We propose an alternative formulation based on a Langevin process, which is valid for generic Nc and is better suited for numerical implementations. For illustration, we present the stochastic equations which govern two gluon production with arbitrary rapidity separation.

Iancu, E.; Triantafyllopoulos, D. N.

2014-06-01

81

Multiparticle production in deep inelastic lepton scattering and soft proton proton collisions  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate how the theoretical knowledge about multiparticle production in deep inelastic lepton scattering can be incorporated into a multistring model for low p/sub t/ proton proton collisions. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Werner, K.

1987-06-01

82

Generating Multi-particle Entangled State with Matter-Wave Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We put forward a realizable scheme for generating multi-particle entangled state with matter-wave interferometer, where the entangled properties are characterized by spin squeezing parameter and the reciprocal of the mean quantum Fisher information per particle (RMQFIP). The multi-particle entangled state can be generated by adjusting phase difference between two input ports of the interferometer and the better entanglement can be achieved by increasing the number of the total particles.

Liu, Li-Shu; Xia, Qi-Guo

2014-06-01

83

Exploring the Capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Spectrometer to Study Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a European Space Agency hard X-ray/?-ray observatory for astrophysics, covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002, and since then the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors of the Anti-Coincidence Shield (ACS) of the Spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing light curves at photon energies above ? 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing long uninterrupted observing (about 90 % of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the shorter time needed to cross Earth's radiation belts. However, because of technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot be pointed at the Sun, and high-energy solar photons are always detected in nonstandard observation conditions. To make the data useable for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We checked the performance of the model employed for the Monte Carlo simulations using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations for the same sample of solar flares. We conclude that although INTEGRAL was not designed to perform solar observations, ACS is a useful instrument for solar-flare research. In particular, its relatively large effective area allows determining good-quality HXR/?-ray light curves for X- and M-class solar flares and, in some cases, probably also for C-class flares.

Rodríguez-Gasén, R.; Kiener, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Vilmer, N.; Hamadache, C.; Klein, K.-L.

2013-11-01

84

The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

1986-04-01

85

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

Chastagner

2001-01-01

86

Multiaperture Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed multiaperture spectrometer containing single grating provides high spectral resolution over broad spectrum. Produces parallel line images, each of which highly spectrally resolved display of intensity vs. wavelength in wavelength band of one of orders of spectrum produced by grating. Advantages; convenient two-dimensional spectral image, fewer components, and greater efficiency.

Schindler, Rudolf A.; Pagano, Robert J.; O'Callaghan, Fred G.

1991-01-01

87

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

88

Mass Spectrometers in Space!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

Brinckerhoff, William B.

2012-01-01

89

Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

1987-01-01

90

Multifractal structures in multiparticle production in p -p interactions at radical s = 1800 GeV  

SciTech Connect

Fractal structure in multiparticle production of {bar p} {minus} p minimum-bias'' interactions at {radical}s = 1800 GeV has been studied using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Preliminary results are shown and compared with very simple Monte Carlo models.

Rimondi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy))

1990-08-01

91

Strong-Coupling Expansions for Multiparticle Excitations: Continuum and Bound States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new linked cluster expansion for calculating properties of multiparticle excitation spectra to high orders. We use it to obtain the two-particle spectra for systems of coupled spin-half dimers. We find that even for weakly coupled dimers the spectrum is very rich, consisting of many bound states. The number of bound states depends on both geometry of coupling

Simon Trebst; Hartmut Monien; Chris J. Hamer; Zheng Weihong; Rajiv R. P. Singh

2000-01-01

92

High efficiency transfer of quantum information and multiparticle entanglement generation in translation-invariant quantum chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that a translation-invariant chain of interacting quantum systems can be used for high efficiency transfer of quantum entanglement and the generation of multiparticle entanglement over large distances and between arbitrary sites without the requirement of precise spatial or temporal control. The scheme is largely insensitive to disorder and random coupling strengths in the chain. We discuss harmonic oscillator

Martin B. Plenio; Fernando L. Semião

2005-01-01

93

Elastic multi-particle systems for bounded-curvature path planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a path planning algorithm for Dubins vehicles. Our approach is based on approximation of the trajectories of vehicles using sequence of waypoints and treating each way point as a moving particle in the space. We define interaction forces between the particles such that the resulting multi-particle system will be stable, moreover, the trajectories generated by the waypoints

Ali Ahmadzadeh; Ali Jadbabaie; George J. Pappas; Vijay Kumar

2008-01-01

94

Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

2010-01-01

95

Proposal to study multiparticle-peripheral hadron physics at NAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to build a large wire chamber magnetic spectrometer at NAL to measure multi-body forward-going hadronic systems produced by 's, K's and protons up to 80 GeV\\/c. Specific reactions will be isolated in order to study the s and t dependencies of the cross sections for peripheral processes, search for new resonant states and attempt to measure and K

A. Dzierba; R. Gomez; Y. Nagashima; J. Pine; E. Malamud; R. Lundy; D. Bowen; D. Earles; W. Faissler; D. Garelick; M. Gettner; B. Gottschalk; g. Lutz; E. Shibata; E. von Goeler; R. Weinstein; H. R. Bleiden; W. Hoogland; P Schlein; W. Slater; R. Abrams

1971-01-01

96

On the partial-wave analysis of mesonic resonances decaying to multiparticle final states produced by polarized photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) using photon beams. In particular this report broadens this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

2014-04-01

97

A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

Gagnon, Michel

2012-01-01

98

Obsidian provenance determination by using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 1300 obsidian artefacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily were analyzed by using the BSC-XRF (Beam Stability Controlled - X-ray Fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, using low energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory at the LNS-INF and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of the Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb trace element concentrations where deduced through the use of a method that makes use of a multi parameter linear regression, previously The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In the present work the two instrumental devices are presented. The data are from: Milena (Cl), Ustica (Pa), Rocchicella (Ct), Poggio dell'Acquila (Ct), San Marco (Ct), Villaggio del Petraro* (Sr) and Licodia Eubea* (Ct). Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analysed samples. Analyses carried out on vitreous artefact found in Rocchicella, showed for the first time that the Palagonite was used as row material. *Preliminary data. Topic of conference: Application of XRS in archaeometry Kind of presentation: oral

Pappalardo, L.; Bracchitta, D.; Palio, O.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.

2012-04-01

99

Centre-of-mass motion in multi-particle Schrödinger–Newton dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the implication of the nonlinear and non-local multi-particle Schrödinger–Newton equation for the motion of the mass centre of an extended multi-particle object, giving self-contained and comprehensible derivations. In particular, we discuss two opposite limiting cases. In the first case, the width of the centre-of-mass wave packet is assumed much larger than the actual extent of the object, in the second case it is assumed much smaller. Both cases result in nonlinear deviations from ordinary free Schrödinger evolution for the centre of mass. On a general conceptual level we include some discussion in order to clarify the physical basis and intention for studying the Schrödinger–Newton equation.

Giulini, Domenico; Großardt, André

2014-07-01

100

Non-contact multi-particle annular patterning and manipulation with ultrasound microbeam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle-trapping offers diverse opportunities and applications in biotechnology. It can be applied to creating various functional materials or organizing reactive particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to trap and manipulate multi-particles in an annular pattern with a 24 MHz focused ring-type single element ultrasound transducer. Acoustic ring trap can be useful in undertaking biotropism studies due to an equal-distance condition from the center. Also, this ring trap could serve as a force shield to protect analysis area from other cells. The experimental results showed the capability of the proposed method as a multi-cell manipulator in formatting specific patterns of small cells like sperms.

Lee, Changyang; Seob Jeong, Jong; Youn Hwang, Jae; Lee, Jungwoo; Kirk Shung, K.

2014-06-01

101

Energy evolution of the large-t elastic scattering and its correlation with multiparticle production  

SciTech Connect

It is emphasized that the collective dynamics associated with color confinement is dominating over a point-like mechanism related to a scattering of the proton constituents at the currently available values of the momentum transferred in proton elastic scattering at the LHC. Deep-elastic scattering and its role in the dissimilation of the absorptive and reflective asymptotic scattering mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the experimental signatures associated with the multiparticle production processes.

Troshin, S. M. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region, 142281 (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15

102

Scaling of genuine multiparticle entanglement close to a quantum phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the scaling and spatial distribution of genuine multiparticle entanglement in three- and four-spin reduced states of the one-dimensional XY model at the quantum phase transition. We observe a logarithmic divergence, show that genuine three- and four-particle entanglement obeys finite-size scaling of the XY model and demonstrate that the genuine three-particle entanglement has a finite spatial range.

Hofmann, Martin; Osterloh, Andreas; Gühne, Otfried

2014-04-01

103

Influence of long-range interactions in the diffusion of multiparticle systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion of multiparticle systems with long-range dipolar repulsion and long-range dipolar repulsion perturbed by randomly distributed dipolar impurities is studied by means of computer simulations. Our investigation is motivated by experimental studies of the diffusion of alkali atoms on clean and contaminated (e.g. by oxygen atoms) single crystal metal and semiconductor surfaces. Concentration profiles of the diffusion fronts are

J. R. Lepore; E. V. Albano

1998-01-01

104

Benchmarking of multiparticle phase scan and acceptance scan techniques for the Spallation Neutron Source linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of accurately setting the RF field amplitude and phase, called the RF set-point is well recognized for a high intensity proton linac such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. Techniques such as phase scan and acceptance scan have been used to determine RF set-points. However, benchmarking study of phase scan and acceptance scan techniques based on experiment was never undertaken before. The benchmarking study demonstrated that the multiparticle phase scan technique based on realistic tracking produces RF set-points consistent with those obtained from the acceptance scan technique. Previous work of phase scan type was based on single-particle tracking and the RF set-point from the single-particle phase scan sometimes did not agree well with either that from the multiparticle phase scan or that from the acceptance scan. The analysis based on multiparticle phase scan showed an accurate agreement between the measurement and simulation even when the beam bunch is rather long (the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) beam bunch length entering the SNS Drift Tube linac tank 1 is about 27°).

Jeon, Dong-o.

2007-08-01

105

Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

1996-01-01

106

Cooled Echelle Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cooled echelle grating spectrometer for detecting wavelengths between one micrometers and fifteen micrometers is described. More specifically, a spectrometer is disclosed, having a cross-dispersing grating for ordering infrared energy, and an echelle gr...

R. Beer

1978-01-01

107

Automated mass spectrometer grows up  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

1984-01-01

108

Electric-field induced phase transitions of dielectric colloids: Impact of multiparticle effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic framework for predicting the electric-field induced fluid like-solid like phase transition of dielectric colloids developed by Khusid and Acrivos [Phys. Rev. E. 54, 5428 (1996)] is extended to examine the impact of multiscattering/multiparticle effects on the resulting phase diagrams. This was accomplished using effective permittivity models suitable both over the entire composition region for hard spheres (0<=cmultiparticle effects versus the isolated dipole case. The impact of multiparticle effects on the phase diagrams was not only limited purely to the direct effect of volume fraction on permittivity and particle dipoles but also on the curvature of the volume fraction dependence. This work stresses the importance of accounting for particle effects on the polarization of colloidal suspensions, which has large implications for predicting the behavior of electrorheological fluids and other electric-field driven phenomena.

Wood, Jeffery A.; Docoslis, Aristides

2012-05-01

109

{gamma} induced multiparticle emissions of medium mass nuclei at intermediate energies  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive analysis of multiparticle emissions following photon induced reactions at intermediate energies is provided. Photon induced reaction is described in the energy range of {approx}30-140 MeV with an approach based on the quasideuteron nuclear photoabsorption model followed by the process of competition between light particle evaporation and fission for the excited nucleus. The evaporation-fission process of the compound nucleus is simulated in a Monte-Carlo framework. The study shows almost no fission events for the medium mass nuclei and reproduces the available experimental data of photonuclear reaction cross sections satisfactorily at energies {approx}30-140 MeV.

Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Basu, D. N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2009-01-15

110

Fluctuation induced equality of multi-particle eccentricities for four or more particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss eccentricities (ellipticity and triangularity) generated in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. We define multi-particle eccentricities ?n{m} which are associated with the n'th angular multipole moment for m particles. We show that in the limit of fluctuation dominance all of the ?n{m}'s are approximately equal for m?4. For dynamics linearly responding to these eccentricities such as hydrodynamics, these relations among eccentricities are translated into relations among flow moments vn{m}. We explicitly demonstrate it with hydrodynamic calculations.

Bzdak, Adam; Bozek, Piotr; McLerran, Larry

2014-07-01

111

Multi-particle collision dynamics simulations of sedimenting colloidal dispersions in confinement.  

PubMed

The sedimentation of an initially inhomogeneous distribution of hard-sphere colloids confined in a slit is simulated using the multi-particle collision dynamics scheme which takes into account hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the solvent. This system is an example for soft matter driven out of equilibrium where various length and time scales are involved. The initial laterally homogeneous density profiles exhibit a hydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability. Solvent backflow effects lead to an intricate non-linear behaviour which is analyzed via the solvent flow field and the colloidal velocity correlation function. Our simulation data are in good agreement with real-space microscopy experiments. PMID:20158032

Wysocki, Adam; Royall, C Patrick; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard; Tanaka, Hajime; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Löwen, Hartmut

2010-01-01

112

Multiparticle aggregation model for dendritic growth applied to experiments on amorphous Co-P alloys  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a multiparticle biased diffusion limited aggregation model for dendritic growth. Its most relevant feature is that it includes the overall effect of strong applied electric fields and therefore applies to nonequilibrium situations. We compare simulations of a two species version of our model to actual experiments on preparation of amorphous Co-P alloys with very good agreement: The model accurately reproduces the dependence of composition, morphology, and growth time of the alloy on the current. We conclude with a discussion of specific predictions and possible generalizations of the model.

Sanchez, A. (Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, C. Butarque 15, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain) Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Bernal, M.J.; Riveiro, J.M. (Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-13004 Ciudad Real (Spain))

1994-10-01

113

Effect of multiparticle correlations on the stability of electron-positron clusters  

SciTech Connect

The total energy of electrically neutral electron-positron clusters with closed shells containing different numbers of pairs has been calculated. The inclusion of multiparticle correlations in the random phase approximation with exchange has allowed the reduction of the energy per pair of particles below the energy per dipositronium molecule. The calculations have revealed the region of the minimum of the total energy per pair of particles at the numbers of pairs in the range of 20 to 40, which assumingly correspond to the most stable electron-positron droplets.

Ipatov, A. N., E-mail: Andrei_ipatov@mail.ru; Ivanov, V. K.; Polozkov, R. G. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

114

Approach to multiparticle parallel tracking in thick samples with three-dimensional nanoresolution.  

PubMed

This Letter proposes a method referred to as distorted grating (DG) and double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) combination microscopy (DDCM), which is capable of multiparticle parallel localization and tracking in a transparent sample thicker than 10 ?m, the thickness of cells. A special phase mask, combining the field depth extension capabilities of DG with the three-dimensional (3D) nanolocalization capabilities of the DH-PSF, is designed for multiparticle parallel localization. Time-lapse tracking of one particle moving along the z axis and parallel tracking of two particles are simulated. Results demonstrate that, with only a single snapshot, particles can be localized, tracking with 3D nanoresolution wherever they are. The theoretical localization precisions of DDCM, DH-PSF, and multifocus microscopy are compared. DDCM results in almost constant localization precisions in all three dimensions for a depth of field larger than 10 ?m. DDCM is expected to become a tool in investigations of important dynamic events in living cells. PMID:24081033

Chen, Danni; Yu, Bin; Li, Heng; Huo, Yingdong; Cao, Bo; Xu, Gaixia; Niu, Hanben

2013-10-01

115

Multiparticle sintering dynamics: from fractal-like aggregates to compact structures.  

PubMed

Multiparticle sintering is encountered in almost all high temperature processes for material synthesis (titania, silica, and nickel) and energy generation (e.g., fly ash formation) resulting in aggregates of primary particles (hard- or sinter-bonded agglomerates). This mechanism of particle growth is investigated quantitatively by mass and energy balances during viscous sintering of amorphous aerosol materials (e.g., SiO(2) and polymers) that typically have a distribution of sizes and complex morphology. This model is validated at limited cases of sintering between two (equally or unequally sized) particles, and chains of particles. The evolution of morphology, surface area and radii of gyration of multiparticle aggregates are elucidated for various sizes and initial fractal dimension. For each of these structures that had been generated by diffusion limited (DLA), cluster-cluster (DLCA), and ballistic particle-cluster agglomeration (BPCA) the surface area evolution is monitored and found to scale differently than that of the radius of gyration (moment of inertia). Expressions are proposed for the evolution of fractal dimension and the surface area of aggregates undergoing viscous sintering. These expressions are important in design of aerosol processes with population balance equations (PBE) and/or fluid dynamic simulations for material synthesis or minimization and even suppression of particle formation. PMID:21488641

Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2011-05-17

116

Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

Crocombe, Richard A.

2013-05-01

117

The time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy ions PISOLO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-of-flight spectrometer with magnetic focusing has been installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The spectrometer's length is 3.6m and allows for high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. Magnetic focusing is accomplished by two quadrupole doublets. The spectrometer is connected to a sliding seal scattering chamber rotating over a large angular range. Micro channel-plate detectors for start\\/stop signals and an ionization chamber

G. Montagnoli; F. Scarlassara; S. Beghini; A. Dal Bello; G. F Segato; A. M Stefanini; D. Ackermann; L. Corradi; J. H He; C. J Lin

2000-01-01

118

Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple and the instrument is transportable. We are currently developing a fast neutron spectrometer with 0.1% energy resolution at 1 MeV neutron energy with an efficiency of > 1%. Our fast-neutron spectrometers use boron-based and {sup 6}LiF absorber crystals with Mo/Cu thermistors readout. They have achieved an energy resolution of 5.5 keV FWHM for 2.79 MeV deposited in {sup 10}B by thermal neutron capture (fig. 1), and 46 keV FWHM for fast (MeV) neutrons absorbed in {sup 6}LiF (fig. 2). Since the energy resolution does not depend on the neutron energy, we expect a similar energy resolution for MeV neutron energies. The response function is given simply by the cross section of the capture reaction, offset from zero by the Q-value of the capture reaction. This allows straightforward discrimination against gamma-events, most of which deposit less that Q{sub 6Li} = 4.79 MeV in the {sup 6}LiF absorber, and easy deconvolution of the neutron spectrum, since there is only a single capture reaction in {sup 6}Li and the spectrum is not affected by edge effects or geometric broadening. The current challenge for microcalorimeters is their necessarily small effective pixel area, {approx}1cm{sup 3} for neutron spectrometer pixels, and their slow decay time, {approx}10ms for neutron spectrometers. The pixel size is limited by the requirement for low Cabs for high energy resolution; the decay time is set by the intrinsically weak thermal coupling between materials at low temperatures. Both issues can be addressed by fabricating large detector arrays. This will enable high-precision neutron spectrometry with high statistics, such as simulated for Pu analysis in fig 3.

Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

2006-03-08

119

Standing wave spectrometer.  

PubMed

A standing wave Fourier transform spectrometer is realized. The spectrometer consists of an ultra thin and partially transparent photodetector and a tunable mirror. The incident light forms a standing wave in front of the mirror, which is sampled by the ultra thin optical detector. The thickness of the photodetector is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the incident light. The spectral information of the incident light is determined by the Fourier transform of the detector signal. The linear arrangement of the optical detector and the mirror enables the realization of spectrometer arrays and optical cameras with high spectral resolution. For the first time a complete optical model of the standing wave spectrometer is presented and compared with experimental results. The influence of the design of the optical detector on the performance of the spectrometer is discussed. PMID:20173862

Jovanov, Vladislav; Ivanchev, Jordan; Knipp, Dietmar

2010-01-18

120

Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

1995-05-10

121

New Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abu...

H. L. Daves P. Chastagner W. B. Hess

1981-01-01

122

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of ? - mesons have been studied in dC, HeC, CC, CNe, MgMg, ( d, He)Ta, CCu, CTa, and OPb collisions at momentum of 4.2, 4.5 GeV/ c per nucleon within the standard transverse momentum analysis method of P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec. The data were obtained by SKM-200-GIBS and Propane Bubble Chamber Collaborations of JINR. The axis has been selected in the phase space and with respect to this axis ? - meson correlations were observed. The values of the coefficient of the correlations linearly depend on the mass numbers of projectile ( A P ) and target ( A T ) nuclei. The Quark-Gluon String Model satisfactorily describes the experimental results.

Chkhaidze, L. V.; Djobava, T. D.; Kharkhelauri, L. L.; Kladnitskaya, E. N.

2012-07-01

123

Gupta multiparticle potential study of the hysteresis of the melting and solidification of gold nanoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of melting and solidification of gold nanoclusters consisting of 43, 55, 87, 177, 249, 381, 767, and 1055 atoms are studied using the Monte Carlo method and the Gupta multiparticle potential. It is shown that the temperature dependences of the potential part of the specific internal energy of gold nanoclusters and the average first coordination number have pronounced hystereses. The size dependences of the melting and solidification temperatures are found. Based on an analysis of the temperature dependence of the potential part of the specific internal energy of gold nanoclusters, the temperature dependence of the specific specific heat of a cluster consisting of 1055 atoms during melting and solidification has been found. The size dependence of the specific heat of nanoparticles is analyzed.

Sdobnyakov, N. Yu.; Sokolov, D. N.; Samsonov, V. M.; Komarov, P. V.

2012-03-01

124

The angular momentum relaxation due to multiparticle collisions of molecules with atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational relaxation kinetics in gas mixtures is calculated by non-Markovian binary theory methods and by means of Anderson—Talman theory which takes into account the multiparticle interaction of the molecule with independently moving buffer atoms. The latter model is the only one which yields a rigorous solution of the problem for any density of atoms. Both approaches are compared in order to check the validity of the binary approximation and to discriminate between the differential and integral formalisms. The program is implemented within the framework of the simplest model of J-diffusion which adequately reproduces the asymptotic behavior of the rotational relaxation for short and long times. The accuracy of the binary theory is ascertained and the appearance of sign-alternating behavior of the correlation function at high densities is shown to be illusive at least in this model.

Burshtein, A. I.; Storozhev, A. V.

1992-07-01

125

Multiparticle quantum Szilard engine with optimal cycles assisted by a Maxwell's demon.  

PubMed

We present a complete-quantum description of a multiparticle Szilard engine that consists of a working substance and a Maxwell's demon. The demon is modeled as a multilevel quantum system with specific quantum control, and the working substance consists of identical particles obeying Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. In this description, a reversible scheme to erase the demon's memory by a lower-temperature heat bath is used. We demonstrate that (1) the quantum control of the demon can be optimized for a single-particle Szilard engine so that the efficiency of the demon-assisted thermodynamic cycle could reach the Carnot cycle's efficiency and (2) the low-temperature behavior of the working substance is very sensitive to the quantum statistics of the particles and the insertion position of the partition. PMID:22587045

Cai, C Y; Dong, H; Sun, C P

2012-03-01

126

Multiparticle quantum Szilard engine with optimal cycles assisted by a Maxwell's demon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete-quantum description of a multiparticle Szilard engine that consists of a working substance and a Maxwell's demon. The demon is modeled as a multilevel quantum system with specific quantum control, and the working substance consists of identical particles obeying Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. In this description, a reversible scheme to erase the demon's memory by a lower-temperature heat bath is used. We demonstrate that (1) the quantum control of the demon can be optimized for a single-particle Szilard engine so that the efficiency of the demon-assisted thermodynamic cycle could reach the Carnot cycle's efficiency and (2) the low-temperature behavior of the working substance is very sensitive to the quantum statistics of the particles and the insertion position of the partition.

Cai, C. Y.; Dong, H.; Sun, C. P.

2012-03-01

127

Blurring the boundaries: decays of multiparticle isomers at the proton drip line.  

PubMed

A multiparticle spin-trap isomer has been discovered in the proton-unbound nucleus (73)(158)Ta85?. The isomer mainly decays by ?-ray emission with a half-life of 6.1(1) ?s. Analysis of the ?-ray data shows that the isomer lies 2668 keV above the known 9+ state and has a spin 10? higher and negative parity. This 19- isomer also has an 8644(11) keV, 1.4(2)% ?-decay branch that populates the 9+ state in (154)Lu. No proton-decay branch from the isomer was identified, despite the isomer being unbound to proton emission by 3261(14) keV. This remarkable stability against proton emission is compared with theoretical predictions, and the implications for the extent of observable nuclides are considered. PMID:24655248

Carroll, R J; Page, R D; Joss, D T; Uusitalo, J; Darby, I G; Andgren, K; Cederwall, B; Eeckhaudt, S; Grahn, T; Gray-Jones, C; Greenlees, P T; Hadinia, B; Jones, P M; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Leino, M; Leppänen, A-P; Nyman, M; O'Donnell, D; Pakarinen, J; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Sarén, J; Scholey, C; Seweryniak, D; Simpson, J

2014-03-01

128

Ranging-imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging spectrometer that can simultaneously obtain 3-D spatial and hyperspectral data has been developed. The Ranging-Imaging Spectrometer (RIS) is based on the Computed Tomographic Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) developed at the Optical Science Center, and the Scannerless Laser Radar (LADAR) architecture developed at Sandia National Labs. The instrument acquires hyperspectral data in a single snapshot and spatial data in a series of snapshots. The system has 29 spectral bands, 1024 range samples, and approximately 80 x 80 spatial sampling. The RIS is discussed along with analysis of test data.

Kinder, Brian A.; Garcia, John P.; Habbit, Robert D.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

2003-12-01

129

Integrated Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed integrated grating spectrometer made in waveguide layer on silicon wafer. Occupies area of about 2 centimeters to 2nd power on wafer 0.4 mm thick. Operates in visible spectrum (wavelengths of 400 to 700 nm) and blazed to diffract in first order. Array of integrated grating spectrometers performs spectral analysis of picture elements along line. Optical fiber couples light from each picture element into separate integrated spectrometer. Technique enables continous independent variation, along grating, of pitch, curvature, and blaze angle. Grating designed to have large numerical aperture, zero aberration at two selected wavelengths, and very low aberration at intermediate wavelengths.

Lang, Robert J.

1990-01-01

130

Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.  

PubMed

Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 ?m spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 °C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

2012-03-01

131

Real time Faraday spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of a charged particle spectrometer that contains a detection system which embodies the benefits of both foil-light emissions and faraday cups, yet it does not interfere with the particle beam. 5 Figs. (GHH)

T. E. Jr. Smith; K. W. Struve; N. J. Colella

1990-01-01

132

Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technological aspects of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), proposed as a candidate core instrument for the European Polar Platform scheduled for launch in 1997, are described. The instrument has a spectral range of 400 to 1050 nm, a ...

M. A. Cutter D. R. Lobb

1990-01-01

133

Hand-Held Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hand-held portable modular spectrometer unit. The unit includes a detachable head containing a light source and optical components for detecting spectral information from light reflected from or transmitted through a target and a processor for convertin...

B. J. Smith J. F. Matsumoto J. P. Ferguson M. M. Szczesniak M. T. Beecroft

2005-01-01

134

The VIR Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dawn spectrometer (VIR) is a hyperspectral spectrometer with imaging capability. The design fully accomplishes Dawn’s\\u000a scientific and measurement objectives. Determination of the mineral composition of surface materials in their geologic context\\u000a is a primary Dawn objective. The nature of the solid compounds of the asteroid (silicates, oxides, salts, organics and ices)\\u000a can be identified by visual and infrared spectroscopy

M. C. De Sanctis; A. Coradini; E. Ammannito; G. Filacchione; M. T. Capria; S. Fonte; G. Magni; A. Barbis; A. Bini; M. Dami; I. Ficai-Veltroni; G. Preti

2010-01-01

135

Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

1997-01-01

136

Preliminary spectrometer results from E-802  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary spectrometer results from the E-802 experiment at the Tandem-AGS accelerator complex at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The data presented were taken in late April of 1987 using a 14.5 GeV/c per nucleon /sup 28/Si beam from the AGS. Data were obtained for a variety of targets and spectrometer settings, but we present here the analysis of data for one target-angle combination: a Au target wth the spectrometer spanning 14/sup 0/ to 28/sup 0/ in the lab. At this energy the laboratory mid-rapidity angle in N-N collisions is approx. = 21/sup 0/. A higher K/sup +//..pi../sup +/ ratio than K/sup -//..pi../sup -/ ratio is observed. The primary goal for the E-802 experiment is to measure inclusive particle spectra with good particle identification (PID) over a wide range of rapidity and transverse momentum, and to correlate these spectra with observables that characterize the vent topology such as total charged particle multiplicity and neutral transverse energy. The acceptance of the spectrometer is large enough to span roughly one unit of rapidity in a single setting and is adequate for studies of particle-particle correlations. The spectrometer is also sufficiently compact (6.5 m in length) to allow a reasonable fraction of low momentum pions and kaons to traverse the entire particle identification system. Segmentation for the tracking and PID counters was designed to handle particle multiplicities up to 15 through the spectrometer and 20 in front of the magnet.

Miake, Y.; Stephans, G.S.F.

1987-01-01

137

Electron-proton spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

Winckler, J. R.

1973-01-01

138

Quantum grid infrared spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and characterized an infrared spectrometer, which uses a linear array of quantum grid infrared photodetectors (QGIPs) as its spectral sensing elements. Each QGIP element shares the same detector material but has a different grid geometry. The detector material, which is based on a binary superlattice design, provides an 8-14 ?m broadband absorption medium for the spectrometer. The geometry of the grid, which is the light coupling structure under normal incidence, selects individual absorption wavelength for each element. Using a linear array of QGIPs of different geometries, multiple wavelengths can be detected simultaneously, and the array thus forms a spectrometer. Multicolor infrared imaging can then be achieved by integrating such QGIPs in unit cells of a two-dimensional array.

Choi, K. K.; Dang, G.; Little, J. W.; Leung, K. M.; Tamir, T.

2004-05-01

139

Modeling the locomotion of the African trypanosome using multi-particle collision dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African trypanosome is a single flagellated micro-organism that causes the deadly sleeping sickness in humans and animals. We study the locomotion of a model trypanosome by modeling the spindle-shaped cell body using an elastic network of vertices with additional bending rigidity. The flagellum firmly attached to the model cell body is either straight or helical. A bending wave propagates along the flagellum and pushes the trypanosome forward in its viscous environment, which we simulate with the method of multi-particle collision dynamics. The relaxation dynamics of the model cell body due to a static bending wave reveals the sperm number from elastohydrodynamics as the relevant parameter. Characteristic cell body conformations for the helically attached flagellum resemble experimental observations. We show that the swimming velocity scales as the root of the angular frequency of the bending wave reminiscent of predictions for an actuated slender rod attached to a large viscous load. The swimming velocity for one geometry collapses on a single master curve when plotted versus the sperm number. The helically attached flagellum leads to a helical swimming path and a rotation of the model trypanosome about its long axis as observed in experiments. The simulated swimming velocity agrees with the experimental value.

Babu, Sujin B.; Stark, Holger

2012-08-01

140

Simulation of tethered oligomers in nanochannels using multi-particle collision dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a high Reynold's number, pressure-driven flow of a compressible gas on the conformation of an oligomer tethered to the wall of a square channel is studied under both ideal solvent and poor solvent conditions using a hybrid multiparticle collision dynamics and molecular dynamics algorithm. Unlike previous studies, the flow field contains an elongational component in addition to a shear component as well as fluid slip near the walls and results in a Schmidt number for the polymer beads that is less than unity. In both solvent regimes the oligomer is found to extend in the direction of flow. Under the ideal solvent conditions, torsional twisting of the chain and aperiodic cyclical dynamics are observed for the end of the oligomer. Under poor solvent conditions, a metastable helix forms in the end of the chain despite the lack of any attractive potential between beads in the oligomeric chain. The formation of the helix is postulated to be the result of a solvent induced chain collapse that has been confined to a single dimension by a strong flow field.

Raghu, Riyad Chetram; Schofield, Jeremy

2012-07-01

141

Start-to-end Transport Design and Multi-particle Tracking for the ILC Electron Source  

SciTech Connect

A train of 2-ns micro bunches of longitudinally polarized electrons are generated in a 120-kV DC-gun based injector in the ILC electron source; a bunching system with extremely high bunching efficiency to compress the micro-bunch down to 20 ps FWHM is designed. Complete optics to transport the electron bunch to the entrance of the 5-GeV damping ring injection line is developed. Start-to-end multi-particle tracking through the beamline is performed including the bunching system, pre-acceleration, chicane, 5-GeV superconducting booster linac, spin rotators and energy compressor. It shows that 94% of the electrons from the DC-gun are captured within the damping ring 6-D acceptance--A{sub x} + A{sub y} {le} 0.09 m and {Delta}E x {Delta}z {le} ({+-} 25 MeV) x ({+-} 3.46 cm)--at the entrance of the damping ring injection line. The field and alignment errors and orbit correction are analyzed.

Zhou, F.; Batygin, Y.; Brachman, A.; Clendenin, J.; Miller, R.H.; Sheppard, J.C.; Woodley, M.D.; /SLAC

2007-02-02

142

The GRIFFIN spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is an advanced new high-efficiency ?-ray spectrometer being developed for use in decay spectroscopy experiments with low-energy radioactive ion beams provided by TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC-I) radioactive ion beam facility. GRIFFIN will be comprised of sixteen large-volume clover-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) ?-ray detectors coupled to custom digital signal processing electronics and used in conjunction with a suite of auxiliary detection systems. This article provides an overview of the GRIFFIN spectrometer and its expected performance characteristics.

Svensson, C. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.

2014-01-01

143

The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

1973-01-01

144

Photonic bandgap infrared spectrometer.  

PubMed

We propose and demonstrate an infrared (IR) absorption spectrometer, made with a spatially variable photonic bandgap (PBG) structure, a blackbody source, and a simple IR detector, to identify the IR molecular fingerprints of analyte molecules. The PBG-based structure consists of thermally evaporated, IR transparent, high-refractive-index chalcogenide quarter-wave stacks (QWS) with a cavity layer. Spatial variation of the very sharp transmission peak due to the QWS cavity mode allows the structure to be used as a variable IR filter. Our proposed IR-PBG spectrometer can be used for detection and identification of volatile organic compounds. PMID:20563214

Kondakci, H Esat; Yaman, Mecit; Dana, Aykutlu; Bayindir, Mehmet

2010-06-20

145

Broad band waveguide spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

Goldman, Don S. (Folsom, CA)

1995-01-01

146

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the GeoFTS design is mature and flight ready.

Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

2012-01-01

147

Spectrometer, Spectronic 20 (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spectrometer, Spectronic 20?: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". The Spectronic 20? is used to measure the absorbance (or transmittance) of solutions. A Spectronic 20? is capable of measuring % transmittance and absorbance over the range of 340 to 950 nm (the range 600 to 950 nm requires a special infrared filter and a different lamp). The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

148

New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-Dâ doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The

P. Chastagner; H. L. Daves; W. B. Hess

1981-01-01

149

Zoellner's reversion spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1869 K.F. Zoellner (1834-1882), who can be considered as one of the fathers of astrophysics, presented a completely new concept for a radial-velocity spectrometer which he called `Reversionsspektroskop'. The principle of reversion is based on the auto- or cross-correlation method and played an important role in the measurement of stellar radial velocities.

Geyer, E.

150

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year, the Principal Investigator's research carried out under this contract has focused on an analysis of the implications of Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) results for the origin of Jupiter's atmosphere and the origin of the ice and other possible volatiles on the Galilean satellites.

Owen, Tobias C.

1998-01-01

151

Torus Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations are given for the design of a spectrometer having fixed slits and a concave grating of toroidal surface in which the grating is rotated to vary the wavelength. Conditions are stated to obtain minimum astigmatism, and from these the most favor...

H. Greiner, E. Schaffer

1977-01-01

152

Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators st...

E. F. Erickson, M. R. Haas, S. W. J. Colgan, J. P. Simpson, R. H. Rubin

1995-01-01

153

Rapid scanning mass spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are g...

J. H. Leckey, M. D. Boeckmann

1996-01-01

154

Diffuse EUV spectrometer UCB  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extreme ultra-violet diffuse spectrograph known as the ultraviolet cosmic background spectrometer is scheduled for a 1996 launch on the NASA SSTI mission Lewis. UCB is one of three prime science instruments aboard the Lewis spacecraft and is schedules to conduct observations for 3 to 5 years. The spectrograph will obtain spectra of diffuse 550 to 1100 angstrom radiation with

Jerry Edelstein; C. Stuart Bowyer

1996-01-01

155

Mass spectrometer mixture calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen isotope mixtures can be difficult to make for a number of reasons. The most difficult problem is the possibility of confronting extremely great and extremely small relative mass differences in the same analysis. Commercial mass spectrometers are now available that can overcome these problems. The analytical capabilities and limitations of these instruments will be discussed.

Hicks

1986-01-01

156

A spectrometer for muon scattering at the Tevatron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the spectrometer constructed by the E665 Collaboration is described. The spectrometer was built during the period 1982-87 and the first data were taken during the 1987-88 Fixed Target run of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron. This is the first of a series of runs in which a comprehensive program of high energy muon scattering experiments

M. R. Adams; S. Aid; P. L. Anthony; M. D. Baker; J. F. Bartlett; A. A. Bhatti; H. M. Braun; T. Burnett; W. Busza; J. M. Conrad; G. B. Coutrakon; R. Davisson; S. K. Dhawan; W. Dougherty; T. Dreyer; U. Ecker; V. Eckardt; M. Erdmann; A. Eskreys; K. Eskreys; H. J. Gebauer; D. F. Geesaman; R. Gilman; M. C. Green; J. Haas; C. Halliwell; J. Hanlon; V. W. Hughes; H. E. Jackson; D. M. Jansen; G. Jancso; S. Kaufman; R. D. Kennedy; T. B. W. Kirk; H. Kobrak; S. Krzywdzinski; S. Kunori; J. Lord; H. J. Lubatti; T. Lyons; S. Magill; P. Malecki; A. Manz; D. McLeod; H. Melanson; D. G. Michael; W. Mohr; H. E. Montgomery; J. G. Morfin; R. B. Nickerson; S. O'Day; A. M. Osborne; L. Osborne; B. Pawlik; F. M. Pipkin; E. J. Ramberg; A. Röser; J. Ryan; A. Salvarani; M. Schmitt; K. P. Schüler; E. Sexton; H. J. Seyerlein; A. Skuja; S. Söldner-Rembold; P. H. Steinberg; H. E. Stier; P. Stopa; P. Strube; Robert A. Swanson; R. L. Talaga; S. Tentindo-Repond; H.-J. Trost; H. Venkataramania; M. Vidal; M. Wilhelm; J. Wilkes; Richard Wilson; S. Wolbers; T. Zhao

1990-01-01

157

Pulsed Nozzle Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer: Advances and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed nozzle Fourier transform microwave (PNFTMW) spectrometer was developed by Balle and Flygare [A new method for observing the rotational spectra of weak molecular complexes: KrHCl. J. Chem. Phys. 1979, 71 (6), 2723–2724 and 1980, 72 (2), 922–932] in 1979. The design, fabrication, and operation of this spectrometer are complicated and it has largely remained a research laboratory tool

E. Arunan; Sagarika Dev; Pankaj K. Mandal

2004-01-01

158

Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

1996-01-01

159

Flat-top acceleration system for the variable-energy multiparticle AVF cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flat-top acceleration system appropriate to minimization of energy spread in an ion beam was investigated for the JAERI AVF cyclotron. A combination of the fundamental- and the fifth-harmonic voltages to obtain a homogeneous energy gain distribution of accelerated particles is ideally suited to a variable-energy multiparticle cyclotron using acceleration harmonics of 1, 2, and 3. The flat topping of the energy gain distribution using the fifth harmonics has the advantages of minimizing amplifier power, reducing power dissipation in a resonator, and increasing the energy gain per turn. The flat-top acceleration system was designed to reduce the energy spread to 0.02%, which fulfills a beam focusing condition for production of a microbeam with a beam spot diameter of 1 ?m. Tolerable fluctuations of acceleration voltages, required to achieve the energy spread of 0.02%, were 2.0×10-4 for the fundamental voltage and 1.0×10-3 for the fifth-harmonic voltage. Both fundamental- and fifth-harmonic phases were required to be stabilized within 0.2 rf degrees. The tolerance of the magnetic excitation was 1.9×10-5. In order to enhance compactness of the flat-topping cavity and to make a substantial saving of the amplifier power, optimum geometric parameters of the flat-topping cavity were determined by a cold model test and a calculation using the MAFIA code. A full range of the fifth-harmonic frequency, 55-110 MHz, was covered by the flat-top system, which enables us to apply the flat-top acceleration to a wide range of energy.

Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Okumura, Susumu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Agematsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Nara, Takayuki; Ishibori, Ikuo; Yoshida, Kenichi; Yokota, Watalu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kumata, Yukio; Fukumoto, Yasushi; Saito, Katsuhiko

2003-04-01

160

Hydrodynamic mechanisms of spinodal decomposition in confined colloid-polymer mixtures: A multiparticle collision dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiscale model for a colloid-polymer mixture is developed. The colloids are described as point particles interacting with each other and with the polymers with strongly repulsive potentials, while polymers interact with each other with a softer potential. The fluid in the suspension is taken into account by the multiparticle collision dynamics method (MPC). Considering a slit geometry where the suspension is confined between parallel repulsive walls, different possibilities for the hydrodynamic boundary conditions (b.c.) at the walls (slip versus stick) are treated. Quenching experiments are considered, where the system volume is suddenly reduced (keeping the density of the solvent fluid constant, while the colloid and polymer particle numbers are kept constant) and thus an initially homogeneous system is quenched deeply into the miscibility gap, where it is unstable. For various relative concentrations of colloids and polymers, the time evolution of the growing colloid-rich and polymer-rich domains are studied by molecular dynamics simulation, taking hydrodynamic effects mediated by the solvent into account via MPC. It is found that the domain size ld(t) grows with time t as ld(t) ~ t1/3 for stick and (at late stages) as ld(t) ~ t2/3 for slip b.c., while break-up of percolating structures can cause a transient ``arrest'' of growth. While these findings apply for films that are 5-10 colloid diameters wide, for ultrathin films (1.5 colloid diameters wide) a regime with ld(t) ~ t1/2 is also identified for rather shallow quenches.

Winkler, Alexander; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt; Winkler, Roland G.; Gompper, Gerhard

2013-02-01

161

Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed analysis. Their insights may guide empirical work. Particularly the recently introduced multiparticle collision dynamics method may be suitable for the study of moving organisms because it is computationally fast, simple to implement, and has a continuous representation of space. As regards the study of hydrodynamics of moving organisms, the method has only been applied at low Reynolds numbers (below 120) for soft, permeable bodies, and static fishlike shapes. In the present paper we use it to study the hydrodynamics of an undulating fish at Reynolds numbers 1100-1500, after confirming its performance for a moving insect wing at Reynolds number 75. We measure (1) drag, thrust, and lift forces, (2) swimming efficiency and spatial structure of the wake, and (3) distribution of forces along the fish body. We confirm the resemblance between the simulated undulating fish and empirical data. In contrast to theoretical predictions, our model shows that for steadily undulating fish, thrust is produced by the rear 2/3 of the body and that the slip ratio U/V (with U the forward swimming speed and V the rearward speed of the body wave) correlates negatively (instead of positively) with the actual Froude efficiency of swimming. Besides, we show that the common practice of modeling individuals while constraining their sideways acceleration causes them to resemble unconstrained fish with a higher tailbeat frequency.

Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Padding, J. T.; Hemelrijk, C. K.

2012-02-01

162

Multiparticle covariance matrices and the impossibility of detecting graph-state entanglement with two-particle correlations  

SciTech Connect

We present a criterion for multiparticle entanglement based on covariance matrices. On the one hand, the criterion allows detection of bound entangled states which are not detected by other criteria; on the other hand, some strongly entangled pure states such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states are not detected. We show, however, that this is a general phenomenon: No separability criterion based on two-particle correlations can recognize the entanglement in the family of graph states to which the GHZ states belong.

Gittsovich, Oleg [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Otto-Hittmair-Platz 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Hyllus, Philipp [INO-CNR BEC Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Otto-Hittmair-Platz 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-09-15

163

Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

1993-04-14

164

Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

2008-03-01

165

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

1995-01-01

166

The 8 ? spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8 ? spectrometer installed at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beam facility provides a powerful and versatile detection system for radioactive decay, allowing measurements of ? rays and conversion electrons with high resolution, tagging on ? particles, and fast-timing measurements. The facility supports a wide program of research in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental symmetries with low-energy radioactive beams.

Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.

2014-01-01

167

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

1992-01-01

168

Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding

D. T. Young; J. J. Berthelier; M. Blanc; J. L. Burch; A. J. Coates; R. Goldstein; M. Grande; T. W. Hill; R. E. Johnson; V. Kelha; D. J. Mccomas; E. C. Sittler; K. R. Svenes; K. Szegö; P. Tanskanen; K. Ahola; D. Anderson; S. Bakshi; R. A. Baragiola; B. L. Barraclough; R. K. Black; S. Bolton; T. Booker; R. Bowman; P. Casey; F. J. Crary; D. Delapp; G. Dirks; N. Eaker; H. Funsten; J. D. Furman; J. T. Gosling; H. Hannula; C. Holmlund; H. Huomo; J. M. Illiano; P. Jensen; M. A. Johnson; D. R. Linder; T. Luntama; S. Maurice; K. P. Mccabe; K. Mursula; B. T. Narheim; J. E. Nordholt; A. Preece; J. Rudzki; A. Ruitberg; K. Smith; S. Szalai; M. F. Thomsen; K. Viherkanto; J. Vilppola; T. Vollmer; T. E. Wahl; M. Wüest; T. Ylikorpi; C. Zinsmeyer

2004-01-01

169

Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system  

DOEpatents

An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

Filby, Evan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-01-01

170

Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown) were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually). The experimental treatments were: i) L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii) LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii) LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv) S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05). The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05). The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05). The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

Guo, X. Y.; Kim, I. H.

2012-01-01

171

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

1996-06-11

172

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Kimmons, James F. (Manteca, CA); Myers, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

173

Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.  

SciTech Connect

With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

2007-03-01

174

Water Mass Map from Neutron Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

December 8, 2003

This map shows the estimated lower limit of the water content of the upper meter of Martian soil. The estimates are derived from the hydrogen abundance measured by the neutron spectrometer component of the gamma ray spectrometer suite on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

The highest water-mass fractions, exceeding 30 percent to well over 60 percent, are in the polar regions, beyond about 60 degrees latitude north or south. Farther from the poles, significant concentrations are in the area bound in longitude by minus 10 degrees to 50 degrees and in latitude by 30 degrees south to 40 degrees north, and in an area to the south and west of Olympus Mons (30 degrees to 0 degrees south latitude and minus 135 degrees to 110 degrees longitude).

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science in Washington. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

2003-01-01

175

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

Manglos, S.H.

1988-03-10

176

Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

Wey, Chowen

1995-01-01

177

Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

2012-09-01

178

Resonant ultrasound spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Visscher, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Zachary (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01

179

GRIS: The grating infrared spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grating infrared spectrometer (GRIS) is an echelle grating, prism cross-dispersed, spectrometer designed for the 2.3-m Steward Observatory telescope. The cross-dispersed format utilizes a Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer 3 (NICMOS 3) HgCdTe detector array for observations in the 0.86-2.5 micrometer spectral region. An echelle grating, ruled on both sides, provides resolutions of 3449 and 9439 per slit width,

Rodger I. Thompson; Harland W. Epps; Greg Winters; William Womack; Eric Mentzell

1994-01-01

180

[Small imaging spectrometer for the inspection of fruit quality].  

PubMed

Imaging spectrometer can acquire spatial and spectral information of the target at the same time, achieve high-precision, non-destructive, non-contamination and large area instantaneous inspection of the fruit. In order to get the imaging spectrum of the fruit, compact imaging spectrometer with convex grating produced by self was designed, it has the advantages of good performance, small volume and low weight, its resolution at 578 nm is 2.1 nm, and spectral line bend and chromatic distortion are both smaller than 0.6%. Laboratory test of the imaging spectrometer and the experiment of getting the imaging spectrum of apple were done, and the result shows that the imaging spectrometer satisfies the design requirement and can acquire the imaging spectrum of apple rapidly with high precision for inspection of fruit quality. PMID:22497177

Liu, Yu-juan; Tang, Yu-guo; Cui, Ji-cheng; Bayanheshig

2012-01-01

181

High Resolution VUV Spectrometer at the INDUS-1 Synchrotron Source  

SciTech Connect

An indigenously developed high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer has recently been commissioned at the INDUS-1 Synchrotron Source, Indore, India for carrying out spectroscopic research of atomic and molecular gases. The spectrometer uses a 6.65-meter concave grating in off-plane Eagle mounting and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) for recording the intensity profile of various spectral lines. Experimental performance of the spectrometer has been tested using laboratory sources and 1200 grooves/mm and 4800 grooves/mm concave gratings. Wavelength resolutions of 0.08 Aa and 0.01 Aa have been achieved when 1200 grooves/mm and 4800 grooves/mm concave gratings have been mounted successfully in the spectrometer. The instrument has been integrated with the high resolution VUV beamline at INDUS-1 and its performance is being evaluated with synchrotron radiation.

Das, Nimai C.; Shukla, Ram P.; Udupa, Dinesh V.; Sahoo, Naba K.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Sunanda, K.; Saraswathy, P. [Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai -400 085 (India)

2007-01-19

182

Comparison of a transmission grating spectrometer to a reflective grating spectrometer for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate a new transmission grating spectrometer for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. LIBS spectra collected from standoff distances are often weak, with smaller peaks blending into the background and noise. Scattered light inside the spectrometer can also contribute to poor signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios for smaller emission peaks. Further, collecting standoff spectra can be difficult because most spectrometers are designed for laboratory environments and not for measurements in the field. To address these issues, a custom-designed small, lightweight transmission grating spectrometer with no moving parts was built that is well suited for standoff LIBS field measurements. The performance of the spectrometer was quantified through 10 m standoff LIBS measurements collected from aluminum alloy samples and measurements from spectra of a Hg-Ar lamp. The measurements were compared to those collected using a Czerny-Turner reflective grating spectrometer that covered a similar spectral range and used the same ICCD camera. Measurements using the transmission grating spectrometer had a 363% improved signal-to-noise ratio when measured using the 669 nm aluminum emission peak.

Weisberg, Arel; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2010-05-01

183

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

184

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-12-26

185

Broadband Liquid Dielectric Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dielectric spectrometer was built to measure the dielectric relaxation of proteins in solution. The dielectric cell consisted of two parallel stainless-steel electrodes (separation of 8.5 mm) embedded in PTFE. To provide temperature stability, thermally regulated water flowed through both electrodes. The cell was connected to a 4294A Precision Impedance Analyzer, providing impedance measurements from 40Hz to 110 MHz. Due to electrode polarization and high frequency parasitics, useful measurements were obtained for frequencies ranging from 10 kHz to 10 MHz. Calibration was performed using air, iso-propanol and deionized water. Experiments were also conducted on buffers and salt solutions. The dielectric relaxation of the protein beta-lactoglobulin was measured at mg/ml concentrations.

Chandra, Satyan; Arellano, Jesus; Mazzeo, Brian

2009-10-01

186

Planar waveguide spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

An integrated optic consisting of buried diffraction gratings and a planar waveguide was developed as an internal reflectance element for broad-band spectroscopic analysis of liquids. Polystyrene or tantalum pentoxide waveguides were deposited over a pair of diffraction gratings etched into the surface of a glass slide. Multiwavelength light was focused through the substrate onto the first grating. Component wavelengths were coupled into the waveguide and spatially dispersed by the second grating after propagating through the waveguide. A silicon photodiode array detector was used to collect the spectra data. Our goal is to produce a compact, rapid spectrometer having no moving parts that can take advantage of fiber optics and fast array detectors in the visible and near-infrared regions for industrial process control. The thin planar waveguide provides enhanced sensitivity to analyze weaker absorptions in the near-infrared. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Goldman, D.S.; White, P.L.; Anheier, N.C.

1990-07-01

187

DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

188

Imaging Spectrometer for Geophysical Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne spectrometer combines technologies of television imaging and spectroscopy to produce data for geophysical surveys, agricultural assessments, forest and land management, and exploration for oil and minerals. Designed for Small Size, infrared imaging spectrometer uses folded telescope and passes input and output of its monochromator through hole in monochromator grating. Instrument permits analysis of terrain at many infrared wavelengths.

Labaw, C. C.

1985-01-01

189

A solenoidal spectrometer for positron-electron pairs produced in heavy-ion collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new solenoidal spectrometer, designed to study the production mechanism of electrons and positrons in heavy-ion collisions, has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The spectrometer uses a 300 G magnetic field to transport the leptons to two highly segmented silicon arrays that are centered on the solenoid axis, 1.2 m from the target. Positrons are identified by detecting their

I. Ahmad; Sam. M. Austin; B. B. Back; R. R. Betts; F. P. Calaprice; Chan K. C; A. Chishti; P. Chowdhury; C. Conner; R. W. Dunford; J. D. Fox; S. J. Freedman; M. Freer; S. B. Gazes; J. S. Greenberg; J. P. Greene; A. L. Hallin; Th. Happ; D. Henderson; N. I. Kaloskamis; E. Kashy; W. Kutschera; J. Last; C. J. Lister; Liu M; M. R. Maier; D. M. Mercer; D. Mikolas; P. A. A. Perera; M. D. Rhein; D. E. Roa; J. P. Schiffer; T. A. Trainor; P. Wilt; J. S. Winfield; M. Wolanski; F. L. H. Wolfs; A. H. Wuosmaa; G. Xu; A. R. Young; J. E. Yurkon

1996-01-01

190

Remote measurements of actinide species in aqueous solutions using an optical fiber photoacoustic spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A photoacoustic spectrometer, equipped with an 85 meter optical fiber, was used to perform absorption measurements of lanthanide and actinide samples, located in a glovebox. The spectrometer was tested using aqueous solutions of praseodymium and americium ions; the sensitivity for remote measurements was found to be similar to that achieved in the laboratory without the fiber. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Russo, R.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Robouch, P.B.; Silva, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1990-09-26

191

Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

2012-10-16

192

Start-to-end Beam Optics Development and Multi-particle Tracking for the ILC Positron Source  

SciTech Connect

Undulator-based positron source is adopted as the ILC baseline design. Complete optics to transport the positron beam having large angular divergence and large energy spread from an immersed thin Ti target to the entrance of the 5 GeV damping ring injection line is developed. Start-to-end multi-particle tracking through the beamline is performed including the optical matching device, capture system, transport system, superconducting booster linac, spin rotators, and energy compressor. It shows that 49.8% of the positrons from the target are captured within the damping ring 6-D acceptance--A{sub x} + A{sub y} {le} 0.09 m and {Delta}E x {Delta}z ({+-} 25 MeV) x ({+-} 3.46cm)--at the entrance of the damping ring injection line. The field and alignment errors and orbit correction are analyzed.

Zhou, F.a Batygin, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Sheppard, J.C.; Woodley, M.D.; /SLAC

2007-01-25

193

Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

Lord, W. P.

1971-01-01

194

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen-Isotope Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes were evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4 and an abund...

P. Chastagner H. L. Daves W. B. Hess

1982-01-01

195

Developing Tools for Undergraduate Spectroscopy: An Inexpensive Visible Light Spectrometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and implementation of an inexpensive, high-resolution Littrow-type visible light spectrometer is presented. The instrument is built from low-cost materials and interfaced with the program RSpec for real-time spectral analysis, making it useful for classroom and laboratory exercises. Using a diffraction grating ruled at 1200 lines/mm and…

Vanderveen, Jesse R.; Martin, Brian; Ooms, Kristopher J.

2013-01-01

196

Z-Spec: A Dispersive Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Z-Spec is a broad-band, moderate-resolution spectrometer employing a WaFIRS waveguide-coupled diffraction grating to an array of bolometers. We briefly describe the science case for the instrument, summarize its design, and present recent results from laboratory measurements and initial astronomical observations.

Glenn, J.; Aikin, R.; Aguirre, J.; Earle, L.; Maloney, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Nguyen, H.; Naylor, B.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Duband, L.; Matsuhara, H.; Ade, P. A. R.

2007-10-01

197

Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) places the most stringent demands upon its detectors of all James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) instruments. We present the scientific rationale for challenging requirements including noise laboratory test results that are informing the design of NIRSpec's detector system and operational concept.

Rauscher, B. J.; Strada, P.; Regan, M. W.; Figer, D. F.; Jakobsen, P.; Moseley, H. S.; Boeker, T.

2004-01-01

198

A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

Tai, M. H.

1977-01-01

199

Preliminary testing of a prototype portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral resource investigative work was built and tested. The prototype battery powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas proportional counters and two radioactive sources, Cd (10a) and Fe (55). Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

Patten, L. L.; Anderson, N. B.; Stevenson, J. J.

1982-01-01

200

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

1989-06-06

201

Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick

202

The OPERA muon spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA experiment will study ?? to ?? oscillations through ? appearance on the 732 km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 48 planes of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode. Each plane covers about 70 m2. A general introduction to the system installation and commissioning will be given. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality test performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single and multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with the expectations. Finally, a description of the readout electronics and of the slow control system is given.

Garfagnini, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Cazes, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Di Troia, C.; Dulach, B.; Felici, G.; Mengucci, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.

2007-03-01

203

Aerosol mobility size spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2007-11-20

204

Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

2007-10-01

205

Multiple order common path spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

206

Method for calibrating mass spectrometers  

DOEpatents

A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

2002-12-24

207

A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements  

SciTech Connect

Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Brown, G.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-08-01

208

The JPL Field Emission Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Field Emission Spectrometer (FES) was built by Designs and Prototypes based on a set of functional requirements supplied by JPL. The instrument has a spectral resolution of 6 wavenumbers (wn) and can acquire spectra from either the Mid Infrared (3-5 mu m) or the Thermal Infrared (8-12 pm) depending on whether the InSb or HgCdTe detector is installed respectively. The instrument consists of an optical head system unit and battery. The optical head which is tripod mounted includes the interferometer and detector dewar assembly. Wavelength calibration of the interferometer is achieved using a Helium-Neon laser diode. The dewar needs replenishing with liquid Nitrogen approximately every four hours. The system unit includes the controls for operation and the computer used for acquiring viewing and processing spectra. Radiometric calibration is achieved with an external temperature-controlled blackbody that mounts on the fore-optics of the instrument. The blackbody can be set at 5 C increments between 10 and 55 C. The instrument is compact and weighs about 33 kg. Both the wavelength calibration and radiometric calibration of the instrument have been evaluated. The wavelength calibration was checked by comparison of the position of water features in a spectrum of the sky with their position in the output from a high resolution atmospheric model. The results indicatethat the features in the sky spectrum are within 6-8 wn of their position ill the model spectrum. The radiometric calibration was checked by first calibrating the instrument using the external blackbody supplied with the instrument and then measuring the radiance from another external blackbody at a series of temperatures. The temperatures of these radiance spectra were then recovered by inventing Planck's law and the recovered temperatures compared lo the measured blackbody temperature. These results indicate that radiometric calibration is good to 0.5 C over the range of temperatures 10 to 55 C. The results also indicate that the instrument drifts slowly over time and should be recalibrated every 20 to 30 minutes in the field to ensure good radiometric fidelity. The instrument has now been extensively tested in the field in the United States and Australia. These in situ field measurements are being used to validate emissivity spectra recovered from the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) and also the Australian CO2 Laser. The availability of in situ measurements is proving crucial to validation of the spectra derived from the airborne instruments since many natural surfaces cannot be easily transported back to the laboratory.

Hook, Simon J.; Kahle, Anne B.

1995-01-01

209

Degradation-Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for Summer 2010. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS is designed to provide solar irradiance at Lyman-alpha and He II to overlap EUV observations from SOHO/SEM and SDO/EVE. Electronic and mechanical designs for the flight prototype instruments and results of tests performed with the instruments in the laboratory are reported. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA’s Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

Wieman, S. R.; Judge, D. L.; Didkovsky, L. V.

2009-12-01

210

X-ray spectrometer for observation of nonlinear compton scattering.  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a multilayer device and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector, is designed for measurement of the x-ray energy spectrum and angular distribution from the nonlinear Compton scattering of 60 MeV electron and high power CO{sub 2} laser beams provided by a user facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A Prototype of the spectrometer has constructed and tested using isotropic 8 keV (Cu K{alpha}) x-rays from a sealed x-ray tube.

Kamiya, Y.; Kumita, T.; Siddons, D. P.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Hirose, T.; Washio, M.; Omori, T.; Urakawa, J.; Yokoya, K.; Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.; BNL; Waseda Univ.; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization

2004-01-01

211

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short foc...

R. E. Bell

2004-01-01

212

Infrared Grating Spectrometer for GIRL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A grating spectrometer with medium spectral resolution was developed for the GIRL project (Experiment E3), for the determination of the emission of trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere, and for planetary and astronomical measurements. The spectrom...

D. Offermann, G. Lange, K. Grossmann, P. Knieling

1986-01-01

213

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview  

NASA Video Gallery

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

214

Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

2008-01-01

215

Tunable far infrared laser spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy is reviewed. The development of tunable, coherent FIR radiation sources is discussed. Applications of tunable FIR laser spectrometers for measurement of rotational spectra and dipole moments of molecular ions and free radicals, vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra of weakly bound complexes, and vibration-rotation spectra of linear carbon clusters are presented. A detailed description of the Berkeley tunable FIR laser spectrometers is presented.

Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

1991-01-01

216

Micromechanical shutter based mass spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New shutter systems based on MEMS technology (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) allow to build new types of ultra-low weight mass spectrometers for applications in space. Applications include compact particle velocity filters and the replacement of the conventional carbon foil or secondary electrons emitting start surface used in time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The PRIMA instrument (PRIsma Mass Analyzer), a MEMS shutter based time-of-flight mass

M. Wieser; S. Barabash; M. Emanuelsson; K. Brinkfeldt; P. Enoksson

2009-01-01

217

Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single wavelength band of 8 to 10 m, is based on a focal-plane array of HgCdTe photodetectors that are cooled to an operating temperature of 77 K by use of a closed-Stirling-cycle mechanical cooler. The nonuniformities of the HgCdTe photodetector array are small enough that the raw pixel data from the infrared subsystem can be used to recognize temperature differences on the order of 1 C. By use of a built-in blackbody calibration source that can be switched into the field of view, one can obtain bias and gain offset terms for individual pixels, making it possible to offset the effects of nonuniformities sufficiently to enable the measurement of temperature differences as small as 0.1 C.

Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

2004-01-01

218

Time-resolved doubly bent crystal x-ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectrometer consisted of a doubly curved Si(111) crystal diffraction element, a WL-1201 (ZnO:Ga) phosphor, a coherent fiber optic array, and two visible streak cameras. The spectrometer design described here has a minimum time resolution of 1.3 ns with 2.8 eV spectral resolution over a 200 eV wide bandpass in the 6-7 keV region of the spectrum. Complete system spectral throughput calibrations were done at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron (CHESS). Details of the design and calibration results are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Hockaday, M.P.; Wilke, M.D.; Blake, R.L.; Vaninetti, J.; Gray, N.T.; Nedrow, P.T.

1988-01-01

219

Time-resolved doubly bent crystal x-ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high-temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high-energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectrometer consisted of a doubly curved Si(111) crystal diffraction element, a WL-1201 (ZnO:Ga) phosphor, a coherent fiber-optic array, and two visible streak cameras. The spectrometer design described here has a minimum time resolution of 1.3 ns with 2.8-eV spectral resolution over a 200-eV-wide bandpass in the 6--7-keV region of the spectrum. Complete system spectral throughput calibrations were done at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron (CHESS). Details of the design and calibration results are presented.

Hockaday, M.P.; Wilke, M.D.; Blake, R.L.; Vaninetti, J.; Gray, N.T.; Nedrow, P.T.

1988-08-01

220

WASP: wideband spectrometer for heterodyne spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel wideband spectrometer for astronomical heterodyne spectroscopy. The spectrometer, WASP, has 3250 MHz bandwidth and 33 MHz resolution, a combination well matched to submillimeter spectroscopy of high-redshift objects, interacting galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and planetary atmospheres. The spectrometer is an autocorrelation spectrometer with analog microwave integrated circuit multipliers separated by microstripline transmission line delays. Our prototype spectrometer is compact, requires little power (75 W), and integrates stably for many hours.

Harris, Andrew I.; Isaak, K. G.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

1998-07-01

221

Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main chamber at the inlet end. The inlet assembly is designed to offer improved (relative to prior such assemblies) laminar-flow performance within the main chamber. Dry aerosols are subjected to activation and growth in the supersaturation field. f) After aerosol activation, at the outlet end of the main chamber, a polished stainless-steel probe is used to sample droplets into a laser particle counter. The probe features an improved design for efficient sampling. The counter has six channels with size bins in the range of 0.5- to 5.0-micron diameter. g) To enable efficient sampling, the probe is scanned along the width axis of the main chamber (thereby effecting scanning along the temperature gradient and thereby, further, effecting scanning along the supersaturation gradient) by means of a computer-controlled translation stage.

Leu, Ming-Taun

2010-01-01

222

Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new facility designed to perform calibration measurements of airborne imaging spectrometers was established at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen. This Calibration Home Base (CHB) is optimized to characterize radiometrically, spectrally, and geometrically the APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) imaging spectrometer, which is currently being developed under the authority of the European Space Agency (ESA). It however can be used for other optical sensors as well. Computer control of major laboratory equipment allows automation of time consuming measurements. In APEX configuration (wavelength range: 380 to 2500 nm, instantaneous field of view: 0.48 mrad, field of view: ±14 ?) spectral measurements can be performed to a wavelength uncertainty of ±0.15 nm, geometric measurements at increments of 0.0017 mrad across track and 0.0076 mrad along track, and radiometric measurements to an uncertainty of ±3% relative to national standard. The CHB can be adapted to similar sensors (including those with thermal infrared detectors) by exchanging the monochromator's lamp, the gratings and the filters, and by adjusting the distance between the sensor and folding mirror.

Gege, Peter; Fries, Jochen; Haschberger, Peter; Schötz, Paul; Schwarzer, Horst; Strobl, Peter; Suhr, Birgit; Ulbrich, Gerd; Jan Vreeling, Willem

223

Atmospheric pressure sample inlet for mass spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inlet for a mass spectrometer has been developed for direct sampling of gases over a wide range of pressure (1-760 Torr). The sample inlet is composed of two small orifices that form a pressure reduction region. These orifices are used to limit the flow of sample gas into the mass spectrometer. The pressure inside the pressure reduction region is regulated by a needle valve and a vacuum pump. The flow of gas through the orifices is viscous. The inlet is made of stainless steel and operated at high temperature to prevent surface adsorption and corrosion. Its adaptability to a wide range of pressures is very useful for monitoring process gases during manufacturing processes of microelectronic devices. This inlet can be used for effluent gas analysis at 760 Torr as well as for in situ monitoring of the semiconductor equipment at pressures less than 5 Torr. The inlet provides a fast response to changes in the constituents of gas samples without memory effects. The sample inlet has been tested extensively in the laboratory as well as in field environments.

Dheandhanoo, Seksan; Ciotti, Ralph J.; Ketkar, Suhas N.

2000-12-01

224

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

1995-09-19

225

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01

226

Simulation of bent crystal spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

In crystal spectrometers one traditionally labels each position in the dispersion/recording plane by a single wavelength value. A simple examination of the crystal spectrometers shows that different areas of the crystal contribute different wavelengths at the same position in the recording plane. Using collimators and apertures one may reduce these effects, as well as reduce the collected signal. Convolving the system response, in that case, may not allow simple analytic estimates of the sensitivity/responsivity of the system. A Monte-Carlo ray-trace program was written in order to study and simulate the real geometry including finite source size effects. The results of using the code will be presented, demonstrating the contributions to the resolution and absolute responsivity, for a particular parabolically bent crystal spectrometer.

Kyrala, G.A.

1984-01-01

227

Micromechanical shutter based mass spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New shutter systems based on MEMS technology (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) allow to build new types of ultra-low weight mass spectrometers for applications in space. Applications include compact particle velocity filters and the replacement of the conventional carbon foil or secondary electrons emitting start surface used in time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The PRIMA instrument (PRIsma Mass Analyzer), a MEMS shutter based time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on the Solar WInd Monitor (SWIM) sensor developed for the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission, will be used for flight-verification of the MEMS shutter technique. We review the expected performance of this instrument. The PRIMA instrument will be launched on the Swedish Space Corporation's PRISMA satellite in 2008/2009.

Wieser, M.; Barabash, S.; Emanuelsson, M.; Brinkfeldt, K.; Enoksson, P.

2009-06-01

228

An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

Wong, Wallace K.

1995-01-01

229

OPENCORE NMR: Open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments.

Takeda, Kazuyuki

2008-06-01

230

Hadron Spectroscopy at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Recent results on hadron spectroscopy from Jefferson Laboratory's CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) are presented. In particular we present results from the baryon resonance program for both electro- and photo- production. Also, we present very preliminary results on meson spectroscopy in p interactions, and new results on the observation of the exotic baryon, the Theta +.

Dennis P. Weygand

2004-08-01

231

Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express) and VIR (on DAWN).

de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

232

Fieldable Fourier transform spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared sensors group at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. To support these vital missions, PNNL is developing frequency-modulation techniques for remote probing over long optical paths by means of differential-absorption light detecting and ranging (LIDAR). This technique can easily monitor large areas, or volumes, that could only be accomplished with a large network of point sensors. Recently, PNNL began development of a rugged frequency-modulation differential-abosrption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system to conduct field experiments. To provide environmentla protection for the system and facilitate field deployments and operations, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and acquired. The trailer was outfitted with a shock-mounted optical bench, an electronics rack, a liquid nitrogen Dewar, and a power generator. A computer-controlled gimbal-mounted mirror was added to allow the telescope beam to be accurately pointed in both the vertical and horizontal plane. This turned out to be the most complicated addition, and is described in detail. This paper provides an overview of the FM-DIAL system and illustrates innovative solutions developed to overcome several alignment and stability issues encountered in the field.

Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

2004-10-01

233

A high-throughput neutron spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

2010-03-01

234

JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

1994-01-01

235

A cometary ion mass spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

1984-01-01

236

Miniature Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major advances must occur to protect astronauts from prolonged periods in near-zero gravity and high radiation associated with extended space travel. The dangers of living in space must be thoroughly understood and methods developed to reverse those effects that cannot be avoided. Six of the seven research teams established by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) are studying biomedical factors for prolonged space travel to deliver effective countermeasures. To develop effective countermeasures, each of these teams require identification of and quantitation of complex pharmacological, hormonal, and growth factor compounds (biomarkers) in humans and in experimental animals to develop an in-depth knowledge of the physiological changes associated with space travel. At present, identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol. Many of these procedures are complicated and the identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol and associated laboratory equipment. To carry all of this equipment and chemicals on a spacecraft would require a complex clinical laboratory; and it would occupy much of the astronauts time. What is needed is a small, efficient, broadband medical diagnostic instrument to rapidly identify important biomarkers for human space exploration. The Miniature Time-Of- Flight Mass Spectrometer Project in the Technology Development Team is developing a small, high resolution, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to quantitatively measure biomarkers for human space exploration. Virtues of the JHU/APL TOFMS technologies reside in the promise for a small (less than one cubic ft), lightweight (less than 5 kg), low-power (less than 50 watts), rugged device that can be used continuously with advanced signal processing diagnostics. To date, the JHU/APL program has demonstrated mass capability from under 100 to beyond 10,000 atomic mass units (amu) in a very small, low power prototype for biological analysis. Further, the electronic nature of the TOFMS output makes it ideal for rapid telemetry to earth for in-depth analysis by ground support teams.

Potember, Richard S.

1999-01-01

237

An absolute calibration source for laboratory and satellite infrared spectrometers.  

PubMed

A compact blackbody source with an operating range of -40 degrees C to + 60 degrees C, utilizing thermoelectric heat pumping for uniform and stable temperature control, has been developed. The blackbody radiator (target) consists of a blackened honeycomb cavity array coupled to four matched, two-stage (cascade type) thermoelectric modules. This array, located within a temperature-regulated baffle system, produces a blackbody of high emissivity (>0.995) with small thermal gradients over the source area (65 cm(2)). Heat pumping of the target and baffles is controlled, independently, by two interference-free, proportional regulators which provide linear thermal control in both the heating and cooling modes of operation. Additional features of this blackbody source include excellent stability and rapid response to input temperature changes. Provisions are made for temperature monitoring at five locations on the target and at the center of each of the four baffle units. Performance characteristics and test results obtained in nonabsorbing atmospheres and under vacuum conditions are presented, as are the details of construction and operation. PMID:20062159

Karoli, A R; Hickey, J R; Nelson, R E

1967-07-01

238

Preliminary design and development of a reflectance spectrometer instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design for the reflectance spectrometer is described to be used on various terrestrial body missions. These improvements were made on the original Lunar Polar Orbiter design. These include a larger entrance mirror, rectangular aperture, multiple optical beams, spatial resolution, and a bandwidth extension to 5 microns. In addition, detailed electronic designs were produced for a charge amplifier and an amplifier/demodulator/integrator. Design of a microprocessor driven test system was begun. Laboratory tests were performed on a tuning fork chopper.

Mccord, T. B.

1979-01-01

239

A compact photon-correlation spectrometer for research and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact photon-correlation spectrometer for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, engineering,\\u000a and environmental technology as well as for educational laboratory courses in these subjects has been developed. The instrumental\\u000a setup enables one to make absolute measurements of the sizes of particles suspended in liquids in the range from 0.001 to\\u000a 5 ?m. The measurements are fast,

I. K. Yudin; G. L. Nikolaenko; V. I. Kosov; V. A. Agayan; M. A. Anisimov; J. V. Sengers

1997-01-01

240

Radiation dosimetry with an electron spin resonance spectrometer.  

PubMed

Radiation dosimetry was undertaken using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer in students' laboratory work. Sugar was used as a dosimeter element and irradiated with both an X-ray generator (34 kVp, 8 mA) and a 60Co sealed source (3.7 MBq). The ESR system detects unpaired electrons created by the ionizing radiation. The lowest detection limit of the absorption dose was 20 Gy. PMID:7988981

Kobayashi, T; Takaku, Y

1994-06-01

241

Slitless Intensified Readout Gated Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spectrometer has been developed to meet the requirements of the x-ray laser effort at LLNL. The instrument takes advantage of the intrinsically small divergence and size of the lasing source by putting it, the grating and the detector on the Rowland cir...

M. Gerassimenko

1986-01-01

242

Time of flight mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

Ulbricht, Jr., William H. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-01

243

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jupiter atmosphere's constituents, including their vertical variations, will be measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer instrument through in situ sampling; batch sampling will also be undertaken for noble gas composition and isotopic ratio determinations. The instrument's gas-sampling system is connected to a quadrupole mass analyzer for molecular weight analysis. Threshold values are

H. B. Niemann; D. N. Harpold; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen

1992-01-01

244

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) is a Probe instrument designed to measure the chemical and isotopic composition including vertical variations of the constituents in the atmosphere of Jupiter. The measurement will be performed by in situ sampling of the ambient atmosphere in the pressure range from approximately 150 mbar to 20 bar. In addition batch sampling will be performed

H. B. Niemann; D. N. Harpold; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen

1992-01-01

245

The GRAD gamma ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A gamma-ray spectrometer for an upcoming space shuttle mission is described. Consisting of a 150 cm/sup 3/ n-type germanium detector set inside active shielding of bismuth germanate and plastic scintillator, the instrument will be used in studies of the Orbiter background and the galactic center.

Rester, A.C.; Piercey, R.B.; Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R.L.; McKisson, J.M.; Ely, D.W.; Mann, H.M.; Jenkins, D.A.

1986-02-01

246

Alpha proton x ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

1994-01-01

247

Multiple Grating Spectrometer Resolving Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resolution for multiple grating spectrometers is obtained using the transfer function formalism. It is shown that the limiting resolving power for a system of n equal gratings in additive dispersion lambda/Delta lambda sub g (n) is overestimated by pr...

V. Mazzacurati, G. Ruocco, G. Signorelli

1988-01-01

248

Balloon-Borne Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A balloon-borne, 0.5-m, Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer has been designed and constructed at the University of Denver and has measured atmospheric transmittance in several spectral regions between 2 micron and 14 micron. These data have been obtained o...

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams

1966-01-01

249

A simple digital TDPAC spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simplified digital time differential perturbed ? - ? angular correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer that demonstrates that such instruments can be built using primarily commercial components and with relatively modest coding effort. The system handles data rates of 70 kcps/detector with a timing resolution of better than 500 ps, and has been used with both 111In and 181Hf.

Webb, T. A.; Nikkinen, Leo; Gallego, Juan; Ryan, D. H.

2013-05-01

250

Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

1990-01-01

251

Inventory Control: Multiport Student Spectrometer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element or compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen. Included is a list of materials, directions for assembly, and procedures for use. (CW)

Bishop, Carl B.

1989-01-01

252

New Crystal Spectrometer for Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new feature of the spectrometer is the monochromator unit, which contains two parallel reflecting copper crystals and delivers a beam of monoenergetic neutrons through a fixed collimator which is parallel to the incident beam from the reactor. About half the neutrons reflected by the first crystal are reflected by the second crystal, though the fraction declines at the upper

R. Stedman; L. Almqvist; G. Raunio; G. Nilsson

1969-01-01

253

Applications of multichannel imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The described system applies advanced Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings to provide a high-performance, line imaging / multichannel spectrometer. Specifically designed optics produces spectrally dispersed image of the input slit on a two dimensional array of photodetectors in such a way that the full width, half maximum (FWHM) of monochromatic image of each point of the slit is not larger than a single pixel at the detector end. Correcting for aberrations typical to most other multichannel spectrometers allows for the creation of an instrument with very high spatial and spectral resolutions. Appropriate selection of collection fibers arranged along an entrance slit of the spectrometer renders the system into a multichannel spectrometer, where the number of channels is determined by the number of fibers within an 8mm long slit and their separation. The superior performance of the instrument opens the door to numerous applications in technical and biomedical research, process control, homeland security and other application where high performance and/or simultaneous spectral measurement of UV/VIS/NIR radiation produced at multiple sites is required.

Pawluczyk, Olga; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2004-10-01

254

Applications of multichannel imaging spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The described system applies advanced Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings to provide a high-performance, line imaging \\/ multichannel spectrometer. Specifically designed optics produces spectrally dispersed image of the input slit on a two dimensional array of photodetectors in such a way that the full width, half maximum (FWHM) of monochromatic image of each point of the slit is not

Olga Pawluczyk; Romuald Pawluczyk

2004-01-01

255

Twin-Etalon Scanning Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A twin-etalon scanning spectrometer is disclosed that provides high luminosity and high resolution. The etalons are positioned in spaced relationship with respect to one another in series in the path of an emission light source. With identical etalons so ...

G. J. Hernandez

1982-01-01

256

Noble gas abundance and isotope ratios in the atmosphere of Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer provided the first data on the noble gas mixing and isotope ratios in the Jovian atmosphere. These measurements and the comparison with solar values constrain models of Jupiter's formation. Significant refinements to the initially reported abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon have been enabled through post-encounter laboratory calibrations using a refurbished engineering unit mass spectrometer

P. R. Mahaffy; H. B. Niemann; A. Alpert; S. K. Atreya; J. Demick; T. M. Donahue; D. N. Harpold; T. C. Owen

2000-01-01

257

Characterization of a thermal decomposition chemical ionization mass spectrometer for the measurement of peroxy acyl nitrates (PANs) in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a detailed laboratory characterization of a thermal dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometer (TD-CIMS) for the atmospheric measurement of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and its homologues (PANs). PANs are efficiently dissociated in a heated inlet and the resulting peroxy acyl radicals are reacted with I- ions in a flow tube. The mass spectrometer detects the corresponding carboxylate ions. PAN,

W. Zheng; F. M. Flocke; G. S. Tyndall; A. Swanson; J. J. Orlando; J. M. Roberts; L. G. Huey; D. J. Tanner

2011-01-01

258

Analysis of static coded aperture imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning and interference imaging spectrometer are widely used in earth observing, microscope imaging, etc. Motion mechanisms are utilized in all these simple imaging spectrometers, which make the system big, expensive and unstable. A novel static non-imaging spectrometer is introduced specifically. 2D (two-dimension) static multi-channel spectral measurement is realized in this spectrometer, utilizing 2D hadamard matrix code mask and 2D detector. The hadamard matrix is different from traditional S circular code. The orthogonal property of hadamard matrix is utilized, and with special transform negative codes in hadamard matrix are also realized. Basing on this non-imaging spectrometer static imaging spectrometer is developed. First 2D imaging spectrometer can be divided into many 1D ones which work independently. The 1D imaging spectrometer is obtained with position information added into the hadamard coding system in dispersive direction. To get 2D imaging spectrometer, extend the coded aperture: put some masks together in non-dispersive direction. According to this model, the spectrum of an image instead of a slit can be estimated at one time. The optical system is designed to simulate the imaging spectrometer. Compared to the simple scanning imaging spectrometer the simulated result shows the model's resolution can be compared to simple scanning spectrometer, but the scanning time of simple scanning imaging spectrometer is about 3 times of our simulation. At last some implementation issues are mentioned.

Gong, Xingzhi; Cheng, Liang; Ye, Zi; Yu, Feihong

2008-03-01

259

Satellite Spectrometer. Phase II. Balloon Flight Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Weather Bureau in co-operation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has undertaken a program directed toward the development of a Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS). The spectrometer will accurately measure the inte...

H. Breindel J. E. Moorhead

1964-01-01

260

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two advanced prototype mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes were evaluated. One, a VG-Isotopes GAZAB, was developed for the Mass Spectrometer Technical Group, a group representing ten DOE contractors. The other...

P. Chastagner

1984-01-01

261

LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of mu...

D. Aston N. Awaji B. Barnett T. Bienz R. Bierce

1986-01-01

262

Programmable alpha -Spectrometer for Radiochemical Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The description of a programmable alpha -spectrometer developed on the base of an immersed spectrometric surface-barrier detector and the 15 VSM-5 microcomputer is given. Possibilities of spectrometer application for studying Am and Cm behaviour on the AH...

V. V. Pevtsov N. I. Pushkarskii Y. V. Efremov V. D. Loginov V. I. Shipilov

1980-01-01

263

Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

Gleeson, P.

1972-01-01

264

Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

2008-03-04

265

Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

Srivastava, Santosh K.

1989-01-01

266

Modeling of Dose Distribution for a Proton Beam Delivering System with the use of the Multi-Particle Transport Code 'Fluka'  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new delivering system for hadron therapy which uses a multileaf collimator and a range shifter. We simulate our delivering beam system with the multi-particle transport code 'Fluka'. From these simulations we obtained information about the dose distributions, about stars generated in the delivering system elements and also information about the neutron flux. All the informations obtained were analyzed from the point of view of radiation protection, homogeneity of beam delivery to patient body, and also in order to improve some modifiers used.

Mumot, Marta [Medico-Technical Complex of Laboratory for Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie Str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Department of Medical Physic, Great Poland Cancer Center, 15 Garbary Str., 61-866 Poznan (Poland); Agapov, Alexey [Medico-Technical Complex of Laboratory for Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie Str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2007-11-26

267

A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and

G. C. Smith; G. J. Mahler; B. Yu; C. Salwen; W. R. Kane; J. R. Lemley

1996-01-01

268

A space time-of-flight mass spectrometer for exobiologically-oriented applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed and constructed as a laboratory model of the ‘COSAC’ project of the ‘ROSETTA’ mission cometary study. This miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF\\/MS) comprises of four electric sectors and eight electric quadrupole lenses, and it was demonstrated that mass resolution can increase according to the number of cycles of the ions

T. Matsuo; M. Ishihara; M. Toyoda; H. Ito; S. Yamaguchi; R. Roll; H. Rosenbauer

1999-01-01

269

?-rays induced background in ultra low level counting with Ge spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background spectra of several Ge spectrometers have been recorded in a deep underground laboratory located in the Frejus tunnel. The results show that an ? ray induced background from the 210Pb decay is observed. A possible explanation could be related to the adsorption of the Rn gas on the surfaces of the Ge crystal and/or other parts during the assembly of the spectrometer.

Hubert, Ph.; Dassié, D.; Larrieu, P.; Leccia, F.; Mennrath, P.; Chevallier, J.; Chevallier, A.; Henck, R.; Gutknecht, D.; Morales, A.; Nunez-Lagoz, R.; Morales, J.; Villar, J. A.

1986-11-01

270

The SAGE spectrometer: A tool for combined in-beam ?-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAGE spectrometer allows simultaneous in-beam ?-ray and internal conversion electron measurements, by combining a germanium detector array with a highly segmented silicon detector and an electron transport system. SAGE is coupled with the ritu gas-filled recoil separator and the great focal-plane spectrometer for recoil-decay tagging studies. Digital electronics are used both for the ? ray and the electron parts of the spectrometer. SAGE was commissioned in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä in the beginning of 2010.

Papadakis, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Pakarinen, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Sorri, J.; Butler, P. A.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cox, D.; Cresswell, J. R.; Hauschild, K.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Lazarus, I. H.; Letts, S. C.; Parr, E.; Peura, P.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rahkila, P.; Sampson, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Seddon, D. A.; Simpson, J.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.

2011-09-01

271

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size

Chrisp; Michael P

2006-01-01

272

Lessons learned with the SAGE spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAGE spectrometer combines a high-efficiency ?-ray detection system with an electron spectrometer. Some of the design features have been known to be problematic and surprises have come up during the early implementation of the spectrometer. Tests related to bismuth germanate Compton-suppression shields, electron detection efficiency and an improved cooling system are discussed in the paper.

Sorri, J.; Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R. D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Uusitalo, J.

2012-05-01

273

LISE++ : design your own spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The program LISE is designed to predict intensities and purities for the planning of future experiments with in-flight separators, as well as for beam tuning during experiments where its results can be quickly compared to on-line data. LISE++ is the new generation of the LISE code, which allows the creation of a spectrometer through the use of different sections (dispersive section, velocity filter, electrostatic separator and gas-filled separator ...) called "blocks". The code has an improved interface, new utilities, and a spectrometer schematics which allows a quick editing of blocks. The code can be freely downloaded from the following sites: http://www.nscl.msu.edu/lise or http://dnr080.jinr.ru/lise.

Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

2004-12-01

274

Exploiting a transmission grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2004-10-01

275

Temporal Dispersion of a Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The temporal dispersion of an optical spectrometer has been characterized for a variety of conditions related to optical diagnostics to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (e.g., Full-Aperture Backscatter Station, Thomson Scattering). Significant time smear is introduced into these systems by the path length difference through the spectrometer. The temporal resolution can be calculated to depend only on the order of the grating, wavelength, and the number of grooves illuminated. To enhance the temporal dispersion, the spectral gratings can be masked limiting the number of grooves illuminated. Experiments have been conducted to verify these calculations. The size and shape of masks are investigated and correlated to the exact shape of the temporal instrument function, which is required when interpreting temporally resolved data. The experiments used a 300fs laser pulse and a picosecond optical streak camera to determine the temporal dispersion. This was done for multiple spectral orders, gratings, and optical masks.

Visco, A; Drake, R P; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H

2008-05-08

276

Imaging X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (inventors)

1984-01-01

277

Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR) program will place Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) instrumentation on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes spacecraft and is to measure the inner Van Allen belt protons with energies from 50 MeV to 2 GeV. Presently, the intensity of trapped protons with energies beyond about 150 MeV is not well known and thought to be underestimated in existing specification models. Such protons are known to pose a number of hazards to astronauts and spacecraft; including total ionizing dose, displacement damage, single event effects, and nuclear activation. This instrument will address a priority highly ranked by the scientific and technical community and will extend the measurement capability of this mission to a range beyond that originally planned.

Groves, C.; Selesnick, R. S.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; O'Brien, T. P.; Friesen, L. M.; Katz, N.; Kolasinski, W. A.; Looper, M. D.

2006-12-01

278

Holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer.  

PubMed

We propose a spectrum analyzer based on the properties of a hologram recorded with the field transmitted by a Fabry-Perot etalon. The spectral response of this holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer (HFPS) is analytically investigated in the paraxial approximation and compared with a conventional Fabry-Perot etalon of similar characteristics. We demonstrate that the resolving power is twice increased and the free spectral range (FSR) is reduced to one-half. The proposed spectrometer could improve the operational performance of the etalon because it can exhibit high efficiency and it would be insensible to environmental conditions such as temperature and vibrations. Our analysis also extends to another variant of the HFPS based on holographic multiplexing of the transmitted field of a Fabry-Perot etalon. This device increases the FSR, keeping the same HFPS performance. PMID:21326457

Martínez-Matos, O; Rodrigo, José A; Vaveliuk, P; Calvo, M L

2011-02-15

279

Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments in gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the geochemical composition of the lunar surface are reported. The theory is discussed of discrete energy lines of natural radioactivity, and the lines resulting from the bombardment of the lunar surface by high energy cosmic rays. The gamma-ray spectrometer used in lunar orbit and during transearth coast is described, and a preliminary analysis of the results is presented.

Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

1972-01-01

280

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65srm2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A “scaled-down” version has been flown on the Space Shuttle

J. Alcaraz; B. Alpat; G. Ambrosi; H. Anderhub; L. Ao; A. Arefiev; P. Azzarello; E. Babucci; L. Baldini; M. Basile; D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; R. Battiston; R. Becker; U. Becker; L. Bellagamba; P. Bene; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; A. Biland; S. Bizzaglia; S. Blasko; G. Boella; M. Boschini; M. Bourquin; L. Brocco; G. Bruni; M. Buenerd; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; C. Camps; P. Cannarsa; M. Capell; D. Casadei; J. Casaus; G. Castellini; C. Cecchi; Y. H. Chang; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; Z. G. Chen; N. A. Chernoplekov; T. H. Chiueh; Y. L. Chuang; F. Cindolo; V. Commichau; A. Contin; P. Crespo; M. Cristinziani; J. P. da Cunha; T. S. Dai; J. D. Deus; N. Dinu; L. Djambazov; I. DAntone; Z. R. Dong; P. Emonet; J. Engelberg; F. J. Eppling; T. Eronen; G. Esposito; P. Extermann; J. Favier; E. Fiandrini; P. H. Fisher; G. Fluegge; N. Fouque; Yu. Galaktionov; M. Gervasi; P. Giusti; D. Grandi; O. Grimm; W. Q. Gu; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; V. Hermel; H. Hofer; M. A. Huang; W. Hungerford; M. Ionica; R. Ionica; M. Jongmanns; K. Karlamaa; W. Karpinski; G. Kenney; J. Kenny; W. Kim; A. Klimentov; R. Kossakowski; V. Koutsenko; M. Kraeber; G. Laborie; T. Laitinen; G. Lamanna; G. Laurenti; A. Lebedev; S. C. Lee; G. Levi; P. Levtchenko; C. L. Liu; H. T. Liu; I. Lopes; G. Lu; Y. S. Lu; K. Lübelsmeyer; D. Luckey; W. Lustermann; A. Margotti; F. Mayet; R. R. McNeil; B. Meillon; M. Menichelli; A. Mihul; A. Mourao; A. Mujunen; F. Palmonari; A. Papi; I. H. Park; M. Pauluzzi; F. Pauss; E. Perrin; A. Pesci; A. Pevsner; M. Pimenta; V. Plyaskin; V. Pojidaev; V. Postolache; N. Produit; P. G. Rancoita; D. Rapin; F. Raupach; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Ribordy; J. P. Richeux; E. Riihonen; J. Ritakari; U. Roeser; C. Roissin; R. Sagdeev; G. Sartorelli; A. Schultz von Dratzig; G. Schwering; G. Scolieri; E. S. Seo; V. Shoutko; E. Shoumilov; R. Siedling; D. Son; T. Song; M. Steuer; G. S. Sun; H. Suter; X. W. Tang; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; M. Tornikoski; J. Torsti; J. Tr umper; J. Ulbricht; S. Urpo; I. Usoskin; E. Valtonen; J. Vandenhirtz; F. Velcea; E. Velikhov; B. Verlaat; I. Vetlitsky; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle; G. Viertel; D. Vite; H. Von Gunten; S. Waldmeier Wicki; W. Wallraff; B. C. Wang; J. Z. Wang; Y. H. Wang; K. Wiik; C. Williams; S. X. Wu; P. C. Xia; J. L. Yan; L. G. Yan; C. G. Yang; M. Yang; S. W. Ye; P. Yeh; Z. Z. Xu; H. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; W. Z. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann

2002-01-01

281

Heavy-ion-spectrometer system  

SciTech Connect

LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

Not Available

1982-05-01

282

Laser diode array downhole spectrometer  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Apparatus and method for downhole formation testing using a spectrometer includes a carrier conveyable into a well borehole that traverses a subterranean formation of interest, a plurality of semiconductor light sources disposed on the carrier, a fluid sample cell that receives light emitted from the plurality of semiconductor light sources, and at least one photodetector that detects light emitted from the plurality of semiconductor light sources and after the light interacts with a fluid in the fluid sample cell.

2010-08-24

283

Photoconductive frequency-resolved spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of recombination lifetimes and kinetics is an essential part of the analysis of recombination mechanisms in semiconductors. The fundamental differences between the experimental techniques, which are used for, frequency- resolved and for time-resolved spectroscopy are present in this paper. A photoconductive frequency-resolved spectrometer (PCFRS) for carrier lifetime determination in semiconductor is described. The PCFRS uses a super-bright light

Ioan Burda; Simion Simon; Gheorghe Cristea; Georgeta Cerbanic; Lavinia Cociu; Mihai Todica

2000-01-01

284

Acousto-optical spectrometer for spaceborne application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acousto optical spectrometers (AOS) have become an attractive alternative to filterbanks or autocorrelators for applications in radioastronomy and in heterodyne as well as in laboratory spectroscopy. Due to continuous improvements, AOSs have now achieved a performance and reliability level that makes this technology applicable for airborne or spaceborne missions. A first fully space qualified AOS was built at the University of Cologne for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) to be launched in fall 1995. The SWAS-AOS has a large bandwidth of 1.4 GHz covered by 1365 channels, with a center frequency of 2.1 GHz. Only 11 mW rf white noise input power is required for simultaneous saturation of all channels. The design is optimized for very high stability and allows operation within a temperature range from minus 5 to plus 30 degrees Celsius at temperature variations of up to 2 degrees Celsius/hour. The total weight is 7.2 kg including electronics, the power consumption is 5.4 watts including data pre-averaging electronics and dc-dc converter losses. The performance was verified also after complete vibrational and thermal vacuum environmental testing. For future projects with large bandwidth requirements or with multichannel systems the AOS technology can also be used to fabricate array spectrometers. Such array AOS offers the unique option to multiply the available bandwidth without multiplying the hardware accordingly. Especially for spaceborne applications this is an extremely useful development because weight, power consumption as well as costs increase only very moderately. At present the first prototype with four independent 1 GHz channels is in development. This array AOS will have a total bandwidth of 4 GHz covered by 4000 channels, and will be available in 1996.

Klumb, Markus; Frerick, J.; Horn, J.; Schieder, Rudolf; Winnewisser, Gisbert F.

1995-12-01

285

The ISOMAX Magnetic Rigidity Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Isotope Magnet Experiment, (ISOMAX), is a balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer with a time-of-flight system and aerogel Cherenkov counters. Its purpose is to measure the isotopic composition of the light elements (3 < Z < 8) in the cosmic radiation. Particle mass is derived from a velocity vs. magnetic rigidity (momentum/charge) technique. The experiment had its first flight in August 1998. The precision magnetic spectrometer uses advanced drift-chamber tracking and a large, high-field, superconducting magnet. The drift-chamber system consists of three chambers with 24 layers of hexagonal drift cells (16 bending, 8 non-bending) and a vertical extent of 1.4 m. Pure CO2 gas is used. The magnet is a split-pair design with 79 cm diameter coils and a separation of 80 cm. During the 1998 flight, the central field was 0.8 T (60% of the full design field). Presented are results from flight data, for a range of incident particle Z, on the spatial resolution and efficiency of the tracking system, and on the maximum detectable rigidity (MDR) of the spectrometer. For in-flight data, spatial resolutions of 54 mm for Z=2 and 45 mm for Z=4 are obtained. An MDR of 970 GV/c is achieved for Z=2.

Hams, Thomas

1999-08-01

286

Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).  

SciTech Connect

The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time-of-flightTOFtime-of-flight4

Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

2005-10-01

287

Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).  

SciTech Connect

The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

2005-07-01

288

The hydrodynamics of single- and multi-particle fluidized beds: Steady and time-dependent flow regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical framework for modeling the steady state and dynamic behavior of multi-particle fluidized beds was developed using a continuum approach. Constitutive relations were adopted for closing the multi-phase equations using an excluded volume approach. The hydrodynamics of various fluidized beds of binary particles (having different diameters and densities) was examined, and steady state solutions were found for a system of (small & heavy) glass beads and (large & light) carbon char in water. Solutions characterize the composition and expansion behavior of mixing states, and provide a description of the observed phenomenon of "layer inversion". Comparison with experimental data suggested that the hydrodynamic mechanism of fluid-particle interaction is not fully captured with an excluded volume assumption. Thus, we showed how experimental data can be used to derive functional forms for expressing complex hydrodynamic behavior within the framework of the model. Steady state results suggest that fluidized particles might exhibit different patterns of behavior if the direction of fluid flow was reversed. We thus examined the stability of single-component systems, operating in inverse and normal mode, and computed one-dimensional traveling wave solutions. Beds having reciprocal fluid to solid density ratios delta were compared to investigate how delta and the dimensionless Froude (Fr) number affect stability behavior and bifurcation structure. The Fr number appeared to be a good indicator of the strength of primary instabilities, and delta appeared to control the onset of the instability. High amplitude, one-dimensional traveling wave solutions exhibited reversed asymmetry of wave structure, and vertically traveling waves always propagated in the direction of fluid flow. The hydrodynamic stability of binary mixtures was examined to determine if mixtures are inherently more stable than their segregated counterparts. In a linear stability analysis, mixed beds of glass and carbon were always more stable than a (single-component) bed of glass, and always less stable than a (single-component) bed of carbon. Moreover, an increase in fluid velocity corresponded to an increase in carbon content in the mixture, resulting in a more stable mixture. These results suggest that the presence of the larger & lighter species serves to stabilize the mixed bed.

Howley, Maureen Ann

289

GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by 40K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., 238U,232Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., 137Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

Sartini, Ludovica; Simeone, Francesco; Pani, Priscilla; Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta; Grubich, Andry; Lobko, Alexander; Etiope, Giuseppe; Capone, Antonio; Favali, Paolo; Gasparoni, Francesco; Bruni, Federico

2011-01-01

290

An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

1985-01-01

291

Indigenous development of static laser light scattering (SLS) spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An indigenous laser light scattering spectrometer is being developed for the studies of biological cells, macromolecules and their interactions. A laboratory spectrometer is used and modified as scattering arm, Turn Table and Collimating arm. Both the arms have polarizers, one acting as polarizer and the other as analyzer. The scattered light from the scattering cell is analyzed by an analyzer and is fed to a PMT and a photon counting module. Except for the PMT all the accessories are being fabricated indigenously. The studies are based initially on the studies of red blood cells. Studies are focused on for their single particle and their aggregation behavior. Using the ORT program developed by Otto Glatter the morphology of red blood cells will be analyzed.

Joseph, David; Kumar, Amit

2013-02-01

292

Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

Brinckerhoff, William

2008-01-01

293

Bulletin of the Electrotechnical Laboratory, Vol. 54, No. 2, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents; Neuroscientific Studies which Should be Performed at Electrotechnical Laboratory-Biophysics of Nerve Excitation; UHV-STM System for Investigation of Compound Semiconductors; A Computer-Controlled Mass Spectrometer for Pursuit of Photochemical Pr...

1990-01-01

294

Ultra low radioactivity measurements in the Frejus Underground Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the performances of the low background Ge spectrometer, a long term program of low activity material selection and control is being carried out in the Frejus Underground Laboratory. The low background Ge detector and the measurement procedure is des...

D. Dassie F. Huhert P. Hubert M. C. Isaac C. Izac

1991-01-01

295

Wide-range CCD spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

1996-08-01

296

Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1985-01-01

297

Adaptive imaging spectrometers in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term `adaptive imaging spectrometer' is taken to imply that the instrumental characteristics can be adapted via purely electronic means to provide significantly altered observational capabilities. The paper demonstrates selected characteristics of the acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) that include simultaneous acquisition of orthogonally polarized spectral images at high spatial resolution of transmittance (greater than 75 percent), polarization contrast between the orthogonally polarized images of over 10,000, permitting accurate measurement of the polarization parameters of incident light, operation of the AOTF as a no-moving parts shutter with a contrast of about 10000 on a submillisecond time scale and electronic control of the pass band.

Smith, Wm. H.

298

Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.

Schindler, R. A.

1986-01-01

299

MODIS: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The first NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite, Terra, was launched on December 18, 1999, carrying five remote sensors. The most comprehensive EOS sensor is MODIS which offers a unique combination of features: it detects a wide spectral range of electromagnetic energy; it takes measurements at three spatial resolutions (levels of detail); it takes measurements all day, every day; and it has a wide field of view. This continual, comprehensive coverage allows MODIS to complete an electromagnetic picture of the globe every two days.

2002-01-01

300

FPGA based pulsed NQR spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An NQR spectrometer for the frequency range of 1 MHz to 5 MHZ has been designed constructed and tested using an FPGA module. Consisting of four modules viz. Transmitter, Probe, Receiver and computer controlled (FPGA & Software) module containing frequency synthesizer, pulse programmer, mixer, detection and display, the instrument is capable of exciting nuclei with a power of 200W and can detect signal of a few microvolts in strength. 14N signal from NaNO2 has been observed with the expected signal strength.

Hemnani, Preeti; Rajarajan, A. K.; Joshi, Gopal; Motiwala, Paresh D.; Ravindranath, S. V. G.

2014-04-01

301

Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

1972-01-01

302

Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site depicts the work of the University of Oxford's Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory in the experimental and theoretical aspects of catalytic systems, bioinorganic, co-ordination, organometallic, structural, surface, and solid state chemistry. The site provides a brief summary of the early professors of the department including Oddling who formulated the periodic table, and two noble prize winners, Soddy and Hinshelwood. Students and educators can discover the exciting research endeavors taken on by the twenty academic staff and over one hundred postdoctoral workers, graduate students, Part II chemists, and other academic visitors. The site also describes the instrumentation used at the laboratory including NMR, CMX, and CI/FI spectrometers and various diffractometers.

303

Imaging spectrometer/camera having convex grating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An imaging spectrometer has fore-optics coupled to a spectral resolving system with an entrance slit extending in a first direction at an imaging location of the fore-optics for receiving the image, a convex diffraction grating for separating the image into a plurality of spectra of predetermined wavelength ranges; a spectrometer array for detecting the spectra; and at least one concave sperical mirror concentric with the diffraction grating for relaying the image from the entrance slit to the diffraction grating and from the diffraction grating to the spectrometer array. In one embodiment, the spectrometer is configured in a lateral mode in which the entrance slit and the spectrometer array are displaced laterally on opposite sides of the diffraction grating in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction. In another embodiment, the spectrometer is combined with a polychromatic imaging camera array disposed adjacent said entrance slit for recording said image.

Reininger, Francis M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

304

Engine spectrometer probe and method of use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

305

Lunar mass spectrometer test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures are described along with results obtained in a test program conducted to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The subject instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer and an off axis electron multiplier ion counting detector. The major program emphasis was placed on demonstrating instrument resolution, sensitivity and S/N ratio over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 13th power torr. Ultrahigh vacuum tests were conducted and the minimum detectable partial pressure for neon, argon, krypton and xenon was successfully determined for the spectrometer using isotopes of these gases. With the exception of neon, the minimum detectable partial pressure is approximately 4 x 10 to the minus 14th power torr for the above gases.

Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

1972-01-01

306

Pupil aberrations in Offner spectrometers.  

PubMed

The light path function (LPF) of an Offner spectrometer is presented. The evaluation of the LPF of this spectrometer enables its imaging properties to be studied for arbitrary object and image positions, while avoiding the more complicated analysis of intermediate images generated by the diffraction grating, which is often involved. A power series expansion of the LPF on the grating coordinates directly determines pupil aberrations of the generated spectrum and facilitates the search for configurations with small low-order aberrations. This analysis not only confirms the possibility of reducing low-order aberrations in Rowland-type mounts, namely astigmatism and coma, as predicted in previous studies, but also proves that all third-order terms in the series expansion of the aberration function can be canceled at the image of the design point and for the corresponding design wavelength, when the design point is located on a plane orthogonal to the optical axis. Furthermore, fourth-order terms are computed and shown to represent the most relevant contribution to image blurring. Third- and fourth-order aberrations are also evaluated for Rowland mounts with the design point located outside the aforementioned plane. The study described in this manuscript is not restricted to small angles of incidence, and, therefore, it goes beyond Seidel and Buchdahl aberrations. PMID:22472819

González-Núñez, Héctor; Prieto-Blanco, Xesús; de la Fuente, Raúl

2012-04-01

307

Automated mass spectrometer analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

308

Macromolecular ion accelerator mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

We present a newly developed macromolecular ion accelerator mass spectrometer that combines a dual-ion-trap device and a macromolecular ion accelerator (MIA) to achieve the capability of analyzing samples with a mixture of large biomolecules. MIA greatly increases detection efficiency. The dual ion trap includes a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and a linear ion trap (LIT) in tandem. The dual ion trap is mounted ahead of the MIA. The QIT is used to store multiple species, and the LIT is employed to capture the ions that are sequentially ejected out of the QIT. Subsequent to their capture, the ions inside of the LIT are extracted and transferred to the MIA. The synchronization between the QIT and MIA is bridged by the LIT. A sample containing a mixture of several large biomolecules was employed to examine the performance of this new type of mass spectrometer. The result reveals that larger biomolecules show a comparable signal to smaller biomolecules, even though the mixture contains equal quantities of each type of protein. The overall assembly produces a nearly constant detection efficiency over a broad mass range. Thus, this device provides an alternative platform to analyze complex large-protein mixtures. PMID:24171190

Hsu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Jung-Lee; Chu, Ming-Lee; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-11-12

309

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09

310

[Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].  

PubMed

Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

2011-10-01

311

Miniature imaging spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an experimental system of miniature imaging spectrometer based on Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF). The operating principle of AOTF and the properties of imaging spectrometer based on AOTF are introduced. The configuration of the AOTF device incorporated to the imaging spectrometer is described and the measured performance of the filter is summarized. The single beam configuration of the AOTF device and the utilization of a CMOS imaging IC as the focal plane sensor make the optics of the system very small, simple and compact. The power compensating circuit design of the RF driver of the acousto-optic cell ensures relatively high and consistent diffraction efficiencies over the whole tuning range of the filter. Qualitative experiments are carried out in laboratory. Results of the experiments preliminarily illustrate the capability of the miniature AOTF imaging spectrometer in hyperspectral remote sensing application.

Dong, Ying; You, Zheng; Gao, Peng; Hao, Yuncai

2003-06-01

312

Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is an F/4, wide field (30°) design, covering the spectral range 600-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

2011-09-01

313

Progress on the Design and Fabircation of the MICE SpectrometerSolenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) willdemonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic coolingchannel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in theUK. A five-coil, superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet at each endof the cooling channel will provide a 4 T uniform field region for thescintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore tubes. The trackermodules are used to measure the muon beam emittance as it enters andexits the cooling channel. The cold mass for the 400 mm warm bore magnetconsists of two sections: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coilmatching section that matches the uniform field of the solenoid into theMICE cooling channel. The spectrometer solenoid detailed designandanalysis has been completed, and the fabrication of the magnets is wellunder way. The primary features of the spectrometer solenoid magnet andmechanical designs are presented along with a summary of key fabricationissues and photos of the construction.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Lia, D.; Sizman, M.S.

2007-06-20

314

The APX spectrometer for Martian missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Obtaining the chemical composition of any planetary body should be a prime science objective of each planetary mission. The APX spectrometer has been designed to provide a detailed and complete chemical composition of all major (except H) and minor elements with high accuracy, in situ and remotely. From such complete analyses a first-order mineralogy of analyzed samples can be deduced. Laboratory studies in the past have shown that rock types (e.g., dunites, basalts, Philippinate 300 sample) were a uniquely in blind test analyses. Such identification is more accurate than can be obtained from any other remote spectroscopic technique. The APX technique is based on three modes of nuclear and atomic interactions of alpha particles with matter resulting in three different energy spectra containing the compositional information. The instrument uses 50 to 100 mCi of Cm-242 or Cm-244 transuranium radioisotopes to provide a monoenergetic beam of alpha particles (6.01 MeV and 5.80 MeV respectively) and solid-state detectors for acquiring the energy spectra.

Economou, T.

1993-01-01

315

Elemental concentration logging with a germanium spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The German deep-well project is currently drilling a scientific well in northeastern Bavaria at the intersection of the African and Northern European tectonic plates. This well is scheduled to be drilled to a depth of {approximately}10 km to study the geochemical processes involved in the alteration of minerals under high temperature and pressure. As an initial stage in this project, a well was drilled to a depth of 4 km within 200 m of the site selected for the deep well. This well was fully cored and extensively logged with both commercial and experimental logging systems. Cores, as well as cuttings and fluids, were extensively analyzed in a well-site laboratory established specifically for that purpose. One of the experimental logging systems run in the 4-km well was a gamma-ray spectrometer that used a {sup 252}Cf source for delayed activation measurements and a neutron generator that produces 14-MeV neutrons for thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray measurements. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to confirm the validity of elemental concentration determinations from commercial logging equipment, based on NaI(Tl) detectors, in this crystalline rock environment. The commercial equipment determines the elements: aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, titanium, iron, gadolinium, potassium, thorium, and uranium. The second was to determine additional elemental concentrations that can be used to enhance the geo-chemical studies of the crystalline rock mineralogy.

Peterson, C.A.; Schweitzer, J.S. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K.

1991-11-01

316

A static multiplex Fabry-Perot spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a static multiplex spectrometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometric filter for measuring the mean spectral content of diffuse sources. By replacing the slit of a low-dispersion grating spectrometer with a Fabry-Perot interferometric filter, we improve the resolving power of the instrument while simultaneously overcoming the free spectral range limitation of the Fabry Perot. The resulting instrument is smaller than conventional spectrometers having the same resolving power. We present experimental results from the spectrometer using neon lamp, He-Ne laser, and diode laser sources over a wavelength range from 620 nm to 660 nm.

Zheng, Nan; Hagen, Nathan; John, Renu; Brady, David J.

2009-02-01

317

WFIS: a wide field-of-view imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design and initial test results of the laboratory Wide Field-of-View Imaging Spectrometer (WFIS). The WFIS is a patented optical design intended for use in remote sensing of the Earth and the Earth's atmosphere in the hyperspectral imaging mode. It is meant to operate as a pushbroom imager to provide coverage of the Earth from low Earth orbit without scanning mechanisms. The optical system occupies a volume measuring less than 20 cm X 18 cm X 13 cm. The laboratory unit covers the 500 nm to 1000 nm wavelength range over a cross-track field of view of 70 degrees. The image is focused onto a CCD area array such that the spatial component falls along the horizontal direction and the spectral information is dispersed along the vertical direction. The system's focal length is 7.5 mm with an effective focal ratio of 3.7. A holographic grating produced on a unique convex substrate is the dispersing element. A key feature of the WFIS is an all-reflective optical path, allowing the basic design to be adapted to wavelength regions from the UV to the IR. Presented are the initial test results of the laboratory spectrometer that characterize its spatial and spectral performance over a 70 degree X 0.08 degree field of view.

Haring, Robert E.; Williams, Frederick L.; Vanstone, Gary C.; Putnam, Gloria G.

1999-12-01

318

Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H. [Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (United States); Barhen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-04-01

319

Mariner Mars 1969 infrared spectrometer.  

PubMed

The infrared spectrometer that recorded spectra of the atmosphere and surface of Mars during the Mariner 6 and 7 flyby missions is described. The instrument continuously scanned the 1.9-micro to 14.4-micro spectral region at 10 see per scan. Approximately 1% spectral resolution was furnished by two rotating, circular, variable interference filters. The spectral region 1.9-6.0 micro was recorded with a PbSe detector cooled to 175 K by radiation to deep space. The spectral region 3.9-14.4 micro was modulated by a cold (175 K) tuning fork chopper and recorded with a mercury-doped germanium detector cooled to 22 K by a Joule-Thomson two-stage (N(2) and H(2)) cryostat. The total weight of the instrument was 17.4 kg (monochromator plus electronics, 11.5 kg; gas delivery system, 5.9 kg), and it consumed 11 W of power. PMID:20111539

Herr, K C; Forney, P B; Pimentel, G C

1972-03-01

320

A New Generation TDPAC Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time Differential gamma gamma Perturbed Angular Correlation spectroscopy has traditionally been done using scintillation detectors along with constant fraction discriminators, spectroscopy amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and time to amplitude detectors. We describe a new generation spectrometer where these electronics are replaced by high speed digital transient recorders that record the output from each scintillation detector. The energy and time-of-arrival of gamma rays in any detector can be determined accurately. Many experimental difficulties related to electronics are eliminated; the number of detectors can be increased with no increase in complexity of the apparatus; coincidences among any two detectors are measurable; and coincidences separated by as little as a ns are detectable in principle within one detector. All energies are collected, and energy windows are imposed by software filtering, permitting both high energy resolution and high data-gathering power.

Herden, Christian H.; Alves, Mauro A.; Becker, Klaus D.; Gardner, John A.

2004-12-01

321

Lunar mass spectrometer test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures used and the results are described, which were obtained in a test program to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer, and an off-axis electron multiplier ion-counting detector. Instrument resolution, sensitivity, and S/N ratio were demonstrated over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from ntorr to ptorr. The subject analyzer was also prepared for extended testing, in conjunction with two other candidate instruments, in a large molecular beam vacuum facility.

Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

1971-01-01

322

A Dust Spectrometer for JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo spacecraft characterised the dust environment in the jovian system. The discoveries included an extended dusty ring system, the nano-metre sized stream particles originating from the moon Io, and the dust exospheres around the Galilean satellites Ganymed, Europa and Callisto. The study of the nanodust-magnetosphere interaction and the compositional analysis of dust particles ejected by the surfaces of Ganymed or Europa offer unique future opportunities. New dust instrumentation is a factor of 10 more sensitive than the former Galileo detector and adds compositional analysis for moon surface studies complementary to neutral gas or ion particle investigations. A dust spectrometer is highly sensitive for organic, salty water ice and mineral particles. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects of this investigation.

Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Krüger, H.; Thissen, R.; Sternosky, Z.; Engrand, C.; Fiege, K.; Hillier, J. K.; Horanyi, M.; Khalisi, E.; Mocker, A.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Grün, E.; Röser, H. P.

2012-09-01

323

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

2012-01-01

324

A New Optical Aerosol Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring aerosol particle size distributions from 0.02 to 100 micrometers has been developed. This instrument combines several optical methods in one, in-situ configuration; it can provide continuous data collection to encompass the wide dynamic size ranges and concentrations found in studies of modeled planetary atmospheres as well as terrestrial air quality research. Currently, the system is incorporated into an eight liter capacity spherical pressure vessel that is appropriate both for flowthrough and for in-situ particle generation. The optical sizing methods include polarization ratio, The scattering, and forward scattering detectors, with illumination from a fiber-coupled, Argon-ion laser. As particle sizes increase above 0.1 micrometer, a customized electronics and software system automatically shifts from polarization to diffraction-based measurements as the angular scattering detectors attain acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. The number concentration detection limits are estimated to be in the part-per-trillion (ppT by volume) range, or roughly 1000 submicron particles per cubic centimeter. Results from static experiments using HFC134A (approved light scattering gas standard), flow-through experiments using sodium chloride (NaCl) and carbon particles, and dynamic 'Tholin' (photochemical produced particles from ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated acetylene and nitrogen) experiments have been obtained. The optical spectrometer data obtained with particles have compared well with particle sizes determined by electron microscopy. The 'Tholin' tests provided real-time size and concentration data as the particles grew from about 30 nanometers to about 0.8 micrometers, with concentrations ranging from ppT to ppB, by volume. Tests are still underway, to better define sizing accuracy and concentration limits, these results will be reported.

Fonda, Mark; Malcolmson, Andrew; Bonin, Mike; Stratton, David; Rogers, C. Fred; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

325

GEMS: underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework of the KM3NeT Design Study (DS) EC project. The spectrometer is sensitive to gamma rays produced by 40K decays and it is also able to detect other natural (e.g., 238U, 232Th) and anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs). The decay of 40K, contained in sea salt, particulate and sediments, is one of the main sources of photon background in the underwater environment. GEMS was first calibrated in the laboratory using known sources, also in order to evaluate the performance of the instrument. In November 2008 GEMS was deployed at a depth of 3200 m in the area of Capo Passero (in the Ionian Sea) to acquire data autonomously. After recovery of the spectrometer six months later (May 2009) it was found that the instrument had worked within the specifications and acquired data over the full deployment period. These data allowed us to investigate over a long period the possible variations of activity at the Capo Passero site. GEMS is suitable to be used either in autonomous mode or as payload of seafloor observatories or vehicles.

Sartini, Ludovica

2010-05-01

326

Development of a Submillimeter-Wavelength Immersion Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad goal of this project was to develop a broadband, moderate-resolution spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths. Our original approach was to build an immersion grating spectrometer, and as such, the first step was to identify the best material (lowest loss, highest index) for the grating medium, and to characterize its properties at the foreseen optical-bench operating temperature of 1.5 K. To this end, we put our initial efforts into upgrading an existing laboratory submillimeter Fourier transform spectrometer, which allowed us to carry out the requisite materials measurements. The associated cryogenic detector dewar was also redesigned and rebuilt to carry out this work. This dewar houses the 1.5 K detector and the filter wheel used in the materials characterization. Our goal was to have the beam propagate through the samples as uniformly as possible, so the optics were redesigned to allow for the samples to be traversed by a well-defined collimated beam. The optics redesign also placed the samples at an image of the aperture stop located within the FTS. After the rebuild, we moved into the testing phase.

Phillips, T. G.

2001-01-01

327

Dual topological unitarization of hard and soft hadronic cross sections: A new approach to multiparticle production at hadron colliders in the TeV energy range  

SciTech Connect

The dual topological unitarization of hard and soft hadronic collisions is formulated as a Monte-Carlo event generator for events containing both the soft (low p{perpendicular}) and hard (jets, minijets) component of hadron production. The parameters of the model are determined from fits to the energy dependence of the total and inelastic hadron cross-sections and from the predictions of the QCD-parton model for the perturbative hard constituent scattering cross sections. The properties of the model are studied. Good agreement of the model predictions is found with data at present accelerator and collider energies. The predictions of the model for TeV colliders are presented. Interesting changes of the produced multiparticle system are formed when selecting classes of events with and without hard jets or minijets. 35 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

Ranft, J.; Hahn, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). SSC Central Design Group); Aurenche, P.; Maire, P. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules Elementaires); Bopp, F. (Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Physik); Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Particules Elementaires); Kwi

1987-12-01

328

Smaller, Lighter Magnetic Sector For Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature, lightweight focal-plane magnetic sector of mass spectrometer (Mattauch-Herzog type) developed. Magnetic sector integral part of portable gas-chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Focal plane covers nominal range of 40 to 240 atomic mass units for 1-keV ion energy. System used for analyzing pollutants in field environments.

Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Tomassian, Albert D.

1993-01-01

329

An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

1967-01-01

330

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance

Michael P. Chrisp; Scott A. Lerner; Paul J. Kuzmenko; Charles L. Bennett

2007-01-01

331

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the

Michael P. Chrisp; Scott A. Lerner; Paul J. Kuzmenko; Charles L. Bennett

2006-01-01

332

Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance

Chrisp; Michael P

2008-01-01

333

The Solar Spectral Irradiance from 200 to 2400  nm as Measured by the SOLSPEC Spectrometer from the Atlas and Eureca Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLar SPECtrum (SOLSPEC) and the SOlar SPectrum (SOSP) spectrometers are two twin instruments built to carry out solar spectral irradiance measurements. They are made of three spectrometers dedicated to observations in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared domains. SOLSPEC flew with the ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) while SOSP flew on the EUropean Retrieval CArrier (EURECA) missions. ATLAS 1

G. Thuillier; M. Hersé; D. Labs; T. Foujols; W. Peetermans; D. Gillotay; P. C. Simon; H. Mandel

2003-01-01

334

[The integrative design for imaging spectrometer].  

PubMed

The hyperspectrum imaging spectrometer will achieve miniaturization and high spectrum resolution and high space resolution along with development of the hyperspectrum imaging technology that is becoming a trend. This trend requires the designers to improve and optimize their designing constantly in designing the instruments. The present paper carried out a method of integrative design for imaging spectrometer. This method suggested that the design and optimization work of the disperse systems of imaging spectrometers would take into account the whole systems, but not consider themselves only. It would get a perfect result by using this method. This paper also explained in details how the method can be used in the design course of imaging spectrometer with convex grating which has been used widely recently. Finally, this paper validated the method by testing the imaging spectrometer with convex grating, which was developed using this method. PMID:22582665

Cui, Ji-cheng; Liu, Yu-juan; Pan, Ming-zhong; Tang, Yu-guo

2012-03-01

335

Use of a Fourier transform spectrometer on a balloon-borne telescope and at the multiple mirror telescope (MMT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and use of an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer which has been used for observations of laboratory, stratospheric, and astronomical spectra are described. The spectrometer has a spectral resolution of 0.032/cm and has operated in the mid-infrared (12 to 13 microns) as well as the far-infrared (40 to 140 microns), using both bolometer and photoconductor cryogenic detectors. The spectrometer is optically sized to accept an f/9 beam from the multi-mirror telescope (MMT). The optical and electronic design are discussed, including remote operation of the spectrometer on a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope. The performance of the laser-controlled, screw-driven moving cat's-eye mirror is discussed. Segments of typical far-infrared balloon flight spectra, lab spectra, and mid-infrared MMT spectra are presented. Data reduction, interferogram processing, artifact removal, wavelength calibration, and intensity calibration methods are discussed. Future use of the spectrometer is outlined.

Traub, W. A.; Chance, K. V.; Brasunas, J. C.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Carleton, N. P.

1982-01-01

336

Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer and of a miniature hemispherical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer were made. The extremely high sensitivity of these instruments and their ability to operate at D region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D region ion composition measurements.

Kendall, B. R.

1979-01-01

337

Detailed requirements document for the balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer decommutation and formatting programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements are defined for developing a decommutation and a data reformat program to process test data obtained by the balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer used in a joint experiment with the Space Research Laboratory in the Netherlands. Background information and objectives are discussed.

Brose, J. F.; Bourgeois, V.

1975-01-01

338

HYSPEC : A CRYSTAL TIME OF FLIGHT HYBRID SPECTROMETER FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document lays out a proposal by the Instrument Development Team (IDT) composed of scientists from leading Universities and National Laboratories to design and build a conceptually new high-flux inelastic neutron spectrometer at the pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge. This instrument is intended to supply users of the SNS and scientific community, of which the IDT is

S. M. SHAPIRO; I. A. ZALIZNYAK

2002-01-01

339

Ion-Induced X-Ray Studies with a High Luminosity von Hamos Crystal Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-resolution, high-efficiency, von Hamos geometry, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been developed and mounted on a beamline at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of K and L...

C. R. Vane M. Smith S. Raman J. Heard T. Walkiewicz

1986-01-01

340

Investigating the rp-process with the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Penning trap (CPT) mass spectrometer at the Argonne National Laboratory makes precise mass measurements of nuclides with short half-lives. Since the previous ENAM conference, many significant modifications to the apparatus were implemented to improve both the precision and efficiency of measurement, and now more than 60 radioactive isotopes have been measured with half-lives as short as one second

J. A. Clark; R. C. Barber; B. Blank; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. E. Crawford; J. P. Greene; S. Gulick; J. C. Hardy; A. A. Hecht; A. Heinz; J. K. P. Lee; A. F. Levand; B. F. Lundgren; R. B. Moore; G. Savard; N. D. Scielzo; D. Seweryniak; K. S. Sharma; G. D. Sprouse; W. Trimble; J. Vaz; J. C. Wang; Y. Wang; B. J. Zabransky; Z. Zhou

2005-01-01

341

Identification of hydrothermal alteration assemblages using airborne imaging spectrometer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, field and laboratory spectra and samples for X-ray diffraction analysis were collected in argillically altered Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada. From laboratory and field spectral measurements in the 2.0 to 2.4 micron range and using a spectroradiometer with a 4 nm sampling interval, the absorption band centers for kaolinite were loacted at 2.172 and 2.215 microns, for montmorillonite at 2.214 micron and for illite at 2.205. Based on these values and the criteria for resolution and separtion of spectral features, a spectral sampling interval of less than 4 nm is necessary to separate the clays. With an AIS spectral sampling interval of 9.3 nm, a spectral matching algorithm is more effective for separating kaolinite, montmorillonite, ad illite in Hot Creek Range than using the location of absorption minima alone.

Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.

1986-01-01

342

Use of Eutectic Fixed Points to Characterize a Spectrometer for Earth Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small palm-sized, reference spectrometer, mounted on a remote-controlled model helicopter is being developed and tested by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in conjunction with City University, London. The developed system will be used as a key element for field vicarious calibration of optical earth observation systems in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region. The spectrometer is hand held, low weight, and uses a photodiode array. It has good stray light rejection and wide spectral coverage, allowing simultaneous measurements from 400 to 900 nm. The spectrometer is traceable to NPL’s primary standard cryogenic radiometer via a high-temperature metal-carbon eutectic fixed-point blackbody. Once the fixed-point temperature has been determined (using filter radiometry), the eutectic provides a high emissivity and high stability source of known spectral radiance over the emitted spectral range. All wavelength channels of the spectrometer can be calibrated simultaneously using the eutectic transition without the need for additional instrumentation. The spectrometer itself has been characterized for stray light performance and wavelength accuracy. Its long-term and transportation stability has been proven in an experiment that determined the “World’s Bluest Sky”—a process that involved 56 flights, covering 100,000 km in 72 days. This vicarious calibration methodology using a eutectic standard is presented alongside the preliminary results of an evaluation study of the spectrometer characteristics.

Salim, Saber G. R.; Fox, Nigel P.; Woolliams, Emma R.; Winkler, Rainer; Pegrum, Heather M.; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken T. V.

2007-12-01

343

Degradation-Free Spectrometers for Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance Measurements: a Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar EUV observations will be made using two novel degradation-free EUV spectrometers which will be flown on a sounding rocket scheduled for launch during the summer of 2011. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. The OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 9 nm band (FWHM) centered at 121.6 nm and a 4 nm band (FWHM) centered at 30.4 nm to overlap EUV observations from SOHO/SEM and SDO/EVE. The status of the upcoming sounding rocket flight (Judge 36.263US), as well as design improvements and results from laboratory tests of the instruments using a capillary discharge EUV photon source are presented. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA’s Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

Judge, D. L.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.

2010-12-01

344

Comparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO2 measurements using scattered sunlight  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), the principal tool for remote measurements of volcanic SO2, is rapidly being replaced by low-cost, miniature, ultraviolet (UV) spectrometers. We compared two of these new systems with a COSPEC by measuring SO2 column amounts at Ki??lauea Volcano, Hawaii. The two systems, one calibrated using in-situ SO2 cells, and the other using a calibrated laboratory reference spectrum, employ similar spectrometer hardware, but different foreoptics and spectral retrieval algorithms. Accuracy, signal-to-noise, retrieval parameters, and precision were investigated for the two configurations of new miniature spectrometer. Measurements included traverses beneath the plumes from the summit and east rift zone of Ki??lauea, and testing with calibration cells of known SO2 concentration. The results obtained from the different methods were consistent with each other, with <8% difference in estimated SO2 column amounts up to 800 ppm m. A further comparison between the COSPEC and one of the miniature spectrometer configurations, the 'FLYSPEC', spans an eight month period and showed agreement of measured emission rates to within 10% for SO2 column amounts up to 1,600 ppm m. The topic of measuring high SO2 burdens accurately is addressed for the Ki??lauea measurements. In comparing the foreoptics, retrieval methods, and resultant implications for data quality, we aim to consolidate the various experiences to date, and improve the application and development of miniature spectrometer systems. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Oppenheimer, C.; Horton, K. A.; Garbeil, H.; Tsanev, V.; McGonigle, A. J. S.; Williams-Jones, G.

2006-01-01

345

Heavy-Ion Reactions at Tandem Energies, with Special Emphasis on and Research with Recoil Spectrometers and Separators: Foreign Trip Report, May 25, 1988-June 19, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Status reports on the newly commissioned Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) at Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL), on the superconducting linac booster at Saclay, and on the rf recoil separator at Munich are given. Highlights of material presented at the Legna...

H. J. Kim

1988-01-01

346

A variable-dispersion micro-spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A space-variant variable-dispersion micro-spectrometer has been designed, fabricated, and tested. This spectrometer allows the dispersion to be varied on a pixel-by-pixel basis across the one-dimensional entrance slit. Micro-electro-mechanical mirrors are located at the entrance slit and direct light to one of three different diffraction gratings. A standard grating spectrometer geometry is used to achieve diffraction-limited performance across the 500--1000 nm wavelength range. Spectral resolutions ranging from 5 to 20 nanometers are achieved. Micro-optics fabrication techniques are employed to fabricate the spectrometer. Grayscale optical lithography using a custom high-energy beam-sensitive (HEBS) photomask was used to fabricate the spectrometer mirrors in photoresist. High-frequency noise inherent to the HEBS process was smoothed with a reflow technique to obtain smooth surface profiles. Blazed gratings were written using direct-write electron-beam lithography in SU-8. It is shown that SU-8, which has traditionally been used as a very thick resist for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) applications, is suitable for fabricating both diffractive and refractive optical elements. The spectrometer was tested with a variety of optical sources. These include a variety of lasers and elemental discharge tubes. The optical performance of the fabricated spectrometer closely matches the design specifications.

Shields, Eric Arden

347

Preliminary Analysis of the Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to greater than 10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron effective dose and dose equivalent rates and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cutoff. The measured cosmic-ray neutron spectra have almost no thermal neutrons, a large "evaporation" peak near 1 MeV and a second broad peak near 100 MeV which contributes about 69% of the neutron effective dose. At high altitude, geomagnetic latitude has very little effect on the shape of the spectrum, but it is the dominant variable affecting neutron fluence rate, which was 8 times higher at the northernmost measurement location than it was at the southernmost. The shape of the spectrum varied only slightly with altitude from 21 km down to 12 km (56 - 201 grams per square centimeter atmospheric depth), but was significantly different on the ground. In all cases, ambient dose equivalent was greater than effective dose for cosmic-ray neutrons.

Goldhagen, P.; Kniss, T.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.; Jones, I. W.; VanSteveninck, W.

2003-01-01

348

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

349

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

350

Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag (LISA) is an experiment designed to measure the isotopic composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays for elements extending from beryllium through zinc. The overall objectives of this investigation are to study the origin and evolution of galactic matter; the acceleration, transport, and time scales of cosmic rays in the galaxy; and search for heavy antinuclei in the cosmic radiation. To achieve these objectives, the LISA experiment will make the first identifications of individual heavy cosmic ray isotopes in the energy range from about 2.5 to 4 GeV/n where relativistic time dilation effects enhance the abundances of radioactive clocks and where the effects of solar modulation and cross-section variations are minimized. It will extend high resolution measurements of individual element abundances and their energy spectra to energies of nearly 1 TeV/n, and has the potential for discovering heavy anti-nuclei which could not have been formed except in extragalactic sources.

Binns, W. R.; Klarmann, J.; Israel, M. H.; Garrard, T. L.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

1990-01-01

351

MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the temperature of the martian surface measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. On September 15, 3 hours and 48 minutes after the spacecrafts third close approach to the planet, the TES instrument was commanded to point at Mars and measure the temperature of the surface during a four minute scan. At this time MGS was approximately 15,000 miles (24,000 km) from the planet, with a view looking up from beneath the planet at the south polar region. The circular blue region (- 198 F) is the south polar cap of Mars that is composed of CO2 ice. The night side of the planet, shown with crosses, is generally cool (green). The sunlit side of the planet reaches temperatures near 15 F (yellow). Each square represents an individual observation acquired in 2 seconds with a ground resolution of 125 miles (200 km). The TES instrument will remain on and collect similar images every 100 minutes to monitor the temperature of the surface and atmosphere throughout the aerobraking phase of the MGS mission.

1997-01-01

352

Characteristics and performance of a VUV spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic applications performed within the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range often employ special spectrometers equipped with VUV-sensitive optical components and detectors. In the present technical note, we briefly describe different parts as well as performance characteristics of a deep/vacuum UV spectrometer used to disperse radiation in the 40-160 nm range emitted from a laser-generated plasma source. Results demonstrate that the spectrometer produces quasi-stigmatic images with corresponding resolving power and instrumental band-width of 40,800 and 0.042 nm, respectively.

Khater, Mohamed A.

2013-06-01

353

Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10-50 A waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources.

Magee, E. W.; Dunn, J.; Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Cone, K. V.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States)

2010-10-15

354

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

1995-01-01

355

Quantitative analysis of single aerosol particles with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer based on polycapillary X-ray optics (PXRO) was proposed to carry out the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles with smaller sizes than that of focal spot of the PXRO. The PXRO in the detection channel can both increase the collecting angle of the detector and lower the minimum detection limits of the XRF spectrometer. In order to reduce the effects of the PXRO on the analysis results, the sensitivities were corrected using a Gaussian function for the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles.

Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangfu; Zhu, Guanghua; Xu, Qing; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Liu, Hui; Ding, Xunliang

2010-10-01

356

Ion-induced x-ray studies with a high luminosity von Hamos crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution, high-efficiency, von Hamos geometry, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been developed and mounted on a beamline at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of K and L x-rays emitted from a variety of targets and projectiles. Instrument performance characteristics are reported here along with spectra from fast projectile ions and very low intensity target emission - areas of measurement for which this spectrometer is especially suitable.

Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.; Raman, S.; Heard, J.; Walkiewicz, T.

1986-01-01

357

Ion-induced X-ray studies with a high luminosity von Hamos crystal spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution, high-efficiency, von Hamos geometry, Bragg crystal X-ray spectrometer has been developed and mounted on a beamline at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of K and L X-rays emitted from a variety of targets and projectiles. Instrument performance characteristics are reported here along with spectra from fast projectile ions and very low intensity target emission — areas of measurement for which this spectrometer is especially suitable.

Vane, C. R.; Smith, M.; Raman, S.; Heard, J.; Walkiewicz, T.

1987-04-01

358

A preliminary design study for a cosmic X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are described of theoretical and experimental investigations aimed at the development of a curved crystal cosmic X-ray spectrometer to be used at the focal plane of the large orbiting X-ray telescope on the third High Energy Astronomical Observatory. The effort was concentrated on the development of spectrometer concepts and their evaluation by theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and laboratory testing with breadboard arrangements of crystals and detectors. In addition, a computer-controlled facility for precision testing and evaluation of crystals in air and vacuum was constructed. A summary of research objectives and results is included.

1972-01-01

359

Investigations of 2β decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?- decay of 100Mo to the 0+ (1130 keV) and 2+ (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

Rukhadze, Ekaterina; Obelix Collaboration, Supernemo Collaboration

2013-12-01

360

High-Selectivity Scintillation Spectrometer of Antineutrinos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new design principle for a spectrometer of reactor antineutrinos nu -tilde/sub e/ using reverse beta -decay reaction on proton is proposed. The detector consists of alternating plates of solid organic and heavy inorganic scintillators. Reaction positron...

V. I. Kopejkin L. A. Mikaehlyan

1987-01-01

361

Mars surface gas chromatograph mass spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of...

P. Mahaffy

2000-01-01

362

Theory of a Concave Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apparatus constants for minimum defocussing of a concave grating spectrometer were determined. Equations were obtained relating apparatus constants, which were not obtainable in Seya theory. Numerical solutions were calculated by computer from an equation...

H. Greiner E. Schaeffer

1976-01-01

363

NEREUS Nemertes: Embedded Mass Spectrometer Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, the author presents Nemertes System, a software suite to control an embedded autonomous mass spectrometer. The author first evaluate previous control systems for the hardware and evaluate a set of software design goals. The NSystem softwar...

A. S. Champy

2004-01-01

364

Combined Hyperspatial and Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a user need for increasing spatial and spectral resolution in Earth Observation (EO) optical instrumentation. Higher spectral resolution will be achieved by the introduction of spaceborne imaging spectrometers. Higher spatial resolutions of 1 - 3...

I. Burke H. Zwick

1995-01-01

365

Design of a Large Superconducting Spectrometer Magnet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The superconducting spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments has been under construction by Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo with collaboration from KEK. The magnet has a sector type coil. The magnetic field is 3 T with the magn...

T. Shintomi Y. Makida T. Mito Y. Yamanoi O. Hashimito

1989-01-01

366

The Dynamics Explorer Wind and Temperature Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wind and Temperature Spectrometer, designed to measure the concentration, kinetic temperature, and motion (three mutually perpendicular components of the wind) of the neutral particles, is described, noting that measurements of the concentration and velocity of the ambient thermal ions are also possible. Two of the three wind components, the temperature and the concentration of the dominant constituent, can be measured to an altitude of approximately 650 km; the third component can be measured to about 375 km (estimated). Ion measurements can be taken throughout the orbit. The quadrupole mass spectrometer is the principal sensor for the instrument. Measurements of the zonal and vertical components of the wind are made by interpreting the modulation of the particle stream entering the mass spectrometer, induced by baffles that scan slowly (one vertically and one horizontally) in front of the entrance port of the mass spectrometer.

Spencer, N. W.; Wharton, L. E.; Niemann, H. B.; Hedin, A. E.; Carrignan, G. R.; Maurer, J. C.

1981-01-01

367

System simulation of digital pulse spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benefiting from digitalization techniques, new-generation pulse spectrometers are characterized by better energy resolution, higher throughput, and improved stability and flexibility. MATLAB/SIMULINK, a platform for dynamic system simulation, was used to simulate such a digital pulse spectrometer. Each processing unit in the whole signal processing procedure was modeled with the relevant mathematical function and simulated with the abundant tools provided in SIMULINK. The simulation was implemented with sample input including noise, and the results verified that the system was all correctly simulated. The simulation system can be used to demonstrate the operating principles of a digital pulse spectrometer, to investigate key pulse processing algorithms, and as a computer-aided design tool for developing digital multi-channel analyzers (MCAs) or digital nuclear spectrometers.

Xiao, Wuyun; Wei, Yixiang; Ai, Xianyun; Ao, Qi

2005-12-01

368

Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System  

DOEpatents

Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

2005-12-06

369

Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research labora...

J. Cordaro J. Mcintosh

2008-01-01

370

AUTOMATION OF AN ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an overview of the functional description and major features of an automated ultraviolet-visible spectrometer system intended for environmental measurements application. As such, it defines functional specifications and requirements which are divided into the chlor...

371

HPGE Compton-Suppression and Pair Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A HPGe detector incorporated into a Compton suppression and pair spectrometer yields a continuum suppression factor of over 30. Cryostat housing requirements to obtain such suppression are discussed, sample spectra are presented, and several experiments m...

D. C. Camp

1976-01-01

372

Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

2007-01-01

373

SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express, VIR on DAWN).

de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

2010-05-01

374

Investigations of Physical Processes in Solar Flare Plasma on the Basis of RESIK Spectrometer Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous registration of spectra of quickly varying sources may be obtained through the use of curved fixed crystals instead of the scanning flat crystals spectrometer. Illuminating such a curved crystal with parallel X-ray beam allows to obtain, after the reflection, the whole spectrum covering certain wavelengths range, as the incidence angle at curved crystal surface represents a monotonous function of incidence point position measured along the crystal. The RESIK bent crystal spectrometer was developed in Poland with the help from experts of Naval Research Laboratory (USA), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), and Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL, UK). The development work was also supported by scientists of Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Unique RESIK spectra and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Kordylewski, Z.; Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; K?pa, A.; Kowali?ski, M.; Trzebi?ski, W.

375

A superheterodyne paramagnetic resonance pulse spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described which is suitable for the measurement of the spin-lattice relaxation times of paramagnetic ions by a pulse method. A superheterodyne paramagnetic resonance spectrometer forms the basis of the apparatus. The X-band spectrometer uses only one klystron and operates at an intermediate frequency of 10 Mc\\/s. Relaxation times in the range 5 ?sec to 10 msec have

P M Llewellyn; P R Whittlestone; J M Williams

1962-01-01

376

Physics with the Axial Field Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The Axial Field Spectrometer collaboration at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) is engaged in a programme investigating deep inelastic hadron collisions with a detector system consisting of a cylindrical drift chamber, uranium/scintillator hadron calorimeters, liquid-argon calorimeters, and Cherenkov counters. The latter three devices are used for triggering on high-p/sub T/ hadron jets, direct ..gamma.. and ..pi../sup 0/, and identified charged hadrons, respectively. The spectrometer is briefly described. (WHK)

Athens-Brookhaven-CERN-Copenhagen (NBI)-Lund-Pennsylvania-Rutherford Appleton Lab.-Tel Aviv Collaboration

1982-01-01

377

Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

378

Design of a transuranic VUV spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Most of our present knowledge about the physics of 5f systems derives from studies of uranium and its compounds. This is particularly true in the case of photoemission measurements where the intense radioactivity has prevented studies at synchrotron sources. The development of a transuranic VUV spectrometer capable of safe operation at a synchrotron source would represent a giant step in 5f research. This paper describes the conceptual design of such a spectrometer.

Arko, A.J.

1987-01-01

379

Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300–2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300–500 nm, 500–1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (80 spectral channels, 70–150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a direction compatible with radio occultation experiments, is provided

B. R. Sandel; R. V. Yelle; C. F. Bruce; G. S. Chen; M. P. Chrisp; G. A. Fraschetti; T. N. Krabach; S. W. Petrick; D. H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; S. L. Soll; A. H. Vaughan; L. A. Soderblom

1995-01-01

380

Spectrometer and scanner with optofluidic configuration.  

PubMed

We present a spectrometer and scanner based on optofluidic configurations. The main optical component of the spectrometer is a compound optical element consisting of an optofluidic lens and standard blazed diffraction grating. The spectrum size can be changed by filling the lens cavity with different liquids. The scanner comprises two hollow 45° angle prisms oriented at 90° to each other. By changing the liquid inside the prisms, two-dimensional light beam scanning can be performed. PMID:23338199

Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Sanchez-Morales, Maria Eugenia; Calixto-Solano, Margarita

2013-01-20

381

Compact hydrogen\\/helium isotope mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently,

Herbert O. Funsten; David J. McComas; Earl E. Scime

1996-01-01

382

Serially interfaced gas chromatography\\/Fourier transform infrared spectrometer\\/ion trap mass spectrometer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serial gas chromatography\\/Fourier transform infrared spectrometer\\/mass spectrometer (GC\\/FTIR\\/MS) system has been developed with an ion trap detector or mass analyzer that is interfaced to the light pipe in the FTIR spectrometer. A modification of the manufacturer-supplied open-split interface to the ion trap was required to obtain chromatographic results free of discrimination and activation effects. The flow rate of the

Edwin S. Olson; John W. Diehl

1987-01-01

383

Ion-kinetic-energy spectrometer based on MKh-1311 mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A spectrometer is described for measuring the kinetic energies of ions generated by photoionization of molecules that is based on an MKh-1311 mass spectrometer. The ions are analyzed for kinetic energy after mass analysis by an energy analyzer with a retarding electrostatic field. The radiation source is a duoplasmatron. The recording system is based on a DVK-1 interactive computer terminal and a CAMAC crate. The energy resolution of the spectrometer is 60 meV.

Medynskii, G.S.; Akopyan, M.E.; Gall', L.N.; Kleimenov, V.I.; Kallistov, K.O.; Sergeev, Yu.L.; Togatov, D.V.; Chistyakov, A.B.; Khasin, Yu.I.

1987-08-01

384

Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

1988-01-01

385

SUB 1-Millimeter Size Fresnel Micro Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultra-small micro spectrometer with less than 1mm diameter was constructed using Fresnel diffraction. The fabricated spectrometer has a diameter of 750 nmicrometers and a focal length of 2.4 mm at 533nm wavelength. The micro spectrometer was built with a simple negative zone plate that has an opaque center with an ecliptic shadow to remove the zero-order direct beam to the aperture slit. Unlike conventional approaches, the detailed optical calculation indicates that the ideal spectral resolution and resolving power do not depend on the miniaturized size but only on the total number of rings. We calculated 2D and 3D photon distribution around the aperture slit and confirmed that improved micro-spectrometers below 1mm size can be built with Fresnel diffraction. The comparison between mathematical simulation and measured data demonstrates the theoretical resolution, measured performance, misalignment effect, and improvement for the sub-1mm Fresnel micro-spectrometer. We suggest the utilization of an array of micro spectrometers for tunable multi-spectral imaging in the ultra violet range.

Park, Yeonjoon; Koch, Laura; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Sangloon; King, Glen; Choi, Sang

2010-01-01

386

Measurements with the KATRIN pre-spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is a direct measurement of the absolute mass of the electron (anti)neutrino by means of precise spectroscopy of the tritium ?-spectrum near its endpoint. The pre-spectrometer is part of the KATRIN reference set-up where it will work as a pre-filter for low energy ?-decay electrons that are inessential for the determination of the ?-mass. Since its delivery in autumn 2003 the pre-spectrometer has been the first major hardware component of KATRIN in operation at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK). The vacuum measurements were successfully completed in early 2005. The main results are an outgassing rate for the stainless steel surface of the pre-spectrometer of 10 -12 mbar l/s cm 2 at room temperature and a final pressure below 10 -11 mbar. This corresponds to the specification of the main spectrometer. The amount of Non-Evaporable-Getter (NEG) strips needed can be restricted to about 3000 m and the additional cooling of the main spectrometer is optional, if a combined pumping system of NEG and turbo-molecular pumps (TMPs) is installed, that will provide a sufficient pumping speed. The modification of the pre-spectrometer set-up for the electromagnetic measurements is nearly completed, and the measurements will start in spring 2006.

Bornschein, L.; For The Katrin Collaboration

2006-07-01

387

Spectrometer Images of Candidate Landing Sites for Next Mars Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This composite shows four examples of 'browse' products the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument obtained of areas on Mars near proposed landing sites for NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. These examples are from two of more than 30 candidate sites. They are enhanced color images of West Candor chasm (A) and Nili Fossae trough (B); and false color images indicating the presence of hydrated (water-containing) minerals in West Candor (C); and clay-like (phyllosilicate) minerals in Nili Fossae (D).

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2007-01-01

388

The LINUS UV imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the Naval Postgraduate School's new LINUS instrument. This is a spectral imager designed to observe atmospheric gas plumes by means of absorption spectroscopy, using background Rayleigh-scattered daylight as an illumination source. It is a pushbroom instrument, incorporating a UV-intensified digital camera, interchangeable gratings and filters, and a DC servo-controlled image scanning system. LINUS has been developed to operate across both the near-ultraviolet and the short visible wavelength portions of the spectrum in overlapping passbands. This paper provides an outline of LINUS's design, operation and capabilities, and it summarizes results from initial laboratory and field trials.

Davis, D. S.; Harkins, Richard M.; Olsen, Richard C.

2003-09-01

389

LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

390

An innovative method for emissivity calibration at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin is equipped with two FT-IR spectrometers to allow measurements from the visible to TIR range using bi-conical and bi-directional reflection, transmission and emission spectroscopy. The facility core is the emissivity spectrometer laboratory, with a supporting spectrometer laboratory for reflectance and transmission measurements, sample preparation equipment, and an extensive collection of rocks and minerals. In this paper we illustrate a new developed technique for the calibration of emissivity measurements. This new approach allows determining the absolute emissivity of the measured materials, while eliminating the need for simplifications based on apriori assumptions on which previous methods relied.

Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.; D'Incecco, P.

2012-09-01

391

Integrating the MANX 6-D Muon Cooling Experiment with the MICE Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The MANX experiment is to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a short two-period long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being setup at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. This paper shall consider the various approaches to integrate MANX into the RAL hall using the MICE spectrometers. This study shall discuss the matching schemes used to minimize losses and prevent emittance growth between the MICE spectrometers and the MANX HCC. Also the placement of additional detection planes in the matching region and the HCC to improve the resolution will be examined.

Kahn, S.A.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

392

A new perspective on Mercury's surface composition and temperatures: Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer), scheduled for launch on board the Bepi Colombo Mercury Orbiter, will be the first mid-infrared imaging spectrometer to explore the innermost planet of the Solar System from orbit. The instrument is an advanced IR technology designed to study the surface composition, and surface temperature variations of planet Mercury. High resolution and global mid-IR spectral and temperature data obtained by MERTIS will contribute to a better understanding of Mercury's genesis and evolution. MERTIS uses an uncooled microbolometer detector array. It combines a push-broom IR grating spectrometer (TIS) with a radiometer (TIR) sharing the same optics, instrument electronics, and in-fight calibration components for a wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40 ?m, respectively. The paper summarizes the scientific objectives, observational goals, comparative laboratory spectral studies of mineral analogues, and introduces the technical overview and actual instrument development status of the experiment.

Arnold, Gabriele E.; Helbert, Jörn; Hiesinger, Harald; Peter, Gisbert

2011-09-01

393

Ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) for the solar and heliospheric (SOHO) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical performances of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission have been tested. A laboratory evaluation unit (LEU) of the spectrometer assembly (SPA) consisting of the structure equipped with breadboard models of the entrance slit assembly (ESA), a grating drive mechanism (GDM) mounting a toroidal grating for the Ly(alpha) channel and a multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) detector has been integrated and aligned. Both tests with visible and UV radiation have been performed. Aberration and stray light measurements have shown satisfactory performances of the instrument almost in compliance with the scientific requirements. A LEU and a flight unit of the White Light Channel (WLC) have been integrated and aligned in a proper light-tight housing and in the flight spectrometer assembly respectively. Measurements of the polarimeter modulation curve and the relative error have shown performances within the specificated requirements.

Fineschi, Silvano; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Noci, G.; Pernechele, Claudio; Romoli, Marco; Spadaro, D.; Tondello, Giuseppe

1994-09-01

394

Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source.  

PubMed

We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range. PMID:21034012

Bakeman, M S; van Tilborg, J; Sokollik, T; Baum, D; Ybarrolaza, N; Duarte, R; Toth, C; Leemans, W P

2010-10-01

395

Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

Bakeman, M. S.; van Tilborg, J.; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

2010-10-01

396

Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

Bakeman, M. S. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-10-15

397

First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter

2013-06-01

398

Neutron spectrometer based on a proton telescope with electronic collimation of recoil protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of a neutron spectrometer based on a gas proportional counter with recoil-proton registration is created at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR) in Dubna. The spectrometer is developed to measure the kinetic energy of protons scattered elastically at small angles that are produced by ( n, p) reaction in an environment containing hydrogen. The elaborated prototype consists of two cylindrical proportional counters used as cathodes. They are placed in a gas environment with a common centrally situated anode wire. Studies on the characteristics of the neutron spectrometer were conducted using 252Cf and 239Pu-Be radioisotope neutron sources. Measurements were made with monoenergetic neutrons produced by the 7Li( p, n)7Be reaction when a thin lithium target was bombarded with a proton beam from an EG-5 electrostatic accelerator, as well as with neutrons from the reaction D( d, n) 3He with a gas deuterium target.

Milkov, V. M.; Panteleev, Ts. Ts.; Bogdzel, A.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Kutuzov, S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Sedyshev, P. V.

2012-11-01

399

Panoramic Imaging Spectroscopy with the Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Situ imaging spectroscopy provides a way to address complex questions of geological evolution for aqueous, volcanic, and impact processes by mapping mineral composition at the spatial scale of rocks and outcrops. Spectroscopy from 500-2600 nm is an established technique for measuring the mineralogy of sedimentary and igneous rocks, outcrops, and regoliths. Minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, carbonates, clays, and sulfates exhibit absorption features that are highly diagnostic of their structure and composition in this wavelength range. Imaging spectroscopy allows for mineralogy to be mapped at geological important special scales thus allowing for the investigation of the spatial relationship between minerals and compositions and of the geologic and geochemical processes of planets, asteroids, comets, and moons. The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a JPL developed imaging spectrometer suitable for inclusion on a Mars or lunar rover or asteroid lander but packaged for operation at terrestrial ambient conditions. UCIS is an Offner spectrometer using JPL e-beam gratings, HgCdTe detectors with many components having direct heritage from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). UCIS covers the wavelength range from 500-2600 nm with 10 nm sampling/resolution with a 30 deg. field of view with and instantaneous field of view 1.4 mrad (spatial sampling of 4.2 mm at 3 m.) The optical head of the instrument has a mass of < 2 kg on the mass and takes 5.2 W of power (Van Gorp et al. 2011). The instrument has completed calibration and has begun field trials. Initial trials were carried out in the JPL "Mars Yard" robotic testbed. The Mars Yard contains a large number of basaltic boulders and other rocks/soils. Additional rocks and spectrally interesting materials were place in the Mars Yard to fully assess the ability of the instrument to identify spectrally distinct material. To collect data the instrument was mounted with the spectrometer slit oriented in elevation on a precision controlled stage. The slit was then scanned in azimuth to build up a spatial image. Telluric absorption features were calibrated out using Spectralon® calibration target taken before and after the scan of the Mars Yard. Spectra of selected materials in the Mars Yard were collected with an Analytical Spectral Devices Field Spectrometer to compare to the UCIS spectrometer. Initial results show clear spectral features consistent with the mineralogies present. Additional field trials are planned in September in geologically interesting locations. Reference: Van Gorp et al., Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer, SPIE Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Aug 21-25, 2011. Acknowledgements: This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Work was carried out with JPL Research and Technology Development Funding. False color (RGB) image reconstruction of part of the Mars Yard Panorma

Blaney, D. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Van Gorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Borden, M.; Smith-Dryden, S. D.; Bender, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilson, D.

2012-12-01

400

Hard x-ray spectrometers for NIF (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A National Ignition Facility (NIF) core diagnostic instrument has been designed and will be fabricated to record x-ray spectra in the 1.2-20 keV energy range. The high-energy electronic x-ray instrument has four reflection crystals with overlapping coverage of 1.2-10.9 keV and one transmission crystal covering 8.6-20 keV. The spectral resolving power varies from approximately 1000 at low energies to 315 at 20 keV. The spectrum produced by each crystal is recorded by a modified commercial dental x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) detector. The scintillators on the CCD detectors are optimized for the energy ranges. A one-channel x-ray spectrometer, using one transmission crystal covering 12-60 keV, will be fabricated for the OMEGA laser facility. The transmission crystal spectrometers are based on instruments originally designed at National Institute for Standards and Technology for the purpose of characterizing the x-ray flux from medical radiography sources. Utilizing one of those instruments and a commercial dental x-ray CCD detector, x-ray images were recorded using a single pulse from a laboratory x-ray source with a peak charging voltage of 200 kV. A resolving power of 300 was demonstrated by recording on film the K?1 and K?2 characteristic x-ray lines near 17 keV from a molybdenum anode. The continuum radiation from a tungsten anode was recorded in the 20-50 keV energy range. The transmission crystal spectrometer has sufficient spectral resolution and sensitivity to record the line and continuum radiation from high-Z targets irradiated by the NIF laser and the OMEGA laser.

Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Brown, Charles; Deslattes, Richard; Hudson, Lawrence; Bell, Perry; Miller, Michael; Back, Christina

2001-01-01

401

IR Spectrometer Using 90-Degree Off-Axis Parabolic Mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement single-point pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

Robert M. Malone, Ian J. McKenna

2008-03-01

402

Assessment of soil surface BRDF using an imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground reference data are important for understanding and characterizing angular effects on the images acquired by satellite sensors with off-nadir capability. However, very few studies have considered image-based soil reference data for that purpose. Compared to non-imaging instruments, imaging spectrometers can provide detailed information to investigate the influence of spatial components on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a mixed target. This research reported in this paper investigated soil spectral reflectance changes as a function of surface roughness, scene components and viewing geometries, as well as wavelength. Soil spectral reflectance is of particular interest because it is an essential factor in interpreting the angular effects on images of vegetation canopies. BRDF data of both rough and smooth soil surfaces were acquired in the laboratory at 30° illumination angle using a Specim V10E imaging spectrometer mounted on the University of Lethbridge Goniometer System version 2.5 (ULGS-2.5). The BRDF results showed that the BRDF of the smooth soil surface was dominated by illuminated pixels, whereas the shaded pixels were a larger component of the BRDF of the rough surface. In the blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR), greater BRDF variation was observed for the rough than for the smooth soil surface. For both soil surface roughness categories, the BRDF exhibited a greater range of values in the NIR than in the blue, green, or red. The imaging approach allows the characterization of the impact of spatial components on soil BRDF and leads to an improved understanding of soil reflectance compared to non-imaging BRDF approaches. The imaging spectrometer is an important sensor for BRDF investigations where the effects of individual spatial components need to be identified.

Wang, Z.; Coburn, C. A.; Ren, X.; Mazumdar, D.; Myshak, S.; Mullin, A.; Teillet, P. M.

2010-10-01

403

Relative spectral response measurement of spectrometers using undulator radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undulator radiation with known spectral characteristics is recognized as an excellent light source that can be used to measure the spectral response of a variety of spectral measurement devices in a wide range from infrared to x-ray. This technique has been developed at Duke Free-Electron Laser (FEL) Laboratory to successfully measure the spectral response of several spectrometers in the near-infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions. In this paper, we present both simulation and experimental results of the spectral response measurement, with a focus on high-accuracy spectral response reconstruction. Using simulation studies, we have tested and confirmed the validity of the spectral response measurement method while taking into account major sources of errors. Especially, it shows that the spectral response reconstruction technique developed in this work is rather robust against the spectral broadening of undulator radiation. The usefulness of this spectral response measurement method is also confirmed with the experimental study on a spectrometer in the visible region. Overall, we have achieved good results with the measured spectral response, with an RMS uncertainty of about 2.7% in the range from 414 to 591 nm. Using multiple measurements, the reproducibility of this method has also been tested with a relative difference of about 2.3% (RMS in the range from 415 to 590 nm). For high-accuracy measurements of a broad radiation spectrum, the knowledge of the spectral response of the spectrometer is critical. In this paper, we will show that the details of the measured undulator radiation spectra can be properly restored by correcting the raw spectrum using the measured spectral response. The method of spectral response measurement using undulator radiation is also useful to calibrate spectral devices in extreme spectral ranges such as VUV and x-ray.

Huang, S.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, B.; Wu, Y. K.

2014-03-01

404

Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mid-Infrared Spectrometer (MIRS) is one of four instruments that will fly aboard the orbiting Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). This telescope is a joint NASA/Japanese Space Agency (ISAS) project that is scheduled for a Spring, 1995, launch aboard a Japanese expendable launch vehicle and subsequent retrieval by the space shuttle. The telescope itself is liquid helium-cooled with a 15 cm aperture and will survey approximately 10% of the sky before its cryogen runs out and it begins to warm up. The MIRS was developed jointly by NASA, the University of Tokyo, and ISAS and operates over a wavelength range of 4.5 to 11.7 microns with a resolution of 0.23 and 0.36 microns. The MIRS has a conventional entrance aperture, so that spectral studies can be made of extended as well as point-sources. A cold shutter and an internal calibrator allow accurate absolute flux determinations. Calibration and sensitivity tests in the laboratory have shown that the instrument sensitivity will be limited by the fluctuations due to the zodiacal dust emission over the wavelength range of the spectrometer. The large A-omega of the spectrometer, the cryogenic optics, and the survey nature of the telescope will allow very sensitive studies of the spectral characteristics of diffuse extended emission. These observations will help in determining the composition of the galactic dust responsible for the warm component of the infrared cirrus. In secondary observing programs, the MIRS will also take spectra of the zodiacal dust emission as well as measure the infrared spectra of an estimated 9,800 point-source objects.

Roellig, Thomas L.; Onaka, Takashi; McMahon, Thomas J.; Tanabe, T.

1993-10-01

405

IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

2008-09-02

406

A Miniature Spectrometer for the Detection of Organics and Identification of their Mineral Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On future landed missions to Mars and small solar system bodies, efficient sample pre-screening will be necessary to select interesting targets for further analysis by analytical instruments with very limited time and power resources. Near infrared spectroscopy is well suited for rapid and non-invasive identification of mineral classes, and the possible presence of organic molecules. A small spectrometer on the surface also enables ground-truth for orbiting reflectance spectrometers operating at overlapping wavelengths. Here we describe a miniature acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) point spectrometer that is tunable from 1.6-3.6 microns. It identifies minerals associated with aqueous environments at sample scales of 1 mm, as well as organic molecules and volatiles, where they are present. Our low-power AOTF point spectrometer can be combined with other diagnostic instruments as part of a landed instrument package. It was recently integrated with a laser desorption time-of-flight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer developed at GSFC. The integration of the two instruments allows for coincident spectral measurements of a geologic sample. The LDTOF mass spectrometer shares an optical axis with the AOTF; follow-up measurements from the LDTOF are taken from an identical region on a sample of interest, allowing for a direct comparison between the two complementary data sets. The AOTF point spectrometer could be deployed in a variety of configurations, either as a stand-alone instrument or paired with the LDTOF, depending on the nature of the mission. The addition of AOTF technology to an in situ instrumentation suite could enable significant near-IR spectroscopic diagnostic capability without exceeding the resources of a small surface laboratory. This work was supported by NASA's ASTID and EPSCoR programs through grant numbers NNX08AY44G and NNX08AV85A, respectively.

Chanover, Nancy J.; Uckert, K.; Glenar, D.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Boston, P.; Getty, S.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.

2012-10-01

407

Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

1981-01-01

408

Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4? for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e--?-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e--? lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e--e--coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

Régis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Materna, Th.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.

2009-01-01

409

Imaging spectrometers using concave holographic gratings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

1993-01-01

410

All you can measure at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL): the case of quartz 0-25 micron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) of DLR in Berlin is equipped with two FT-IR spectrometers to allow measurements from the visible to TIR range using bi-conical reflection, transmission and emission spectroscopy. The laboratory experimental facilities consist of the main emissivity spectrometer laboratory, a supporting spectrometer laboratory for reflectance and transmission measurements, sample preparation facilities and an extensive collection of rocks and minerals. In this paper we show the capabilities of the facility for emissivity, reflectance and transmission measurements in most of the possible spectral ranges and environmental conditions that we can cover at PEL on a standard quartz sample in the 0-25 ?m grain size range.

Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.

2011-10-01

411

Effects of thermal fluctuations and fluid compressibility on hydrodynamic synchronization of microrotors at finite oscillatory Reynolds number: a multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study.  

PubMed

We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors by means of multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) simulations. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. Comparing simulations to theoretical results based on linearized hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. Thermal noise implies large fluctuations of the phase-angle difference between the rotors, but synchronization prevails and the ensemble-averaged time dependence of the phase-angle difference agrees well with analytical predictions. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressibility effects lead to longer synchronization times. In addition, the relevance of the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation are discussed, specifically the linear unsteady acceleration term characterized by the oscillatory Reynolds number ReT. We illustrate the continuous breakdown of synchronization with the Reynolds number ReT, in analogy to the continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with decreasing Reynolds number. PMID:25011003

Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

2014-07-24

412

The Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS)  

SciTech Connect

The Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a high spectral resolution, cryogenic x-ray spectrometer that will fly on the Japan/U.S. Astro-H observatory in 2014. The SXS is composed of a 36 pixel, imaging, x-ray calorimeter array that will operate at 0.05 K utilizing a 2-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and a redundant pre-cooler design using both a 40 liter liquid helium tank and a 1.7 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Additional redundant Stirling cycle coolers provide pre-cooling for the (JT) and cool the outer thermal shields for the JT and the helium tank. The detector system, while similar to that flown on Suzaku, is composed of larger 0.81x0.81mm pixels, but has significantly better performance, currently predicted to be better than 4 eV FWHM at 6 keV with 95% quantum efficiency. This instrument is the result of a close collaboration between many institutions in the U.S. and Japan over the last 25 years. Here we will present an overview of the SXS instrument, the SXS cooling system, and recent laboratory improvements to the detector system.0.

Porter, F. Scott; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Fujimoto, Ryuichi [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mitsuda, Kazuhiasa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Ohashi, Takaya [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan) and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States) and Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, JAXA, Tuskuba 305-8505 (Japan); Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Saitama University Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); RIKEN, Waco 351-0198 (Japan); Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); SRON, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2009-12-16

413

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Solar-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) is currently under development for flight on the Japanese Solar-B satellite. EIS uses a multilayer-coated off-axis telescope mirror and a multilayer-coated toroidal grating spectrometer to produce stigmatic spectra of solar regions isolated by a 1024 arcsec high slit. The instrument produces monochromatic images either by rastering the solar image across a narrow entrance slit or by using a very wide slit. Half of each optic is coated to optimize reflectance at 19.5 nm, and the other half to optimize reflectance at 27.0 nm, with each wavelength range imaged onto a separate CCD detector. EIS can provide key dynamical and density diagnostic information. Combining EIS data with observations from the other instruments on Solar-B should provide a detailed picture of solar atmospheric processes from the visible surface into the corona. In this presentation, we provide details of the instrument's expected performance based on calibration of the individual flight optics and end-to-end testing at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK.

Mariska, J. T.; Brown, C. M.; Doschek, G. A.; Korendyke, C. M.; Myers, S. H.; Seely, J. F.; Dere, K. P.; Lang, J.; Culhane, J. L.; Watanabe, T.

2005-05-01

414

Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

2011-01-01

415

Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

Vane, G. (editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (editor)

1985-01-01

416

An EUV spectrometer for atmospheric remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS) experiment, designed to investigate the interactions between the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The primary objective of this experiment is the verification the feasibility of using EUV observations as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and its plasma environment. The expected information provided by spectroscopic measurements of EUV emission will include data on the excitation mechanisms, excitation rates, and branching ratios. The BEARS experimental package consists of a high-resolution EUV airglow spectrometer, a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to measure both the solar radiations and the geocoronal emissions, and a moderate-resolution solar EUV spectrometer. In a test experiment, the instruments were carried aboard a four-stage sounding rocket to a peak altitude of about 960 km and obtained airglow spectra in the 980-1060 A range and in the 1300-1360 range.

Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Link, R.

1989-01-01

417

Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01

418

Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar Coll. (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Japan); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI (United States)

1998-07-01

419

A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.  

PubMed

The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l?mm VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l?mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction. PMID:23126988

Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

2012-10-01

420

Portable instant display and analysis reflectance spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable analysis spectrometer (10) for field mineral identification is coupled to a microprocessor (11) and memory (12) through a bus (13) and A/D converter (14) to display (16) a spectrum of reflected radiation in a band selected by an adjustable band spectrometer (20) and filter (23). A detector array (21) provides output signals at spaced frequencies within the selected spectrometer band which are simultaneously converted to digital form for display. The spectrum displayed is compared with a collection of spectra for known minerals. That collection is stored in memory and selectively displayed with the measured spectrum, or stored in a separate portfolio. In either case, visual comparison is made. Alternatively, the microprocessor may use an algorithm to make the comparisons in search for the best match of the measured spectrum with one of the stored spectra to identify the mineral in the target area.

Goetz, Alexander F. H. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

421

Testing of Josephson Spectrometer with Waveguide Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges in public security is the quick and reliable identification of threat liquids in bottles, when vapour analysis is not possible. Recently, we demonstrated that it is possible to rapidly identify liquids by EM measurements of their dielectric functions in the sub-THz range with a high-Tc Josephson spectrometer. Following this approach, we have developed a Josephson spectrometer with a new radiation coupling system, based on dielectric waveguides. In this paper, we present the results of spectroscopic measurements on liquid samples of various purities including 30% H2O2/H2O, performed using our Josephson spectrometer with waveguide coupling. Also, the signal and noise characteristics of a classical Josephson detector used in our liquid identifier were numerically simulated and the power dynamic range was estimated for a wide spread of junction parameters.

Lyatti, M.; Gundareva, I.; Pavlovskii, V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y.

2014-05-01

422

A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

2012-10-01

423

Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

2011-12-01

424

Micro-X X-ray Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-X is a NASA funded, rocket borne X-ray imaging spectrometer utilizing Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) to perform high resolution microcalorimetry in the soft X-ray band on astronomical sources. The TESs utilize the 50 mK stage of an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) as a heat sink – one of the biggest challenges in payload design and calibration is to maintain the temperature of the detectors. To achieve the best thermal environment and therefore the best possible resolution of the detectors, we combine software modeling of heat flow within the instrument with data from laboratory tests of thermal connections between the Front End Assembly and ADR. We present a brief overview of the instrument design, recent lab results and modeling, and an update of ongoing progress with the preparations for launch.

Goldfinger, David

2014-06-01

425

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04

426

Filter correlation spectrometers for remote sensing of tropospheric gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports on modelling and instrumentation developments in the field of gas correlation spectroscopy, a technique that employs the auto correlation between the features of an absorption spectrum of a gas in a cell with those of the same gas in an atmospheric path. While gas correlation spectrometers are widely used to detect ambient densities of atmospheric molecular species, this work focussed on remote sensing of gas constituents in the troposphere. The work built on the achievements of many others but most particularly on the NASA Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) programme that pioneered the use of gas correlation as an orbital tropospheric remote sensor of trace gases during the shuttle flights' STS-2 on Nov. 12, 1981, STS-41G on Oct. 5, 1984, STS-59 on April 9, 1994, and STS-68 on Oct. 1, 1994. The primary innovation in this body of work was the development of a digital microprocessor-based gas-cell-chopper correlation spectrometer. The use of on-chopper radiance targets and digital signal processing enabled the correlation spectrometer to be zeroed (balanced) without adding a second modulated black body reference signal. The digital method, by the elimination of thermally-sensitive analog components, also reduced the need to rely on external stabilisation of the instrument temperature to bring signal into an acceptable range. The application of these design concepts to hardware built as part of this dissertation resulted in tropospheric remote sensors with much reduced size, weight, power consumption and component costs. This body of work is primarily a proof of concept of the digital gas-cell-chopper correlation method. It included modelling, instrument design, laboratory calibration and field trials with four correlation spectrometers. The work described includes: (a) the development of a signal and noise model that incorporates radiometric considerations, (b) the improvement and evaluation (under simulated tropospheric remote sensing conditions) of the analog-based Barringer Research Ltd. AES GASPEC, (c) the design, construction and testing of two instruments, GASCOFIL and GASCOSCAN, developed by the writer, to prove the idea of a digital design approach to gas correlation spectroscopy, (d) the design, construction and testing of MicroMAPS, a space-qualified CO remote sensor that used the digital approach, (e) the use of GASCOFIL and GASCOSCAN to make tropospheric gas concentration measurements, including SO2 from coal fired generating plants, SO2, HCl, and NO2 from smelters and forest fires, CO over roadways, CO and N2O over Southern Ontario and CO and OCS from the Galeras volcano five days before its eruption (Charland, Morrow, Nicholls and Stix, 1993).

Morrow, William Henry, Jr.

427

The Bragg crystal spectrometer for AXAF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of MIT's high resolution X-ray spectrometry investigation on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility is to study the physical conditions in celestial sources by means of detailed measurements of their X-ray spectra. The investigation involves two complimentary dispersive instruments, a Bragg crystal spectrometer (BCS) and a high energy transmission grating spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the BCS which will be used to measure the strengths of individual lines from both point and extended objects in order to apply plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic X-ray sources.

Canizares, C. R.; Markert, T. H.; Clark, G. W.

1986-01-01

428

A multichannel magneto-chiral dichroism spectrometer.  

PubMed

In this work, we describe a multichannel magneto-chiral dichroism spectrometer for the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges. The optical signal acquisition is based on commercially available Czerny-Turner spectrograph systems equipped with solid state detector arrays. The signal analysis method is based on post-processing phase sensitive detection, where the optical properties of the sample are modulated by an alternating external magnetic field. As an illustration of the performance of this spectrometer, magneto-chiral dichroism was measured in crystals of ? - NiSO4 · 6H2O and good agreement with literature results was obtained. PMID:24880352

Kopnov, G; Rikken, G L J A

2014-05-01

429

The Mass Spectrometer - How It Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a simple description of how a mass spectrometer works. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. Keywords: mass spectrometer, mass spectrometry, mass spectrum, mass spectra, spectrum, spectra, mass, ionisation, acceleration, deflection, detection

Clark, Jim

2012-12-18

430

What Is Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Arizona State University presents information about the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) that was originally developed for use on the Mars Observer spacecraft. The TES is both an instrument and a technique that measures the thermal infrared energy (heat) emitted from Mars. Using this technique, scientists may be able to determine much about the geology and atmosphere of Mars by examining the spectral responses of specific minerals and gases. This site includes information about thermal infrared energy as well as understandable explanations of both the spectrometer itself and the spectroscopy technique.

Ruff, S. W.; Hamilton, V. E.; University, Arizona S.

431

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-21

432

Noiseless coding for the Gamma Ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload of several future unmanned space missions will include a sophisticated gamma ray spectrometer. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return from this instrument. This report investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to represent gamma ray spectrometer data more efficiently without any loss in data integrity. Performance results demonstrate compression factors from 2.5:1 to 20:1 in comparison to a standard representation. Feasibility was also demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using an Intel 8086 processor.

Rice, R.; Lee, J. J.

1985-01-01

433

The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment, or 'DXS', is designed to measure the spectrum of the low-energy diffuse X-ray background with about 10 eV energy resolution and 15-deg spatial resolution. During a 5-day Space Shuttle mission, DXS is to measure the spectrum of ten 15 x 15 deg regions lying along a single 150-deg-long great circle arc on the sky. DXS carries two large-area X-ray Bragg spectrometers for the 44-84 A wavelength range; these permit measurement of the wavelength spectrum of the cosmic low-energy diffuse X-ray background with good spectral resolution.

Sanders, W. T.; Edgar, R. J.; Juda, M.; Kraushaar, W. L.; McCammon, D.; Snowden, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Skinner, M. A.

1992-10-01

434

The Offner imaging spectrometer in quadrature.  

PubMed

This is a proposal and description of a new configuration for an Offner imaging spectrometer based on the theory of aberrations of off-plane classical-ruled spherical diffraction gratings. This new spectrometer comprises a concave mirror used in double reflection and a convex reflection grating operating in quadrature, in a concentric layout. A very simple procedure obtains designs that are anastigmatic for a given point on the entrance slit and a given wavelength. Specific examples show that the performance of this type of system improves the performance of analogous conventional in-plane systems, when compactness and/or high spectral resolution is of fundamental importance. PMID:20588404

Prieto-Blanco, Xesús; Montero-Orille, Carlos; González-Nuñez, Héctor; Mouriz, María Dolores; Lago, Elena López; de la Fuente, Raúl

2010-06-01

435

The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission will provide high sensitivity, high-resolution spectra in the soft x-ray band. The RGS performance requirements are specified as a resolving power of greater than 300 and an effective area of greater than 1000 sq cm across most of the 0.25 to 2.0 keV band. These requirements are driven by the science goals of the mission. We will describe the performance requirements and goals, the reference design of the spectrometer, and examples of science cases where we expect data from the RGS to significantly advance our current understanding of the universe.

Allen, Jean C.

2006-01-01

436

Beam Shape Effects on Grating Spectrometer Resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collimated optical beam in a grating spectrometer may be circular or elliptical in cross section, so that different parts of the beam illuminate different numbers of grooves on the grating. Here we estimate the consequent loss in spectral resolution relative to that obtained with a beam which illuminates a fixed number of grooves. For representative diffraction resolution functions, the effect is to reduce the intrinsic resolving power of the spectrometer by about 13%, exclusive of other contributions such as finite entrance slit width.

Erickson, Edwin F.; Rabanus, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

437

A multichannel magneto-chiral dichroism spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we describe a multichannel magneto-chiral dichroism spectrometer for the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges. The optical signal acquisition is based on commercially available Czerny-Turner spectrograph systems equipped with solid state detector arrays. The signal analysis method is based on post-processing phase sensitive detection, where the optical properties of the sample are modulated by an alternating external magnetic field. As an illustration of the performance of this spectrometer, magneto-chiral dichroism was measured in crystals of ? - NiSO4 . 6H2O and good agreement with literature results was obtained.

Kopnov, G.; Rikken, G. L. J. A.

2014-05-01

438

Digital optical spectrometer-on-chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of digital optical spectrometer-on-chip is proposed and results of their fabrication and characterization are reported. The devices are based on computer-designed digital planar holograms which involves millions of lines specifically located and oriented in order to direct output light into designed focal points according to the wavelength. Spectrometers were fabricated on silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide planar waveguides using electron beam lithography and dry etching. Optical performances of devices with up to 1000 channels for a central wavelength of 660 nm are reported.

Babin, S.; Bugrov, A.; Cabrini, S.; Dhuey, S.; Goltsov, A.; Ivonin, I.; Kley, E.-B.; Peroz, C.; Schmidt, H.; Yankov, V.

2009-07-01

439

NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

1998-01-01

440

Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

Wang, Jian

2013-10-29

441

Solid State Infrared Spectrometer for Tropospheric Air Quality Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrometers, in which a grating is coupled with a two dimensional detector array to provide high resolution spectra without the need for spectral scan mechanisms, can be designed in compact, low mass, rugged, configurations. The approach is particularly well suited to long-term, reliable, and stable operation in space borne applications. We have been pursuing the use of this technology for space borne tropospheric air quality monitoring, specifically targeting high spectral resolution atmospheric solar reflective and thermal emission spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range 2 to 5 microns. This is a region where key tropospheric pollutant and greenhouse gases such as ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, formaldehyde and water vapor, have strong spectral features. The relatively short wavelengths also allow for the use of well-developed detector technology as well as passive radiators to cool detectors and optics. With sufficient resolving power, sensitivity, and judicious combination of spectra in this range, precise tropospheric column information, and good information on tropospheric vertical distributions, including boundary layer data, can be obtained. We describe the development of a laboratory prototype of such a spectrometer, focused on the measurement of carbon dioxide spectra near 4.2 microns, and carbon monoxide spectra near 4.6 micron. The design uses a cryogenically cooled grating and associated optical train, coupled with a cooled 1024 x 1024 pixel HgCdTe array. We will present both laboratory absorption spectra and zenith-looking air emission spectra of CO2 and CO to demonstrate the spectral, radiometric and spatial characteristics of the instrument. We will briefly discuss the implications for a space borne nadir-looking application.

Roche, A. E.; Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Mergenthaler, J. L.

2006-12-01

442

High resolution infrared spectroscopy of planetary molecules using diode lasers and Fourier transform spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern observations of infrared molecular lines in planets are performed at spectral resolutions which are as high as those available in the laboratory. Analysis of such data requires laboratory measurements at the highest possible resolution, which also yield accurate line positions and intensities. For planetary purposes the spectrometer must be coupled to sample cells which can be reduced in temperature and varied in pressure. An approach which produces the full range of required molecular line parameters uses a combination of tunable diode lasers and Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). The FTS provides board spectral coverage and good calibration accuracy, while the diode laser can be used to study those regions which are not resolved by the FTS.

Jennings, Donald E.

1990-01-01

443

Calibration of a Flat Field Soft X-ray Grating Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated the x ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL, and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range from {approx} 6 to 60 {angstrom}. The calibration results present here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; May, M J; Porter, F S

2010-05-12

444

Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of {approx}6-60 A. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Park, J.; Cone, K. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Brown, G. V.; Schneider, M. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Baldis, H. A. [University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States)

2010-10-15

445

Using a PC-based Chemical Spectrometer for Undergraduate Astronomy Labs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present several laboratory exercises used with a commercially available optical\\/IR spectometer. The room-temperature spectrometer, produced by OceanOptics, has an optical fiber feed and provides 0.3 nm\\/pixel resolution with good sensitivity. Students are able to use a PC to obtain spectra of black body sources, gas discharge tubes, and the solar spectrum with just the standard equipment. The spectra can

C. G. De Pree; K. B. Marvel

1999-01-01

446

Radiation damage control in the BNL hypernuclear spectrometer drift chamber system  

SciTech Connect

A high rate drift chamber system has been in use at the BNL hypernuclear spectrometer system for the past three years. Some of the chambers have accumulated charge doses up to about 0.2 C/cm-wire without showing external signs of aging. The system design and performance will be discussed as well as the results of some laboratory drift chamber aging tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

Pile, P.H.

1986-01-01

447

A Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer instrument for the Measurement of Tropospheric HO2 and RO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory characterisations and field deployments of a Peroxy Radical Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (PerCIMS) instrument have been performed. During peroxy radical measurements with this instrument, ambient air is sampled through a 20-mum diameter orifice into an inlet held at low-pressure, typically 150 torr. Peroxy radicals are converted to other species in the instrument inlet through the addition of NO and

G. D. Edwards; C. A. Cantrell; S. Stephens; R. E. Shetter; L. Mauldin; E. Kosciuch; D. J. Tanner; F. L. Eisele

2002-01-01

448

High-energy resolution Thomson Parabola spectrometer for laser plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Thomson Parabola (TP) spectrometers are widely used devices for laser-driven beam diagnostics as they provide a complete set of information on the accelerated particles. A novel TP has been developed at LNS with a design able to detect protons up to 20 MeV. The layout design and some results obtained during the experimental campaign at PALS laboratory will be reported in the following.

Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cuttone, G.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Ter-Avetisyan, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Tramontana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-07-26

449

A micro-XRF spectrometer based on a rotating anode generator and capillary optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical characteristics of a laboratory-scale micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, based on a rotating anode X-ray generator and capillary optics, are described. Usually, a microbeam 15 ?m in diameter, derived from a copper or molybdenum anode operated at 45 kV, is used for sample irradiation. Elemental yields around the 1 count s?1(?g cm?2)?1 level are obtained, corresponding to absolute detection limits

K. Janssens; B. Vekemans; L. Vincze; F. Adams; A. Rindby

1996-01-01

450

Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer observations of Jupiter's auroral spectrum from 1600-3200 Å  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 and 1997 the Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) obtained the first measurements of Jupiter's nightside midultraviolet (MUV) polar auroral spectrum from 1620 to 3231 Å at 13 Å resolution. The reduced polar spectra, after removal of off-axis scattered radiation from the sunlit dayside of Jupiter, contain a spectrum that matches laboratory spectra of the H2 continuum in the a-b

Wayne R. Pryor; Joseph M. Ajello; W. Kent Tobiska; Donald E. Shemansky; Geoffrey K. James; Charles W. Hord; Stuart K. Stephens; Robert A. West; A. Ian F. Stewart; William E. McClintock; Karen E. Simmons; Amanda R. Hendrix; Deborah A. Miller

1998-01-01

451