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1

Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

1982-01-01

2

Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a for- mat suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064nm DeltaNu rst generation, eld-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064nm Bruker spectrometer and a 785nm Kaiser spectrometer. The steps taken to compensate for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and wavenumber sensitivity variation are described.

Weatherall, James; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D.; Smith, Barry; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

2013-02-01

3

Neutron background determination in the Gran Sasso laboratory by means of a novel coincidence neutron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We present the results of recent background measurements in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The measurements were performed by\\u000a a coincidence neutron spectrometer, allowing neutron identification by means of two different stages of pulse-amplitude analysis.

S. Affatato; A. Bertin; M. Bruschi; D. Bulgarelli; V. M. Bystritsky; M. Capponi; I. D'Antone; S. De Castro; D. Galli; U. Marconi; I. Massa; M. Morganti; C. Moroni; M. Piccinini; M. Poli; N. Semprini-Cesari; M. Villa; A. Vitale; G. Zavattini; A. Zoccoli

1991-01-01

4

GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 ?Bq/kg sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg){sup ?1} is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT’s under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-08-08

5

Taming Multiparticle Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement by using appropriate approximations in the space of quantum states. This leads to a criterion for entanglement which can easily be calculated by using semidefinite programing and improves all existing approaches significantly. Experimentally, it can also be evaluated when only some observables are measured. Furthermore, it results in a computable entanglement monotone for genuine multiparticle entanglement. Based on this, we develop an analytical approach for the entanglement detection in cluster states, leading to an exponential improvement compared with existing schemes.

Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

2011-05-01

6

Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K-and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Brown, G. V.; Adams, J. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.; Frankel, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Kelly, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Koutroumpa, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Thorn, D. B.; Träbert, E.

2009-12-01

7

Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

1999-11-01

8

The Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory UVvisible Ground-Based Spectrometer: First measurements of O3, NO2, BrO,  

E-print Network

­visible, triple-grating spectrometer and is very similar to the UT-GBS (University of Toronto- GBS), which has of the refurbishment of PEARL, a UV­visible diffraction grating spectrometer, the PEARL-GBS (PEARL-Ground- BasedThe Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory UV­visible Ground-Based Spectrometer: First

Strong, Kimberly

9

Multiparticle Bose-Einstein correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle symmetrization effects are contributions to the spectra of Bose-symmetrized states which are not the product of pairwise correlations. Usually they are neglected in particle interferometric calculations which aim at determining the geometry of the boson emitting source from the measured momentum distributions. Based on a method introduced by Zajc and Pratt, we give a calculation of all multiparticle symmetrization effects to the one- and two-particle momentum spectra for a Gaussian phase-space distribution of emission points. Our starting point is an ensemble of N-particle Bose-symmetrized wave functions with specified phase-space localization. In scenarios typical for relativistic heavy-ion collisions, multiparticle effects steepen the slope of the one-particle spectrum for realistic particle phase-space densities by up to 20 MeV, and they broaden the relative momentum dependence of the two-particle correlations. We discuss these modifications and their consequences in quantitative detail. Also, we explain how multiparticle effects modify the normalization of the two-particle correlator. The resulting normalization conserves event probabilities, which is not the case for the commonly used pair approximation. Finally, we propose a method of calculating Bose-Einstein weights from the output of event generators, taking multiparticle correlations into account.

Wiedemann, Urs Achim

1998-06-01

10

Comparison of spectral data gathered from a laboratory spectrometer and TM images with and without shadow correction  

SciTech Connect

Spectral reflectance data from field samples were determined with a laboratory spectrometer (Beckman DK-2A). The spectral curves obtained with the spectrometer were correlated with the histograms determined from the images. The tightly defined histograms from the shadow corrected TM provided the best correlation with the rock data. Several units, including the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, showed multiple spectral patterns on both images and rock spectra. This difference was evaluated versus geochemistry, hematitic alteration, devitrification, pumice content, and degree of welding. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

1989-01-01

11

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission was calibrated for routine analysis of: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Y. The following elements were also calibrated, but may be too low to be measured (10s-100s ppm) for their usual abundance on Mars: V, Cu, Ga, As, Se and W. An extensive suite of geological reference materials, supplemented by pure chemical elements and compounds was used. Special attention was paid to include phyllosilicates, sulfates and a broad selection of basalts as these are predicted minerals and rocks at the Gale Crater landing site. The calibration approach is from first principles, using fundamental physics parameters and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix to calculate expected elemental signals for a given instrument setup and sample composition. Resulting concentrations for most elements accord with expected values. Deviations in elements of lower atomic number (Na, Mg, Al) indicate significant influences of mineral phases, especially in basalts, ultramafic rocks and trachytes. The systematics of these deviations help us to derive empirical, iterative corrections for different rock groups, based on a preliminary APXS analysis which assumes a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as the X-ray diffraction data from CheMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Campbell, John L.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Gellert, Ralf; Andrushenko, Stefan M.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Maxwell, John A.; King, Penelope L.; Schofield, Céleste D. M.

2012-09-01

12

Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF  

SciTech Connect

SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

Yoneda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2012-11-12

13

Performance characteristics of a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) derived from laboratory and field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the formation of ozone and aerosols in the atmosphere. In an increasing number of field campaigns the proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) has proven to be a useful and fast tool for measuring VOCs and studying the relevant atmospheric processes. This work describes laboratory and field measurements with two different versions of

M. Steinbacher; J. Dommen; C. Ammann; C. Spirig; A. Neftel; A. S. H. Prevot

2004-01-01

14

Time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer for the Z machine at Sandia national laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed, fabricated, calibrated, and fielded a fast, time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer to observe the evolution of wire pinch spectra at the Z machine at Sandia national laboratories. The instrument has two convex cylindrical crystals (PET and KAP). Both crystals Bragg reflect X-rays into an array of ten silicon diodes, providing continuous spectral coverage in twenty channels from

D. V. Morgan; S. Gardner; R. Lijiestrand; M. Madlener; S. Slavin; M. Wu; T. J. Nash; V. L. Kantsyrev; D. A. Fedin

2003-01-01

15

Laboratory Astrophysics using a Microcalorimeter and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on an Electron Beam Ion Trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year we have been preparing our new microcalorimeter system for permanent delivery to the NIST EBIT. Unfortunately, there have been delays due to technical difficulties in the fabrication of the two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and in the life expectancy of the thin windows used for internal thermal baffling of the infrared radiation. These problems have been solved and we are completing tests of the entire system and it will be set up at NIST during the first week of May. Several photos of the new system are shown in Figures 1A and 1B. This microcalorimeter spectrometer only requires helium refills every three days (as opposed to every 24 hours) and it will hold a temperature! of 65 mK for up to 48 hours (as opposed to 8 hours). Consequently, the efficiency of data acquisition will improve dramatically. In parallel we have published a paper that reviews our previous work (Takacs et al. 2003), especially on Fe XVII, in the context of recent measurements by other groups. This paper is included. We highlight a recent measurement of a broad band spectrum of Fe in Figure 2 that simultaneously includes L and K radiation. It is compared with the simulated spectrum of the Perseus Cluster that one could expect to obtain with a microcalorimeter in the focus of a grazing incidence telescope such as the one being designed for Constellation X. Both the charge state distributions and the relative intensity ratios of the emission lines within the particular charge state are very similar in the two spectra. This further demonstrates the importance and relevance of the laboratory measurements in predicting the components of cosmic spectra.

Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Silver, Eric

2004-01-01

16

Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological…

Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

2007-01-01

17

Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional XRF technology, to evaluate the handheld technology. All of these samples are fine-grained and homogeneous, and were selected to eliminate effects introduced to the data by inconsistencies in the sample matrix, or added complexities like increased vesicularity or phenocryst content. Our calibration curves are built from smooth, sawed surfaces. We have examined all major elements, minus Na (which falls below the instrument sensitivity). Initial tests show that reproducible and reliable calibration curves are produced for Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, and Si, but the curves produced for Mg, Mn, K and P include greater uncertainties. We are currently investigating how the instrument signal variably drops off as a function of surface roughness and distance to the instrument window. Through studies such as these in the simulated GeoLab setting, we can better understand the instrument's capabilities in a field environment, both on Earth and for potential future missions to other planetary surfaces.

Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

2011-12-01

18

Comparison of laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at the beginning and end of the first flight season  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral and radiometric calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) were performed in the laboratory in June and November, 1987, at the beginning and end of the first flight season. Those calibrations are described along with changes in instrument characteristics that occurred during the flight season as a result of factors such as detachment of the optical fibers to two of the four AVIRIS spectrometers, degradation in the optical alignment of the spectrometers due to thermally-induced and mechanical warpage, and breakage of a thermal blocking filter in one of the spectrometers. These factors caused loss of signal in three spectrometers, loss of spectral resolution in two spectrometers, and added uncertainty in the radiometry of AVIRIS. Results from in-flight assessment of the laboratory calibrations are presented. A discussion is presented of improvements made to the instrument since the end of the first flight season and plans for the future. Improvements include: (1) a new thermal control system for stabilizing spectrometer temperatures, (2) kinematic mounting of the spectrometers to the instrument rack, and (3) new epoxy for attaching the optical fibers inside their mounting tubes.

Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Reimer, John H.; Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

1988-01-01

19

TIME-RESOLVED 1-10 keV CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR THE Z MACHINE AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, fabricated, calibrated, and fielded a fast, time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer to observe the evolution of wire pinch spectra at the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. The instrument has two convex cylindrical crystals (PET and KAP). Both crystals Bragg reflect x-rays into an array of ten silicon diodes, providing continuous spectral coverage in twenty channels from 1.0 to 10 keV. The spectral response of the instrument has been calibrated from 1.0 to 6.3 keV at beamline X8A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The time response of the 1-mm2 silicon detectors was measured with the Pulsed X-ray Source at Bechtel Nevada's Los Alamos Operations, where 2-nanosecond full-width half-maximum (FWHM) waveforms with 700-picosecond rise times typically were observed. The spectrometer has been fielded recently on several experimental runs at the Z Machine. In this paper, we present the time-resolved spectra resulting from the implosions of double-nested tungsten wire arrays onto 5-mm diameter foam cylinders. We also show the results obtained for a double-nested stainless steel wire array with no target cylinder. The spectrometer was located at the end of a 7.1-meter beamline on line-of sight (LOS)21/22, at an angle 12{sup o} above the equatorial plane, and was protected from the debris field by a customized dual-slit fast valve. The soft detector channels below 2.0 keV recorded large signals at pinch time coinciding with signals recorded on vacuum x-ray diodes (XRDs). On experiment Z993, the spectrometer channels recorded a second pulse with a hard x-ray emission spectrum several nanoseconds after pinch time.

D. V. Morgan; S. Gardner; R. Liljestrand; M. Madlener; S. Slavin; M. Wu

2003-06-01

20

Airborne and laboratory remote sensing applications of the CSIRO CO2 laser spectrometer MIRACO2LAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mid-infrared airborne CO2 laser spectrometer (MIRACO2LAS) was developed by CSIRO Division of Exploration and Mining to investigate the potential role of high spectral resolution thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing for improved remote sensing of minerals, especially those silicate minerals that do not have diagnostic features at shorter wavelengths, such as quartz, feldspars, pyroxenes and garnets. Other objectives include testing

L. B. Whitbourn; T. J. Cudahy; J. F. Huntington; P. M. Connor; P. Mason; R. N. Phillips; Peter Hausknecht

1997-01-01

21

Multiparticle State Tomography: Hidden Differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of completely characterizing multiparticle states including loss of information to unobserved degrees of freedom. In systems where nonclassical interference plays a role, such as linear-optics quantum gates, such information can degrade interference in two ways, by decoherence and by distinguishing the particles. Distinguishing information, often the limiting factor for quantum optical devices, is not correctly described by previous state-reconstruction techniques, which account only for decoherence. We extend these techniques and find that a single modified density matrix can completely describe partially coherent, partially distinguishable states. We use this observation to experimentally characterize two-photon polarization states in single-mode optical fiber.

Adamson, R. B. A.; Shalm, L. K.; Mitchell, M. W.; Steinberg, A. M.

2007-01-01

22

HISS spectrometer at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame but, instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. The beam can be brought into the magnet at a variable position and the magnet can be rotated.

Greiner, D.

1980-11-01

23

HISS spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

Greiner, D.E.

1984-11-01

24

Laboratory Astrophysics using a Microcalorimeter and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on an Electron Beam Ion Trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When we last reported, our new microcalorimeter system was being prepared for delivery and permanent installation at the NIST EBIT. This occurred in June 2003 and check-out with the internal calibration source and EBIT plasma x-rays took place over the next several months during which time we modified several component parts to improve the performance. These changes included: 1) A redesign of the x-ray calibration source from a direct electron impact source to one that irradiates the microcalorimeter with fluorescent x-rays. The resulting calibration lines are free of bremsstrahlung background; 2) The microcalorimeter electronic circuit has been significantly improved to ensure long-term stability for the lengthy upcoming runs of the EBIT. Both the preamplifier feedback resistors were changed and the first stage of the preamplifier redesigned. Several photos of the new system are shown in slides 3 and 4. This microcalorimeter spectrometer only requires helium refills every three days (as opposed to every 24 hours in our earlier system) and it will hold a temperature of 65 mK for up to 48 hours (as opposed to 8 hours). Consequently, the efficiency of data acquisition will improve dramatically. The first x-ray spectra of the new calibration source made with the 4-element detector array is shown. An example of the temperature control capabilities of the ADR for a 23 hour interval is shown. The horizontal line shows the temperature stability (about +/- 3 micro kelvin). There are a few short-lived heating excursions caused by technical staff working on the EBIT machine simultaneously. During actual experimental runs these are absent. This temporal profile was interrupted to test additional components of the system; otherwise, the temperature controlling would have continued for another 24 hours.

Silver, Eric

2004-01-01

25

Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube  

SciTech Connect

The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

Kayser, Y., E-mail: yves.kayser@psi.ch [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J. [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)] [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Neff, M.; Romano, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)] [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

2014-04-15

26

Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

2014-01-01

27

GEOMETRIC ALGEBRA AND THE CAUSAL APPROACH TO MULTIPARTICLE QUANTUM  

E-print Network

GEOMETRIC ALGEBRA AND THE CAUSAL APPROACH TO MULTIPARTICLE QUANTUM MECHANICS Shyamal Somaroo. August 19, 1997 Abstract It is argued that geometric algebra, in the form of the multiparticle space of the results. This is illus­ trated by comparing the geometric algebra approach for a system of two spin­ 1

Cambridge, University of

28

Geometric algebra and the causal approach to multiparticle quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that geometric algebra, in the form of the multiparticle spacetime algebra, is well suited to the study of multiparticle quantum theory, with advantages over conventional techniques both in ease of calculation and in providing an intuitive geometric understanding of the results. This is illustrated by comparing the geometric algebra approach for a system of two spin-1\\/2 particles

Shyamal Somaroo; Anthony Lasenby; Chris Doran

1999-01-01

29

Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy in multiparticle scattering fluids  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the basic scheme of laser Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy for the analysis of media with multiparticle scattering. It is shown that the Rayleigh scheme, in contrast to the heterodyne and differential schemes, is insensitive to the effects of multiparticle scattering. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

Dubnishchev, Yu N [S S Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2011-03-31

30

Spherical grating spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

2014-07-01

31

Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions.  

PubMed

The generation, manipulation and fundamental understanding of entanglement lies at the very heart of quantum mechanics. Entangled particles are non-interacting but are described by a common wavefunction; consequently, individual particles are not independent of each other and their quantum properties are inextricably interwoven. The intriguing features of entanglement become particularly evident if the particles can be individually controlled and physically separated. However, both the experimental realization and characterization of entanglement become exceedingly difficult for systems with many particles. The main difficulty is to manipulate and detect the quantum state of individual particles as well as to control the interaction between them. So far, entanglement of four ions or five photons has been demonstrated experimentally. The creation of scalable multiparticle entanglement demands a non-exponential scaling of resources with particle number. Among the various kinds of entangled states, the 'W state' plays an important role as its entanglement is maximally persistent and robust even under particle loss. Such states are central as a resource in quantum information processing and multiparty quantum communication. Here we report the scalable and deterministic generation of four-, five-, six-, seven- and eight-particle entangled states of the W type with trapped ions. We obtain the maximum possible information on these states by performing full characterization via state tomography, using individual control and detection of the ions. A detailed analysis proves that the entanglement is genuine. The availability of such multiparticle entangled states, together with full information in the form of their density matrices, creates a test-bed for theoretical studies of multiparticle entanglement. Independently, 'Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger' entangled states with up to six ions have been created and analysed in Boulder. PMID:16319886

Häffner, H; Hänsel, W; Roos, C F; Benhelm, J; Chek-al-Kar, D; Chwalla, M; Körber, T; Rapol, U D; Riebe, M; Schmidt, P O; Becher, C; Gühne, O; Dür, W; Blatt, R

2005-12-01

32

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-print Network

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07

33

Detection of Multiparticle Entanglement: Quantifying the Search for Symmetric Extensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide quantitative bounds on the characterization of multiparticle separable states by states that have locally symmetric extensions. The bounds are derived from two-particle bounds and relate to recent studies on quantum versions of de Finetti’s theorem. We discuss algorithmic applications of our results, in particular a quasipolynomial-time algorithm to decide whether a multiparticle quantum state is separable or entangled (for constant number of particles and constant error in the norm induced by one-way local operations and classical communication, or in the Frobenius norm). Our results provide a theoretical justification for the use of the search for symmetric extensions as a test for multiparticle entanglement.

Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Christandl, Matthias

2012-10-01

34

Laboratory evaluation of a field-portable sealed source X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for determination of metals in air filter samples.  

PubMed

Recent advances in field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP XRF) spectrometer technology have made it a potentially valuable screening tool for the industrial hygienist to estimate worker exposures to airborne metals. Although recent studies have shown that FP XRF technology may be better suited for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis of airborne lead in the workplace, these studies have not extensively addressed its ability to measure other elements. This study involved a laboratory-based evaluation of a representative model FP XRF spectrometer to measure elements commonly encountered in workplace settings that may be collected on air sample filter media, including chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc. The evaluation included assessments of (1) response intensity with respect to location on the probe window, (2) limits of detection for five different filter media, (3) limits of detection as a function of analysis time, and (4) bias, precision, and accuracy estimates. Teflon, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and mixed cellulose ester filter media all had similarly low limits of detection for the set of elements examined. Limits of detection, bias, and precision generally improved with increasing analysis time. Bias, precision, and accuracy estimates generally improved with increasing element concentration. Accuracy estimates met the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion for nearly all the element and concentration combinations. Based on these results, FP XRF spectrometry shows potential to be useful in the assessment of worker inhalation exposures to other metals in addition to lead. PMID:19387888

Lawryk, Nicholas J; Feng, H Amy; Chen, Bean T

2009-07-01

35

Aerosol extinction measurements with a new multipass aerosol differential optical absorption spectrometer (A-DOAS): Laboratory validation and initial ambient measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing incident solar radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of incoming light, but is typically approximated near 550 nm. As a result, climate models can have large uncertainties for aerosol contributions when considering the solar spectrum. An aerosol differential optical absorption spectrometer (A-DOAS) has been developed to address to measure aerosol extinction from mid-ultraviolet to near infrared. The instrument consists of a closed UV-Vis spectrometer coupled to a White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to 20 meters. Laboratory extinction measurements of polystyrene latex spheres, nigrosin dye, and carbon black are compared with theory to validate the new instrument. Further, the lower limit of detection for the A-DOAS is shown to be less than 1x10-7 cm-1 . Finally, ambient aerosols under a variety of conditions were monitored and future work suggestions are made.

Chartier, Ryan T.

36

Monolithic spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

1998-05-19

37

Monolithic spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

38

Pseudoslit Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pseudoslit spectrometer is a conceptual optoelectronic instrument that would offer some of the advantages, without the disadvantages, of prior linear-variable etalon (LVE) spectrometers and prior slit spectrometers. The pseudoslit spectrometer is so named because it would not include a slit, but the combined effects of its optical components would include a spatial filtering effect approximately equivalent to that of a slit. Like a prior LVE spectrometer, the pseudoslit spectrometer would include an LVE (essentially, a wedge-like narrowband- pass filter, the pass wavelength of which varies linearly with position in one dimension) in a focal plane covering an imaging planar array of photodetectors. However, the pseudoslit spectrometer would be more efficient because unlike a prior LVE spectrometer, the pseudoslit spectrometer would not have to be scanned across an entire field of view to obtain the spectrum of an object of interest that may occupy only a small portion of the field of view. Like a prior slit spectrometer, the pseudoslit spectrometer could acquire the entire spectrum of such a small object without need for scanning. However, the pseudoslit spectrometer would be optically and mechanically simpler: it would have fewer components and, hence, would pose less of a problem of alignment of components and would be less vulnerable to misalignment.

Reuter, Dennis C.; McCabe, George H.

2004-01-01

39

Multiparticle processes and tamed ultraviolet divergences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to computing the amplitudes of multiparticle processes in renormalizable quantum field theories is presented. Its major feature is a separation of the renormalization from the computation. Within the suggested approach, new computational rules are formulated. According to the new rules, the amplitudes under computation are expressed as a sum of effective Feynman amplitudes of which the vertices are the complete amplitudes of the processes involving not more than four particles, and the lines are the complete two-point functions. The new rules include prescriptions for computing the combinatorial factors by each amplitude. It is demonstrated that, due to these prescriptions, the combinatorial factors by the amplitudes that are divergent in the ultraviolet in four space-time dimensions vanish. Because of this, the computations within the new approach do not involve the ultraviolet renormalization.

Kim, Victor T.; Pivovarov, Grigorii B.

2014-12-01

40

A Wegner estimate for multi-particle random Hamiltonians  

E-print Network

We prove a Wegner estimate for a large class of multiparticle Anderson Hamiltonians on the lattice. These estimates will allow us to prove Anderson localization for such systems. A detailed proof of localization will be given in a subsequent paper.

Werner Kirsch

2007-04-20

41

Acquisition of a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for Laboratory Study of Prebiotic Organic Geochemical Processes on the Early Earth, Mars, and Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This was a major equipment grant that provided funds ($72K) for purchase of a benchtop gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use in experimental studies of prebiotic organic compounds. An Agilent model 689015973 GC-MS was purchased and installed in the PI's lab in August of 2003. The instrument is now being used for a variety of research projects. The primary use of the instrument is to analyze and quantify organic products of laboratory experiments conducted by the PI. One example is shown, which shows organic products (predominantly n-alkanes) formed during Fischer-Tropsch-type abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. The analytical capabilities of the GC- MS allowed identification of the numerous organic products of this as well as other laboratory experiments. A key use of the instrument in this research is that the mass spectrometer capabilities allow use of isotopically labeled reactants to trace the progress of reactions and evaluate background contaminants. collaborative projects with other scientists involved in exobiology & astrobiology research (e.g., Mitch Schulte, NASA Ames; Katrina Edwards, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). For instance, an analysis of membrane lipids of an lithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria being grown on basalt as a source of metabolic energy, a project where the instrument is being used to evaluate possible biomarker compounds from these organisms is shown. These iron oxidizers are thought to be similar to those living within the ocean crust, and are being investigated as possible analog organisms to those on the early Earth or crust of Mars. The instrument has also been used by an outside investigator (graduate student Brandon Canfeld, Arizona State University) for identification and isotopic characterization of experimental products of abiotic organic synthesis experiments he is conducting with Dr. John Holloway. analysis of quality control samples for other NASA-funded projects. For instance, an analysis of residual hydrocarbon contaminants on the internal surface of the shell of an atmospheric sounding rocket is shown. This analysis was used to help determine the source of the contaminating compounds. In the future, the instrument will continue to be used for quality control analysis in clean rooms and instrument construction facilities within the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, where the GC-MS is housed.

McCollom, Thomas

2004-01-01

42

A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J. Jr.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K. [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6670, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5345 (United States)

1999-06-10

43

Correlation spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-04-13

44

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in gamma-->p-->-->ppi+pi? with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W [approximate] 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp gammap-->ppi+pi? will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a “complete” experiment for the reaction gammaN-->KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction gammap-->ppi+pi? will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Sungkyun Park

2010-08-01

45

The target asymmetry P_z in {gamma}p-->p{pi}^+{pi}^- with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are reflected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.9 GeV/c{sup 2} are generally predicted to have strong couplings to the {pi}{pi}N final states via {pi}{Delta} or {rho}N intermediate states. Double-pion photoproduction is therefore important to find and investigate properties of highmass resonances. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly- and circularly-polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. In this contribution, the extraction of the target asymmetry for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

Sungkyun Park, CLAS Collaboration

2012-04-01

46

Multidimensional spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

Zanni, Martin Thomas (Madison, WI); Damrauer, Niels H. (Boulder, CO)

2010-07-20

47

CD Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a compact disc to make a spectrometer, an instrument used to measure properties of light. Learners use their spectrometer to view a continuous spectrum produced by fluorescent light. This lesson guide also includes instructions on how to build a spectroscope from a cereal box.

Doherty, Paul

2000-01-01

48

Polarimetric spectrometer for Italian Radiotelescopes .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new spectrometer has been designed and tested at the Radioastronomy Laboratory of Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory. It provides a resolution of 4096 spectral points over a bandwidth selectable between 0.5 and 125 MHz. It can analyze up to 8 independent signals with full polarimetric capabilities. This spectrometer can be used as back-end for a 7 channels double polarization radio receiver,working in the frequency range 18-26 GHz, implemented in the same laboratory.

Russo, A.

49

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

Chastagner, P.

2001-08-01

50

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

Chastagner

2001-01-01

51

Exploring the Capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Spectrometer to Study Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a European Space Agency hard X-ray/ ?-ray observatory for astrophysics, covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002, and since then the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors of the Anti-Coincidence Shield (ACS) of the Spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing light curves at photon energies above ? 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing long uninterrupted observing (about 90 % of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the shorter time needed to cross Earth's radiation belts. However, because of technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot be pointed at the Sun, and high-energy solar photons are always detected in nonstandard observation conditions. To make the data useable for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We checked the performance of the model employed for the Monte Carlo simulations using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations for the same sample of solar flares. We conclude that although INTEGRAL was not designed to perform solar observations, ACS is a useful instrument for solar-flare research. In particular, its relatively large effective area allows determining good-quality HXR/ ?-ray light curves for X- and M-class solar flares and, in some cases, probably also for C-class flares.

Rodríguez-Gasén, R.; Kiener, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Vilmer, N.; Hamadache, C.; Klein, K.-L.

2014-05-01

52

Renormdynamics, multiparticle production, negative binomial distribution, and Riemann zeta function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After short introduction, we consider different aspects of the renormdynamics. Then scaling functions of the multiparticle production processes and corresponding stochastic dynamics are considered. Nonperturbative quasi-particle dynamics is considered on the base of the toy QCD- O( N)-sigma model. Last section concerns to the NBD-Riemann zeta function connection.

Makhaldiani, N. V.

2013-09-01

53

Multiparticle simulation for morphological transitions in diffusion-limited aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two models based on multiparticle diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) are presented to study the morphological changes in diffusive systems. The first model, which takes into account the propagation of cations from the dissolving anode, is proposed for the Hecker effect, which appears in recent experiments of electrochemical deposition. The second model with two components, in which the one component is

Takashi Nagatani

1992-01-01

54

Expressing the operations of quantum computing in multiparticle geometric algebra  

E-print Network

We show how the basic operations of quantum computing can be expressed and manipulated in a clear and concise fashion using a multiparticle version of geometric (aka Clifford) algebra. This algebra encompasses the product operator formalism of NMR spectroscopy, and hence its notation leads directly to implementations of these operations via NMR pulse sequences.

Shyamal S. Somaroo; David G. Cory; Timothy F. Havel

1998-01-03

55

Expressing the operations of quantum computing in multiparticle geometric algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how the basic operations of quantum computing can be expressed and manipulated in a clear and concise fashion using a multiparticle version of geometric (aka Clifford) algebra. This algebra encompasses the product operator formalism of NMR spectroscopy, and hence its notation leads directly to implementations of these operations via NMR pulse sequences.

Shyamal S. Somaroo; David G. Cory; Timothy F. Havel

1998-01-01

56

Numerical method for interaction between multiparticle and complex structures.  

PubMed

We propose a numerical method for dealing with interactions between multiple particles and complex structures. In the method, the structures are represented on a grid by using the level set method. The interactions of particles and structures are calculated by a method based on the discrete element method. The method can treat the interaction between multiparticle and complex structures robustly. PMID:16383573

Yokoi, Kensuke

2005-10-01

57

Multiparticle entanglement of charge qubits coupled to a nanoresonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of charge qubits coupled to a nanomechanical resonator under the influence of both a phonon bath in contact with the resonator and irreversible decay of the qubits is considered. The focus of our analysis is devoted to multi-particle entanglement and the effects arising from the coupling to the reservoir. Even in the presence of the reservoirs, the inherent

M. Abdel-Aty; J. Larson; H. Eleuch; A.-S. F. Obada

2011-01-01

58

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

1981-11-03

59

Spectrometer gun  

DOEpatents

A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

60

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this outstanding problem. Experiments on lepton-induced jet-phenomenology in TRISTAN (KEK) have started already and further development will be expected also at LEP (CERN), SLC (Stanford) and others. For the hadronic and nuclear reactions, we would encounter many new exciting physics, in near future, at Tevatron (Fermi Lab.), the dream facility SSC (under planning), RHIC (Brookhaven) and others. Experiments on proton-antiproton collisions at TeV energies and on relativistic heavy-ion collisions have already started. The latter investigates the possible phase transition of hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma. Experimental confirmation of this phase transition would give big effects on many branches of physics. As a whole, the future of physics on multiparticle production will be quite promising. Therefore, we especially expect a fresh power by many young theorists in this field of physics. Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics, and it utilizes variety of methods and models. It well be therefore a rather troublesome task to grasp the present status of this widely extended physics as a whole. There are many excellent review papers. However, they are concerned with rather restricted topics with current interest. At this situation, it will be useful if there is a comprehensive review which covers a whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. This is the point of the author's motivation for writing the present review article. We hope that this article will contribute to a partial resolution of the above mentioned situation and in particular, young theorists then become more interested in this field. In writing the present article, the authors have put their attention to the following points: It should cover most of important topics of multiparticle dynamics at high energies, including e^+e^- annihilation, lepton-hadron and nuclear reactions; it should be described on the basis of modern viewpoint, especially, of QCD as far as we can; it should also cover good phenomenological models or pictures even though their theoretical foundatio

Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

61

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this outstanding problem. Experiments on lepton-induced jet-phenomenology in TRISTAN (KEK) have started already and further development will be expected also at LEP (CERN), SLC (Stanford) and others. For the hadronic and nuclear reactions, we would encounter many new exciting physics, in near future, at Tevatron (Fermi Lab.), the dream facility SSC (under planning), RHIC (Brookhaven) and others. Experiments on proton-antiproton collisions at TeV energies and on relativistic heavy-ion collisions have already started. The latter investigates the possible phase transition of hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma. Experimental confirmation of this phase transition would give big effects on many branches of physics. As a whole, the future of physics on multiparticle production will be quite promising. Therefore, we especially expect a fresh power by many young theorists in this field of physics. Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics, and it utilizes variety of methods and models. It well be therefore a rather troublesome task to grasp the present status of this widely extended physics as a whole. There are many excellent review papers. However, they are concerned with rather restricted topics with current interest. At this situation, it will be useful if there is a comprehensive review which covers a whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. This is the point of the author's motivation for writing the present review article. We hope that this article will contribute to a partial resolution of the above mentioned situation and in particular, young theorists then become more interested in this field. In writing the present article, the authors have put their attention to the following points: It should cover most of important topics of multiparticle dynamics at high energies, including e^+e^- annihilation, lepton-hadron and nuclear reactions; it should be described on the basis of modern viewpoint, especially, of QCD as far as we can; it should also cover good phenomenological models or pictures even though their theoretical foundatio

Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

62

Multi-particle interactions within the UrQMD approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanism for locally density-dependent dynamic parton rearrangement and fusion has been implemented into the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. The same mechanism has been previously built in the Quark Gluon String Model (QGSM). This rearrangement and fusion approach based on parton coalescence ideas enables the description of multi-particle interactions, namely 3 ? 3 and 3 ? 2, between (pre)hadronic states in addition to standard binary interactions. The UrQMD model (v2.3) extended by these additional processes allows to investigate implications of multi-particle interactions on the reaction dynamics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The mechanism, its implementation and first results of this investigation are presented and discussed.

Burau, G.; Gräf, G.; Petersen, H.; Bleicher, M.

2011-04-01

63

Cumulants, coherence, and contamination in multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry  

SciTech Connect

We examine the formalism of multiparticle correlations used in Bose-Einstein interferometry with pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We include incoherent and quantum optics coherent contributions as well as the effect of contamination from particles included in the correlation that are not pions. We give expressions for the correlation functions and normalized cumulants for orders 2{endash}5 in the presence of these effects. We show that in the presence of coherence the normalized cumulants include an additional contribution besides that usually called the {open_quote}{open_quote}true{close_quote}{close_quote} multiparticle correlation. We also consider the {ital Q}=0 intercepts of the correlation functions and normalized cumulants in the presence of coherence and of contamination and show that values of the intercept of the normalized cumulant as a function of order can distinguish these two effects. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Cramer, J.G.; Kadija, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen, Germany Department of Physics FM--15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen, Germany Department of Physics FM--15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

1996-02-01

64

Cumulants, coherence, and contamination in multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the formalism of multiparticle correlations used in Bose-Einstein interferometry with pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We include incoherent and quantum optics coherent contributions as well as the effect of contamination from particles included in the correlation that are not pions. We give expressions for the correlation functions and normalized cumulants for orders 2-5 in the presence of these effects. We show that in the presence of coherence the normalized cumulants include an additional contribution besides that usually called the ``true'' multiparticle correlation. We also consider the Q=0 intercepts of the correlation functions and normalized cumulants in the presence of coherence and of contamination and show that values of the intercept of the normalized cumulant as a function of order can distinguish these two effects.

Cramer, J. G.; Kadija, K.

1996-02-01

65

Multiparticle Dynamics in the E-? Tracking Code ESME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESME has developed over a twenty year period from its origins as a program for modeling rf gymnastics to a rather general facility for that fraction of beam dynamics of synchrotrons and storage rings which can be properly treated in the two dimensional longitudinal phase space. The features of this program which serve particularly for multiparticle calculations are described, some uderlying principles are noted, and illustrative results are given.

MacLachlan, James A.

2002-12-01

66

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed

Tekeshi Kanki; Kisei Kinoshita; Hiroyuki Sumiyoshi; Fujio Takagi

1989-01-01

67

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed

Tekeshi Kanki; Kisei Kinoshita; Hiroyuki Sumiyoshi; Fujio Takagi

1988-01-01

68

Description of Multiparticle Production by Gluon Dominance Model  

E-print Network

The obtained $\\pi^{-}$ and charged multiplicity distribution parameters of Gluon Dominance Model explain the experimental data in nucleus-nucleus, p nucleus, pd, pp, p antip and $\\pi^{-}$(p,n) interactions. We have undertaken an attempt to give description in different processes of multiparticle production by means of a unifed approach based on quark-gluon picture using the phenomenological hadronization. We have obtained agreement of GDM with experimental data in a very wide energy range.

L. N. Abesalashvili; L. T. Akhobadze

2007-11-28

69

Multiparticle SYM equations of motion and pure spinor BRST blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a multiparticle generalization of linearized ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills superfields is proposed. Their equations of motions are shown to take the same form as in the single-particle case, supplemented by contact terms. A recursive construction of these superfields is inspired by the iterated OPEs among massless vertex operators in the pure spinor formalism. An enlarged set of BRST-covariant pure spinor blocks is then defined in a streamlined fashion and combined to multiparticle vertex operators. The latter can be used to universally describe tree-level subdiagrams in the perturbative open and closed superstring, regardless of the loop order. The inherent symmetries of the multiparticle superfields are reproduced by structure constants of the gauge group, hinting a natural appearance of the BCJ-duality between color and kinematics in the fundamentals of super Yang-Mills theory. We present one-loop applications where known scalar cohomology objects are systematically recomputed and a novel vector cohomology particularly relevant to the closed string is constructed for arbitrary multiplicity.

Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

2014-07-01

70

Multiparticle entanglement purification for two-colorable graph states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate multiparticle entanglement purification schemes which allow one to purify all two colorable graph states, a class of states which includes, e.g., cluster states, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, and code words of various error correction codes. The schemes include both recurrence protocols and hashing protocols. We analyze these schemes under realistic conditions and observe for a generic error model that the threshold value for imperfect local operations depends on the structure of the corresponding interaction graph, but is otherwise independent of the number of parties. The qualitative behavior can be understood from an analytically solvable model which deals only with a restricted class of errors. We compare direct multiparticle entanglement purification protocols with schemes based on bipartite entanglement purification and show that the direct multiparticle entanglement purification is more efficient and the achievable fidelity of the purified states is larger. We also show that the purification protocol allows one to produce private entanglement, an important aspect when using the produced entangled states for secure applications. Finally we discuss an experimental realization of a multiparty purification protocol in optical lattices which is issued to improve the fidelity of cluster states created in such systems.

Aschauer, H.; Dür, W.; Briegel, H.-J.

2005-01-01

71

Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

1987-01-01

72

Multiparticle biased diffusion-limited aggregation with surface diffusion: A comprehensive model of electrodeposition  

E-print Network

Multiparticle biased diffusion-limited aggregation with surface diffusion: A comprehensive model of the multiparticle biased diffusion-limited aggregation MBDLA model supplemented with surface diffusion SD , focusing known as diffusion limited aggregation DLA 12 , in which a par- ticle diffuses on a lattice and attaches

Cuerno, Rodolfo

73

Rapid scanning mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

Leckey, J.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boeckmann, M.D. [Vacuum Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-11-25

74

Steady flow through a constricted cylinder by multiparticle collision dynamics.  

PubMed

The flow characterization of blood through healthy and diseased flow geometries is of interest to researchers and clinicians alike, as it may allow for early detection, and monitoring, of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we use a numerically efficient particle-based flow model called multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC for short) to study the effect of compressibility and slip of flow of a Newtonian fluid through a cylinder with a local constriction. We use a cumulative averaging method to compare our MPC results to the finite-element solution of the incompressible no-slip Navier-Stokes equations in the same geometry. We concentrate on low Reynolds number flows [[Formula: see text

Bedkihal, Salil; Kumaradas, J Carl; Rohlf, Katrin

2013-10-01

75

N=4 Multi-Particle Mechanics, WDVV Equation and Roots  

E-print Network

We review the relation of N=4 superconformal multi-particle models on the real line to the WDVV equation and an associated linear equation for two prepotentials, F and U. The superspace treatment gives another variant of the integrability problem, which we also reformulate as a search for closed flat Yang-Mills connections. Three- and four-particle solutions are presented. The covector ansatz turns the WDVV equation into an algebraic condition, for which we give a formulation in terms of partial isometries. Three ideas for classifying WDVV solutions are developed: ortho-polytopes, hypergraphs, and matroids. Various examples and counterexamples are displayed.

Olaf Lechtenfeld; Konrad Schwerdtfeger; Johannes Thürigen

2011-03-05

76

N=4 Multi-Particle Mechanics, WDVV Equation and Roots  

E-print Network

We review the relation of N=4 superconformal multi-particle models on the real line to the WDVV equation and an associated linear equation for two prepotentials, F and U. The superspace treatment gives another variant of the integrability problem, which we also reformulate as a search for closed flat Yang-Mills connections. Three- and four-particle solutions are presented. The covector ansatz turns the WDVV equation into an algebraic condition, for which we give a formulation in terms of partial isometries. Three ideas for classifying WDVV solutions are developed: ortho-polytopes, hypergraphs, and matroids. Various examples and counterexamples are displayed.

Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Thuerigen, Johannes

2010-01-01

77

Fully Automated Imaging Spectrometer  

E-print Network

Fully Automated Imaging Spectrometer User Manual Part Number 81092 ­ Revision 2 #12;Copyright................................................................................................................ 12 Installing the Grating)......................................................................................... 15 Installing the USB Spectrometer Utilities Software

Rubloff, Gary W.

78

QCD and Multiparticle Production - Proceedings of the XXIX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Monday morning session: Hadronic Final States - Conveners: E. de Wolf and J. W. Gary * Session Chairman: J. W. Gary * Inclusive Jets at the Tevatron * Forward Jets, Dijets, and Subjets at the Tevatron * Inclusive Hadron Production and Dijets at HERA * Recent Opal Results on Photon Structure and Interactions * Review of Two-Photon Physics at LEP * Session Chairman: E. de Wolf * An Intriguing Area-Law-Based Hadron Production Scheme in e+e- Annihilation and Its Possible Extensions * Hyperfine Splitting in Hadron Production at High Energies * Event Selection Effects on Multiplicities in Quark and Gluon Jets * Quark and Gluon Jet Properties at LEP * Rapidity Gaps in Quark and Gluon Jets -- A Perturbative Approach * Monday afternoon session: Diffractive and Small-x - Conveners: M. Derrick and A. White * Session Chairman: A. White * Structure Functions: Low x, High y, Low Q2 * The Next-to-Leading Dynamics of the BFKL Pomeron * Renormalization Group Improved BFKL Equation * Session Chairman: G. Briskin * New Experimental Results on Diffraction at HERA * Diffractive Parton Distributions in Light-Cone QCD * The Logarithmic Derivative of the F2 Structure Function and Saturation * Spin Dependence of Diffractive DIS * Monday evening session * Session Chairman: M. Braun * Tests of QCD with Particle Production at HERA: Review and Outlook * Double Parton Scattering and Hadron Structure in Transverse Space * The High Density Parton Dynamics from Eikonal and Dipole Pictures * Hints of Higher Twist Effects in the Slope of the Proton Structure Function * Tuesday morning session: Correlations and Fluctuations - Conveners: R. Hwa and M. Tannenbaum * Session Chairman: A. Giovannini -- Fluctuations and Correlations * Bose-Einstein Results from L3 * Short-Range and Long-Range Correlations in DIS at HERA * Coior Mutation Model, Intermittency, and Erraticity * QCD Queuing and Hadron Multiplicity * Soft and Semi-hard Components in Multiplicity Distributions in the TeV Region * Qualitative Difference Between Particle Production Dynamics in Soft and Hard Processes * Session Chairman: M. Tannenbaum -- Bose-Einstein Correlations * Questions in Bose-Einstein Correlations * The Source Size Dependence on the mhadron Applying Fermi and Bose Statistics and I-Spin Invariance * Signal of Partial UA(1) Symmetry Restoration from Two-Pion Bose-Einstein Correlations * Multiparticle Bose-Einstein Correlations in Heavy-Ion Collisions * Tuesday afternoon session: Heavy Ion Collisions - Conveners: B. Müller and J. Statchel * Session Chairman: J. Stachel * Probing Baryon Freeze-out Density at the AGS with Proton Correlations * Centrality Dependence of Hadronic Observables at CERN SPS * Study of Transverse Momentum Spectra in pp Collisions with a Statistical Model of Hadronisation * Session Chairman: B. Brower * Production of Light (Anti-)Nuclei with E864 at the AGS * QCD Critical Point in Heavy-Ion Collision Experiments * Tuesday evening session * Session Chairman: H. M. Fried * Oscillating Hq, Event Shapes, and QCD * Critical Behavior of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition * Shadowing of Gluons at RHIC and LHC * Parton Distributions in Nuclei at Small x * Wednesday morning session: Diffraction and Small x - Conveners: M. Derrick and A. White * Session Chairman: C. Pajares * High-Energy Effective Action from Scattering of Shock Waves in QCD * The Triangle Anomaly in the Triple-Regge Limit * CDF Results on Hard Diffraction and Rapidity Gap Physics * DØ Results on Hard Diffraction * Interjet Rapidity Gaps in Perturbative QCD * Pomeron: Beyond the Standard Approach * Factorization and Diffractive Production at Collider Energies * Thursday morning session: Heavy Ion Collisions - Conveners: B. Müller and J. B. Stachel * Session Chairman: N. Schmitz * Summary of J/? Suppression Data and Preliminary Results on Multiplicity Distributions in PB-PB Collisions from the NA50 Experiment * Duality and Chiral Restoration from Dilepton Production in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions * Session Chairman: I. Sarcevic *

Sarcevic, Ina; Tan, Chung-I.

2000-07-01

79

Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

Jones, D.G. (British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

1994-08-01

80

Multiparticle Higgs and Vector Boson Amplitudes at Threshold  

E-print Network

In a spontaneously broken gauge theory we consider (sub)-processes in which one virtual intermediate state (it can be a Higgs or a gauge field) produces many on-shell Higgses and massive vector bosons. In the kinematic regime where all final states are produced on their mass threshold, we show how to compute iteratively all tree-level amplitudes ${\\cal A}_{1\\to n+m}$ involving an arbitrary number $n$ of Higgs bosons and $m$ of longitudinal vector bosons in the final state, and list the amplitudes coefficients for up to $n=32$ and $m=32$. We find that these amplitudes exhibit factorial growth not only in the number of scalar fields, but also in the number of longitudinal gauge fields, ${\\cal A}_{1\\to n+m} \\sim n! \\,m!$. This growth is not expected to disappear at loop-level in the fixed-order perturbation theory. We conclude that at energies accessible at the next generation of hadron colliders, such as the 50-100 TeV FCC, where $\\sqrt{\\hat{s}}$ is sufficient to produce $\\gg 1/\\alpha_W$ of $W,Z$ and $H$, perturbation theory breaks down when applied to the multiparticle electroweak production, at least near the kinematic multiparticle mass threshold where the electroweak gauge-Higgs sector becomes strongly coupled.

Valentin V. Khoze

2014-11-06

81

Obsidian provenance determination by using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 1300 obsidian artefacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily were analyzed by using the BSC-XRF (Beam Stability Controlled - X-ray Fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, using low energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory at the LNS-INF and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of the Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb trace element concentrations where deduced through the use of a method that makes use of a multi parameter linear regression, previously The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In the present work the two instrumental devices are presented. The data are from: Milena (Cl), Ustica (Pa), Rocchicella (Ct), Poggio dell'Acquila (Ct), San Marco (Ct), Villaggio del Petraro* (Sr) and Licodia Eubea* (Ct). Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analysed samples. Analyses carried out on vitreous artefact found in Rocchicella, showed for the first time that the Palagonite was used as row material. *Preliminary data. Topic of conference: Application of XRS in archaeometry Kind of presentation: oral

Pappalardo, L.; Bracchitta, D.; Palio, O.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.

2012-04-01

82

Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

2013-12-01

83

Mass spectrometers: instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a dominant role in most work using mass spectrometers. This is illustrated with recent results on the chemistry of C+.60 including the formation of covalent adducts with aromatic compounds. Quantitative analysis of methylated nucleosides and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug taxol are also discussed. A compendium of mass spectrometers constructed over the past three years is provided. This includes a variety of hybrid instruments, combinations of sector mass spectrometers with traps, instruments designed to study collision dynamics, and many more.

Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

1992-09-01

84

Multiparticle entanglement in graph-diagonal states: Necessary and sufficient conditions for four qubits  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.

Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Weinstein, Yaakov S. [Quantum Information Science Group, MITRE, 260 Industrial Way West, Eatontown, New Jersey 07724 (United States)

2011-11-15

85

Optical fiber interferometric spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We design an optical fiber spectrometer based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer spectra information is obtained by Fourier transform of interferogram, which recording intensity change vs. optical path difference. Optical path difference is generated by stretching one fiber arm which wound around fiber stretch drive by high power supply. Information from detector is linear with time rather than with optical path difference. In order to obtain high accuracy wavenumber, reference beam is used to control the optical path difference. Optical path difference is measured by reference laser interference fringe. Interferogram vs. optical path difference is resampled by Brault algorithm with information from reference beam and test beam. In the same condition, one-sided interferogram has higher resolution than that of two-sided interferogram. For one-sided interferogram, zero path difference position must be determined as accurately as possible, small shift will result in phase error. For practical experiment in laboratory, position shift is inevitable, so phase error correction must be considered. Zero order fringe is determined by curve fitting. Spectrum of light source is obtained from one-sided interferogram by Fourier cosine transform. A spectral resolution of about ~3.1 cm -1 is achieved. In practice, higher resolution is needed. This compact equipment will be used in emission spectra and absorption spectra, especially in infrared region.

Liu, Yong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Yufeng; Wang, An

2006-02-01

86

Entanglement Polytopes: Multiparticle Entanglement from Single-Particle Information  

E-print Network

Entangled many-body states are an essential resource for quantum computing and interferometry. Determining the type of entanglement present in a system usually requires access to an exponential number of parameters. We show that in the case of pure multi-particle quantum states, features of the global entanglement can already be extracted from local information alone. This is achieved by associating with any given class of entanglement an entanglement polytope---a geometric object which characterizes the single-particle states compatible with that class. Our results, applicable to systems of arbitrary size and statistics, give rise to local witnesses for global pure-state entanglement, and can be generalized to states affected by low levels of noise.

Michael Walter; Brent Doran; David Gross; Matthias Christandl

2014-11-14

87

Generating Multi-particle Entangled State with Matter-Wave Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We put forward a realizable scheme for generating multi-particle entangled state with matter-wave interferometer, where the entangled properties are characterized by spin squeezing parameter and the reciprocal of the mean quantum Fisher information per particle (RMQFIP). The multi-particle entangled state can be generated by adjusting phase difference between two input ports of the interferometer and the better entanglement can be achieved by increasing the number of the total particles.

Liu, Li-Shu; Xia, Qi-Guo

2014-06-01

88

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113–432 nm with a wavelength

C. W. Hord; A. I. F. Stewart; C. A. Barth; L. W. Esposito; G. E. Thomas; B. R. Sandel; D. M. Hunten; A. L. Broadfoot; D. E. Shemansky; J. M. Ajello; R. A. West

1992-01-01

89

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Park, Sungkyun [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States)

2010-08-05

90

On statistical mechanics developments of clan concept in multiparticle production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clan concept has been introduced in multiparticle dynamics in order to interpret the wide occurrence of negative binomial (NB) regularity in n-charged particle multiplicity distributions (MDs) in various high energy collisions. The centrality of clan concept led to the attempt to justify its occurrence within a statistical model of clan formation and evolution. In this framework all thermodynamical potentials have been explicitly calculated in terms of the NB parameters. Interestingly it was found that NB parameter k corresponds to the one particle canonical partition function. The goal of this paper is to explore a possible temperature T and volume V dependence of the parameter k in various classes of events in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. It is shown that the existence of a phase transition at parton level from the ideal clan gas associated to the semihard component with k>1 to the ideal clan gas of the hard component with k<1 implies a discontinuity in the average number of particles at hadron level.

Brambilla, M.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

2008-02-01

91

Thermostat for nonequilibrium multiparticle-collision-dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC), a particle-based mesoscale simulation technique for complex fluid, is widely employed in nonequilibrium simulations of soft matter systems. To maintain a defined thermodynamic state, thermalization of the fluid is often required for certain MPC variants. We investigate the influence of three thermostats on the nonequilibrium properties of a MPC fluid under shear or in Poiseuille flow. In all cases, the local velocities are scaled by a factor, which is either determined via a local simple scaling approach (LSS), a Monte Carlo-like procedure (MCS), or by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energy (MBS). We find that the various scaling schemes leave the flow profile unchanged and maintain the local temperature well. The fluid viscosities extracted from the various simulations are in close agreement. Moreover, the numerically determined viscosities are in remarkably good agreement with the respective theoretically predicted values. At equilibrium, the calculation of the dynamic structure factor reveals that the MBS method closely resembles an isothermal ensemble, whereas the MCS procedure exhibits signatures of an adiabatic system at larger collision-time steps. Since the velocity distribution of the LSS approach is non-Gaussian, we recommend to apply the MBS thermostat, which has been shown to produce the correct velocity distribution even under nonequilibrium conditions.

Huang, Chien-Cheng; Varghese, Anoop; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G.

2015-01-01

92

On Statistical Mechanics Developments of Clan Concept in Multiparticle Production  

E-print Network

Clan concept has been introduced in multiparticle dynamics in order to interpret the wide occurrence of negative binomial (NB) regularity in n-charged particle multiplicity distributions (MDs) in various high energy collisions. The centrality of clan concept led to the attempt to justify its occurrence within a statistical model of clan formation and evolution. In this framework all thermodynamical potentials have been explicitly calculated in terms of NB parameters. Interestingly it was found that NB parameter k corresponds to the one particle canonical partition function. The goal of this paper is to explore a possible temperature and volume dependence of parameter k in various classes of events in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. It is shown that the existence of a phase transition at parton level from the ideal clan gas associated to the semihard component with k>1 to the ideal clan gas of the hard component with k<1 implies a discontinuity in the average number of particles at hadron level.

M. Brambilla; A. Giovannini; R. Ugoccioni

2006-05-24

93

Thermostat for non-equilibrium multiparticle collision dynamics simulations  

E-print Network

Multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC), a particle-based mesoscale simulation technique for com- plex fluid, is widely employed in non-equilibrium simulations of soft matter systems. To maintain a defined thermodynamic state, thermalization of the fluid is often required for certain MPC variants. We investigate the influence of three thermostats on the non-equilibrium properties of a MPC fluid under shear or in Poiseuille flow. In all cases, the local velocities are scaled by a factor, which is either determined via a local simple scaling approach (LSS), a Monte Carlo-like procedure (MCS), or by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energy (MBS). We find that the various scal- ing schemes leave the flow profile unchanged and maintain the local temperature well. The fluid viscosities extracted from the various simulations are in close agreement. Moreover, the numerically determined viscosities are in remarkably good agreement with the respective theoretically predicted values. At equilibrium, the calculation of the dynamic structure factor reveals that the MBS method closely resembles an isothermal ensemble, whereas the MCS procedure exhibits signatures of an adi- abatic system at larger collision-time steps. Since the velocity distribution of the LSS approach is non-Gaussian, we recommend to apply the MBS thermostat, which has been shown to produce the correct velocity distribution even under non-equilibrium conditions.

Chien-Cheng Huang; Anoop Varghese; Gerhard Gompper; Roland G. Winkler

2015-01-23

94

Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.

Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K. G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

2014-11-01

95

Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

Crocombe, Richard A.

2013-05-01

96

ISLA: An Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel type of recoil mass spectrometer and separator is proposed for the future secondary radioactive beams of the ReA12 accelerator at NSCL/FRIB, inspired from the TOFI spectrometer developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for online mass measurements. The Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances (ISLA) is able to achieve superior characteristics without the compromises that usually plague the design of large acceptance spectrometers. ISLA can provide mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) measurements to better than 1 part in 1000 by using an optically isochronous time-of-flight independent of the momentum vector of the recoiling ions, despite large acceptances of 20% in momentum and 64 msr in solid angle. The characteristics of this unique design are shown, including requirements for auxiliary detectors around the target and the various types of reactions to be used with the re-accelerated radioactive beams of the future ReA12 accelerator.

Bazin, D.; Mittig, W.

2013-12-01

97

Multi-particle assembled porous nanostructured MgO: its application in fluoride removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a simple and economical route based on ethylene glycol mediated process was developed to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) multiparticle assembled nanostructured MgO using magnesium acetate and urea as reactants. Porous multiparticle chain-like MgO has been synthesized by the calcination of a solvothermally derived single nanostructured precursor. The prepared products were characterized by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, thermogravimetry, scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and N2 adsorption (BET). As a proof of concept, the porous multiparticle chain-like MgO has been applied in a water treatment for isolated and rural communities, and it has exhibited an excellent adsorption capability to remove fluoride in waste water. In addition, this method could be generalized to prepare other 1D nanostructures with great potential for various attractive applications.

Gangaiah, Vijayakumar; Siddaramanna, Ashoka; Thimanna Chandrappa, Gujjarahalli

2014-12-01

98

Nuclear k_T in d+Au Collisions from Multiparticle Jet Reconstruction at STAR  

E-print Network

This paper presents the most recent nuclear k_T measurements from STAR derived from multiparticle jet reconstruction of d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV. Since jets reconstructed from multiple particles are relatively free of fragmentation biases, nuclear k_T can be measured with greater certainty in this way than with traditional di-hadron correlations. Multi-particle jet reconstruction can also be used for a direct measurement of the fragmentation function.

Thomas Henry

2005-11-01

99

A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

2003-01-01

100

Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

1995-05-10

101

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a)...

2014-04-01

102

On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons  

SciTech Connect

Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-04-01

103

On the history of multi-particle production in high energy collisions  

E-print Network

The 60th birthday of Johann Rafelski was celebrated during the Strangeness in Quark Matter 2011 in Krakow. Johann was born in Krakow and he initiated the series of the SQM conferences. This report, which briefly presents my personal view on a history of multi-particle production in high energy collisions, is dedicated to Johann.

M. Gazdzicki

2012-01-02

104

High efficiency transfer of quantum information and multiparticle entanglement generation in translation-invariant quantum chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that a translation-invariant chain of interacting quantum systems can be used for high efficiency transfer of quantum entanglement and the generation of multiparticle entanglement over large distances and between arbitrary sites without the requirement of precise spatial or temporal control. The scheme is largely insensitive to disorder and random coupling strengths in the chain. We discuss harmonic oscillator

Martin B. Plenio; Fernando L. Semião

2005-01-01

105

Reflecting Schmidt imaging spectrometers.  

PubMed

A new very wide angle imaging spectrometer optical configuration which uses an all-reflecting Schmidt camera with a prism spectrometer to give a strip field of view is presented. Three complete systems (15 degrees, 8.5 degrees, 2.6 degrees FOV), including fore optics and spectrometer optics, were designed. These slit fields of view are pushbroomed across object space to create a 2-D image. The performance of each near diffraction-limited system and optical prescriptions is detailed. An all-reflecting Schmidt camera fore-optics system with a 60 degree field of view is also given. PMID:18195937

Breckinridge, J B; Page, N A; Shannon, R R; Rodgers, J M

1983-04-15

106

Integrated Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed integrated grating spectrometer made in waveguide layer on silicon wafer. Occupies area of about 2 centimeters to 2nd power on wafer 0.4 mm thick. Operates in visible spectrum (wavelengths of 400 to 700 nm) and blazed to diffract in first order. Array of integrated grating spectrometers performs spectral analysis of picture elements along line. Optical fiber couples light from each picture element into separate integrated spectrometer. Technique enables continous independent variation, along grating, of pitch, curvature, and blaze angle. Grating designed to have large numerical aperture, zero aberration at two selected wavelengths, and very low aberration at intermediate wavelengths.

Lang, Robert J.

1990-01-01

107

Ranging-imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging spectrometer that can simultaneously obtain 3-D spatial and hyperspectral data has been developed. The Ranging-Imaging Spectrometer (RIS) is based on the Computed Tomographic Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) developed at the Optical Science Center, and the Scannerless Laser Radar (LADAR) architecture developed at Sandia National Labs. The instrument acquires hyperspectral data in a single snapshot and spatial data in a series of snapshots. The system has 29 spectral bands, 1024 range samples, and approximately 80 x 80 spatial sampling. The RIS is discussed along with analysis of test data.

Kinder, Brian A.; Garcia, John P.; Habbit, Robert D.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

2003-12-01

108

Composite Spectrometer Prisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

1985-01-01

109

Mass spectrometer calibration standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inert perfluorinated alkane and alkyl ethers mixture is used to calibrate mass spectrometer. Noncontaminating, commercially-available liquid provides series of reproducible reference peaks over broad mass spectrum that ranges over mass numbers from 1 to 200.

Ross, D. S.

1978-01-01

110

ExoMars Raman laser spectrometer overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, ExoMars mission. The RLS Instrument will perform Raman spectroscopy on crushed powered samples deposited on a small container after crushing the cores obtained by the Rover's drill system. This is the first time that a Raman spectrometer will be launched in an out planetary mission. The Instrument will be accommodated and operate inside the Rover's ALD (Analytical Laboratory Drawer), complying with COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Planetary Protection requirements. The RLS Instrument is composed by the following units: SPU (Spectrometer Unit); iOH: (Internal Optical Head); ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit). Other instrument units are EH (Electrical Harness), OH (Optical Harness) and RLS SW On-Board.

Rull, F.; Sansano, A.; Díaz, E.; Canora, C. P.; Moral, A. G.; Tato, C.; Colombo, M.; Belenguer, T.; Fernández, M.; Manfredi, J. A. R.; Canchal, R.; Dávila, B.; Jiménez, A.; Gallego, P.; Ibarmia, S.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Santiago, A.; Pla, J.; Ramos, G.; González, C.

2010-09-01

111

Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

1997-01-01

112

ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS  

SciTech Connect

High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

2008-03-10

113

Faithful teleportation of multi-particle states involving multi spatially remote agents via probabilistic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to faithfully teleport an unknown quantum state of entangled particles in a multi-particle system involving multi spatially remote agents via probabilistic channels. In our scheme, the integrity of an entangled multi-particle state can be maintained even when the construction of a faithful channel fails. Furthermore, in a quantum teleportation network, there are generally multi spatially remote agents which play the role of relay nodes between a sender and a distant receiver. Hence, we propose two schemes for directly and indirectly constructing a faithful channel between the sender and the distant receiver with the assistance of relay agents, respectively. Our results show that the required auxiliary particle resources, local operations and classical communications are considerably reduced for the present purpose.

Jiang, Min; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zeng-ke; Zeng, Jia

2011-02-01

114

Non-contact multi-particle annular patterning and manipulation with ultrasound microbeam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle-trapping offers diverse opportunities and applications in biotechnology. It can be applied to creating various functional materials or organizing reactive particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to trap and manipulate multi-particles in an annular pattern with a 24 MHz focused ring-type single element ultrasound transducer. Acoustic ring trap can be useful in undertaking biotropism studies due to an equal-distance condition from the center. Also, this ring trap could serve as a force shield to protect analysis area from other cells. The experimental results showed the capability of the proposed method as a multi-cell manipulator in formatting specific patterns of small cells like sperms.

Lee, Changyang; Seob Jeong, Jong; Youn Hwang, Jae; Lee, Jungwoo; Kirk Shung, K.

2014-06-01

115

Electron-proton spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

Winckler, J. R.

1973-01-01

116

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the GeoFTS design is mature and flight ready.

Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

2012-01-01

117

Scaling of genuine multiparticle entanglement close to a quantum phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the scaling and spatial distribution of genuine multiparticle entanglement in three- and four-spin reduced states of the one-dimensional XY model at the quantum phase transition. We observe a logarithmic divergence, show that genuine three- and four-particle entanglement obeys finite-size scaling of the XY model and demonstrate that the genuine three-particle entanglement has a finite spatial range.

Hofmann, Martin; Osterloh, Andreas; Gühne, Otfried

2014-04-01

118

Comparing multiparticle production within a two-component dual parton model with collider data  

SciTech Connect

The dual parton model (DPM) is very successful in describing hadronic multiparticle production. The version of DPM presented includes both soft and hard mechanisms. The hard component is described according to the lowest-order perturbative QCD--parton-model cross section. The model is formulated in the form of a Monte Carlo event generator. Results obtained with this event generator are compared with data on inclusive reactions in the TeV energy range of the CERN and Fermilab hadron colliders.

Hahn, K.; Ranft, J. (Sektion Physik, Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic (DE))

1990-03-01

119

Multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing description of nuclear many-body systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we discuss the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method which aims to describe the structure of atomic nuclei. Based on a variational principle it is able to treat in a unified way all types of long-range correlations between nucleons, without introducing symmetry breaking. The formalism is presented along with some preliminary results obtained for a few sd-shell nuclei. In the presented applications, the D1S Gogny force has been used.

Robin, C.; Pillet, N.; Le Bloas, J.; Berger, J.-F.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

2014-10-01

120

Broad band waveguide spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

Goldman, Don S. (Folsom, CA)

1995-01-01

121

New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-Dâ doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The

P. Chastagner; H. L. Daves; W. B. Hess

1981-01-01

122

Ultraviolet spectrometer/polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved satellite instrument package consists of telescope, spectrometer with polarimeter, five detectors, and control electronics. Instrument is designed to study solar ultraviolet radiation. Polarimeter will determine four Stokes parameters and possible mechanisms for producing linear and circular polarization. Density measurements of Earth's upper atmosphere constituents are possible.

1980-01-01

123

Electron volt neutron spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ? E?100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born-Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics.

Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

2011-11-01

124

Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year, the Principal Investigator's research carried out under this contract has focused on an analysis of the implications of Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) results for the origin of Jupiter's atmosphere and the origin of the ice and other possible volatiles on the Galilean satellites.

Owen, Tobias C.

1998-01-01

125

Mass spectrometer mixture calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen isotope mixtures can be difficult to make for a number of reasons. The most difficult problem is the possibility of confronting extremely great and extremely small relative mass differences in the same analysis. Commercial mass spectrometers are now available that can overcome these problems. The analytical capabilities and limitations of these instruments will be discussed.

Hicks

1986-01-01

126

Mass Spectrometer Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Colby College Chemistry Department, this tutorial will help visitors understand what happens inside a mass spectrometer. Users are able to select various parts of the instrument to learn and see what happens inside: the vaporization chamber, the ionization chamber, the accelerator plates, the curved chamber, and the detector. Shockwave is required to use the learning activity.

Mundy, Bradford P., 1938-; Poon, Thomas, 1968-

2013-07-25

127

Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer at the HRIBF (ORNL, Oak Ridge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) array has been designed, constructed, characterized, and applied to the decay studies of 238U fission products at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A MTAS commissioning run was performed in January 2012 at the mass separator on-line to the HRIBF Tandem accelerator. Preliminary results of MTAS data confirm known decay patterns of 142Ba and 142La deduced from an earlier study using a total absorption spectrometer technique.

Woli?ska-Cichocka, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fija?kowska, A.; Karny, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gross, C. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rasco, B. C.; Zganjar, E. F.

2014-06-01

128

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer  

E-print Network

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer Alexander Y. Nazarenko* Chemistry multiwavelength emission instrument utilizing a commercial grating monochromator, a fiber optic sensor to collect visualization makes the spectrometer a useful educational tool. Key Words: Atomic emission spectroscopy; CCD

Nazarenko, Alexander

129

Multilaser Herriott Cell for Planetary Tunable Laser Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric optics and matrix methods are used to mathematically model multilaser Herriott cells for tunable laser absorption spectrometers for planetary missions. The Herriott cells presented accommodate several laser sources that follow independent optical paths but probe a single gas cell. Strategically placed output holes located in the far mirrors of the Herriott cells reduce the size of the spectrometers. A four-channel Herriott cell configuration is presented for the specific application as the sample cell of the tunable laser spectrometer instrument selected for the sample analysis at Mars analytical suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission.

Tarsitano, Christopher G.; Webster, Christopher R.

2007-01-01

130

Design of the Compact Wide Swath Imaging Spectrometer (CWIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Wide Swath Imaging Spectrometer (CWIS) is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer for the solar reflected spectrum (380-2500 nm) with wide swath (1600 elements), fast optical speed (F/1.8), and high uniformity (>=95%). The CWIS compact Dyson demonstrates a reduction in volume and mass over the equivalent Offner-type instrument. CWIS is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is intended to address the need for high signal to noise ratio compact imaging spectrometer systems for the visible short wave infrared wavelength range. Optical design, stray light modeling, and current status of the instrument are discussed.

Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Green, R. O.

2014-09-01

131

Multilaser Herriott cell for planetary tunable laser spectrometers.  

PubMed

Geometric optics and matrix methods are used to mathematically model multilaser Herriott cells for tunable laser absorption spectrometers for planetary missions. The Herriott cells presented accommodate several laser sources that follow independent optical paths but probe a single gas cell. Strategically placed output holes located in the far mirrors of the Herriott cells reduce the size of the spectrometers. A four-channel Herriott cell configuration is presented for the specific application as the sample cell of the tunable laser spectrometer instrument selected for the sample analysis at Mars analytical suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission. PMID:17906720

Tarsitano, Christopher G; Webster, Christopher R

2007-10-01

132

Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

1993-04-14

133

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

1992-01-01

134

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

1995-01-01

135

A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al K? X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

Eriksson, Susanna K.; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Hâkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mârten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J.

2014-07-01

136

A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar.  

PubMed

High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al K? X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer. PMID:25085185

Eriksson, Susanna K; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Webb, Matthew J; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Håkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mårten O M; Karlsson, Patrik G; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J

2014-07-01

137

EXTENDING THE USEFUL LIFE OF OLDER MASS SPECTROMETERS  

SciTech Connect

Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261{trademark} Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

2010-06-17

138

Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system  

DOEpatents

An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

Filby, Evan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-01-01

139

Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.  

SciTech Connect

With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

2007-03-01

140

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

1996-06-11

141

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Kimmons, James F. (Manteca, CA); Myers, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

142

Multi-particle weak-strong simulation of RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation.  

SciTech Connect

To compensate the large tune spread generated by the beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton (pp) run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy round Gaussian electron beam or electron lens is proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. Using a weakstrong beam-beam interaction model, we carry out multiparticle simulations to investigate the effects of head-on beam-beam compensation on the proton beam's lifetime and emittance growth. The simplectic 6-D element-by-element tracking code SixTrack is adopted and modified for this study. The code benchmarking and preliminary simulation results are presented.

Luo,Y.; Abreu, N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; FischW; Robert-Demolaize, G.

2008-06-23

143

Effect of multiparticle correlations on the stability of electron-positron clusters  

SciTech Connect

The total energy of electrically neutral electron-positron clusters with closed shells containing different numbers of pairs has been calculated. The inclusion of multiparticle correlations in the random phase approximation with exchange has allowed the reduction of the energy per pair of particles below the energy per dipositronium molecule. The calculations have revealed the region of the minimum of the total energy per pair of particles at the numbers of pairs in the range of 20 to 40, which assumingly correspond to the most stable electron-positron droplets.

Ipatov, A. N., E-mail: Andrei_ipatov@mail.ru; Ivanov, V. K.; Polozkov, R. G. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

144

Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding Saturn’s magnetosphere and its complex interactions with Titan, the icy satellites and rings, Saturn’s ionosphere and aurora, and the solar wind. Our design approach meets these goals by emphasizing two complementary types of measurements: high-time resolution velocity distributions of electrons and all major ion species; and lower-time resolution, high-mass resolution spectra of all ion species. The CAPS instrument is made up of three sensors: the Electron Spectrometer (ELS), the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS), and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). The ELS measures the velocity distribution of electrons from 0.6 eV to 28,250 keV, a range that permits coverage of thermal electrons found at Titan and near the ring plane as well as more energetic trapped electrons and auroral particles. The IBS measures ion velocity distributions with very high angular and energy resolution from 1 eV to 49,800 keV. It is specially designed to measure sharply defined ion beams expected in the solar wind at 9.5 AU, highly directional rammed ion fluxes encountered in Titan’s ionosphere, and anticipated field-aligned auroral fluxes. The IMS is designed to measure the composition of hot, diffuse magnetospheric plasmas and low-concentration ion species 1 eV to 50,280 eV with an atomic resolution M/?M ˜70 and, for certain molecules, (such asN 2 + and CO+), effective resolution as high as ˜2500. The three sensors are mounted on a motor-driven actuator that rotates the entire instrument over approximately one-half of the sky every 3 min.

Young, D. T.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blanc, M.; Burch, J. L.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Grande, M.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Kelha, V.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Svenes, K. R.; Szegö, K.; Tanskanen, P.; Ahola, K.; Anderson, D.; Bakshi, S.; Baragiola, R. A.; Barraclough, B. L.; Black, R. K.; Bolton, S.; Booker, T.; Bowman, R.; Casey, P.; Crary, F. J.; Delapp, D.; Dirks, G.; Eaker, N.; Funsten, H.; Furman, J. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Hannula, H.; Holmlund, C.; Huomo, H.; Illiano, J. M.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Linder, D. R.; Luntama, T.; Maurice, S.; McCabe, K. P.; Mursula, K.; Narheim, B. T.; Nordholt, J. E.; Preece, A.; Rudzki, J.; Ruitberg, A.; Smith, K.; Szalai, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Viherkanto, K.; Vilppola, J.; Vollmer, T.; Wahl, T. E.; Wüest, M.; Ylikorpi, T.; Zinsmeyer, C.

2004-09-01

145

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

Manglos, S.H.

1988-03-10

146

Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

Singh, J. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

147

Calibration of a High Resolution Soft X-ray Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing grating for the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The spectrometer has a large radius of curvature, R=44.3 m, is operated at a 2{sup o} grazing angle and can record high signal-to-noise spectra when used with a low-noise, cooled, charge-coupled device detector. The instrument can be operated with a 10-25 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power on laser plasma sources, approaching 2000, or in slitless mode with a small symmetrical emission source. Results will be presented for the spectral response of the spectrometer cross-calibrated at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap facility using the broadband x-ray energy EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS).

Dunn, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Magee, E W

2010-01-26

148

High Resolution VUV Spectrometer at the INDUS-1 Synchrotron Source  

SciTech Connect

An indigenously developed high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer has recently been commissioned at the INDUS-1 Synchrotron Source, Indore, India for carrying out spectroscopic research of atomic and molecular gases. The spectrometer uses a 6.65-meter concave grating in off-plane Eagle mounting and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) for recording the intensity profile of various spectral lines. Experimental performance of the spectrometer has been tested using laboratory sources and 1200 grooves/mm and 4800 grooves/mm concave gratings. Wavelength resolutions of 0.08 Aa and 0.01 Aa have been achieved when 1200 grooves/mm and 4800 grooves/mm concave gratings have been mounted successfully in the spectrometer. The instrument has been integrated with the high resolution VUV beamline at INDUS-1 and its performance is being evaluated with synchrotron radiation.

Das, Nimai C.; Shukla, Ram P.; Udupa, Dinesh V.; Sahoo, Naba K.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Sunanda, K.; Saraswathy, P. [Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai -400 085 (India)

2007-01-19

149

[Small imaging spectrometer for the inspection of fruit quality].  

PubMed

Imaging spectrometer can acquire spatial and spectral information of the target at the same time, achieve high-precision, non-destructive, non-contamination and large area instantaneous inspection of the fruit. In order to get the imaging spectrum of the fruit, compact imaging spectrometer with convex grating produced by self was designed, it has the advantages of good performance, small volume and low weight, its resolution at 578 nm is 2.1 nm, and spectral line bend and chromatic distortion are both smaller than 0.6%. Laboratory test of the imaging spectrometer and the experiment of getting the imaging spectrum of apple were done, and the result shows that the imaging spectrometer satisfies the design requirement and can acquire the imaging spectrum of apple rapidly with high precision for inspection of fruit quality. PMID:22497177

Liu, Yu-juan; Tang, Yu-guo; Cui, Ji-cheng; Bayanheshig

2012-01-01

150

Comparison of a transmission grating spectrometer to a reflective grating spectrometer for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate a new transmission grating spectrometer for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. LIBS spectra collected from standoff distances are often weak, with smaller peaks blending into the background and noise. Scattered light inside the spectrometer can also contribute to poor signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios for smaller emission peaks. Further, collecting standoff spectra can be difficult because most spectrometers are designed for laboratory environments and not for measurements in the field. To address these issues, a custom-designed small, lightweight transmission grating spectrometer with no moving parts was built that is well suited for standoff LIBS field measurements. The performance of the spectrometer was quantified through 10 m standoff LIBS measurements collected from aluminum alloy samples and measurements from spectra of a Hg-Ar lamp. The measurements were compared to those collected using a Czerny-Turner reflective grating spectrometer that covered a similar spectral range and used the same ICCD camera. Measurements using the transmission grating spectrometer had a 363% improved signal-to-noise ratio when measured using the 669 nm aluminum emission peak.

Weisberg, Arel; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2010-05-01

151

GRIS: The grating infrared spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grating infrared spectrometer (GRIS) is an echelle grating, prism cross-dispersed, spectrometer designed for the 2.3-m Steward Observatory telescope. The cross-dispersed format utilizes a Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer 3 (NICMOS 3) HgCdTe detector array for observations in the 0.86-2.5 micrometer spectral region. An echelle grating, ruled on both sides, provides resolutions of 3449 and 9439 per slit width,

Rodger I. Thompson; Harland W. Epps; Greg Winters; William Womack; Eric Mentzell

1994-01-01

152

Gamma ray spectrometer for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma diagnostics is considered to be primary for the confined ?-particles and runaway electrons measurements on ITER. The gamma spectrometer will be embedded into a neutron dump of the ITER Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic complex. It will supplement NPA measurements on the fuel isotope ratio and confined alphas/fast ions. In this paper an update on ITER gamma spectrometer developments is given. A new geometry of the system is described and detailed analysis of expected signals for the spectrometer is presented.

Gin, D.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.; Khilkevitch, E.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Pasternak, A.; Polunovsky, I.; Kiptily, V.

2014-08-01

153

Resonant ultrasound spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Visscher, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Zachary (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01

154

Multiparticle 3D imaging technique to study the structure of molecular ions  

SciTech Connect

When energetic molecular ions (E/sub ion/ = 0.1 to 0.5 MeV/amu) pass through thin solid targets a Coulomb explosion ensues due to the rapid (approx. 10/sup -17/s) stripping of the valence electrons. This process has been successfully used to derive stereochemical information on diatomic and on selected triatomic ions. In order to investigate more complex molecular ions as well as to obtain more accurate and detailed structure information, a large area, multiparticle, position- and time-sensitive detector has been developed to detect all atomic fragments in coincidence. The requirement of multiparticle detection independent of the relative particle positions leads to a rather complex data-readout and -reduction system containing approx. 650 analog-to-digital conversions per event. The system relies heavily on techniques developed for high energy physics experiments during recent years. The single event resolution of the apparatus with respect to bond-lengths and -angles has been studied by Monte Carlo simulations and is typically a few percent.

Koenig, W.; Faibis, A.; Kanter, E.P.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

1984-01-01

155

DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

156

The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer located at the ATLAS facility of Argonne National Laboratory is an online Penning trap system used for mass measurements of high accuracy on short-lived isotopes. It uses a gas catcher as a novel way to transform radioactive ions efficiently from different sources into cooled beams which are injected into ion traps for further preparation and measurement. The CPT has recently been successfully used to make precise mass measurements on over 40 neutron-rich and neutron-deficient radioactive nuclides related to astrophysical processes.

Wang, J. C.; Savard, G.; Sharma, K. S.; Clark, J. A.; Zhou, Z.; Levand, A. F.; Boudreau, C.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J. E.; Greene, J. P.; Gulick, S.; Lee, J. K. P.; Sprouse, G. D.; Trimble, W.; Vaz, J.; Zabransky, B. Z.

2004-12-01

157

Estimating the Entropic Cost of Self-Assembly of Multiparticle Hydrogen-Bonded Aggregates Based on the Cyanuric  

E-print Network

Estimating the Entropic Cost of Self-Assembly of Multiparticle Hydrogen-Bonded Aggregates Based entropysoften the two largest components of Ssare not. This paper provides improved estimates and illustrates(sol) that are based on the Sackur-Tetrode equation. This model is combined with one for rotational entropy to estimate

Deutch, John

158

A simplified multi-particle collision dynamics method to simulate microvascular capillary Leonor Garca-Gutirrez1  

E-print Network

, stenosis, risk factors, blood cells, computers. #12;3 INTRODUCTION High blood pressure is a major risk individuals with a genetic predisposition to high blood pressure suggests these problems1 A simplified multi-particle collision dynamics method to simulate microvascular capillary blood

Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

159

Strongly correlated multiparticle transport in one dimension through a quantum impurity Jung-Tsung Shen and Shanhui Fan*  

E-print Network

. In this article we focus on the scattering properties of such a quantum impurity, when one or more quantum of electrons through quantum dots 3­5 , and photons through quantum dots 6 or trapped atoms 7 . MoreoverStrongly correlated multiparticle transport in one dimension through a quantum impurity Jung

Fan, Shanhui

160

Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the minerals with different rock formations and to search for new minerals not resolved by OMEGA.

CRISM has found that the iron-rich clays (lower left image) correspond with a layer of rock that is dark red in the true color view (upper left) and bright gray in the infrared (upper right). In addition, it has found previously undetected exposures of aluminum-rich clay, in a rock unit that is buff-colored in the true color view, and bluish in the infrared. Both types of rocks formed early in Mars' history, about 3.8 billion years ago. The difference in clay mineralogy reveals differences in the environment either over time or over a distance of kilometers. CRISM will be taking many more images of the Mawrth Vallis region to piece together the geologic history of this fascinating area that was once a wet oasis on Mars.

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials -- leading to new understanding of the climate.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Califonia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor and built the spacecraft.

2006-01-01

161

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

162

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-12-26

163

The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Coastal Ocean Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRISM is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. Its critical characteristics are high throughput and signal-to-noise ratio, high uniformity of response to reduce spectral artifacts, and low polarization sensitivity. We give a brief overview of the instrument and results from laboratory calibration measurements regarding the spatial, spectral, radiometric and polarization characteristics.

Mouroulis, Pantazis; VanGorp, Byron E.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwppd, Michael; Wilson, Daniel W.; Richardson, Brandon; Dierssen, Heidi

2012-01-01

164

A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

Tai, M. H.

1977-01-01

165

Developing Tools for Undergraduate Spectroscopy: An Inexpensive Visible Light Spectrometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and implementation of an inexpensive, high-resolution Littrow-type visible light spectrometer is presented. The instrument is built from low-cost materials and interfaced with the program RSpec for real-time spectral analysis, making it useful for classroom and laboratory exercises. Using a diffraction grating ruled at 1200 lines/mm and…

Vanderveen, Jesse R.; Martin, Brian; Ooms, Kristopher J.

2013-01-01

166

Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

2012-10-16

167

The Atmosphere Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photoelectron Spectrometer (PES) is part of the complement of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites that are intended to enhance understanding of the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere. The spectrometer is designed to measure the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. It measures energies between 2 and 500 eV

D. P. Peletier

1975-01-01

168

Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

Lord, W. P.

1971-01-01

169

A High Resolution Fourier-Transform Spectrometer for the Measurement of Atmospheric Column Abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, high resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for atmospheric near ultraviolet spectroscopy has been installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (34.4N, 117.7 W, elevation 2290m).

Cageao, R.; Sander, S.; Blavier, J.; Jiang, Y.; Nemtchinov, V.

2000-01-01

170

Preliminary testing of a prototype portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral resource investigative work was built and tested. The prototype battery powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas proportional counters and two radioactive sources, Cd (10a) and Fe (55). Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

Patten, L. L.; Anderson, N. B.; Stevenson, J. J.

1982-01-01

171

Multi-particle entanglement of charge qubits coupled to a nanoresonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of charge qubits coupled to a nanomechanical resonator under the influence of both a phonon bath in contact with the resonator and irreversible decay of the qubits is considered. The focus of our analysis is devoted to multi-particle entanglement and the effects arising from the coupling to the reservoir. Even in the presence of the reservoirs, the inherent entanglement is found to be rather robust. Due to this fact, together with control of system parameters, the system may, therefore, be especially suited for quantum information processing. Our findings also shed light on the evolution of open quantum many-body systems. For instance, due to intrinsic qubit-qubit couplings our model is related to a driven XY spin model.

Abdel-Aty, M.; Larson, J.; Eleuch, H.; Obada, A.-S. F.

2011-07-01

172

Multi-particle FEM modeling on microscopic behavior of 2D particle compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the discrete random packing and various ordered packings such as tetragonal and hexagonal close packed structures generated by discrete element method and honeycomb, which is manually generated were input as the initial packing structures into the multi-particle finite element model (FEM) to study their densification during compaction, where each particle is discretized as a FEM mesh. The macro-property such as relative density and micro-properties such as local morphology, stress, coordination number and densification mechanism obtained from various initial packings are characterized and analyzed. The results show that the coupling of discrete feature in particle scale with the continuous FEM in macro-scale can effectively conquer the difficulties in traditional FEM modeling, which provides a reasonable way to reproduce the compaction process and identify the densification mechanism more accurately and realistically.

Zhang, Y. X.; An, X. Z.; Zhang, Y. L.

2014-11-01

173

Multiparticle quantum Szilard engine with optimal cycles assisted by a Maxwell's demon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete-quantum description of a multiparticle Szilard engine that consists of a working substance and a Maxwell's demon. The demon is modeled as a multilevel quantum system with specific quantum control, and the working substance consists of identical particles obeying Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. In this description, a reversible scheme to erase the demon's memory by a lower-temperature heat bath is used. We demonstrate that (1) the quantum control of the demon can be optimized for a single-particle Szilard engine so that the efficiency of the demon-assisted thermodynamic cycle could reach the Carnot cycle's efficiency and (2) the low-temperature behavior of the working substance is very sensitive to the quantum statistics of the particles and the insertion position of the partition.

Cai, C. Y.; Dong, H.; Sun, C. P.

2012-03-01

174

Multiparticle quantum Szilard engine with optimal cycles assisted by a Maxwell's demon.  

PubMed

We present a complete-quantum description of a multiparticle Szilard engine that consists of a working substance and a Maxwell's demon. The demon is modeled as a multilevel quantum system with specific quantum control, and the working substance consists of identical particles obeying Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. In this description, a reversible scheme to erase the demon's memory by a lower-temperature heat bath is used. We demonstrate that (1) the quantum control of the demon can be optimized for a single-particle Szilard engine so that the efficiency of the demon-assisted thermodynamic cycle could reach the Carnot cycle's efficiency and (2) the low-temperature behavior of the working substance is very sensitive to the quantum statistics of the particles and the insertion position of the partition. PMID:22587045

Cai, C Y; Dong, H; Sun, C P

2012-03-01

175

Ris Report No. 367 Ris National Laboratory  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENT GAMMA RADIATION GAMMA DETECTION GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY GLOBAL FALLOUT IONIZATION CHAMBERS Li of Environmental Gamma Radiation Using a Mobile Ge(Li) Spectrometer Systemo o C^ by S. P. Nielsen November 1977 of Environmental Gamma Radiation Using a Mobile Ge(Li) Spectrometer System by S.P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory

176

Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument has been developed to detect charged, sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. Two of these instruments were launched in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway as part of the Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) campaign and both detected charged aerosols. These in-situ measurements coincided with measurements by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite and the German/Norwegian Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric dust grains in the middle Atmosphere (ECOMA) rocket campaign. This instrument has a 25 square centimeter entrance slit that admits a continuous flow of air. Venting ports are placed lower on the detector in order to reduce pressure buildup. The air sample flows between three pairs of graphite electrodes biased symmetrically with increasing bias potentials. Electrons, light ions, cluster ions and heavy charged aerosol particles of both polarities are collected mass-selectively on the electrodes that are connected to sensitive electrometers. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes have been used to optimize the supersonic airflow within and around the instrument. The calibration of the MASS instrument as well as preliminary results will be shown. Acknowledgement: This project is supported by NASA.

Knappmiller, S.; Robertson, S.; Horanyi, M.; Kohnert, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.

2007-12-01

177

Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick

178

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

1989-06-06

179

Aerosol mobility size spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2007-11-20

180

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-08-08

181

Multiple order common path spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

182

Method for calibrating mass spectrometers  

DOEpatents

A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

2002-12-24

183

Searching for low-lying multi-particle thresholds in lattice spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We explore the Euclidean-time tails of odd-parity nucleon correlation functions in a search for the S-wave pion–nucleon scattering-state threshold contribution. The analysis is performed using 2+1 flavor 32{sup 3}×64 PACS-CS gauge configurations available via the ILDG. Correlation matrices composed with various levels of fermion source/sink smearing are used to project low-lying states. The consideration of 25,600 fermion propagators reveals the presence of more than one state in what would normally be regarded as an eigenstate-projected correlation function. This observation is in accord with the scenario where the eigenstates contain a strong mixing of single and multi-particle states but only the single particle component has a strong coupling to the interpolating field. Employing a two-exponential fit to the eigenvector-projected correlation function, we are able to confirm the presence of two eigenstates. The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a N? scattering threshold and has a relatively small coupling to the three-quark interpolating field. We discuss the impact of this small scattering-state contamination in the eigenvector projected correlation function on previous results presented in the literature. -- Highlights: • Correlation-matrix projected correlators reveal more than one state contributing. • Results are associated with strong mixing of single and multi-particle states in QCD. • A two-exponential fit confirms the presence of two QCD eigenstates. •The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a nucleon–pion scattering threshold. •The impact of this small contamination on the higher-lying state is examined.

Mahbub, M. Selim [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia) [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); CSIRO Computational Informatics, College Road, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Kamleh, Waseem [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia)] [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); Leinweber, Derek B., E-mail: derek.leinweber@adelaide.edu.au [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); Williams, Anthony G. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia)] [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia)

2014-03-15

184

HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY2nd QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORTDevelop the theory connecting pyrometer and streak camera spectrometer data to the material properties of beam heatedtargets and compare to the data  

SciTech Connect

This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects pyrometer and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that as the metallic foils are heated they break into droplets (cf. HIFS VNL Milestone Report FY 2009 Q4). Evaporation of the metallic surface will occur, but optical emission should be directly observable from the solid or liquid surface of the foil or from droplets. However, the emissivity of hot material may be changed from the cold material and interference effects will alter the spectrum emitted from small droplets. These effects have been incorporated into a theory of emission from droplets. We have measured emission using streaked spectrometry and together with theory of emission from heated droplets have inferred the temperature of a gold foil heated by the NDCX-I experiment. The intensity measured by the spectrometer is proportional to the emissivity times the blackbody intensity at the temperature of the foil or droplets. Traditionally, a functional form for the emissivity as a function of wavelength (such as a quadratic) is assumed and the three unknown emissivity parameters (for the case of a quadratic) and the temperature are obtained by minimizing the deviations from the fit. In the case of the NDCX-I experiment, two minima were obtained: at 7200 K and 2400 K. The best fit was at 7200 K. However, when the actual measured emissivity of gold was used and when the theoretical corrections for droplet interference effects were made for emission from droplets having radii in the range 0.2 to 2.0 microns, the corrected emissivity was consistent with the 2400 K value, whereas the fit emissivity at 7200 K shows no similarity to the corrected emissivity curves. Further, an estimate of the temperature obtained from beam heating is consistent with the lower value. This exercise proved to be a warning to be skeptical of assuming functional forms when they are unknown, and also represents a first success of the droplet emission theory. The thermal optical emission from a hot metal surface is polarized (for observation angles that are not normal to the surface). By observing the intensity of both polarizations at two or more observation angles the emissivity can be inferred directly, and the temperature at the surface unambiguously determined. Emission from the spolarization (where the E-field is parallel to the surface and normal to the wave vector) is generally less intense than emission from the p-polarization (E-field that is normal to the s-polarization E-field and the wave vector.) The emissivity and temperature may be inferred directly without assuming any specific functional form for the emissivity or resorting to published data tables (which usually do not apply when temperatures reach the WDM regime). We have derived the theory of polarized emission from hot metals, and consider an improved method of temperature determination that takes advantage of polarization measurements, which we call polarization pyrometry. Thus far we have successfully applied the theory to electrically heated metallic filaments, and will apply the theory to beam heated targets when chamber space constraints are removed that will make it feasible to observe the targets at multiple angles. For the case of experiments on NDCX-II, hydrodynamic expansion on a nanosecond timescale that is comparable to the heating time will result in an expanding fluid, with a strong (but finite) density and temperature gradient. Emission will be observed from positions in the foil near the critical density (where the observation photon frequency is equal to the local plasma frequency). By assuming a brightness temperature equal to the local fluid temperature at the critical frequency, a time history of the emission spectrum from an expanding foil can be synthesized from a hydrodynamic simulation of the target. We find that observations from the ultraviolet to the infrared will allow a probing of the target at dif

More, R.M.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.

2010-04-01

185

The JPL Field Emission Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Field Emission Spectrometer (FES) was built by Designs and Prototypes based on a set of functional requirements supplied by JPL. The instrument has a spectral resolution of 6 wavenumbers (wn) and can acquire spectra from either the Mid Infrared (3-5 mu m) or the Thermal Infrared (8-12 pm) depending on whether the InSb or HgCdTe detector is installed respectively. The instrument consists of an optical head system unit and battery. The optical head which is tripod mounted includes the interferometer and detector dewar assembly. Wavelength calibration of the interferometer is achieved using a Helium-Neon laser diode. The dewar needs replenishing with liquid Nitrogen approximately every four hours. The system unit includes the controls for operation and the computer used for acquiring viewing and processing spectra. Radiometric calibration is achieved with an external temperature-controlled blackbody that mounts on the fore-optics of the instrument. The blackbody can be set at 5 C increments between 10 and 55 C. The instrument is compact and weighs about 33 kg. Both the wavelength calibration and radiometric calibration of the instrument have been evaluated. The wavelength calibration was checked by comparison of the position of water features in a spectrum of the sky with their position in the output from a high resolution atmospheric model. The results indicatethat the features in the sky spectrum are within 6-8 wn of their position ill the model spectrum. The radiometric calibration was checked by first calibrating the instrument using the external blackbody supplied with the instrument and then measuring the radiance from another external blackbody at a series of temperatures. The temperatures of these radiance spectra were then recovered by inventing Planck's law and the recovered temperatures compared lo the measured blackbody temperature. These results indicate that radiometric calibration is good to 0.5 C over the range of temperatures 10 to 55 C. The results also indicate that the instrument drifts slowly over time and should be recalibrated every 20 to 30 minutes in the field to ensure good radiometric fidelity. The instrument has now been extensively tested in the field in the United States and Australia. These in situ field measurements are being used to validate emissivity spectra recovered from the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) and also the Australian CO2 Laser. The availability of in situ measurements is proving crucial to validation of the spectra derived from the airborne instruments since many natural surfaces cannot be easily transported back to the laboratory.

Hook, Simon J.; Kahle, Anne B.

1995-01-01

186

The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: a new, permanent user facility at the LLNL EBIT  

SciTech Connect

The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is currently being completed and will be installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 2007. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory program. The new ECS spectrometer was built to be a low maintenance, high performance implanted silicon microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 {micro}s event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 60 hours at 50 mK. The XRS/EBIT program has been very successful, producing many results on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES instrument.

Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Doriese, W; Gygax, J; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; King, J; Irwin, K; Reintsema, C; Ullom, J

2007-09-07

187

Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

2008-01-01

188

Fast-neutron spectrometer developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Li6 sandwich-type neutron spectrometer is equipped with proportional counter for particle identification. System uses current-sensitive preamplifiers to minimize pile-up of gamma-ray and particle pulses.

Moler, R. B.; Zagotta, W. E.; Baker, S. I.

1973-01-01

189

Laboratory exercises incorporating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) encourage undergraduate students to  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Laboratory exercises incorporating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) encourage-pressure scanning electron microscopes (SEM) that can be equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Electron Backscatter Diffractometer (EBSD), has been used

Beane, Rachel J.

190

The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 ?as and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 ?m) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 ?m2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 ?m) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present the arrangement, direction of spectral dispersion and shift of polarization channels for both spectrometers, and the curvature of the spectra in the science spectrometer. In Section 2 we determine the best focus position of the detectors. The overall contrast of images at different positions of the detector stage is computed with the standard deviation of pixel values in the spectra containing region. In Section 3 we analyze high dynamic range images for each spectrometer and resolution obtained at the afore determined best focus positions. We deduce the ensquared energy from the FWHM of Gaussian fits perpendicular to the spectra.

Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

2014-07-01

191

Tunable far infrared laser spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy is reviewed. The development of tunable, coherent FIR radiation sources is discussed. Applications of tunable FIR laser spectrometers for measurement of rotational spectra and dipole moments of molecular ions and free radicals, vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra of weakly bound complexes, and vibration-rotation spectra of linear carbon clusters are presented. A detailed description of the Berkeley tunable FIR laser spectrometers is presented.

Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

1991-01-01

192

Ray tracing package through a lens system and a spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

To study the light collection optics of the ISX-B two-dimensional (2-D) Thomson scattering system, we have implemented in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fusion Energy Division (FED) PDP-10 two computer programs, LENS and SPECT, that trace rays through a lens system and a spectrometer, respectively. The lens package follows the path of any kind of ray (meridional or skew) through a centered optical system formed by an arbitrary number of spherical surfaces. The spectrometer package performs geometrical ray tracing through a Czerney-Turner spectrometer and can be easily modified for studying any other configuration. Contained herein is a description of the procedures followed and a listing of the computer programs.

Zurro, B.; King, P.W.; Lazarus, E.A.

1980-03-01

193

Developments of Optical Spectrometers as Approaches to Diffuse Interstellar Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300-1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2 B 3u -X 2 B 2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2 + was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm-1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra. The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.

Araki, M.; Uchida, S.; Kondo, N.; Matsushita, Y.; Abe, K.; Ito, K.; Tsukiyama, K.

2014-02-01

194

Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new facility designed to perform calibration measurements of airborne imaging spectrometers was established at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen. This Calibration Home Base (CHB) is optimized to characterize radiometrically, spectrally, and geometrically the APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) imaging spectrometer, which is currently being developed under the authority of the European Space Agency (ESA). It however can be used for other optical sensors as well. Computer control of major laboratory equipment allows automation of time consuming measurements. In APEX configuration (wavelength range: 380 to 2500 nm, instantaneous field of view: 0.48 mrad, field of view: ±14 ?) spectral measurements can be performed to a wavelength uncertainty of ±0.15 nm, geometric measurements at increments of 0.0017 mrad across track and 0.0076 mrad along track, and radiometric measurements to an uncertainty of ±3% relative to national standard. The CHB can be adapted to similar sensors (including those with thermal infrared detectors) by exchanging the monochromator's lamp, the gratings and the filters, and by adjusting the distance between the sensor and folding mirror.

Gege, Peter; Fries, Jochen; Haschberger, Peter; Schötz, Paul; Schwarzer, Horst; Strobl, Peter; Suhr, Birgit; Ulbrich, Gerd; Jan Vreeling, Willem

195

A pair spectrometer for nuclear astrophysics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-radiative transitions in nuclear capture reactions between light nuclei play a relevant role in stellar nuclear astrophysics, where nuclear processes occur at typical energies from tens to hundreds of keV. At higher energies, instead, the E0 contributions may be shadowed by more intense transitions. The experimental study of E0 transitions requires a specific detection setup, able to uniquely identify events where an electron-positron pair is produced. A compact ?E- E charged-particle spectrometer based on two silicon detectors has been designed to be installed in the jet gas target chamber of the recoil mass separator ERNA (European Recoil separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) at the CIRCE laboratory of Caserta, Italy. The detector design, its performances and the first foreseen applications are described.

Guerro, L.; Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Saltarelli, A.; Schürmann, D.; Tabassam, U.; Busso, M.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Romoli, M.; Terrasi, F.

2014-11-01

196

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01

197

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

1995-09-19

198

Simulation of bent crystal spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

In crystal spectrometers one traditionally labels each position in the dispersion/recording plane by a single wavelength value. A simple examination of the crystal spectrometers shows that different areas of the crystal contribute different wavelengths at the same position in the recording plane. Using collimators and apertures one may reduce these effects, as well as reduce the collected signal. Convolving the system response, in that case, may not allow simple analytic estimates of the sensitivity/responsivity of the system. A Monte-Carlo ray-trace program was written in order to study and simulate the real geometry including finite source size effects. The results of using the code will be presented, demonstrating the contributions to the resolution and absolute responsivity, for a particular parabolically bent crystal spectrometer.

Kyrala, G.A.

1984-01-01

199

The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10?as accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

2014-07-01

200

Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Environics Ltd., Graanintie 5, P.O. Box 349, FI-50101, Mikkeli (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland) and Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

2007-04-15

201

Noble gas abundance and isotope ratios in the atmosphere of Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer provided the first data on the noble gas mixing and isotope ratios in the Jovian atmosphere. These measurements and the comparison with solar values constrain models of Jupiter's formation. Significant refinements to the initially reported abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon have been enabled through post-encounter laboratory calibrations using a refurbished engineering unit mass spectrometer

P. R. Mahaffy; H. B. Niemann; A. Alpert; S. K. Atreya; J. Demick; T. M. Donahue; D. N. Harpold; T. C. Owen

2000-01-01

202

An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

2014-01-01

203

Modeling the locomotion of the African trypanosome using multi-particle collision dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African trypanosome is a single flagellated micro-organism that causes the deadly sleeping sickness in humans and animals. We study the locomotion of a model trypanosome by modeling the spindle-shaped cell body using an elastic network of vertices with additional bending rigidity. The flagellum firmly attached to the model cell body is either straight or helical. A bending wave propagates along the flagellum and pushes the trypanosome forward in its viscous environment, which we simulate with the method of multi-particle collision dynamics. The relaxation dynamics of the model cell body due to a static bending wave reveals the sperm number from elastohydrodynamics as the relevant parameter. Characteristic cell body conformations for the helically attached flagellum resemble experimental observations. We show that the swimming velocity scales as the root of the angular frequency of the bending wave reminiscent of predictions for an actuated slender rod attached to a large viscous load. The swimming velocity for one geometry collapses on a single master curve when plotted versus the sperm number. The helically attached flagellum leads to a helical swimming path and a rotation of the model trypanosome about its long axis as observed in experiments. The simulated swimming velocity agrees with the experimental value.

Babu, Sujin B.; Stark, Holger

2012-08-01

204

Hydrodynamics of discrete-particle models of spherical colloids: A multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the hydrodynamic properties of a spherical colloid model, which is composed of a shell of point particles by hybrid mesoscale simulations, which combine molecular dynamics simulations for the sphere with the multiparticle collision dynamics approach for the fluid. Results are presented for the center-of-mass and angular velocity correlation functions. The simulation results are compared with theoretical results for a rigid colloid obtained as a solution of the Stokes equation with no-slip boundary conditions. Similarly, analytical results of a point-particle model are presented, which account for the finite size of the simulated system. The simulation results agree well with both approaches on appropriative time scales; specifically, the long-time correlations are quantitatively reproduced. Moreover, a procedure is proposed to obtain the infinite-system-size diffusion coefficient based on a combination of simulation results and analytical predictions. In addition, we present the velocity field in the vicinity of the colloid and demonstrate its close agreement with the theoretical prediction. Our studies show that a point-particle model of a sphere is very well suited to describe the hydrodynamic properties of spherical colloids, with a significantly reduced numerical effort.

Poblete, Simón; Wysocki, Adam; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G.

2014-09-01

205

An improved scintillation beta spectrometer  

E-print Network

AN IYiiROVED SCINTILLATION BETA SPECTROMETER A Thesis Jimmy Fred McClary Submitted to the Graduate College of Tezas AdM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1964. Ma]or Sub...

McClary, Jimmy Fred

1964-01-01

206

Alpha proton x ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

1994-01-01

207

Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

208

Acoustically-tuned optical spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lens arrangement corrects for aberrations and gives resolution of 0.7 seconds of arc. In spectrometer, light from telescope is relayed by doublet lens to acoustically tuned optical filter. Selected wavelengths are relayed by triplet lens to charge coupled device camera. Intervening cylindrical lens, tilted at 12 degree angle, corrects for astigmatism and coma introduced by two element birefringent crystal in filter.

Sklar, E.

1981-01-01

209

MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress  

SciTech Connect

The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

2007-08-27

210

The Lunar Mass Spectrometer experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The features of the Lunar Mass Spectrometer (LMS), the purpose of which will be to determine the global distributions and the diurnal variations of the lunar atmosphere from the lunar surface, are outlined. Particular attention is given to its configuration, design, and latest engineering refinements. A brief description is also given of the experiment operation and data return.

Ormsby, R. D.; Dehaven, C. E., Jr.

1971-01-01

211

IPNS-I chopper spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

1982-01-01

212

Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

1990-01-01

213

Inventory Control: Multiport Student Spectrometer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element or compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen. Included is a list of materials, directions for assembly, and procedures for use. (CW)

Bishop, Carl B.

1989-01-01

214

Reflecting Slit for Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical slit that reflects rather than transmits performs multiple functions for imaging infrared spectrometer. Serves as field reflector, field flattener, and entrance aperture for instrument. Reflecting slit narrow strip of spherical reflecting surface with intersecting spherical reflecting side surfaces that reject radiation originating outside slit region. Precision of slit geometry crucial in optical system.

Page, N. A.; Parks, R. E.; Rodgers, J. M.

1986-01-01

215

A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas.  

PubMed

Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10(19)-10(20) W/cm(2). He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source. PMID:25430352

Chen, Hui; Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Kerr, S; Magee, E; Nagel, S R; Park, J; Schneider, M B; Stone, G; Williams, G J; Beiersdorfer, P

2014-11-01

216

A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of {sup 3}He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors.

Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

1996-10-01

217

Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

Gleeson, P.

1972-01-01

218

Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

2010-05-16

219

ADVANCED METHODS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT AND THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MULTIPARTICLE PHENOMENA  

SciTech Connect

Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.

Alex J. Dragt

2012-08-31

220

LISE++ : design your own spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The program LISE is designed to predict intensities and purities for the planning of future experiments with in-flight separators, as well as for beam tuning during experiments where its results can be quickly compared to on-line data. LISE++ is the new generation of the LISE code, which allows the creation of a spectrometer through the use of different sections (dispersive section, velocity filter, electrostatic separator and gas-filled separator ...) called "blocks". The code has an improved interface, new utilities, and a spectrometer schematics which allows a quick editing of blocks. The code can be freely downloaded from the following sites: http://www.nscl.msu.edu/lise or http://dnr080.jinr.ru/lise.

Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

2004-12-01

221

Exploiting a transmission grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2004-10-01

222

The AXAF CCD imaging spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the instrument design and the status of the CCDs being fabricated for the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) are summarized. The instrument consists of an image recording array of CCDs and a linear arrangement of CCDs to record the spectra formed by the objective grating spectrometer. Both arrays employ CCDs with pixel dimensions which correspond to about 0.5 arcsec samples of the image. The CCDs provide moderate spectral resolution and good detection efficiency over the energy range 0.5 to 10 keV. Spectral resolution of 200 or more is achievable using the objective grating with the grating array. Radiation damage effects are shown to degrade the energy resolution of CCDs. Specially designed CCD pixel architecture is employed together with shielding and low temperature operation to slow the effects of radiation damage.

Garmire, G. P.; Ricker, G. R.; Bautz, M. W.; Burke, B.; Burrows, D. N.; Collins, S. A.; Doty, J. P.; Gendreau, K.; Lumb, D. H.; Nousek, J. A.

1992-01-01

223

Temporal Dispersion of a Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The temporal dispersion of an optical spectrometer has been characterized for a variety of conditions related to optical diagnostics to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (e.g., Full-Aperture Backscatter Station, Thomson Scattering). Significant time smear is introduced into these systems by the path length difference through the spectrometer. The temporal resolution can be calculated to depend only on the order of the grating, wavelength, and the number of grooves illuminated. To enhance the temporal dispersion, the spectral gratings can be masked limiting the number of grooves illuminated. Experiments have been conducted to verify these calculations. The size and shape of masks are investigated and correlated to the exact shape of the temporal instrument function, which is required when interpreting temporally resolved data. The experiments used a 300fs laser pulse and a picosecond optical streak camera to determine the temporal dispersion. This was done for multiple spectral orders, gratings, and optical masks.

Visco, A; Drake, R P; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H

2008-05-08

224

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Ronald E. Bell

2004-12-08

225

Short wavelength rocketborne infrared spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IR spectrometer, used to obtain measurements of faint atmospheric emission spectra from a rocket carrier, is described. The sensor scans the 2.07 to 5.47 micron spectral region at the rate of 2 scan\\/s. The spectral resolution of the sensor, which employs a circular variable filter (CVF), ranges from 1.0 to 3.0%. The entire optical subsection, indium antimonide detector, CVF,

C. L. Wyatt; D. G. Frodsham

1977-01-01

226

Polarizing multilayer spectrometer for neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Polarizing neutron monochromators were prepared by sputtering thin-film multilayers with d-spacings from 40 to 85A on large float-glass substrates. Peak reflectivities as great as 90% and polarizing efficiencies of 98% were measured. Increased angular acceptances were obtained by fabricating multilayers with multiple d- spacings. A planned polarized beam spectrometer which incorporates the multilayers and which has a variable energy resolution independent of angular beam divergence is described.

Majkrzak, C.F.; Passell, L.; Saxena, A.M.

1981-01-01

227

Ultraviolet spectrometer observations of Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 2 UV spectrometer was used to scan the Uranus atmosphere at wavelengths from 500-1700 A with a field of view of 0.1 x 0.86 deg. The temperature and composition of the upper atmosphere were determined through occultations of light from gamma Pegasi, nu Geminorum and the sun. The data indicated a substantial gas density (100 million H atoms\\/cu

A. L. Broadfoot; F. Herbert; J. B. Holberg; D. M. Hunten; S. Kumar; B. R. Sandel; D. E. Shemansky; G. R. Smith; R. V. Yelle; D. F. Strobel; H. W. Moos; T. M. Donahue; S. K. Atreya; J. L. Bertaux; J. E. Blamont; J. C. Mcconnell; A. J. Dessler; S. Linick; R. Springer

1986-01-01

228

Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).  

SciTech Connect

The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time-of-flightTOFtime-of-flight4

Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

2005-10-01

229

Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).  

SciTech Connect

The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

2005-07-01

230

An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

1985-01-01

231

A novel dual-detector micro-spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared analysis is a well-established tool for measuring composition and purity of various materials in industrial-, medical- and environmental applications. Traditional spectrometers, for example Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Instruments are mainly designed for laboratory use and are generally, too large, heavy, costly and delicate to handle for remote applications. With important advances in the miniaturization, ruggedness and cost efficiency we have designed and created a new type of a micromirror spectrometer that can operate in harsh temperature and vibrating environments This device is ideally suited for environmental monitoring, chemical and biological applications as well as detection of biological warfare agents and sensing in important security locations In order to realize such compact, portable and field-deployable spectrometers we have applied MOEMS technology. Thus our novel dual detector micro mirror system is composed of a scanning micro mirror combined with a diffraction grating and other essential optical components in order to miniaturize the basic modular set-up. Especially it periodically disperses polychromatic radiation into its spectral components, which are measured by a combination of a visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) single element detector. By means of integrated preamplifiers high-precise measurements over a wide dynamic wavelength range are possible. In addition the spectrometer, including the radiation source, detectors and electronics can be coupled to a minimum-volume liquid or gas-flow cell. Furthermore a SMA connector as a fiber optical input allows easy attachment of fiber based probes. By utilizing rapid prototyping techniques, where all components are directly integrated, the micro mirror spectrometer is manufactured for the 700-1700 nm spectral range. In this work the advanced optical design and integration of the electronic interface will be reviewed. Furthermore we will demonstrate the performance of the system and present characteristic measurement results. Finally advanced packaging issues and test results of the device will be discussed.

Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Bruch, Reinhard; Gruska, Bernd; Gessner, Thomas

2005-01-01

232

Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

Brinckerhoff, William

2008-01-01

233

Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown) were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually). The experimental treatments were: i) L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii) LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii) LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv) S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05). The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05). The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05). The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone. PMID:25049635

Guo, X. Y.; Kim, I. H.

2012-01-01

234

Multiparticle Interfacial Drag in Equiaxed Solidification C.Y. WANG, S. AHUJA, C. BECKERMANN, and H.C. de GROH III  

E-print Network

Multiparticle Interfacial Drag in Equiaxed Solidification C.Y. WANG, S. AHUJA, C. BECKERMANN, and H.C. de GROH III A physical model is proposed for the solid/liquid interfacial drag in both globular- sphericity and porosity of the individual equiaxed crystals, a drag correlation is developed, which is valid

Beckermann, Christoph

235

Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

236

Wide-range CCD spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

1996-08-01

237

MODIS: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The first NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite, Terra, was launched on December 18, 1999, carrying five remote sensors. The most comprehensive EOS sensor is MODIS which offers a unique combination of features: it detects a wide spectral range of electromagnetic energy; it takes measurements at three spatial resolutions (levels of detail); it takes measurements all day, every day; and it has a wide field of view. This continual, comprehensive coverage allows MODIS to complete an electromagnetic picture of the globe every two days.

2002-01-01

238

High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

1990-01-01

239

Instrumental background in gamma-ray spectrometers flown in low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques are presented for calculating the instrumental continuum background in gamma-ray spectrometers flown in low earth orbit (LEO), with special attention given to simple methods developed for scaling from the better-understood measurements and calculations of background in balloon-borne instruments to LEO (Gehrels, 1985). Results are presented in the form of predictions of the background and its components for spectrometers in LEO. These predictions are compared to the measured background for the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer (Mahoney et al., 1980), and predictions are made for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory mission and the Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer (Matteson et al., 1990) spectrometers. A comparison is made of various orbit options. It is shown that a critical factor is the number of times the instrument passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (which is the region of enhanced trapped particle fluxes in LEO) and the depth of penetration on each pass.

Gehrels, Neil

1992-01-01

240

Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is an F/4, wide field (30°) design, covering the spectral range 600-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

2011-10-01

241

High-resolution compact Johann crystal spectrometer with the Livermore electron beam ion trap  

SciTech Connect

A compact high-resolution ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}10 000) spherically bent crystal spectrometer in the Johann geometry was recently installed and tested on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap. The curvature of the mica (002) crystal grating allows for higher collection efficiency compared to the flat and cylindrically bent crystal spectrometers commonly used on the Livermore electron beam ion traps. The spectrometer's Johann configuration enables orientation of its dispersion plane to be parallel to the electron beam propagation. Used in concert with a crystal spectrometer, whose dispersion plane is perpendicular to the electron beam propagation, the polarization of x-ray emission lines can be measured.

Robbins, D.L.; Chen, H.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; May, M.J.; Dunn, J.; Smith, A.J. [Department of Physics, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo, Moscow Region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Physics, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States)

2004-10-01

242

Engine spectrometer probe and method of use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

243

Imaging spectrometer/camera having convex grating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An imaging spectrometer has fore-optics coupled to a spectral resolving system with an entrance slit extending in a first direction at an imaging location of the fore-optics for receiving the image, a convex diffraction grating for separating the image into a plurality of spectra of predetermined wavelength ranges; a spectrometer array for detecting the spectra; and at least one concave sperical mirror concentric with the diffraction grating for relaying the image from the entrance slit to the diffraction grating and from the diffraction grating to the spectrometer array. In one embodiment, the spectrometer is configured in a lateral mode in which the entrance slit and the spectrometer array are displaced laterally on opposite sides of the diffraction grating in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction. In another embodiment, the spectrometer is combined with a polychromatic imaging camera array disposed adjacent said entrance slit for recording said image.

Reininger, Francis M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

244

Calibration of Xray CCDs with an ErectField Grating Spectrometer in the 0.2 1.5 keV band.  

E-print Network

Calibration of X­ray CCDs with an Erect­Field Grating Spectrometer in the 0.2 ­ 1.5 keV band. G been calibrated in the 0.25­1.5 keV spectral range using an erect­field grating spectrometer X­ray CCDs developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratories for the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have

245

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09

246

Elemental concentration logging with a germanium spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The German deep-well project is currently drilling a scientific well in northeastern Bavaria at the intersection of the African and Northern European tectonic plates. This well is scheduled to be drilled to a depth of {approximately}10 km to study the geochemical processes involved in the alteration of minerals under high temperature and pressure. As an initial stage in this project, a well was drilled to a depth of 4 km within 200 m of the site selected for the deep well. This well was fully cored and extensively logged with both commercial and experimental logging systems. Cores, as well as cuttings and fluids, were extensively analyzed in a well-site laboratory established specifically for that purpose. One of the experimental logging systems run in the 4-km well was a gamma-ray spectrometer that used a {sup 252}Cf source for delayed activation measurements and a neutron generator that produces 14-MeV neutrons for thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray measurements. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to confirm the validity of elemental concentration determinations from commercial logging equipment, based on NaI(Tl) detectors, in this crystalline rock environment. The commercial equipment determines the elements: aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, titanium, iron, gadolinium, potassium, thorium, and uranium. The second was to determine additional elemental concentrations that can be used to enhance the geo-chemical studies of the crystalline rock mineralogy.

Peterson, C.A.; Schweitzer, J.S. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K.

1991-11-01

247

The APX Spectrometer for Martian Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Obtaining the chemical composition of any planetary body should be a prime science objective of each planetary mission. The APX spectrometer has been designed to provide a detailed and complete chemical composition of all major (except H) and minor elements with high accuracy, in situ and remotely. From such complete analyses a first-order mineralogy of analyzed samples can be deduced. Laboratory studies in the past have shown that rock types (e.g., dunites, basalts, Philippinate 300 sample) were a uniquely in blind test analyses. Such identification is more accurate than can be obtained from any other remote spectroscopic technique. The APX technique is based on three modes of nuclear and atomic interactions of alpha particles with matter resulting in three different energy spectra containing the compositional information. The instrument uses 50 to 100 mCi of Cm-242 or Cm-244 transuranium radioisotopes to provide a monoenergetic beam of alpha particles (6.01 MeV and 5.80 MeV respectively) and solid-state detectors for acquiring the energy spectra.

Economou, T.

1993-01-01

248

A compact electron spectrometer for an LWFA.  

SciTech Connect

The use of a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) beam as a driver for a compact free-electron laser (FEL) has been proposed recently. A project is underway at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to operate an LWFA in the bubble regime and to use the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam as a driver for a 3-m-long undulator for generation of sub-ps UV radiation. The Terawatt Ultrafast High Field Facility (TUHFF) in the Chemistry Division provides the 20-TW peak power laser. A compact electron spectrometer whose initial fields of 0.45 T provide energy coverage of 30-200 MeV has been selected to characterize the electron beams. The system is based on the Ecole Polytechnique design used for their LWFA and incorporates the 5-cm-long permanent magnet dipole, the LANEX scintillator screen located at the dispersive plane, a Roper Scientific 16-bit MCP-intensified CCD camera, and a Bergoz ICT for complementary charge measurements. Test results on the magnets, the 16-bit camera, and the ICT will be described, and initial electron beam data will be presented as available. Other challenges will also be addressed.

Lumpkin, A.; Crowell, R.; Li, Y.; Nemeth, K.

2007-01-01

249

Lunar mass spectrometer test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures are described along with results obtained in a test program conducted to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The subject instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer and an off axis electron multiplier ion counting detector. The major program emphasis was placed on demonstrating instrument resolution, sensitivity and S/N ratio over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 13th power torr. Ultrahigh vacuum tests were conducted and the minimum detectable partial pressure for neon, argon, krypton and xenon was successfully determined for the spectrometer using isotopes of these gases. With the exception of neon, the minimum detectable partial pressure is approximately 4 x 10 to the minus 14th power torr for the above gases.

Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

1972-01-01

250

Keck long-wavelength spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UCSD's IR astronomy group is building an imaging mid-IR spectrometer for the Keck Telescope. This instrument, the Long-Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS), is built around a 96 X 96 element, Si:As impurity band conduction array built by GenCorp Aerojet Electronics Systems Division. The LWS has low and moderate spectroscopy modes with nominal spectral resolutions of R (equals (lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) ) equals 100 and 1400 respectively, operating in the 10 micrometers (second order) and 20 micrometers (first order) ground- based atmospheric spectral windows. The LWS is also capable of direct imaging from 5 micrometers to 27 micrometers through a selection of 16 filters. For each of the spectroscopic modes and the direct imaging mode, the plate scale is 0.12 arcsec/pixel, which Nyquist samples the telescope's diffraction pattern at 10 micrometers . Because of the large light gathering power of the Keck Telescope and it's small diffraction pattern, the LWS will have unparalleled point source sensitivity, making it the premiere instrument for extragalactic and general faint-source mid-IR spectroscopy.

Jones, Barbara; Puetter, Richard C.

1993-10-01

251

Pupil aberrations in Offner spectrometers.  

PubMed

The light path function (LPF) of an Offner spectrometer is presented. The evaluation of the LPF of this spectrometer enables its imaging properties to be studied for arbitrary object and image positions, while avoiding the more complicated analysis of intermediate images generated by the diffraction grating, which is often involved. A power series expansion of the LPF on the grating coordinates directly determines pupil aberrations of the generated spectrum and facilitates the search for configurations with small low-order aberrations. This analysis not only confirms the possibility of reducing low-order aberrations in Rowland-type mounts, namely astigmatism and coma, as predicted in previous studies, but also proves that all third-order terms in the series expansion of the aberration function can be canceled at the image of the design point and for the corresponding design wavelength, when the design point is located on a plane orthogonal to the optical axis. Furthermore, fourth-order terms are computed and shown to represent the most relevant contribution to image blurring. Third- and fourth-order aberrations are also evaluated for Rowland mounts with the design point located outside the aforementioned plane. The study described in this manuscript is not restricted to small angles of incidence, and, therefore, it goes beyond Seidel and Buchdahl aberrations. PMID:22472819

González-Núñez, Héctor; Prieto-Blanco, Xesús; de la Fuente, Raúl

2012-04-01

252

SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System software design description  

SciTech Connect

To assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contract-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP), the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurements and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The SGRS system software controls turntable and detector system activities. In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, this software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of-specific interest. This document describes the software design for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system.

Femec, D.A.; Killian, E.W.

1994-08-01

253

Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H. [Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (United States); Barhen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-04-01

254

A Feasability Study of the Wheel Electrostatic Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars rover missions rely on time-consuming, power-exhausting processes to analyze the Martian regolith. A low power electrostatic sensor in the wheels of a future Mars rover could be used to quickly determine when the rover is driving over a different type of regolith. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center developed the Wheel Electrostatic Spectrometer as a feasibility study to investigate this option. In this paper, we discuss recent advances in this technology to increase the repeatability of the tribocharging experiments, along with supporting data. In addition, we discuss the development of a static elimination tool optimized for Martian conditions.

Johansen, Michael Ryan; Phillips, James Ralph; Kelley, Joshua David; Mackey, Paul J.; Holbert, Eirik; Clements, Gregory R.; Calle, Carlos I.

2014-01-01

255

Development of a Submillimeter-Wavelength Immersion Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad goal of this project was to develop a broadband, moderate-resolution spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths. Our original approach was to build an immersion grating spectrometer, and as such, the first step was to identify the best material (lowest loss, highest index) for the grating medium, and to characterize its properties at the foreseen optical-bench operating temperature of 1.5 K. To this end, we put our initial efforts into upgrading an existing laboratory submillimeter Fourier transform spectrometer, which allowed us to carry out the requisite materials measurements. The associated cryogenic detector dewar was also redesigned and rebuilt to carry out this work. This dewar houses the 1.5 K detector and the filter wheel used in the materials characterization. Our goal was to have the beam propagate through the samples as uniformly as possible, so the optics were redesigned to allow for the samples to be traversed by a well-defined collimated beam. The optics redesign also placed the samples at an image of the aperture stop located within the FTS. After the rebuild, we moved into the testing phase.

Phillips, T. G.

2001-01-01

256

Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer and of a miniature hemispherical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer were made. The extremely high sensitivity of these instruments and their ability to operate at D region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D region ion composition measurements.

Kendall, B. R.

1979-01-01

257

Lunar mass spectrometer test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures used and the results are described, which were obtained in a test program to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer, and an off-axis electron multiplier ion-counting detector. Instrument resolution, sensitivity, and S/N ratio were demonstrated over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from ntorr to ptorr. The subject analyzer was also prepared for extended testing, in conjunction with two other candidate instruments, in a large molecular beam vacuum facility.

Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

1971-01-01

258

Clementine RRELAX SRAM Particle Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2 micron rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, b) is not affected by electrons, and c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5 day period.

Buehler, M.; Soli, G.; Blaes, B.; Ratliff, J.; Garrett, H.

1994-01-01

259

Probeware Modification of a Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I'm always amazed by the beauty of the atomic spectra and can imagine the excitement of the early spectroscopists when they realized that the line spectra uniquely identify the elements. I would like physics students to share that excitement, but find that the tedious nature of reading a Vernier scale in a darkened room, reading fractional angles in minutes of degrees, and converting angles in degrees and minutes to decimal notation soon make the exercise so tedious that students lose sight of the intended task of identifying and characterizing the spectral lines. At Acadia University, we have adapted a PASCO rotary motion sensor and voltage probe, both interfaced to a computer using a Vernier LabPro,2 to semi-automate our spectrometer3 measurements.

Easton, Don

2006-09-01

260

NA62 Low Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at a precision measurement of the ultra-rare decay K^+ rightarrow ?^+?bar?. A low mass (˜ 1.8%X0) spectrometer, whose construction is ongoing, has been designed to track charged kaon decays products. The system operates in vacuum, and will be operative in October 2014, when the first physics run is scheduled. The straw detector is made of 4 stations, each equipped with 1792 straws, arranged in 4 views (X, Y, U and V). A high aperture magnet (MNP33), placed between the second and the third chamber, provides a 0.36T dipole vertical B-field, required to measure the momentum of the charged particles. A 64-straws prototype was constructed in 2010. It was used as test bench for electronics commissioning and detector characterization. Time resolution and space-time relation were measured. A first test with a full chamber and final beam setup was performed in November 2012.

Palladino, V.

2014-06-01

261

Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site depicts the work of the University of Oxford's Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory in the experimental and theoretical aspects of catalytic systems, bioinorganic, co-ordination, organometallic, structural, surface, and solid state chemistry. The site provides a brief summary of the early professors of the department including Oddling who formulated the periodic table, and two noble prize winners, Soddy and Hinshelwood. Students and educators can discover the exciting research endeavors taken on by the twenty academic staff and over one hundred postdoctoral workers, graduate students, Part II chemists, and other academic visitors. The site also describes the instrumentation used at the laboratory including NMR, CMX, and CI/FI spectrometers and various diffractometers.

262

Planetary and Space Science 58 (2010) 201223 PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to  

E-print Network

Planetary and Space Science 58 (2010) 201­223 PHEBUS: A double ultraviolet spectrometer to observe, Italy i Department of Astronomy and Center for Space Physics, Boston University, USA j INAF Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA p Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung

California at Berkeley, University of

263

Investigating the rp-process with the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Penning trap (CPT) mass spectrometer at the Argonne National Laboratory makes precise mass measurements of nuclides with short half-lives. Since the previous ENAM conference, many significant modifications to the apparatus were implemented to improve both the precision and efficiency of measurement, and now more than 60 radioactive isotopes have been measured with half-lives as short as one second

J. A. Clark; R. C. Barber; B. Blank; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. E. Crawford; J. P. Greene; S. Gulick; J. C. Hardy; A. A. Hecht; A. Heinz; J. K. P. Lee; A. F. Levand; B. F. Lundgren; R. B. Moore; G. Savard; N. D. Scielzo; D. Seweryniak; K. S. Sharma; G. D. Sprouse; W. Trimble; J. Vaz; J. C. Wang; Y. Wang; B. J. Zabransky; Z. Zhou

2005-01-01

264

Simplified electrochemical multi-particle model for LiFePO4 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified physics-based model is developed to predict the performance of an LiFePO4 cathode at various operating and design conditions. Newman's full-order porous-electrode model is simplified using polynomial approximations for electrolyte variables at the electrode-level while a multi-particle model featuring variable solid-state diffusivity is employed at the particle level. The computational time of this reduced-order model is decreased by almost one order of magnitude compared to the full-order model without sacrificing the accuracy of the results. The model is general and can be used to expedite the simulation of any composite electrode with active-material particles of non-uniform properties (e.g., size, contact resistance, material chemistry etc.). In a broader perspective, this model is of practical value for electric vehicle power train simulations and battery management systems.

Mastali Majdabadi, Mehrdad; Farhad, Siamak; Farkhondeh, Mohammad; Fraser, Roydon A.; Fowler, Michael

2015-02-01

265

A New Optical Aerosol Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring aerosol particle size distributions from 0.02 to 100 micrometers has been developed. This instrument combines several optical methods in one, in-situ configuration; it can provide continuous data collection to encompass the wide dynamic size ranges and concentrations found in studies of modeled planetary atmospheres as well as terrestrial air quality research. Currently, the system is incorporated into an eight liter capacity spherical pressure vessel that is appropriate both for flowthrough and for in-situ particle generation. The optical sizing methods include polarization ratio, The scattering, and forward scattering detectors, with illumination from a fiber-coupled, Argon-ion laser. As particle sizes increase above 0.1 micrometer, a customized electronics and software system automatically shifts from polarization to diffraction-based measurements as the angular scattering detectors attain acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. The number concentration detection limits are estimated to be in the part-per-trillion (ppT by volume) range, or roughly 1000 submicron particles per cubic centimeter. Results from static experiments using HFC134A (approved light scattering gas standard), flow-through experiments using sodium chloride (NaCl) and carbon particles, and dynamic 'Tholin' (photochemical produced particles from ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated acetylene and nitrogen) experiments have been obtained. The optical spectrometer data obtained with particles have compared well with particle sizes determined by electron microscopy. The 'Tholin' tests provided real-time size and concentration data as the particles grew from about 30 nanometers to about 0.8 micrometers, with concentrations ranging from ppT to ppB, by volume. Tests are still underway, to better define sizing accuracy and concentration limits, these results will be reported.

Fonda, Mark; Malcolmson, Andrew; Bonin, Mike; Stratton, David; Rogers, C. Fred; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

266

Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS(Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) is a scanning UV-visible spectrometer to be onboard the GeoKOMPSAT-2B in geostationary orbit in 2018. The main objective of the mission is to measure concentration of ozone and aerosol with their precursors including NO2, SO2 and HCHO in high temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, GEMS passed the governmental mid-term technical review, thus is in main phase of the mission. System design review(SDR) of GEMS was completed successfully and preliminary design review(PDR) is planned in March, 2014. Spectral coverage of GEMS is 300 to 500 nm with resolution of 0.6 nm and 3 samples/band. The mission covers most of the interesting region in Asia, with occasional coverage out to Pacific for clear sector method. Algorithms are under the development. Error analysis was carried out using the optimal estimation method with TOMS climatology, GEOS-Chem and VLIDORT. For the analysis, randomly generated conditions were extracted for different time of day in 12 months with actual viewing geometry from a GEO satellite at 128.2 oE. Through the spatial and spectral coadding and flexible E-W scan to increase the SNR, the performance of GEMS is predicted to satisfy the science requirements in most of the cases. Measurements of SO2 in winter season is very challenging but can be resolved if 4 pixels are coadded and the E-W scan is reduced half to increase SNR. GEMS is a part of GEO air quality(AQ) constellation with the Sentinel-4 of ESA and the TEMPO of NASA. Harmonized efforts for the GEO AQ Constellation are underway in terms of common basic requirements, standards, data product quality and cross participation of meetings under the framework of CEOS ACC.

Kim, Jhoon

267

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

2012-01-01

268

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (~2.7km×2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Kenneth; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung (James)

2012-09-01

269

An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

1967-01-01

270

Spin Spectrometer at the ALS and APS  

SciTech Connect

A spin-resolving photoelectron spectrometer, the"Spin Spectrometer," has been designed and built. It has been utilized at both the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, and the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne, IL. Technical details and an example of experimental results are presented here.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; University of Missouri-Rolla; Boyd Technologies; Morton, Simon A; Morton, Simon A; Tobin, James G; Yu, Sung Woo; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George D; Boyd, Peter

2007-04-20

271

Ultraviolet spectrometer experiment for the Voyager mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) is an objective grating spectrometer covering the wavelength range of 500–1700 Å with 10 Å resolution. Its primary goal is the determination of the composition and structure of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and several of their satellites. The capability for two very different observational modes have been combined in a single instrument. Observations

A. L. Broadfoot; B. R. Sandel; D. E. Shemansky; S. K. Atreya; T. M. Donahue; H. W. Moos; J. L. Bertaux; J. E. Blamont; J. M. Ajello; D. F. Strobel; J. C. McConnell; A. Dalgarno; R. Goody; M. B. McElroy; Y. L. Yung

1977-01-01

272

Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300 - 2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300 - 500 nm, 500 - 1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (160 spectral channels, 70 - 150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a

Patricia M. Beauchamp; Robert H. Brown; Carl F. Bruce; Gun-Shing Chen; Michael P. Chrisp; George A. Fraschetti; Timothy N. Krabach; Stanley W. Petrick; David H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; Stanley L. Soll; Arthur H. Vaughan; Laurance A. Soderblom; Bill R. Sandel; Roger V. Yelle

1994-01-01

273

[The integrative design for imaging spectrometer].  

PubMed

The hyperspectrum imaging spectrometer will achieve miniaturization and high spectrum resolution and high space resolution along with development of the hyperspectrum imaging technology that is becoming a trend. This trend requires the designers to improve and optimize their designing constantly in designing the instruments. The present paper carried out a method of integrative design for imaging spectrometer. This method suggested that the design and optimization work of the disperse systems of imaging spectrometers would take into account the whole systems, but not consider themselves only. It would get a perfect result by using this method. This paper also explained in details how the method can be used in the design course of imaging spectrometer with convex grating which has been used widely recently. Finally, this paper validated the method by testing the imaging spectrometer with convex grating, which was developed using this method. PMID:22582665

Cui, Ji-cheng; Liu, Yu-juan; Pan, Ming-zhong; Tang, Yu-guo

2012-03-01

274

The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical design and first light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operating on 6 interferometric baselines, i.e. using all 4 unit telescopes (UTs) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) simultaneously, the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY will deliver narrow-angle astrometry with 10?as accuracy at the infrared K-band. At this angular resolution, GRAVITY will e.g. be able to detect the positional shift of the photo-center of a flare at the Galactic Center within its orbital timescale of about 20 minutes, using the observed motion of the flares as dynamical probes of the gravitational field around the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Within the international GRAVITY consortium, the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne is responsible for the development and construction of the two spectrometers of the camera system: one for the science object, and one for the fringe tracking object, both being operated in cryo-vacuum conditions. In this contribution we describe the basic functionality of the two units and present the final optical design of the two spectrometers as it got realised successfully until end of 2013 with minor changes to the Final Design Review (FDR) of October 2011. In addition we present some of the first light images of the two spectrometers, taken at the laboratory of the Cologne institute between Dec. 2012 and Oct. 2013 respectively. By the end of 2013 both spectrometers got transferred to the PI institute of GRAVITY, the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, where at the time of writing they are undergoing system-level testing in combination with the other sub-systems of GRAVITY.

Straubmeier, Christian; Yazici, Senol; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

2014-07-01

275

The Beagle 2 X-ray spectrometer for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is concerned with the Beagle 2 X-ray spectrometer (XRS) for Mars. The scientific goals of the XRS were to perform (i) geochemical analyses of Martian rocks and soils and (ii) in situ 40K >40Ar dating of rocks. The major aims of this study were the development of the XRS to achieve its scientific goals and to inform the design of future versions of the instrument. The XRS is described and compared with the previous X-ray Spectrometers that have been successfully deployed on Mars. A characterisation of the XRS investigated the fundamental behaviour of the instrument in terms of its spectral features (gain, resolution and artefacts), gain variation with temperature of its components, deadtime and quantum efficiency. The XRS was calibrated to convert elemental intensities from its analyses into concentrations. The concentrations of several major and trace elements of interest in reference materials were linearly correlated with the certified concentration. The analytical performance of the XRS was evaluated in comparison with a terrestrial portable X-ray spectrometer (PXRF) and a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WD XRF). The performance was characterised in terms of accuracy, detection limit and fitting precision. This study showed the importance of energy resolution to the analytical performance of the XRS. The operational performance of the XRS was evaluated. The geochemical composition of several basalts analysed by the XRS agreed with complementary analyses by the PXRF and WD XRF. The 40K >40Ar radiometric ages for two basalts were determined using the K content in the basalts in conjunction with their 40Ar isotope content (analysed by a laboratory version of the Beagle 2 Gas Analysis Package). The 40K 40Ar ages were found to differ to the Ar-Ar ages because of various effects associated with inhomogeneity of the K content in the rock and radiogenic40Ar loss.

Talboys, Dean Lee

276

Characteristics of Hadronic States Observed in High Energy Diffractive Photoproduction in Hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large multi-particle spectrometer was constructed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to study the interaction of high energy photons with protons in a fixed liquid hydrogen target. The energy of the incident photons was measured for each event ranging from 40 to 160 GeV. Data was accumulated for events characterized by the presence of hadronic particles in the spectrometer.

Alan Lee Duncan

1982-01-01

277

LEDP - Laboratory Equipment Donation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) grants used energy-related laboratory equipment through its Laboratory Equipment Donation Program (LEDP). Any non-profit, educational institution starting at the middle school level and including high schools, universities, colleges, junior colleges, technical institutes, museums, or hospitals, located in the U.S. and interested in establishing or upgrading energy-oriented educational programs in the life, physical, and environmental sciences and in engineering is eligible to apply. Application reviews and grant awards are performed on a first-received, first-qualified basis. Examples of equipment that may be requested include: * Amp meters, voltmeters, electrometers * Amplifiers * Catalyst test units * Distillation columns * Dosimeters, survey meters, radiometers, and spectroscopes * Gas and liquid chromatographs * Gas tracers and analyzers - solar collectors and heliometers * Ion control gauges * Linear and pulse-height analyzers * Mass spectrometers, infrared spectrometers, and ultraviolet spectrometers * Oscilloscopes * Power supplies * Radiation detectors, monitors, scalers, and counters * Radiation shields and reactor associated components * Recorders * Signal generators * Temperature and pressure recorders Prior to 2012, this program was known as the Energy Related Laboratory Equipment (ERLE) Grant Program.

2011-02-23

278

The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

2009-01-01

279

Spectral line position calibration for the SPIRIT III Fourier transform spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial infrared imaging telescope (SPIRIT III) Fourier transform spectrometer, a Michelson interferometer, contains six IR detectors having independent fields of view and spectral responsivities. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) designed, built, and calibrated the instrument for the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO). The spectrometer uses a HeNe laser to record the optical path difference introduced by moving one mirror in the spectrometer. Spectral line position errors in the spectrometer were expected as a result of slight deviations in the optical axes of each detector and the reference laser detector relative to the optical axis of the instrument. These spectral line position errors were measured for the spectrometer by comparing measurements of earthlimb radiance to published line position values from the HITRAN database. These errors were fit to a model of the expected optical axis deviations to generate correction factors of the SPIRIT III spectrometer and to infer the approximate effective focal plane location of the reference laser detector relative to the focal plane location of each detector.

Hansen, Scott M.

1997-11-01

280

Preliminary Analysis of the Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to greater than 10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron effective dose and dose equivalent rates and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cutoff. The measured cosmic-ray neutron spectra have almost no thermal neutrons, a large "evaporation" peak near 1 MeV and a second broad peak near 100 MeV which contributes about 69% of the neutron effective dose. At high altitude, geomagnetic latitude has very little effect on the shape of the spectrum, but it is the dominant variable affecting neutron fluence rate, which was 8 times higher at the northernmost measurement location than it was at the southernmost. The shape of the spectrum varied only slightly with altitude from 21 km down to 12 km (56 - 201 grams per square centimeter atmospheric depth), but was significantly different on the ground. In all cases, ambient dose equivalent was greater than effective dose for cosmic-ray neutrons.

Goldhagen, P.; Kniss, T.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.; Jones, I. W.; VanSteveninck, W.

2003-01-01

281

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

282

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

283

Raman spectrometer with microprobe capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results of this equipment grant funded as a part of the Department of Defense (DOD) University Research Instrumentation Program. This grant funded the purchase of a Raman spectrometer with microprobe capability having resolution of 1.0 micron. This report describes the equipment selecting decision, the configuration of the instrument selected, and some experimental results. The experimental results include Raman spectra used in characterization of laser recrystallized silicon and ion implanted regions in semi-insulating GaAs. The Raman microprobe can be used to characterize the effects of substrate temperature, beam power density and shape, beam scan speed and direction, deposition rate, substrate seeding, and polysilicon encapsulation schemes both near and away from grain boundaries. The frequency shift and the peak width of the Raman scattering from the triply degenerate zone center phonon in Si allow determination of the strain in the grains of laser recrystallized polysilicon. Reducing these strains will allow us to achieve large single grains of device quality.

Boyd, J. T.; Jackson, H. E.

1986-01-01

284

Mariner 10 ultraviolet spectrometer - Airglow experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extreme ultraviolet airglow spectrometer was flown on Mariner 10 to examine the atmosphere of Venus and Mercury. An objective grating spectrometer was used with channel electron multipliers at fixed positions in the image plane to continuously monitor the resonance-scattered emission rate of expected atomic atmospheric constituents He, H, A, Ne, O and C. A mechanical collimator placed in the entrance aperture of the spectrometer provided spectral separation of 19 A over the wavelength range from He/+/ at 304 A to C at 1657 A and provided spatial separation of 0.125 deg consistent with the spacecraft and trajectory capabilities. The calibration techniques are discussed.

Broadfoot, A. L.; Clapp, S. S.; Stuart, F. E.

1977-01-01

285

Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

2003-12-30

286

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

1995-01-01

287

Electron pair emission detected by time-of-flight spectrometers: Recent progress  

SciTech Connect

We present results for electron coincidence spectroscopy using two time-of-flight (ToF) spectrometers. Excited by electron impact, the energy and momentum distribution of electron pairs emitted from the Cu(111) surface are resolved and a spectral feature related to the Shockley surface state is identified. By combining the two ToF spectrometers with a high-order harmonic generation light source, we demonstrate double photoemission spectroscopy in the laboratory that required synchrotron radiation in the past. Utilizing this setup, we report results for (?,2e) on NiO(001) on Ag(001) excited with light at 30?eV photon energy.

Huth, Michael; Schumann, Frank O. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Trützschler, Andreas; Kirschner, Jürgen [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Widdra, Wolf [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

2014-02-10

288

Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10-50 A waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources.

Magee, E. W.; Dunn, J.; Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Cone, K. V.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States)

2010-10-15

289

Investigations of 2? decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX  

SciTech Connect

A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?{sup ?} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the 0{sup +} (1130 keV) and 2{sup +} (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

Rukhadze, Ekaterina [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: OBELIX Collaboration; SuperNEMO Collaboration

2013-12-30

290

Ion-induced x-ray studies with a high luminosity von Hamos crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution, high-efficiency, von Hamos geometry, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been developed and mounted on a beamline at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of K and L x-rays emitted from a variety of targets and projectiles. Instrument performance characteristics are reported here along with spectra from fast projectile ions and very low intensity target emission - areas of measurement for which this spectrometer is especially suitable.

Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.; Raman, S.; Heard, J.; Walkiewicz, T.

1986-01-01

291

The role of multiparticle correlations and Cooper pairing in the formation of molecules in an ultracold gas of Fermi atoms with a negative scattering length  

SciTech Connect

The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.

Babichenko, V. S., E-mail: vsbabichenko@hotmail.com; Kagan, Yu. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

292

Investigations of Physical Processes in Solar Flare Plasma on the Basis of RESIK Spectrometer Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous registration of spectra of quickly varying sources may be obtained through the use of curved fixed crystals instead of the scanning flat crystals spectrometer. Illuminating such a curved crystal with parallel X-ray beam allows to obtain, after the reflection, the whole spectrum covering certain wavelengths range, as the incidence angle at curved crystal surface represents a monotonous function of incidence point position measured along the crystal. The RESIK bent crystal spectrometer was developed in Poland with the help from experts of Naval Research Laboratory (USA), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), and Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL, UK). The development work was also supported by scientists of Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Unique RESIK spectra and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Kordylewski, Z.; Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; K?pa, A.; Kowali?ski, M.; Trzebi?ski, W.

293

Comparison of a 250 kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer with a 5 MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometer--fitness for purpose in bioanalysis.  

PubMed

The introduction of 'compact' accelerator mass spectrometers into biomedical science, including use in drug metabolism and bioanalytical applications, is an exciting recent development. Comparisons are presented here between a more established and relatively large tandem accelerator which operates at up to 5 MV and a conventional laboratory-sized 250 kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer. Biological samples were enriched with low levels of radiocarbon, then converted into graphite prior to analysis on each of the two instruments. The data obtained showed the single-stage instrument to be capable of delivering comparable results, and thus able to provide similar study support, with that provided by the 5 MV instrument, without the significant overheads and complexities which are inherent to the operation of the larger instrument. We believe that the advent of these laboratory-sized accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) instruments represents a real turning point in the potential for application of AMS by a wider user group. PMID:19009519

Young, G C; Corless, S; Felgate, C C; Colthup, P V

2008-12-01

294

Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System  

DOEpatents

Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

2005-12-06

295

AVIRIS Spectrometer Maps Total Water Vapor Column  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) processes maps of vertical-column abundances of water vapor in atmosphere with good precision and spatial resolution. Maps provide information for meteorology, climatology, and agriculture.

Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg A.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

1992-01-01

296

AUTOMATION OF AN ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an overview of the functional description and major features of an automated ultraviolet-visible spectrometer system intended for environmental measurements application. As such, it defines functional specifications and requirements which are divided into the chlor...

297

Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-0IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 pm (1000 -4000 cm-') to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications [l-51. One application will be theremote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the sameairmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefiingent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches toachieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventionalFourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, systemarchitecture and recent experimental progress will be presen.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

2005-01-01

298

Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-O IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 micron (1000-4000/cm) to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications. One application will be the remote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the same airmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefringent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches to achieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, system architecture and recent experimental progress will be presented.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

2005-01-01

299

Ultraviolet spectrometer experiment for the Voyager mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective grating spectrometer covering the wavelength range of 500 to 1700 A with a 10-A resolution is employed for the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer experiment. In determining the composition and structure of the atmospheres of Saturn, Jupiter and several satellites, the ultraviolet spectrometer will rely on airglow mode observations to measure radiation from the atmospheres due to resonant scattering of solar flux, and the occultation mode for assessments of the atmospheric extinction of solar or stellar radiation as the spacecraft enters shadow zones. Since it is capable of prolonged stellar observations in the 500 to 1000 A wavelength range, the spectrometer is expected to make important contributions to exploratory studies of UV sources.

Broadfoot, A. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Shemansky, D. E.; Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Moos, H. W.; Bertaux, J. L.; Blamont, J. E.; Ajello, J. M.; Strobel, D. F.

1977-01-01

300

NEREUS Nemertes : embedded mass spectrometer control system  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present Nemertes System, a software suite to control an embedded autonomous mass spectrometer. I first evaluate previous control systems for the hard- ware and evaluate a set of software design goals. The ...

Champy, Adam Samuel

2005-01-01

301

The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF) technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD) show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

Frégeau, M. O.; Bry?, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Borcea, R.

2013-12-01

302

Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

2007-01-01

303

Spectrometer and scanner with optofluidic configuration.  

PubMed

We present a spectrometer and scanner based on optofluidic configurations. The main optical component of the spectrometer is a compound optical element consisting of an optofluidic lens and standard blazed diffraction grating. The spectrum size can be changed by filling the lens cavity with different liquids. The scanner comprises two hollow 45° angle prisms oriented at 90° to each other. By changing the liquid inside the prisms, two-dimensional light beam scanning can be performed. PMID:23338199

Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Sanchez-Morales, Maria Eugenia; Calixto-Solano, Margarita

2013-01-20

304

Aiglon:. A Magnetic Spectrometer for Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic spectrometer has been designed for the China Seismological Experiment Satellite (CSES). The satellite, which includes instruments to measure the electromagnetic field, will record the field variations and the particle precipitation from the inner radiation belts, phenomena which have been observed in relation to strong earthquakes. Similar in conception to the AMS and PAMELA magnetic spectrometers, Aiglon represents a significant evolution with respect to the space instruments used for previous seismic studies.

Ambrosi, G.; Battiston, R.; Burger, W. J.; Fidani, C.; Ionica, M.; Castellini, G.; Guandalini, C.; Laurenti, G.; Lucidi, S.

2012-08-01

305

Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

306

Compact hydrogen\\/helium isotope mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently,

Herbert O. Funsten; David J. McComas; Earl E. Scime

1996-01-01

307

A sectioned spectrometer of fast neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a capture gated spectrometer on the basis of a liquid organic scintillator doped with enriched 6Li is discussed. Particular interest is evoked by the good pulse height resolution of the spectrometer for 14-MeV neutrons,\\u000a which is expected to be very high, ?10–15%. This resolution is attained by compensating for the nonlinearity of the light\\u000a yield in the scintillator

D. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. L. Matushko; M. F. Mustafin; A. A. Shikhin; I. E. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; J. S. Nico; A. K. Thompson

2009-01-01

308

Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300–2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300–500 nm, 500–1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (80 spectral channels, 70–150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a direction compatible with radio occultation experiments, is provided

B. R. Sandel; R. V. Yelle; C. F. Bruce; G. S. Chen; M. P. Chrisp; G. A. Fraschetti; T. N. Krabach; S. W. Petrick; D. H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; S. L. Soll; A. H. Vaughan; L. A. Soderblom

1995-01-01

309

SUB 1-Millimeter Size Fresnel Micro Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultra-small micro spectrometer with less than 1mm diameter was constructed using Fresnel diffraction. The fabricated spectrometer has a diameter of 750 nmicrometers and a focal length of 2.4 mm at 533nm wavelength. The micro spectrometer was built with a simple negative zone plate that has an opaque center with an ecliptic shadow to remove the zero-order direct beam to the aperture slit. Unlike conventional approaches, the detailed optical calculation indicates that the ideal spectral resolution and resolving power do not depend on the miniaturized size but only on the total number of rings. We calculated 2D and 3D photon distribution around the aperture slit and confirmed that improved micro-spectrometers below 1mm size can be built with Fresnel diffraction. The comparison between mathematical simulation and measured data demonstrates the theoretical resolution, measured performance, misalignment effect, and improvement for the sub-1mm Fresnel micro-spectrometer. We suggest the utilization of an array of micro spectrometers for tunable multi-spectral imaging in the ultra violet range.

Park, Yeonjoon; Koch, Laura; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Sangloon; King, Glen; Choi, Sang

2010-01-01

310

Neutron spectrometer based on a proton telescope with electronic collimation of recoil protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of a neutron spectrometer based on a gas proportional counter with recoil-proton registration is created at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR) in Dubna. The spectrometer is developed to measure the kinetic energy of protons scattered elastically at small angles that are produced by ( n, p) reaction in an environment containing hydrogen. The elaborated prototype consists of two cylindrical proportional counters used as cathodes. They are placed in a gas environment with a common centrally situated anode wire. Studies on the characteristics of the neutron spectrometer were conducted using 252Cf and 239Pu-Be radioisotope neutron sources. Measurements were made with monoenergetic neutrons produced by the 7Li( p, n)7Be reaction when a thin lithium target was bombarded with a proton beam from an EG-5 electrostatic accelerator, as well as with neutrons from the reaction D( d, n) 3He with a gas deuterium target.

Milkov, V. M.; Panteleev, Ts. Ts.; Bogdzel, A.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Kutuzov, S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Sedyshev, P. V.

2012-11-01

311

Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features.  

PubMed

The accurate spectral characterization of high-resolution spectrometers is required for correctly computing, interpreting, and comparing radiance and reflectance spectra acquired at different times or by different instruments. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the spectral characterization of field spectrometer data using sharp atmospheric or solar absorption features present in the measured data. The algorithm retrieves systematic shifts in channel position and actual full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the instrument by comparing data acquired during standard field spectroscopy measurement operations with a reference irradiance spectrum modeled with the MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code. Measurements from four different field spectrometers with spectral resolutions ranging from 0.05 to 3.5nm are processed and the results validated against laboratory calibration. An accurate retrieval of channel position and FWHM has been achieved, with an average error smaller than the instrument spectral sampling interval. PMID:20490248

Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Guanter, Luis; Cogliati, Sergio; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Migliavacca, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Rossini, Micol; Colombo, Roberto

2010-05-20

312

Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

Bakeman, M. S. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-10-15

313

Wide-field imaging spectrometer for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design, tolerancing, and laboratory breadboard of an imaging spectrometer for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Hyperspectral and Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. The spectrometer is of the Offner type but with a much longer slit than typical designs, with 1600 resolvable spatial elements along the slit for a length of 48 mm. Two such spectrometers cover more than the required swath while maintaining high throughput and signal-to-noise thanks to the large pixel size (30 ?m), relatively high speed (F/2.8) and small number of reflections. We also demonstrate a method for measuring smile using a linear array, and use the method to prove the achievement of negligible smile of less than 2% of a pixel over the entire 48 mm slit. Thus we show that this high-heritage, all-spherical mirror design can serve the requirements of the HyspIRI mission.

Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Korniski, Ronald J.; Green, Robert O.; Wilson, Daniel W.

2014-09-01

314

First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter

2013-06-01

315

A small gas inlet system for orbital mass-spectrometer calibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas inlet system is described for generating precise gas pressures that are to be used as calibration references for the mass spectrometers aboard the dual air density Explorer satellites. This gas inlet system was developed as an inflight calibration technique in which a known amount of onboard gas is released in the satellite cavity and is detected by the mass spectrometer. Although several flight mass spectrometer experiments have been proposed, none make use of the inflight calibration technique described in this report. Laboratory measurements and calibration of the metering leak technique for the gas inlet systems are discussed. The systems tested have metering leak rates between 2 and 4 microliters/sec at 298 K for argon-40, and they produce molecular flow up to 100 torr, which is the highest test pressure in this experiment. Test data show that metering leak rates are reproducible within 1 percent of established means for helium-3, helium-4, and argon-40.

Smith, A.; Stell, R. E.

1978-01-01

316

Application of the mass-spectrometer MASHA for mass-spectrometry and laser-spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the present status of the mass-spectrometer MASHA (Mass-Analyzer of Supper Heavy Atoms) designed for determination of the masses of superheavy elements. The mass-spectrometer is connected to the U-400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) JINR, Dubna. The first experiments on mass-measurements for 112 and 114 elements will be performed in the upcoming 2010. For this purpose a hot catcher, based on a graphite stopper, is constructed. The ?-decay of the superheavy nuclides or spontaneous fission products will be detected with a silicon 192 strips detector. The experimental program of future investigations using the technique of a gas catcher is discussed. It should be regarded as an alternative of the classical ISOL technique. The possibilities are considered for using this mass-spectrometer for laser spectroscopy of nuclei far off-stability.

Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.

2010-02-01

317

Language Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This history of the language laboratory and the factors influencing its growth are briefly traced. Materials and equipment are described, and the problems involved in a laboratory operation are indicated. Also considered is the use of the language laboratory as a teaching machine and as a research device for education in general. A bibliography…

Mathieu, Gustave

1962-01-01

318

Development and Characterization of a High Resolution Portable Gamma Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent disaster of Fukushima in Japan combined with the high demand to enhance nuclear safety and to minimize personal exposure to radioactive materials has a significant impact on research and development of radiation detection instrumentation. Currently, there is ample effort worldwide in the pursuit of radiation detection to maximize the accuracy and meet international standards in terms of size and specifications to enable radiation protection decision making. Among the requirements is the development of a portable, light-weight gamma-ray isotope identifier to be used by first responders in nuclear accidents as well as for radiation security and identification of illicit material isotopes. From nuclear security perspective, research into advanced screening technologies has become a high priority in all aspects, while for occupational safety, and environmental radiation protection, the regulatory authorities are requiring specific performance of radiation detection and measuring devices. At the applied radiation laboratory of the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, UOIT, the development of a high resolution spectrometer for medium and high energy gamma ray has been conducted. The spectrometer used a newly developed scintillator based on a LaBr3(Ce) crystal. The detector has been modeled using advanced Monte Carlo code (MCNP/X code) for the response function simulation and parameter characterization. The simulation results have been validated by experimental investigations using a wide range of gamma radiation energies. The developed spectrometer has been characterized in terms of resolution and response in different fields. It has also been compared with other crystals such as NaI(TI) and LiI(Eu).

Ali, Muhammad

319

IR Spectrometer Using 90-Degree Off-Axis Parabolic Mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement single-point pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

Robert M. Malone, Ian J. McKenna

2008-03-01

320

IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

2008-09-02

321

Multi-particle azimuthal correlations in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider  

E-print Network

Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a $|\\Delta \\eta|$ gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of $v_{2}\\{4\\}$ to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find $v_{2}\\{4\\} \\simeq v_{2}\\{6\\}\

ALICE Collaboration

2014-10-28

322

Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles from multiparticle correlations in pPb and PbPb collisions with CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by two- and four-particle azimuthal correlation measurements that suggest possible collective flow for charged particles emitted in pPb collisions at ?{sNN} = 5.02 TeV, we extend the correlation results for these collisions using the six- and eight-particle cumulant methods, and the Lee-Yang Zeros method. CMS has an extensive program studying azimuthal harmonic coefficients for both PbPb and pPb collisions using various methods. The current pPb results will be presented in this context. The data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC using both minimum bias and high-multiplicity collision triggers over a wide range in pseudorapidity. The results are compared to 2.76 TeV semi-peripheral PbPb collision data collected in 2011 covering a similar range of particle multiplicities. The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonic (v2) is shown for the different methods. A comparison of the six- and greater particle correlations to the previously published two- and four-particle correlation results sheds light on the multiparticle nature of the azimuthal anisotropy. The results are also discussed in terms of recent calculations that explore the role of participant fluctuations on measurements of higher-order particle correlations in pPb collisions.

Wang, Quan

2014-11-01

323

A compact photon-correlation spectrometer for research and education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact photon-correlation spectrometer for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, engineering, and environmental technology as well as for educational laboratory courses in these subjects has been developed. The instrumental setup enables one to make absolute measurements of the sizes of particles suspended in liquids in the range from 0.001 to 5 ?m. The measurements are fast, lasting usually from seconds to several minutes. Real-time size monitoring, such as of kinetic aggregation processes, is also possible. The optical arrangement of the spectrometer even makes it possible to measure light scattering in opaque systems which are characterized by strong light absorption. The quantity of the sample to be studied can be quite small, starting from 0.01 cm3. The system includes specially designed software for performing data interpretation and for implementing fitting procedures, for exchange of data with other programs, and for automation of measurements of long duration or of sequences of measurements. Measurements verifying the accuracy of the system are presented for latex suspensions, for aniline dye dissolved in water, and for dilute solutions of polystyrene in toluene.

Yudin, I. K.; Nikolaenko, G. L.; Kosov, V. I.; Agayan, V. A.; Anisimov, M. A.; Sengers, J. V.

1997-09-01

324

Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

Vane, G. (editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (editor)

1985-01-01

325

Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

2011-01-01

326

Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

1981-01-01

327

Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

1993-01-01

328

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04

329

Field gamma-ray spectrometer GS256: measurements stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of in situ readings of the portable gamma-ray spectrometer GS256 during the field season of 2006 was studied. The instrument is an impulse detector of gamma rays based on NaI(Tl) 3" × 3" scintillation unit and 256-channel spectral analyzer which allows simultaneous assessment of up to 8 radioisotopes in rocks. It is commonly used in surface geophysical survey for the measurement of natural 40K, 238U and 232Th but also artificial 137Cs quantities. The statistical evaluation is given of both repeated measurements - in the laboratory and at several field control points in different survey areas. The variability of values shows both the instrument stability and also the relative influence of some meteorological factors, mainly rainfalls. The analysis shows an acceptable level of instrument measurements stability, the necessity to avoid measurement under unfavourable meteorological conditions and to keep detailed field book information about time, position and work conditions.

Mojzeš, Andrej

2009-01-01

330

An Overview of the LADEE Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS) instrument, which flew on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft (SC), was one of three science instruments used to characterize the lunar exosphere. UVS is a point spectrograph operating between 230-810 nm and used its two optical apertures to make observations of the exosphere just above the surface at a range of local times and altitudes, as well as making solar occultation measurements at the lunar sunrise terminator. The instrument was led out of NASA Ames Research Center with primary hardware being provided by Draper Laboratories. Final instrument integration, testing and operations were performed at NASA Ames. Over the course of the 140-day LADEE mission UVS acquired more than 1 million spectra, providing a unique data set for lunar exosphere gasses and dust.

Colaprete, Anthony; Vargo, Kara; Shirley, Mark; Landis, Dave; Wooden, Diane; Karcz, John; Hermalyn, Brendan; Cook, Amanda

2014-12-01

331

A novel electrospray-based ion mobility spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design for a low-cost ion mobility spectrometer that can be built using the equipment on hand in many electronics-oriented undergraduate laboratories. The construction of this system is based upon the use of printed circuit boards and does not require the specialized drift and sheath gases, vacuum pumps, heater assemblies, high voltage pulsers, or precision pumps that are characteristic of the systems generally reported in the literature. We demonstrate the system in the separation of ions of methanol and water in air. Despite the low cost of this system it has a performance comparable to more complex systems, with a sensitivity of approximately 100 ppm for the protein cytochrome c. This system is suitable for use as an electronics or signal-processing project, or even a biotechnology demonstration.

Bathgate, Ben; Cheong, Eric C. S.; Backhouse, Christopher J.

2004-08-01

332

Fast Neutron Detection with a Segmented Spectrometer  

E-print Network

A fast neutron spectrometer consisting of segmented plastic scintillator and He-3 proportional counters was constructed for the measurement of neutrons in the energy range 1 MeV to 200 MeV. We discuss its design, principles of operation, and the method of analysis. The detector is capable of observing very low neutron fluxes in the presence of ambient gamma background and does not require scintillator pulseshape discrimination. The spectrometer was characterized for its energy response in fast neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the fast neutron flux and energy response at 120 m above sea-level (39.130 deg. N, 77.218 deg. W) and at a depth of 560 m in a limestone mine are presented. Finally, the design of a spectrometer with improved sensitivity and energy resolution is discussed.

T. J. Langford; C. D. Bass; E. J. Beise; H. Breuer; D. K. Erwin; C. R. Heimbach; J. S. Nico

2014-11-20

333

Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01

334

Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar Coll. (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Japan); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI (United States)

1998-07-01

335

Testing of Josephson Spectrometer with Waveguide Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges in public security is the quick and reliable identification of threat liquids in bottles, when vapour analysis is not possible. Recently, we demonstrated that it is possible to rapidly identify liquids by EM measurements of their dielectric functions in the sub-THz range with a high-Tc Josephson spectrometer. Following this approach, we have developed a Josephson spectrometer with a new radiation coupling system, based on dielectric waveguides. In this paper, we present the results of spectroscopic measurements on liquid samples of various purities including 30% H2O2/H2O, performed using our Josephson spectrometer with waveguide coupling. Also, the signal and noise characteristics of a classical Josephson detector used in our liquid identifier were numerically simulated and the power dynamic range was estimated for a wide spread of junction parameters.

Lyatti, M.; Gundareva, I.; Pavlovskii, V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y.

2014-05-01

336

A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect

The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-10-15

337

Fast neutron detection with a segmented spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast neutron spectrometer consisting of segmented plastic scintillator and 3He proportional counters was constructed for the measurement of neutrons in the energy range 1-200 MeV. We discuss its design, principles of operation, and the method of analysis. The detector is capable of observing very low neutron fluxes in the presence of ambient gamma background and does not require scintillator pulse-shape discrimination. The spectrometer was characterized for its energy response in fast neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the fast neutron flux and energy response at 120 m above sea-level (39.130°N, 77.218°W) and at a depth of 560 m in a limestone mine are presented. Finally, the design of a spectrometer with improved sensitivity and energy resolution is discussed.

Langford, T. J.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D. K.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.

2015-01-01

338

A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.  

PubMed

The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l?mm VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l?mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction. PMID:23126988

Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

2012-10-01

339

Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

2011-12-01

340

Calibration of a Flat Field Soft X-ray Grating Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated the x ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL, and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range from {approx} 6 to 60 {angstrom}. The calibration results present here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; May, M J; Porter, F S

2010-05-12

341

Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of {approx}6-60 A. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Park, J.; Cone, K. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Brown, G. V.; Schneider, M. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Baldis, H. A. [University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States)

2010-10-15

342

Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations.

NONE

1998-12-01

343

Quality assurance in operating a multielement ICP emission spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the industrial laboratory environment, quality assurance in the operation of a multielement inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICPES) must often be entrusted to laboratory technicians with little or no technical background in spectrochemical analysis. Therefore, to be successful, a quality assurance program must be reduced to a simple, routine practice. Essential components of the quality assurance program described in this paper are (1) An atom-to-ion emission intensity ratio for multielement optimization and for reproducing optimum analysis conditions. (2) A concise, easily applied specification for sensitivity and for precision. (3) A regimen for monitoring of, and correcting for, calibration and background drift. (4) A set of comprehensive spectral interference calibrations maintained using the emission intensity ratio. (5) A high resolution spectrometer for minimizing spectral interferences. (6) A program of long term performance monitoring and maintenance/record keeping. Each of these components is described in detail. Adherence to this program enhances analytical reliability by helping to ensure that raw concentrations are generated consistently under optimum instrumental conditions, and that corrections for spectral interferences are applied accurately even though interference calibrations may be several months old. The importance of adequate resolution and the proper choice of positions for off-line background measurements is borne out by a detailed study of the determination of toxic trace elements in National Bureau of Standards fly ash samples. As, Be, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Se were determined accurately without isolation/preconcentration from the aluminosilicate matrix. Several determinations required corrections for residual spectral interferences amounting to 100-500% of the resultant concentration, underscoring the accuracy of the interference correction procedures.

Botto, Robert I.

344

The Mass Spectrometer - How It Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a simple description of how a mass spectrometer works. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. Keywords: mass spectrometer, mass spectrometry, mass spectrum, mass spectra, spectrum, spectra, mass, ionisation, acceleration, deflection, detection

Clark, Jim

2012-12-18

345

Dyson spectrometers for infrared earth remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dyson spectrometer form is capable of providing high throughput, excellent image quality, low spatial and spectral distortions, and high tolerance to fabrication and alignment errors in a compact format with modest demands for weight, volume, and cooling resources. These characteristics make it attractive for hyperspectral imaging from a space-based platform. After a brief discussion of history and basic principles, we present two examples of Dyson spectrometers being developed for airborne applications. We conclude with a concept for an earth science instrument soon to begin development under the Instrument Incubator Program of NASA's Earth Science Technology Office.

Warren, David W.; Gutierrez, David J.; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Keim, Eric R.

2008-08-01

346

Improved real-time imaging spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that offers several advantages over prior art AOTF imaging spectrometers is presented. The ability to electronically set the bandpass wavelength provides observational flexibility. Various improvements in optical architecture provide simplified magnification variability, improved image resolution and light throughput efficiency and reduced sensitivity to ambient light. Two embodiments of the invention are: (1) operation in the visible/near-infrared domain of wavelength range 0.48 to 0.76 microns; and (2) infrared configuration which operates in the wavelength range of 1.2 to 2.5 microns.

Lambert, James L. (inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (inventor); Yu, Jeffrey W. (inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (inventor)

1993-01-01

347

Sensitivity of an astronomical infrared heterodyne spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors determining the sensitivity of a real astronomical heterodyne spectrometer are described. The deviation from the ideal heterodyne system for line detection is described in terms of a series of degradation factors. A discussion of degradation due to a low local oscillator power and to line profile detection is presented. Representative values for the degradation factors are given. Even with a total degradation of not less than 30, the heterodyne spectrometer is still found to be a highly sensitive tool in IR astronomy.

Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Abbas, M. M.; Buhl, D.

1976-01-01

348

Combined hyperspatial and hyperspectral imaging spectrometer concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a user need for increasing spatial and spectral resolution in Earth Observation (EO) optical instrumentation. Higher spectral resolution will be achieved by the introduction of spaceborne imaging spectrometers. Higher spatial resolutions of 1 - 3m will be achieved also, but at the expense of sensor redesign, higher communications bandwidth, high data processing volumes, and therefore, at the risk of time delays due to large volume data-handling bottlenecks. This paper discusses a design concept whereby the hyperspectral properties of a spaceborne imaging spectrometer can be used to increase the image spatial resolution, without such adverse cost impact.

Burke, Ian; Zwick, Harold

1995-01-01

349

The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission will provide high sensitivity, high-resolution spectra in the soft x-ray band. The RGS performance requirements are specified as a resolving power of greater than 300 and an effective area of greater than 1000 sq cm across most of the 0.25 to 2.0 keV band. These requirements are driven by the science goals of the mission. We will describe the performance requirements and goals, the reference design of the spectrometer, and examples of science cases where we expect data from the RGS to significantly advance our current understanding of the universe.

Allen, Jean C.

2006-01-01

350

Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

Wang, Jian

2013-10-29

351

Beam Shape Effects on Grating Spectrometer Resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collimated optical beam in a grating spectrometer may be circular or elliptical in cross section, so that different parts of the beam illuminate different numbers of grooves on the grating. Here we estimate the consequent loss in spectral resolution relative to that obtained with a beam which illuminates a fixed number of grooves. For representative diffraction resolution functions, the effect is to reduce the intrinsic resolving power of the spectrometer by about 13%, exclusive of other contributions such as finite entrance slit width.

Erickson, Edwin F.; Rabanus, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

352

The Bragg crystal spectrometer for AXAF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of MIT's high resolution X-ray spectrometry investigation on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility is to study the physical conditions in celestial sources by means of detailed measurements of their X-ray spectra. The investigation involves two complimentary dispersive instruments, a Bragg crystal spectrometer (BCS) and a high energy transmission grating spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the BCS which will be used to measure the strengths of individual lines from both point and extended objects in order to apply plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic X-ray sources.

Canizares, C. R.; Markert, T. H.; Clark, G. W.

1986-01-01

353

Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/..delta..lambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects.

Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

1981-08-01

354

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-21

355

What Is Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Arizona State University presents information about the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) that was originally developed for use on the Mars Observer spacecraft. The TES is both an instrument and a technique that measures the thermal infrared energy (heat) emitted from Mars. Using this technique, scientists may be able to determine much about the geology and atmosphere of Mars by examining the spectral responses of specific minerals and gases. This site includes information about thermal infrared energy as well as understandable explanations of both the spectrometer itself and the spectroscopy technique.

S. W. Ruff

356

NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

1998-01-01

357

Validation of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir ozone profiles using ozonesonde measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) version 2 (V002) nadir ozone profiles with ozonesonde profiles from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study, the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center, the Global Monitoring Division of the Earth System Research Laboratory, and the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde archives. Approximately 1600 coincidences spanning 72.5°S-80.3°N from October 2004 to October 2006 are

Ray Nassar; Jennifer A. Logan; Helen M. Worden; Inna A. Megretskaia; Kevin W. Bowman; Gregory B. Osterman; Anne M. Thompson; David W. Tarasick; Shermane Austin; Hans Claude; Manvendra K. Dubey; Wayne K. Hocking; Bryan J. Johnson; Everette Joseph; John Merrill; Gary A. Morris; Mike Newchurch; Samuel J. Oltmans; Françoise Posny; F. J. Schmidlin; Holger Vömel; David N. Whiteman; Jacquelyn C. Witte

2008-01-01

358

Validation of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) nadir ozone profiles using ozonesonde measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) version 2 (V002) nadir ozone profiles with ozonesonde profiles from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study, the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center, the Global Monitoring Division of the Earth System Research Laboratory, and the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde archives. Approximately 1600 coincidences spanning 72.5°S–80.3°N from October 2004 to October 2006 are

Ray Nassar; Jennifer A. Logan; Helen M. Worden; Inna A. Megretskaia; Kevin W. Bowman; Gregory B. Osterman; Anne M. Thompson; David W. Tarasick; Shermane Austin; Hans Claude; Manvendra K. Dubey; Wayne K. Hocking; Bryan J. Johnson; Everette Joseph; John Merrill; Gary A. Morris; Mike Newchurch; Samuel J. Oltmans; Françoise Posny; F. J. Schmidlin; Holger Vömel; David N. Whiteman; Jacquelyn C. Witte

2008-01-01

359

Radiation damage control in the BNL hypernuclear spectrometer drift chamber system  

SciTech Connect

A high rate drift chamber system has been in use at the BNL hypernuclear spectrometer system for the past three years. Some of the chambers have accumulated charge doses up to about 0.2 C/cm-wire without showing external signs of aging. The system design and performance will be discussed as well as the results of some laboratory drift chamber aging tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

Pile, P.H.

1986-01-01

360

JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

2011-01-01

361

Mixing of final state spin components in the high resolution spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The mixing of scattered proton spin components by precession in the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) dipole magnets is discussed in terms of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) experiments. Explicit expressions are derived for calculation of polarization transfer parameters from focal plane polarizations. Also discussed are the effects of out-of-plane scattering at small laboratory angles on FPP measurements as well as analyzing power measurements.

Cornelius, W.

1981-12-01

362

The gamma-ray spectrometer experiment on the solar maximum mission satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major activities (through 15 November l987) of the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SMM GRS) team members at the University of New Hampshire and the Naval Research Laboratory and the work of the Guest Investigators since the last Semi-Annual Report are summarized. In addition, an updated list of published papers and invited papers or papers presented at scientific meetings is provided.

Chupp, E. L.

1988-01-01

363

High-energy resolution Thomson Parabola spectrometer for laser plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Thomson Parabola (TP) spectrometers are widely used devices for laser-driven beam diagnostics as they provide a complete set of information on the accelerated particles. A novel TP has been developed at LNS with a design able to detect protons up to 20 MeV. The layout design and some results obtained during the experimental campaign at PALS laboratory will be reported in the following.

Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cuttone, G.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Ter-Avetisyan, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Tramontana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-07-26

364

Characterizing a Quantum Cascade Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC-TILDAS) for Measurements of Atmospheric Ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact, fast response Quantum Cascade Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC- TILDAS) for measurements of ammonia has been evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. Absorption of radiation from a pulsed, thermoelectrically cooled QC laser occurs at reduced pressure in a 76 m path length, 0.5 L volume multiple pass absorption cell. Detection is achieved using a thermoelectrically

R. Ellis; J. G. Murphy; R. van Haarlem; E. Pattey; J. O'Brien

2009-01-01

365

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p -Pb at ?{sNN}=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at ?{sNN}=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p -Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p -Pb collisions. However, when a |? ? | gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p -Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of v2{4 } to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find v2{4 } ?v2{6 } ?0 which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the v2 distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p -Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a |? ? |>1.4 gap is placed.

Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anti?i?, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Biel?ík, J.; Biel?íková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; di Bari, D.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.

2014-11-01

366

Monte Carlo Modeling of JLab Spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations are used in both the design of spectrometers to estimate the expected performance and in the physics data taking to compare experimental results with Monte Carlo simulated results. The Monte Carlo simulations realistically take multiple scattering and energy loss effects into account in the target region, propagate the particles throught the various magnetic elements, track them through

M. Boswell; R. Ent; D. Meekins; D. Mack; P. Ulmer; H. Bitau

2000-01-01

367

Monte Carlo Modeling of JLab Spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations are used in both the design of spectrometers to estimate the expected performance and in the physics data taking to compare experimental results with Monte Carlo simulated results. The Monte Carlo simulations realistically take multiple scattering and energy loss effects into account in the target region, propagate the particles through the various magnetic elements, track them through

Melissa Boswell

2001-01-01

368

Reflecting Schmidt/Littrow Prism Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution achieved with wide field of view. Imaging Spectrometer features off-axis reflecting optics, including reflecting "slit" that also serves as field flattener. Only refracting element is prism. By scanning slit across object or scene and timing out signal, both spectral and spatial information in scene are obtained.

Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R.

1985-01-01

369

Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags  

DOEpatents

A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

2013-01-29

370

REVIEW ARTICLE Tunable far infrared laser spectrometers  

E-print Network

OF SPECTROSCOPY IN THE FAR INFRARED A. Broadband spectroscopy As was the casefor other spectral regions beforeREVIEW ARTICLE Tunable far infrared laser spectrometers G. A. Blake,a) K. B. Laughlin,b, R C. Cohen) The state of the art in far infrared (FIR) spectroscopyis reviewed.The developmentof tunable, coherent FIR

Cohen, Ronald C.

371

A transmission grating spectrometer for plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Radiation temperature is an important parameter in characterizing the properties of hot plasmas. In most cases this temperature is time varying caused by the short lived and/or time dependent nature of the plasma. Thus, a measurement of the radiation flux as a function of time is quite valuable. To this end the authors have developed a spectrometer that can acquire spectra with a time resolution of less than 1 ns and covers the spectral energy range from {approximately} 60 to 1,000 eV. The spectrometer consists of an entrance slit placed relatively near the plasma, a thin gold film transmission grating with aperture, a micro channel plate (MCP) detector with a gold cathode placed at the dispersion plane and an electron lens to focus the electrons from the MCP onto a phosphor coated fiber optic plug. The phosphor (In:CdS) has a response time of {approximately} 500 ps. This detector system, including the fast phosphor is similar to one that has been previously described. The spectrometer is in a vacuum chamber that is turbo pumped to a base pressure of {approximately} 5 x 10{sup 7} torr. The light from the phosphor is coupled to two streak cameras through 100 m long fiber optic cables. The streak cameras with their CCD readouts provide the time resolution of the spectrum. The spectrometer has a built in alignment system that uses an alignment telescope and retractable prism.

Bartlett, R.J.; Hockaday, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gallegos, C.H.; Gonzales, J.M.; Mitton, V. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1995-09-01

372

Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Napersville, IL)

1990-01-01

373

Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1990-11-27

374

Two highly sensitive microwave cavity spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is presented for two unconventional highly sensitive spectrometers operating in the decimeter-wave region (90-450 MHz) and millimeter-wave region (90-150 GHz), respectively. In both cases a resonant cavity is used as an absorption cell. Either design combines high sensitivity with high resolution and wide spectral range. The radio frequency spectrometer allows measuring of extremely low absorption quantity 3×10-12 cm-1 in combination with high spectral resolution of order 1 kHz with the radio frequency-microwave double resonance method. The gas cell is a coaxial cavity (Q?103) with a diameter of 40 cm and length about a wavelength. The millimeter-wave spectrometer utilizes an orotron oscillator as the tunable, coherent source of radiation from 90 to 150 GHz. A gas cell is placed into a high quality (Q?104) Fabry-Pérot resonator of the orotron, and the absorption signal is detected by variation of the orotron electron current in the collector circuit. The sensitivity limit of (2-5)×10-10 cm-1 is achieved with Stark modulation as well as source frequency modulation. Some results of successful application of both designs in molecular spectroscopy are presented, and potential use of the millimeter-wave cavity spectrometer as a gas analyzer with a detection limit better than 1 ppm is briefly discussed.

Dumesh, B. S.; Surin, L. A.

1996-10-01

375

Diode Pumped Solid State Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer  

E-print Network

Diode Pumped Solid State Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer Jeffrey S. Pilgrim and David S. Bomse study is based on Tm3+ :YAG [3]. Other solid state lasers are available as shown in Fig. 1, which hampered by the absence of a simple tunable infrared source with moderate power. Diode pumped solid state

376

Instrumentation for the Atmospheric Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoelectron spectrometer (PES) is part of the complements of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites. The PES measures the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. Measurements of energies between 2 and 500 eV are made at altitudes as low as 130 km. The design, characteristics, and performance of the instrument are described.

Peletier, D. P.

1973-01-01

377

Crystal reflectivity for bent crystal spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflectivity properties of a bent silicon crystal, used as the diffraction crystal in a transmission type Bent-Crystal Diffraction (BCD) spectrometer, were investigated. In particular the energy dependence of the integrated reflecting power was studied. It was found that the integrated reflecting power stayed constant up to unexpectedly high energies, depending on the diffraction order and on the quality of

E. Kaerts; P. H. M. van Assche; G. L. Greene; R. D. Deslattes

1987-01-01

378

Fast Data Acquisition For Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New equipment has speed and capacity to process time-of-flight data. System relies on fast, compact waveform digitizer with 32-k memory coupled to personal computer. With digitizer, system captures all mass peaks on each 25- to 35-microseconds cycle of spectrometer.

Lincoln, K. A.; Bechtel, R. D.

1988-01-01

379

On the multiple grating spectrometer resolving power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution for multiple grating spectrometers is obtained using the transfer function formalism. It is shown that the limiting resolving power for a system of n equal gratings in additive dispersion lambda\\/Delta lambda sub g (n) is overestimated by previous calculations even for low n values. It is also found that when n is increased this quantity reaches a limiting

V. Mazzacurati; G. Ruocco; G. Signorelli

1988-01-01

380

Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

Stejskal, E.O.

1984-05-01

381

Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

The Mars viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is described. The system is designed to determine the composition of the Martian atmosphere and detect and identify chemical compounds vaporized or pyrolyzed from the Martian soil. Construction details, performance data, data processing methods, and references to manufacturing and test procedures are also provided. PMID:18699201

Rushneck, D R; Diaz, A V; Howarth, D W; Rampacek, J; Olson, K W; Dencker, W D; Smith, P; McDavid, L; Tomassian, A; Harris, M; Bulota, K; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Biller, J E; Owen, T

1978-06-01

382

A neutron spectrometer for avionic environment investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to build an embeddable atmospheric neutron spectrometer to record data during airplane flights. The challenge was to design compact equipment with the largest detection range of neutron energy and the capability to determine the neutron spectrum. In this paper, we present this equipment, its validation and some preliminary flight results. We have validated this

G. Hubert; P. Trochet; O. Riant; P. Heinz; R. Gaillard

2004-01-01

383

Study of multiparticle jet production using calorimeters, high energy channeling, and other high energy physics research  

SciTech Connect

During this period, work was started on the construction of the backward gamma chambers to be used in experiment E683 at Fermilab. Work also is proceeding on various auxiliary experiments that can be performed with the experimental set-up. Work on the SSC accelerator and experiments began in 1984 with the participation of the principal investigator in the Snomass summer studies and continues with the funding of the accelerator and the location of its site in Texas. We are working with the large EMPACT/TEXAS collaboration on a large detector that the group has proposed. As well, the principal investigator is working on smaller experiments that can be executed at the SSC with less resources. Also, we are working on detector development and radiation tolerance of detectors such as scintillating fibers and data acquisition electronics. Experiments continue at Lehigh on growing whiskers'' in wire chambers. These whiskers affect the performance of wire chambers by providing corona discharge points within the chambers. We are able to study the growth of the whiskers in the laboratory and measure the whisker composition using Auger and ESCA spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscope. We are further developing results that were obtained earlier from various Monte-Carlo programs, including the effects of various momentum energy conservation methods on results, extrapolations to higher transverse momentum, granularity of detectors, and resolution of previous discrepancies. Results of radiation effects on various electronic devices were obtained. Work continued on new accelerator devices and concepts.

Kanofsky, A.S.

1990-10-01

384

ArtTAX - a new mobile spectrometer for energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on art and archaeological objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed spectrometer for energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been designed for the demands of archaeometry. ArtTAX combines the advantages of non-destructive and sensitive multi-elemental analysis at sub-mm resolution with the possibility of working outside the laboratory. The spectrometer consists of an air-cooled, low-power molybdenum tube, new generation polycapillary X-ray optics, a silicon drift detector without the need

H. Bronk; S. Röhrs; A. Bjeoumikhov; N. Langhoff; J. Schmalz; R. Wedell; H.-E. Gorny; A. Herold; U. Waldschläger

2001-01-01

385

Hard x-ray spectra from laser-generated plasmas recorded by the HENEX spectrometer in the 1 keV40 keV energy range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard x-ray spectra were recorded by the High Energy Electronic X-Ray (HENEX) spectrometer from a variety of targets irradiated by the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The HENEX spectrometer utilizes four reflection crystals covering the 1 keV to 20 keV energy range and one quartz(10-11) transmission crystal (Laue geometry) covering the 11 keV to 40 keV range.

J. F. Seely; C. A. Back; C. Constantin; R. W. Lee; H.-K. Chung; L. T. Hudson; C. I. Szabo; A. Henins; G. E. Holland; R. Atkin

2005-01-01

386

Development and performance of a miniature, low cost mass spectrometer  

E-print Network

A miniature, low cost mass spectrometer has been developed that is capable of unit resolution over a mass range of 10 to 50 AMU. The design of the mass spectrometer incorporates several new features that enhance the ...

Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

2011-01-01

387

Paleomagnetics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the California Institute of Technology's Paleomagnetics Laboratory promotes its research of weakly magnetic geologic and biological materials. Users can learn about the facilities such as the biomagnetics lab and the automatic sampler. The website features the laboratory's recent research on many topics including extraterrestrial magnetism, magnetofossils, and historical geomagnetic field behavior. Visitors can find out more about the many laboratory members' research activities through links to their home pages. Researchers can download a selection of the group's publications. Everyone can enjoy the amazing images from recent geologic field trips across the globe.

388

JWST-MIRI spectrometer main optics qualification and verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIRI ('Mid Infrared Instrument') is the combined imager and integral field spectrometer for the 5-29 micron wavelength range under development for the JWST. In March 2007 the qualification and verification phase of the Spectrometer Main Optics (SMO), part of the MIRI spectrometer came to an end. In this phase it is shown that the SMO subsystem can provide the necessary

Michael Meijers; Ad Oudenhuysen; Ton Schoenmaker; Gabby Kroes; Rieks Jager; Evert Pauwels

2007-01-01

389

Snapshot dual-band visible hyperspectral imaging spectrometer  

E-print Network

systems. A whisk broom imaging spectrometer uses a diffraction grating in front of a line of detectorsSnapshot dual-band visible hyperspectral imaging spectrometer John Hartke, MEMBER SPIE United hyperspectral imaging spectrometer. A commercially available digital camera was integrated into a computed

Dereniak, Eustace L.

390

Inflight calibration of the XMMNewton Reflection Grating Spectrometers  

E-print Network

In­flight calibration of the XMM­Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometers C. Erd a , M. Audard b , A The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) 1--3 on European Space Agency's (ESA) X­ray observatory XMM­ Newton 4 is a dispersive spectrometer which, for the first time in X­ray astronomy, uses reflection gratings as dispersive

Audard, Marc

391

Engineering of the passband function of a generalized spectrometer  

E-print Network

engineering of a grating spectrometer. Through spatial masking of the input beam and translation of diffraction grating-based spectrometers [1], surprising new be- havior is found to arise in even the simplestEngineering of the passband function of a generalized spectrometer J.D. McKinney and A.M. Weiner

Purdue University

392

The Constellation-X reflection grating spectrometer Jean Cottama  

E-print Network

The Constellation-X reflection grating spectrometer Jean Cottama , Webster Cashb , Kathryn A University, SLAC, Menlo Park, CA USA 94025 ABSTRACT The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS. Keywords: X-ray, spectrometer, grating, CCD, Constellation-X 1. INTRODUCTION Constellation-X1 is one

393

Hydromechanics Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydromechanics Laboratory supports midshipmen education, as well as midshipmen, faculty and staff research, in the areas of naval architecture and ocean engineering. The laboratory facilities include a large towing tank (380-ft long, 26- ft wide, and 16-ft deep), a small towing tank (120-ft long, 8-ft wide, and 5-ft deep), a coastal engineering wave basin (52-ft long, 48-ft wide, and

David L. Kriebel

394

Chemical and microphysical characterization of ambient aerosols with the aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

The application of mass spectrometric techniques to the real-time measurement and characterization of aerosols represents a significant advance in the field of atmospheric science. This review focuses on the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), an instrument designed and developed at Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) that is the most widely used thermal vaporization AMS. The AMS uses aerodynamic lens inlet technology together with thermal vaporization and electron-impact mass spectrometry to measure the real-time non-refractory (NR) chemical speciation and mass loading as a function of particle size of fine aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between approximately 50 and 1,000 nm. The original AMS utilizes a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Q) with electron impact (EI) ionization and produces ensemble average data of particle properties. Later versions employ time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometers and can produce full mass spectral data for single particles. This manuscript presents a detailed discussion of the strengths and limitations of the AMS measurement approach and reviews how the measurements are used to characterize particle properties. Results from selected laboratory experiments and field measurement campaigns are also presented to highlight the different applications of this instrument. Recent instrumental developments, such as the incorporation of softer ionization techniques (vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photo-ionization, Li+ ion, and electron attachment) and high-resolution ToF mass spectrometers, that yield more detailed information about the organic aerosol component are also described. PMID:17230437

Canagaratna, M R; Jayne, J T; Jimenez, J L; Allan, J D; Alfarra, M R; Zhang, Q; Onasch, T B; Drewnick, F; Coe, H; Middlebrook, A; Delia, A; Williams, L R; Trimborn, A M; Northway, M J; DeCarlo, P F; Kolb, C E; Davidovits, P; Worsnop, D R

2007-01-01

395

Progress on the Fabrication and Testing of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an international collaboration that will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of a realistic cooling channel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. At each end of the cooling channel a spectrometer solenoid magnet consisting of five superconducting coils will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region. The scintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore will measure the muon beam emittance as it enters and exits the cooling channel. The 400 mm diameter warm bore, 3 meter long magnets incorporate a cold mass consisting of two coil sections wound on a single aluminum mandrel: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil section that matches the solenoid uniform field into the MICE cooling channel. The fabrication of the first of two spectrometer solenoids has been completed, and preliminary testing of the magnet is nearly complete. The key design features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets are presented along with a summary of the progress on the training and testing of the first magnet.

Virostek, Steve; Green, M.A.; Li, Derun; Zisman, Michael

2009-05-19

396

Multiparticle ring exchange in the Wigner glass and its possible relevance to strongly interacting two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a two-dimensional electron or hole system at zero temperature and low carrier densities, where the long-range Coulomb interactions dominate over the kinetic energy. In this limit the clean system will form a Wigner crystal. Nontrivial quantum-mechanical corrections to the classical ground state lead to multiparticle exchange processes that can be expressed as an effective spin Hamiltonian involving competing interactions. Disorder will destroy the Wigner crystal on large length scales, and the resulting state is called a Wigner glass. The notion of multiparticle-exchange processes is still applicable in the Wigner glass, but the exchange frequencies now follow a random distribution. We compute the exchange frequencies for a large number of relevant exchange processes in the Wigner crystal, and the frequency distributions for some important processes in the Wigner glass. The resulting effective low-energy spin Hamiltonian should be the starting point of an analysis of the possible ground-state phases and quantum phase transitions between them. We find that disorder plays a crucial role and speculate on a possible zero-temperature phase diagram.

Voelker, Klaus; Chakravarty, Sudip

2001-12-01

397

Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at TeV with the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead-lead collisions at TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 b collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta GeV and in the pseudorapidity range . The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, , of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for -4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the coefficients are presented. The elliptic flow, , is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, and , are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. Models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.

2014-11-01

398

International comparison of interpolation procedures for the efficiency of germanium gamma-ray spectrometers (GAM83 exercise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-one laboratories determined full energy peak efficiencies and activities of a gamma of ray spectrometer by their own procedures, starting from supplied peak-efficiency data. Four data sets for four different conditions of germanium detectors were distributed. The great variety of fitting functions combined with the calculated large standard deviation of the parameters (709) and the strong correlations which are observed, indicates that no single physical acceptable function can be recommended as a general purpose model for describing the efficiency curve of a semiconductor gamma ray spectrometer.

Zijp, W.; Polle, A. N.; Nolthenius, H. J.

1986-01-01

399

A new spectrometer concept for Mars exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman Laser Spectrometer instrument is included in ExoMars program Pasteur payload and it is focused on the Mars samples analytical analysis of the geochemistry content and elemental composition of the observed crushed samples obtained by the Rover. One of the most critical Units of the RLS is the Spectrometer unit (SPU) that performs Raman spectroscopy technique and operates in a very demanding environment (operative temperature: from -40 ºC to 6 ºC) with very restrictive design constraints. It is a very small optical instrument capable to cope with 0.09 nm/pixel of resolution. The selected solution is based on a single transmisive holographic grating. At this stage of the project SPU Team is preparing the Conceptual Design Review that will take place at the end of October 2011.

Rull, F.; Sansano, A.; Díaz, E.; Colombo, M.; Belenguer, T.; Fernández, M.; Guembe, V.; Canchal, R.; Dávila, B.; Sánchez, A.; Laguna, H.; Ramos, G.; González, C.; Fraga, D.; Gallego, P.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.; Sánchez, J.; Canora, C. P.; Moral, A. G.; Ibarmia, S.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Manfredi, J. A. R.; Cabo, P.; Díaz, C.; Jiménez, A.; Pla, J.; Margoillés, R.

2011-10-01

400

O using QCL spectrometer for combustion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a high-sensitivity laser-based spectrometer for simultaneous detection of sulphur dioxide (SO2) sulphur trioxide (SO3) and water for coal-fired combustion applications. The spectrometer is based on a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating at 7.16 ?m, capable of measuring all three components simultaneously in a single frequency sweep. An optical multipass cell having a total path length of 9.1 m is used at increased temperature and at low pressure to ensure reliable measurement of highly reactive SO3 and adequate separation of overlapping spectral features, respectively. Detection limits for SO2 and SO3 are 0.134 and 0.0073 ppm, respectively, when employing a 20-s sampling time.

Hieta, T.; Merimaa, M.

2014-12-01

401

Portable thermal lens spectrometer with focusing system.  

PubMed

A portable thermal lens spectrometer with a precise focusing system was developed. Astigmatism of the reflected excitation beam from the microchip was used for depth direction focusing. For width direction focusing, the scattering effect of the transmitted probe beam by a microchannel edge was used. The focusing system was evaluated with a 250 microm wide x 50 microm deep microchannel. Focusing resolutions for depth and width directions were 1 and 10 microm, respectively. The repeatability of the thermal lens signal (40 microM xylenecyanol solution) was proved to be approximately 1% coefficient of variance when using these focusing methods. The limit of detection for a xylenecyanol solution was 30 nM, and the absorbance was 4.7 x 10(-6) AU. The sensitivity was 20-100 times higher than that obtained by spectrophotometry. In consequence, a practical thermal lens spectrometer was realized. PMID:15649072

Mawatari, Kazuma; Naganuma, Yoshiaki; Shimoide, Koji

2005-01-15

402

A photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed for trace gas detection with absorption transitions in coincidence with CO2 laser emission lines (9,2-10,9 ?m: 920-1086 cm-1). The CO2 laser operates in 90 CW lines with power of up to 15 W. A PC-controlled step motor can tune the laser lines. The resonance frequency of first longitudinal mode of the photoacoustic cell is at 1600 Hz. The cell Q-factor and cell constant are measured close to 50 and 28 mVcmW-1, respectively. The spectrometer has been tested in preliminary studies to analyze the absorption transitions of ozone (O_3). The ethylene (C_2H_4) from papaya fruit is also investigated using N2 as carrier gas at a constant flow rate.

Telles, E. M.; Bezerra, E.; Scalabrin, A.

2005-06-01

403

Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design  

DOEpatents

A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

Chrisp; Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2008-08-19

404

A wideband spectrometer for the SRT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiotelescope operating at millimeter wavelengths must be able to analyze an instantaneous bandwidth of at least a few GHz in spectroscopic mode, with a number of spectral points of the order of thousands. Two solutions are examined. In the first, it is assumed that a multi-channel digital spectrometer, with a bandwidth of the order of 100 MHz for each channel, will be available. In this case, a digital filterbank derived from the experience with the ALMA correlator could be used to synthesize a total bandwidth of 1-2 GHz. For wider bandwidths, an acousto-optical spectrometer is proposed. The experience at IRA, Sez. di Firenze with these instruments is presented, and possible solutions are outlined.

Comoretto, G.; Natale, V.

405

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-07-03

406

Mass Spectrometer Containing Multiple Fixed Collectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature mass spectrometer that incorporates features not typically found in prior mass spectrometers is undergoing development. This mass spectrometer is designed to simultaneously measure the relative concentrations of five gases (H2, He, N2, O2, and Ar) in air, over the relative-concentration range from 10(exp -6) to 1, during a sampling time as short as 1 second. It is intended to serve as a prototype of a product line of easy-to-use, portable, lightweight, highspeed, relatively inexpensive instruments for measuring concentrations of multiple chemical species in such diverse applications as detecting explosive or toxic chemicals in air, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, measuring concentrations of deliberately introduced isotopes in medical and biological investigations, and general environmental monitoring. The heart of this mass spectrometer is an integral combination of a circular cycloidal mass analyzer, multiple fixed ion collectors, and two mass-selective ion sources. By circular cycloidal mass analyzer is meant an analyzer that includes (1) two concentric circular cylindrical electrodes for applying a radial electric field and (2) a magnet arranged to impose a magnetic flux aligned predominantly along the cylindrical axis, so that ions, once accelerated into the annulus between the electrodes, move along circular cycloidal trajectories. As in other mass analyzers, trajectory of each ion is determined by its mass-to-charge ratio, and so ions of different species can be collected simultaneously by collectors (Faraday cups) at different locations intersected by the corresponding trajectories (see figure). Unlike in other mass analyzers, the installation of additional collectors to detect additional species does not necessitate increasing the overall size of the analyzer assembly.

Moskala, Robert; Celo, Alan; Voss, Guenter; Shaffer, Tom

2008-01-01

407

Advanced mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two advanced prototype mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes were evaluated. The GAZAB is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4 and an abundance sensitivity of greater than 100,000 for the HT-D2 doublet. The MAT 250 HDT is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic focusing instrument with exceptionally high ion intensities

P. Chastagner

1984-01-01

408

Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface  

DOEpatents

A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

D`Silva, A.

1996-08-06

409

The VESUVIO Spectrometer Now and When?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current layout and mechanics of the VESUVIO spectrometer are presented in light of spectroscopic measurements using electron-volt neutrons. A brief background to the theoretical framework of deep inelastic neutron scattering is presented, with focus on data collection and instrumental design. The current capabilities and research themes for VESUVIO are discussed, and possible future instrumental developments highlighted which will enhance the instrument's ability to meet scientific inquiry and expectation.

Seel, A. G.; Krzystyniak, M.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.

2014-12-01

410

Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface  

DOEpatents

A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

D'Silva, Arthur (Ames, IA)

1996-08-06

411

Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

412

The Constellation-X reflection grating spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) is designed to provide high-throughput, high-resolution spectra in the long wavelength band of 6 to 50 angstrom. In the nominal design an array of reflection gratings is mounted at the exit of the Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) mirror module. The gratings intercept and disperse light to a designated array of CCD detectors. To achieve

Jean Cottam; Webster Cash; Kathryn A. Flanagan; Ralf K. Heilmann; Gregory Y. Prigozhin; Andrew P. Rasmussen; George R. Ricker; Mark L. Schattenburg; Eric Schindhelm

2006-01-01

413

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM)

W. N. Johnson; R. L. Kinzer; J. D. Kurfess; M. S. Strickman; W. R. Purcell; D. A. Grabelsky; M. P. Ulmer; D. A. Hillis; G. V. Jung; R. A. Cameron

1993-01-01

414

The crystal barrel spectrometer at LEAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal Barrel spectrometer used at LEAR, CERN to study the products of pd annihilations is described. A 1380 element array of Csl crystals measures photons from the decay of pi0, eta, eta' and omega mesons. A segmented drift chamber in a 1.5T magnetic field is used to identify and measure charged particles. A fast on-line trigger on charged and

E. Aker; Claude Amsler; I. Augustin; C. A. Baker; B. M. Barnett; C. J. Batty; R. Beckmann; P. Birien; J A Bistirlich; P. Blüm; R R Bossingham; H. Bossy; K. Braune; D. V. Bugg; M. Burchell; T. Case; S. Cierjacks; K. M. Crowe; K H Dederichs; Michael Doser; W. Dünnweber; H. Emerich; D. Engelhardt; M. A. Faessler; C W Felix; G. Folger; J M Friedrich; R. Hackmann; R P Haddock; H. Hammer; F H Heinsius; N. P. Hessey; P. Illinger; D. Jamnik; H. Kalinowsky; B. Kämmle; T. Kiel; E. Klempt; H. Koch; C. Kolo; K C Königsmann; F. Krennrich; M. Kunze; Rolf Landua; J. Lüdemann; H. Matthaey; M. Merkel; J. P. Merlo; C. A. Meyer; U. Meyer-Berkhout; Lucien Montanet; A. Noble; K. Peters; W. Rohrbach; A. H. Sanjari; E. Schäfer; B. Schmid; W. Schott; K. Sidiropoulos; S M Spanier; A. Staude; Chr. Strassburger; U. Strohbusch; Martin Suffert; C S Sutton; D. Urner; C. Völcker; D. Walther; S. Walther; Ch. Weddigen; U. Wiedner; N. Winter; Julius Zoll; Crtomir Zupancic

1992-01-01

415

Spectrometer of high energy gamma quantums  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of the apparatus GG-2M is given. The spectrometer contains a Cerenkov and scintillation (including anticoincidence) counter. The energies of the gamma quantums are measured by a shower calorimeter, in which scintillation counters are used in the capacity of detectors. Results are given for tuning the device on mu-mesons of cosmic rays. The data of physical tuning allow more reliable interpretation of the results of measurements which are received on the satellites.

Blokhintsev, I. D.; Melioranskiy, A. S.; Kalinkin, L. F.; Nagornykh, Y. I.; Pryakhin, Y. A.

1979-01-01

416

The Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description is presented for a tunable far infrared laser spectrometer based on frequency mixing of an optically pumped molecular gas laser with tunable microwave radiation in a Schottky point contact diode. The system has been operated on over 30 laser lines in the range 10-100/cm and exhibits a maximum absorption sensitivity near one part in a million. Each laser line can be tuned by + or - 110 GHz with first-order sidebands.

Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

1991-01-01

417

MERTIS: a highly integrated IR imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a background of several instrument developments in the past the German Aerospace Center in Berlin proposed for ESA's deep space mission BepiColombo an imaging spectrometer which meets the challenges of limited technical resources and a very special operational environment. An 80-channel push broom-type spectrometer has been drafted and it s development has been started under the name MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer). The instrument is dedicated to the mineralogy surface science and thermal characteristics studies of the innermost planet. It is based on modern un-cooled micro-bolometer technology and all-reflective optics design. The operation concept principle is characterised by intermediate scanning of the planet, deep space and black bodies as calibration targets. A miniaturised radiometer is included for low level temperature measurements. Altogether the system shall fit into a CD-package sized cube and weigh less than 3 kg. The paper will present the instrument architecture of MERTIS, its design status and will show the results of first components being built.

Walter, I.; Hirsch, H.; Jahn, H.; Knollenberg, J.; Venus, H.

2006-08-01

418

The compact neutron spectrometer at ASDEX Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first neutron spectrometer of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) was installed in November 2008. It is a compact neutron spectrometer (CNS) based on a BC501A liquid scintillating detector, which can simultaneously measure 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted from deuterium (D) plasmas and ? radiation. The scintillating detector is coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination data acquisition (DPSD) system capable of count rates up to 106 s-1. The DPSD system can operate in acquisition and processing mode. With the latter n-? discrimination is performed off-line based on the two-gate method. The paper describes the tests of the CNS and its installation at AUG. The neutron emission from the D plasma measured during a discharge with high auxiliary heating power was used to validate the CNS performance. The study of the optimal settings for the DPSD data processing to maximize the n-? discrimination capability of the CNS is reported. The CNS measured both 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted in AUG D plasmas with a maximum count rate of 5.4 ×105 s-1 (>10 times higher than similar spectrometers previously achieved) with an efficiency of 9.3 × 10-10 events per AUG neutron.

Giacomelli, L.; Zimbal, A.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schuhmacher, H.; Tardini, G.; Neu, R.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2011-12-01

419

Autonomously Calibrating a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program autonomously manages the calibration of a quadrupole ion mass spectrometer intended for use in monitoring concentrations and changes in concentrations of organic chemicals in the cabin air of the International Space Station. The instrument parameters calibrated include the voltage on a channel electron multiplier, a discriminator threshold, and an ionizer current. Calibration is achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum obtained while sweeping the parameter ranges in a heuristic procedure, developed by mass spectrometer experts, that involves detection of changes in signal trends that humans can easily recognize but cannot necessarily be straightforwardly codified in an algorithm. The procedure includes calculation of signal-to-noise ratios, signal-increase rates, and background-noise-increase rates; finding signal peaks; and identifying peak patterns. The software provides for several recovery-from-error scenarios and error-handling schemes. The software detects trace amounts of contaminant gases in the mass spectrometer and notifies associated command- and-data-handling software to schedule a cleaning. Furthermore, the software autonomously analyzes the mass spectrum to determine whether the parameters of a radio-frequency ramp waveform are set properly so that the peaks of the mass spectrum are at expected locations.

Lee, Seungwon; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

2009-01-01

420

Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

2014-05-01

421

Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

2009-01-01

422

Extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for thermospheric emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the instruments that has been developed to fly on the Space Shuttle is the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory, an array of five imaging spectrometers to cover the 300-12,000-A wavelength range. In this paper the spectrometer designed to operate in the extreme ultraviolet is described. The instrument is intended for studies of the thermosphere and magnetosphere and support of various plasma experiments to be performed from the Shuttle. The design is modular so that various components such as gratings and detectors can be changed and optimized for a range of specific studies following the first survey mission. The detector is an intensified 2-D CCD which permits simultaneous spectral and spatial imaging. The spectral multiplexing gives the spectrometer a considerable speed advantage. The instrument has a small field of view and is thus capable of obtaining much needed scale height information on the atmospheric EUV emissions. Operating from the Shuttle, global and temporal coverage will be obtained, and the EUV data will be enhanced by the simultaneously acquired UV, visible, and near-IR observations.

Torr, M. R.; Vitz, R. C.

1982-01-01

423

Cooled grating infrared spectrometer for astronomical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid helium-cooled infrared spectrometer for the 16 to 50 micron range is described. The instrument has six detectors, three each of Si:Sb and Ge:Ga and two diffraction gratings mounted back-to-back. Cold preoptics are used to match the spectrometer to the telescope. In its nominal configuration the system resolution is 0.03 micron from 16 to 30 microns and 0.07 micron from 28 to 50 microns. A cooled filter wheel is used to change order sorting filters. The gratings are driven by a steel band and gear train operating at 4 K. The detector outputs are amplified by a TIA, employing a matched pair of JFETs operating at 70 K inside the dewar. The external warm electronics include a gain stage for the TIA and dc-coupled gating circuit to remove charged-particle (cosmic-ray secondary)-induced noise spikes. The gating circuit reduces the overall system noise by a factor of two when the spectrometer is used on NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Sample spectra are presented and the deglitcher performance is illustrated.

Houck, J. R.; Gull, G. E.

1983-01-01

424

Prismatic analyser concept for neutron spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor of 2.4 in flux gain compared to a single flat analyser slab.

Birk, Jonas O.; Markó, Márton; Freeman, Paul G.; Jacobsen, Johan; Hansen, Rasmus L.; Christensen, Niels B.; Niedermayer, Christof; Mânsson, Martin; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Lefmann, Kim

2014-11-01

425

The HERSCHEL/PACS Spectrometer Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, to be launched in 2009, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 micron). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It employs two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform integral field spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The interactive PACS Spectrometer and Photometer \\citep{wieprecht09} Data Reduction Pipeline is integrated in the Herschel Data Processing System. The DP is implemented using Java technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center (HSC) and the three instrument teams. We overview the concept and status of the PACS Spectrometer Data Reduction Pipeline. Additionally, we address the instrument mode-dependent data processing and the definition of the products of the different processing levels. Finally, we show first results by applying the pipeline on flight model instrument level test data.

Schreiber, J.; Wieprecht, E.; de Jong, J.; Wetzstein, M.; Jacobson, J.; Huygen, R.; Appleton, P.; Bouwman, J.; Contursi, A.; Fadda, D.; Jean, C.; Klaas, U.; Royer, P.; Vandenbussche, B.

2009-09-01

426

Prismatic analyser concept for neutron spectrometers.  

PubMed

Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor of 2.4 in flux gain compared to a single flat analyser slab. PMID:25430125

Birk, Jonas O; Markó, Márton; Freeman, Paul G; Jacobsen, Johan; Hansen, Rasmus L; Christensen, Niels B; Niedermayer, Christof; Månsson, Martin; Rønnow, Henrik M; Lefmann, Kim

2014-11-01

427

Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

2014-06-01

428

The compact neutron spectrometer at ASDEX Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The first neutron spectrometer of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) was installed in November 2008. It is a compact neutron spectrometer (CNS) based on a BC501A liquid scintillating detector, which can simultaneously measure 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted from deuterium (D) plasmas and {gamma} radiation. The scintillating detector is coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination data acquisition (DPSD) system capable of count rates up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The DPSD system can operate in acquisition and processing mode. With the latter n-{gamma} discrimination is performed off-line based on the two-gate method. The paper describes the tests of the CNS and its installation at AUG. The neutron emission from the D plasma measured during a discharge with high auxiliary heating power was used to validate the CNS performance. The study of the optimal settings for the DPSD data processing to maximize the n-{gamma} discrimination capability of the CNS is reported. The CNS measured both 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted in AUG D plasmas with a maximum count rate of 5.4 x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (>10 times higher than similar spectrometers previously achieved) with an efficiency of 9.3 x 10{sup -10} events per AUG neutron.

Giacomelli, L.; Zimbal, A.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schuhmacher, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Tardini, G.; Neu, R. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

2011-12-15

429

Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) Description and User's Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic data acquired in the laboratory provide the interpretive foundation upon which compositional information about unexplored or unsampled planetary surfaces is derived from remotely obtained reflectance spectra. The RELAB is supported by NASA as a multi-user spectroscopy facility, and laboratory time can be made available at no charge to investigators who are in funded NASA programs. RELAB has two operational spectrometers available to NASA scientists: 1) a near- ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared bidirectional spectrometer and 2) a near- and mid- infrared FT-IR spectrometer. The overall purpose of the design and operation of the RELAB bidirectional spectrometer is to obtain high precision, high spectral resolution, bidirectional reflectance spectra of earth and planetary materials. One of the key elements of its design is the ability to measure samples using viewing geometries specified by the user. This allows investigators to simulate, under laboratory conditions, reflectance spectra obtained remotely (i.e., with spaceborne, telescopic, and airborne systems) as well as to investigate geometry dependent reflectance properties of geologic materials. The Nicolet 740 FT-IR spectrometer currently operates in reflectance mode from 0.9 to 25 Fm. Use and scheduling of the RELAB is monitored by a 4-member advisory committee. NASA investigators should direct inquiries to the Science Manager or RELAB Operator.

Pieters, Carle M.; Hiroi, Takahiro; Pratt, Steve F.; Patterson, Bill

2004-01-01

430

Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

2012-01-01

431

[Development of a high resolution simultaneous microwave plasma torch spectrometer].  

PubMed

A unique high resolution simultaneous microwave plasma torch (MPT) atomic emission spectrometer was developed and studied preliminarily. Some advanced technologies were applied to the spectrometer, such as echelle grating, UV-intensified CCD array detector, adjustable microwave generator, and water cooling system for the generator, etc. The detection limits of the spectrometer for some elements were determined, the spectral resolution and pixel resolution of the spectrometer were calculated, and an analysis of a practical sample was carried out. The preliminary results demonstrate that such simultaneous spectrometer has advantages of saving sample and time, possessing high sensitivity and resolution, and low-cost for the purchase and maintenance. Taking analytical figures of merit into consideration, the high resolution simultaneous MPT spectrometer will have extended application areas and greater competition potential as compared with sequential MPT spectrometers. PMID:18260435

Jiang, Jie; Huan, Yan-Fu; Jin, Wei; Feng, Guo-Dong; Fei, Qiang; Cao, Yan-Bo; Jin, Qin-Han

2007-11-01

432

In-flight radiometric calibration of the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reflectance-based method was used to provide an analysis of the in-flight radiometric performance of AVIRIS. Field spectral reflectance measurements of the surface and extinction measurements of the atmosphere using solar radiation were used as input to atmospheric radiative transfer calculations. Five separate codes were used in the analysis. Four include multiple scattering, and the computed radiances from these for flight conditions were in good agreement. Code-generated radiances were compared with AVIRIS-predicted radiances based on two laboratory calibrations for a uniform highly reflecting natural dry lake target. For one spectrometer, the pre- and post-season calibration factors were found to give identical results, and to be in agreement with the atmospheric models that include multiple scattering. Results for the other spectrometers were widely at variance with the models no matter which calibration factors were used. Potential causes of these discrepancies are discussed.

Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Alley, Ronald E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.

1988-01-01

433

Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer for remote observations near 8 microns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy is a passive technique employing coherent optical detection for the study of spectral features in remote sources. It employs optical components such as mirrors and lenses normally associated with incoherent optics, but because of it's coherent nature, it offers the advantages of ultrahigh spectral resolving power, high frequency precision, and diffraction limited field-of-view. Attention is given to the development of an ultrahigh resolution diode laser heterodyne spectrometer for observational and laboratory use. The instrument is designed for operation in the spectral range from 7.5 to 8.5 microns. A PbSe tuneable diode laser (TDL) is employed as local oscillator. A closed-cycle cooler is employed to keep the oscillator at operating temperatures in the range from 12 to 60 K. Attention is given to factors determining the TDL heterodyne sensitivity, the spectrometer design, and a survey of 8 micron observations, SiO could be detected in the sunspot spectrum.

Glenar, D. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Jennings, D. E.; Buhl, D.; Mumma, M. J.

1982-01-01

434

THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

Korngut, P. M.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Renbarger, T.; Keating, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Hristov, V.; Lanz, A.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Smith, A. W. [Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu [Materion Barr Precision Optics and Thin Film Coatings, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); and others

2013-08-15

435

Development of a time-resolved soft x-ray spectrometer for laser produced plasma experiments  

SciTech Connect

A 2400 lines/mm variable-spaced grating spectrometer has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 A) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x rays emitted from the back of the Mylar and the copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx}120 at 19 A with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolutions of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K. V.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Dunn, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; James, D. L.; May, M. J.; Shepherd, R.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Baldis, H. A. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2010-10-15

436

Calibration of a helium-cooled infrared spatial radiometer and grating spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods used by the Space Dynamics Laboratory of Utah State University (SDL/USU) to calibrate infrared sensors are described, using the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spatial radiometer and grating spectrometer as examples. A calibration equation and a radiometric model are given for each sensor to describe their responsivity in terms of individual radiometric parameters. The calibration equation terms include dark offset, linearity, absolute responsivity, and measurement uncertainty, and the radiometric model domains include spatial, spectral, and temporal domains. A portable calibration facility, designed and fabricated by SDL/USU, provided collimated, extended, diffuse scatter, and Jones sources in a single cryogenic dewar. This multi-function calibrator allowed calibration personnel to complete a full calibration of the IBSS infrared radiometer and spectrometer in two 15-day periods. A calibration data system was developed to control and monitor the calibration facility, and to record and analyze sensor data.

Jacobsen, Larry; Sargent, Steve; Wyatt, Clair L.; Steed, Allan J.

1992-01-01

437

Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

2010-05-12

438

HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.  

SciTech Connect

Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

CUI,Y.

2007-05-01

439

Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility.  

PubMed

We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.4-10?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV. PMID:25430193

Döppner, T; Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Kraus, D; Bachmann, B; Burns, S; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; House, A; Landen, O L; LePape, S; Ma, T; Pak, A; Swift, D

2014-11-01

440

Submillimeter Laboratory Investigations: Spectroscopy and Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave spectroscopy is conducted in our laboratory on several different types of spectrometers. Our standard spectrometer utilizes the output of a phase-locked klystron operating in the 40-60 GHz region, which is sent into a crossed-waveguide harmonic generator, or "multiplier". The high frequency millimeter-and submillimeter-wave radiation is transmitted via quasi-optical techniques through an absorption cell and then onto a detector, which is either an InSb hot electron bolometer cooled to 1.4 K or a Si bolometer cooled to 0.3 K. The detector response is sent to a computer for measurement and analysis. The frequency range produced and detected in this manner goes from 80 GHz to upwards of 1 THz. Spectra are normally taken with source modulation, with line frequencies typically measured to an accuracy of 50-100 kHz. Higher accuracy is available when needed. Recently, we developed a new, broad-band spectrometer in our laboratory based on a free-running backward wave oscillator (BWO) of Russian manufacture as the primary source of radiation. The so-called FASSST (fast-scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique) system uses fast-scan and optical calibration methods rather than the traditional locking techniques. The output power from the BWO is split such that 90% goes into the absorption cell while 10% is coupled to a 40-meter Fabry-Perot cavity, which yields fringe? for frequency measurement. Results from this spectrometer on the spectrum of nitric acid (HNO3) show that 100 GHz of spectral data can be obtained in 5 seconds with a measurement accuracy of 50 kHz. Currently, the frequency range of the FASSST system in our laboratory is roughly 100-700 GHz.

Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

2002-10-01

441

16. VIEW OF PLANT FABRICATED EQUIPMENT IN THE COATINGS LABORATORY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF PLANT FABRICATED EQUIPMENT IN THE COATINGS LABORATORY. A MASS SPECTROMETER IS TO THE LEFT OF THE PHOTO. (6/23/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

442

Distinguishing mangrove species with laboratory measurements of hyperspectral leaf reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a first step in developing classification procedures for remotely acquired hyperspectral mapping of mangrove canopies, we conducted a laboratory study of mangrove leaf spectral reflectance at a study site on the Caribbean coast of Panama, where the mangrove forest canopy is dominated by Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. Using a high?resolution spectrometer, we measured the reflectance of

Le Wang; Wayne P. Sousa

2009-01-01

443

140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

1985-07-29

444

Experiment S-191 visible and infrared spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication test, and utilization of the visible and infrared spectrometer portion of the S-191 experiment, part of the Earth Resources Experiment Package, on board Skylab is discussed. The S-191 program is described, as well as conclusions and recommendations for improvement of this type of instrument for future applications. Design requirements, instrument design approaches, and the test verification program are presented along with test results, including flight hardware calibration data. A brief discussion of operation during the Skylab mission is included. Documentation associated with the program is listed.

Linnell, E. R.

1974-01-01

445

Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock  

SciTech Connect

The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

2012-05-02

446

Comparison of properties of digital spectrometer systems.  

PubMed

We have tested two digital spectrometer systems, the DSP 9660 and Lynx(®) modules, connected to a HPGe detector. Lynx(®) is a fully integrated 32K channel signal analyzer based on digital signal processing techniques, which offers advanced digital stabilization. The model DSP 9660 digitalizes the signal directly at a very high sampling rate. The evaluated properties were integral nonlinearity, differential linearity, channel profiles, resolution and throughput. We found that the DSP system has slightly inferior resolution and throughput in comparison with the Lynx(®) system. PMID:24342559

Mazanova, Monika; Dryak, Pavel; Kovar, Petr; Auerbach, Pavel

2014-05-01

447

Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid  

DOEpatents

An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23

448

Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

2012-06-07

449

Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

2009-01-01

450

The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for ORFEUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel EUV spectrometer is presented for the ORFEUS-SPAS mission. It uses a set of four varied line-space spherical diffraction gratings to obtain high-resolution spectra of point sources at wavelengths between 390 and 1200 A. The spectra are recorded with two detector units, each containing curved-surface microchannel plates and a delay-line anode-readout system. An independent optical system detects the image of the source in the entrance aperture and tracks the source as it drifts during an observation, enabling a reconstruction of the spectra postflight. The overall system performance is discussed and illustrated by synthetic spectra.

Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

1991-01-01

451

The 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, testing, and accuracy of an 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer, an FM-CW system which employs a dual antenna system, is described. The antennas, transmitter, and a portion of the receiver are mounted at the top of a 26 meter hydraulic boom which is in turn mounted on a truck for system mobility. HH and VV polarized measurements are possible at incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 80 deg. Calibration is accomplished by referencing the measurements against a Luneberg lens of known radar cross section.

Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

1973-01-01

452

New Positron Spectrometer for MEG Experiment Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An upgrade of the MEG experiment, which searches for the lepton flavor violating decay, ? ? e?, at the highest sensitivity ever, is planned in order to improve the sensitivity down to ? 5 ×10-14. We plan to employ a stereo wire drift chamber with a unique volume for the tracking and a pixelated scintillation detector with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout for the timing measurement with improved efficiency and resolutions. We will describe the expected performance and the R&D status of the new spectrometer especially focusing on the new timing counter, which is expected to contribute better resolution of the relative timing between positron and gamma-ray.

Nishimura, M.

2014-08-01

453

AFE ion mass spectrometer design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

Wright, Willie

1989-01-01

454

Lunar laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

1986-01-01

455

Noise analysis of spectrometers based on speckle pattern reconstruction.  

PubMed

Speckle patterns produced by a disordered medium or a multimode fiber can be used as a fingerprint to uniquely identify the input light frequency. Reconstruction of a probe spectrum from the speckle pattern has enabled the realization of compact, low-cost, and high-resolution spectrometers. Here we investigate the effects of experimental noise on the accuracy of the reconstructed spectra. We compare the accuracy of a speckle-based spectrometer to a traditional grating-based spectrometer as a function of the probe signal intensity and bandwidth. We find that the speckle-based spectrometers provide comparable performance to a grating-based spectrometer when measuring intense or narrowband probe signals, whereas the accuracy degrades in the measurement of weak or broadband signals. These results are important to identify the applications that would most benefit from this new class of spectrometer. PMID:24514126

Redding, Brandon; Popoff, Sebastien M; Bromberg, Yaron; Choma, Michael A; Cao, Hui

2014-01-20

456

Shortcuts to adiabatic passage for multiparticles in distant cavities: applications to fast and noise-resistant quantum population transfer, entangled states’ preparation and transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we study the fast and noise-resistant population transfer, quantum entangled states’ preparation and quantum entangled states’ transition by constructing shortcuts to adiabatic passage (STAP) for multiparticles based on the approach of ‘Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants’ in a distant cavity quantum electronic dynamics (QED) system. Numerical simulation demonstrates that all of the schemes are fast and robust against the decoherence caused by atomic spontaneous emission and photon leakage. Moreover, it is not only the total operation time but also the robustness in each scheme against decoherence that is irrelevant to the number of qubits. This might lead to a useful step toward realizing fast and noise-resistant quantum information processing in current technology.

Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Chen, Qing-Qin; Song, Jie

2014-11-01

457

Laboratory accreditation  

SciTech Connect

Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepte