Sample records for laboratory multiparticle spectrometer

  1. Adapting Raman spectra from laboratory spectrometers to portable detection libraries.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, James C; Barber, Jeffrey; Brauer, Carolyn S; Johnson, Timothy J; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D; Smith, Barry T; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a format suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064 nm DeltaNu first generation, field-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064 nm Bruker Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectrometer and a 785 nm Kaiser dispersive spectrometer. The steps taken to adapt for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and relative intensity response are described. Effects due to the differing excitation laser wavelengths were found to be minimal, indicating--at least for the near-infrared (NIR)--that data can be ported between different systems, so long as certain measures are taken with regard to the reference and field spectra. PMID:23622433

  2. Commissioning of the CPT mass spectrometer at Argonne National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Savard; G. Hackman; J. Uusitalo; K. S. Sharma; R. C. Barber; F. Buchinger; J. E. Crawford; X. Feng; S. Gulick; J. K. P. Lee; P. Martinez; R. B. Moore; J. C. Hardy

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is currently being commissioned on-line at the ATLAS facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. The device will be used to perform high-accuracy (Delta M \\\\over M ≈ 10-8 - 10-9) mass measurements on both stable and unstable nuclides. The unstable nuclides produced by heavy-ion reactions will be preseparated in a gas-filled magnetic separator

  3. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM): Laboratory and Field Calibration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccubbin, I. B.; Green, R. O.; Mouroulis, P.; Van Gorp, B.; Dierssen, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) is an airborne sensor tailored specifically for the challenges of coastal ocean research. PRISM has high throughput, high-uniformity and low polarization sensitivity. PRISM is an airborne imaging spectrometer sensor that has been developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with funding from NASA's Earth Science and Technology Office, Airborne Science Office, and Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Office. Development of PRISM started in August 2009. Laboratory measurements of the sensor characteristics as well as measurements over land and water calibration sites will be reported. The objective of the PRISM program is to provide a facility instrument for the community of coastal ocean scientists in order to address specific science questions that have been identified by NASA as critical to the understanding of terrestrial processes. PRISM is a push-broom sensor, and utilizes a Dyson spectrometer, which has 3-nm spectral resolution from 350-1000 nm. The objective of the PRISM 2012 airborne campaign was to a) provide instrument calibration data by overflying specific well-characterized ground targets, and b) perform an investigation into the health of specific seagrass types as indicative of coastal habitat health in the Elkhorn Slough region of Monterey Bay, CA. In May and July of 2012 PRISM flew engineering test flights and an initial science campaign. The initial results from the May and July 2012 flight campaigns will be presented.

  4. Accessible quantification of multiparticle entanglement

    E-print Network

    Cianciaruso, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is a key ingredient for quantum technologies and a fundamental signature of quantumness in a broad range of phenomena encompassing many-body physics, thermodynamics, cosmology, and life sciences. For arbitrary multiparticle systems, the quantification of entanglement typically involves hard optimisation problems, and requires demanding tomographical techniques. In this paper we show that such difficulties can be overcome by developing an experimentally friendly method to evaluate measures of multiparticle entanglement via a geometric approach. The method provides exact analytical results for a relevant class of mixed states of $N$ qubits, and computable lower bounds to entanglement for any general state. For practical purposes, the entanglement determination requires local measurements in just three settings for any $N$. We demonstrate the power of our approach to quantify multiparticle entanglement in $N$-qubit bound entangled states and other states recently engineered in laboratory using quant...

  5. Accessible quantification of multiparticle entanglement

    E-print Network

    Marco Cianciaruso; Thomas R. Bromley; Gerardo Adesso

    2015-07-06

    Entanglement is a key ingredient for quantum technologies and a fundamental signature of quantumness in a broad range of phenomena encompassing many-body physics, thermodynamics, cosmology, and life sciences. For arbitrary multiparticle systems, the quantification of entanglement typically involves hard optimisation problems, and requires demanding tomographical techniques. In this paper we show that such difficulties can be overcome by developing an experimentally friendly method to evaluate measures of multiparticle entanglement via a geometric approach. The method provides exact analytical results for a relevant class of mixed states of $N$ qubits, and computable lower bounds to entanglement for any general state. For practical purposes, the entanglement determination requires local measurements in just three settings for any $N$. We demonstrate the power of our approach to quantify multiparticle entanglement in $N$-qubit bound entangled states and other states recently engineered in laboratory using quantum optics and trapped ion setups.

  6. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM): laboratory and field calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Van Gorp, Byron; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael; Boardman, Joseph; Richardson, Brandon S.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Urquiza, Eugenio; Franklin, Brian D.; Gao, Bo-Cai

    2012-09-01

    We report the characteristics of the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne sensor specifically designed for the challenges of coastal ocean research. PRISM has high signal to noise ratio and uniformity, as well as low polarization sensitivity. Acquisition of high quality data has been demonstrated with the first engineering flight.

  7. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  8. Laboratory Calibration of a Field Imaging Spectrometer System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Changping; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Feizhou; Tong, Qingxi

    2011-01-01

    A new Field Imaging Spectrometer System (FISS) based on a cooling area CCD was developed. This paper describes the imaging principle, structural design, and main parameters of the FISS sensor. The FISS was spectrally calibrated with a double grating monochromator to determine the center wavelength and FWHM of each band. Calibration results showed that the spectral range of the FISS system is 437–902 nm, the number of channels is 344 and the spectral resolution of each channel is better than 5 nm. An integrating sphere was used to achieve absolute radiometric calibration of the FISS with less than 5% calibration error for each band. There are 215 channels with signal to noise ratios (SNRs) greater than 500 (62.5% of the bands). The results demonstrated that the FISS has achieved high performance that assures the feasibility of its practical use in various fields. PMID:22163746

  9. Status of the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer at the Argonne National Laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Sharma; R. C. Barber; F. Buchinger; J. E. Crawford; X. Feng; H. Fukutani; S. Gulick; G. Hackman; J. C. Hardy; D. Hofman; J. K. P. Lee; P. Martinez; R. B. Moore; G. Savard; D. Seweryniak; J. Uusitalo

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer has been modified and reassembled at the ATLAS facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. It is currently being commissioned there. With this apparatus we expect to be able to measure the masses of a wide variety of nuclides having half-lives greater that 0.1 s, to an accuracy of better than 10 ppb of

  10. GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 ?Bq/kg sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-08

    A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg){sup ?1} is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT’s under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

  11. GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 ?Bq/kg sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J.

    2013-08-01

    A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg)-1 is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT's under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

  12. Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.; Frankel, M.; Traebert, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Adams, J. S.; Kelly, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Koutroumpa, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S. [NASA/GSFC Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 21201 (United States); Kahn, S. M. [Stanford University Physics Department, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Thorn, D. B. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-12-16

    We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K-and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  13. A novel von Hamos spectrometer for efficient X-ray emission spectroscopy in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Anklamm, Lars; Schlesiger, Christopher; Malzer, Wolfgang; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel, highly efficient von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in the laboratory using highly annealed pyrolitic graphite crystals as the dispersive element. The spectrometer covers an energy range from 2.5 keV to 15 keV giving access to chemical speciation and information about the electronic configuration of 3d transition metals by means of the K? multiplet. XES spectra of Ti compounds are presented to demonstrate the speciation capabilities of the instrument. A spectral resolving power of E/?E = 2000 at 8 keV was achieved. Typical acquisition times range from 10?min for bulk material to hours for thin samples below 1??m. PMID:24880356

  14. Laboratory performances of the solar multichannel resonant scattering spectrometer prototype of the GOLF-New Generation instrument

    E-print Network

    S. Turck-Chieze; P. H. Carton; S. Mathur; J. -C. Barriere; P. Daniel-Thomas; C. Lahonde-Hamdoun; R. Granelli; D. Loiseau; F. Nunio; Y. Piret; J. M. Robillot

    2008-06-21

    This article quickly summarizes the performances and results of the GOLF/SoHO resonant spectrometer, thus justifying to go a step further. We then recall the characteristics of the multichannel resonant GOLF-NG spectrometer and present the first successful performances of the laboratory tests on the prototype and also the limitations of this first technological instrument. Scientific questions and an observation strategy are discussed.

  15. Reactive multiparticle collision dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohlf, Katrin; Fraser, Simon; Kapral, Raymond

    2008-07-01

    A mesoscopic dynamics method for the simulation of spatially distributed chemically reacting systems under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions is described. Non-reactive collisions are modeled by multiparticle collision dynamics that conserves mass, momentum and energy. Reactive collisions are described by birth-death stochastic processes. The dynamics is governed by a Markov chain in the full phase space of the system, which reduces to mass action rate laws in the mean field limit. Simulations on the Selkov model are carried out to illustrate the simulation method.

  16. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  17. On factorization of multiparticle pentagons

    E-print Network

    A. V. Belitsky

    2015-05-21

    We address the near-collinear expansion of multiparticle NMHV amplitudes, namely, the heptagon and octagons in the dual language of null polygonal super Wilson loops. In particular, we verify multiparticle factorization of charged pentagon transitions in terms of pentagons for single flux-tube excitations within the framework of refined operator product expansion. We find a perfect agreement with available tree and one-loop data.

  18. On factorization of multiparticle pentagons

    E-print Network

    Belitsky, A V

    2015-01-01

    We address the near-collinear expansion of multiparticle non-MHV amplitudes, namely, the heptagon and octagons in the dual language of null polygonal super Wilson loops. In particular, we verify multiparticle factorization of charged pentagon transitions in terms of pentagons for single flux-tube excitations within the framework of refined operator product expansion. We find a perfect agreement with available tree and one-loop data.

  19. The characteristics of a low background germanium gamma ray spectrometer at China JinPing Underground Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi; Mi, Yuhao; Ma, Hao; Cheng, Jianping; Su, Jian; Yue, Qian

    2014-09-01

    A low background germanium gamma ray spectrometer, GeTHU, has been installed at China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The integral background count rate of the spectrometer was 0.629 cpm between 40 and 2700 keV, the origins of which were studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Detection limits and efficiencies were calculated for selected gamma peaks. Some samples of rare event experiments were measured and (137)Cs contamination was found in boric acid. GeTHU will be mainly used to measure environmental samples and screen materials in dark matter and double beta decay experiments. PMID:24950199

  20. Comparison of spectral data gathered from a laboratory spectrometer and TM images with and without shadow correction

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data from field samples were determined with a laboratory spectrometer (Beckman DK-2A). The spectral curves obtained with the spectrometer were correlated with the histograms determined from the images. The tightly defined histograms from the shadow corrected TM provided the best correlation with the rock data. Several units, including the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, showed multiple spectral patterns on both images and rock spectra. This difference was evaluated versus geochemistry, hematitic alteration, devitrification, pumice content, and degree of welding. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Laboratory calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for the Solar-B satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, James; Kent, Barry J.; Paustian, Wolfgang; Brown, Charles M.; Keyser, Christian; Anderson, Mark R.; Case, Giles C. R.; Chaudry, Rahil A.; James, Adrian M.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Pike, C. David; Probyn, Brian J.; Rippington, David J.; Seely, John F.; Tandy, Jason A.; Whillock, Matthew C. R

    2006-12-01

    The laboratory end-to-end testing of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) for the Solar-B satellite is reported. A short overview of the EIS, which observes in two bands in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength range, is given. The calibration apparatus is described, including details of the light sources used.The data reduction and analysis procedure are outlined. The wavelength calibration using a Penning source to illuminate the aperture fully is presented. We discuss the aperture determination using a radiometrically calibrated hollow-cathode-based source. We then give an account of the predicted and measured efficiencies from consideration of the efficiencies of individual optical elements in first order, an account of efficiencies out of band when radiation incident in one band is detected in the other, and efficiencies in multiple orders. The efficiencies measured in first order for in band and out of band are compared with the predictions and the sensitivity, and its uncertainties are derived. Application of the radiometric calibration is discussed.

  2. Laboratory Astrophysics using a Microcalorimeter and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Silver, Eric

    2004-01-01

    During the past year we have been preparing our new microcalorimeter system for permanent delivery to the NIST EBIT. Unfortunately, there have been delays due to technical difficulties in the fabrication of the two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and in the life expectancy of the thin windows used for internal thermal baffling of the infrared radiation. These problems have been solved and we are completing tests of the entire system and it will be set up at NIST during the first week of May. Several photos of the new system are shown in Figures 1A and 1B. This microcalorimeter spectrometer only requires helium refills every three days (as opposed to every 24 hours) and it will hold a temperature! of 65 mK for up to 48 hours (as opposed to 8 hours). Consequently, the efficiency of data acquisition will improve dramatically. In parallel we have published a paper that reviews our previous work (Takacs et al. 2003), especially on Fe XVII, in the context of recent measurements by other groups. This paper is included. We highlight a recent measurement of a broad band spectrum of Fe in Figure 2 that simultaneously includes L and K radiation. It is compared with the simulated spectrum of the Perseus Cluster that one could expect to obtain with a microcalorimeter in the focus of a grazing incidence telescope such as the one being designed for Constellation X. Both the charge state distributions and the relative intensity ratios of the emission lines within the particular charge state are very similar in the two spectra. This further demonstrates the importance and relevance of the laboratory measurements in predicting the components of cosmic spectra.

  3. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Matthew A.

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment. The high-time resolution data shows that rapid concentration changes of a common individual species can be lost with traditional bulk sampling, and a time resolution of 30 minutes is suggested to accurately represent these changes. Using the mass spectra collected from the extended sampling campaign, source apportionment was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF). The resulting model features six factors either correlated to specific sources (meat cooking, car emissions/road dust, diesel exhaust) or types of compounds (phthalates, alkanes/alkanoic acids, PAHs). The high-time resolution data allowed for the observation of specific trends in each factor's behavior as a function of time and wind direction relative to the receptor site. Elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) data is used to calculate the percentages of primary and secondary organic aerosol. Primary organic aerosol (POA) constituted the vast majority of the total carbon at 91% (an average of 2.8 +/- 1.1mug/m 3); 30% of which came from combustion, and 70% from non-combustion sources. These results can be explained by the PIAMS data: the diesel factor contributes to the combustion-related POA; the car/road dust, meat cooking, and alkane/alkanoic acid factors contribute the majority of non-combustion POA. The remaining factors represent <5% of the remaining OC. Considering the compatibility of data from the EC/OC and PIAMS, the ability of PIAMS to yield molecular species information to further define the primary and secondary organic aerosol factions is a distinct advantage in describing the behavior of the Wilmington organic aerosol. PIAMS was also applied to laboratory experiments. These experiments simulated complex environmental processes in order to focus on answering a central question. By mixing cholesterol aerosol with ozone in a smog chamber, and monitoring the concentration of cholesterol with PIAMS, the rate of reaction was determined. This rate indicates that cholesterol aerosol, which is a suggested source tracer, will remain in the ambient air for a few days under norma

  4. Comparison of laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at the beginning and end of the first flight season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Reimer, John H.; Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral and radiometric calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) were performed in the laboratory in June and November, 1987, at the beginning and end of the first flight season. Those calibrations are described along with changes in instrument characteristics that occurred during the flight season as a result of factors such as detachment of the optical fibers to two of the four AVIRIS spectrometers, degradation in the optical alignment of the spectrometers due to thermally-induced and mechanical warpage, and breakage of a thermal blocking filter in one of the spectrometers. These factors caused loss of signal in three spectrometers, loss of spectral resolution in two spectrometers, and added uncertainty in the radiometry of AVIRIS. Results from in-flight assessment of the laboratory calibrations are presented. A discussion is presented of improvements made to the instrument since the end of the first flight season and plans for the future. Improvements include: (1) a new thermal control system for stabilizing spectrometer temperatures, (2) kinematic mounting of the spectrometers to the instrument rack, and (3) new epoxy for attaching the optical fibers inside their mounting tubes.

  5. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Dreyfus

    2008-01-01

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this

  6. Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

    2011-12-01

    Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional XRF technology, to evaluate the handheld technology. All of these samples are fine-grained and homogeneous, and were selected to eliminate effects introduced to the data by inconsistencies in the sample matrix, or added complexities like increased vesicularity or phenocryst content. Our calibration curves are built from smooth, sawed surfaces. We have examined all major elements, minus Na (which falls below the instrument sensitivity). Initial tests show that reproducible and reliable calibration curves are produced for Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, and Si, but the curves produced for Mg, Mn, K and P include greater uncertainties. We are currently investigating how the instrument signal variably drops off as a function of surface roughness and distance to the instrument window. Through studies such as these in the simulated GeoLab setting, we can better understand the instrument's capabilities in a field environment, both on Earth and for potential future missions to other planetary surfaces.

  7. Multiple detector focal plane array ultraviolet spectrometer for the AMPS laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of meeting the requirements of the amps spectroscopic instrumentation by using a multi-element focal plane detector array in a conventional spectrograph mount was examined. The requirements of the detector array were determined from the optical design of the spectrometer which in turn depends on the desired level of resolution and sensitivity required. The choice of available detectors and their associated electronics and controls was surveyed, bearing in mind that the data collection rate from this system is so great that on-board processing and reduction of data are absolutely essential. Finally, parallel developments in instrumentation for imaging in astronomy were examined, both in the ultraviolet (for the Large Space Telescope as well as other rocket and satellite programs) and in the visible, to determine what progress in that area can have direct bearing on atmospheric spectroscopy.

  8. Extent of multiparticle quantum nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nick S.; Linden, Noah; Massar, Serge [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Laboratoire d'Information Quantique and Centre for Quantum Information and Communication, C.P. 165/59, Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that entangled quantum states are nonlocal: the corrrelations between local measurements carried out on these states cannot be reproduced by local hidden variable models. Svetlichny, followed by others, showed that multipartite quantum states are more nonlocal than bipartite ones in the sense that even some nonlocal classical models with (super-luminal) communication between some of the parties cannot reproduce the quantum correlations. Here we study in detail the kinds of nonlocality present in quantum states. More precisely, we enquire what kinds of classical communication patterns cannot reproduce quantum correlations. By studying the extremal points of the space of all multiparty probability distributions, in which all parties can make one of a pair of measurements each with two possible outcomes, we find a necessary condition for classical nonlocal models to reproduce the statistics of all quantum states. This condition extends and generalizes work of Svetlichny and others in which it was showed that a particular class of classical nonlocal models, the 'separable' models, cannot reproduce the statistics of all multiparticle quantum states. Our condition shows that the nonlocality present in some entangled multiparticle quantum states is much stronger than previously thought. We also study the sufficiency of our condition.

  9. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF TUNABLE ATOMIC LINE MOLECULAR SPECTROMETERS FOR BENZENE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tunable Atomic Line Molecular Spectroscopy (TALMS) is a high resolution, differential absorption technique used in the ultraviolet region. Under Interagency Agreements EPA-80-D-X1014 and AD-89-F-2A008 with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, two prototype TALMS instruments were designe...

  10. Laboratory Testing and Calibration of the Nuclei-Mode Aerosol Size Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    This grant was awarded to complete testing and calibration of a new instrument, the nuclei-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), following its use in the WB-57F Aerosol Measurement (WAM) campaign in early 1998. The N-MASS measures the size distribution of particles in the 4-60 nm diameter range with 1-Hz response at typical free tropospheric conditions. Specific tasks to have been completed under the auspices of this award were: 1) to experimentally determine the instrumental sampling efficiency; 2) to determine the effects of varying temperatures and flows on N-MASS performance; and 3) to calibrate the N-MASS at typical flight conditions as operated in WAM. The work outlined above has been completed, and a journal manuscript based on this work and that describes the performance of the N-MASS is in preparation. Following a brief description of the principles of operation of the instrument, the major findings of this study are described.

  11. Thin-window high-efficiency position sensitive proportional counter for the vacuum flat crystal spectrometers on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Brown; P. Beiersdorfer; R. Goddard; B. Wargelin; S. B. Utter

    2001-01-01

    We have mounted 1 mum thick aluminized polyimide windows onto the position sensitive proportional counters employed by the wide-band flat crystal spectrometers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap experiment. The aluminized polyimide, supported by thin wires across the short axis of the window, is used to isolate the detection chamber of the proportional counters, which operate

  12. Calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer in the Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Chovit, Christopher J.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry data must be spectrally, radiometrically and geometrically calibrated in order to: 1) derive physical parameters from measured spectral radiance, 2) compare data acquired from different regions and at different times, 3) compare and analyze the imaging spectrometry data with data acquired from other calibrated sensors, and 4) compare and analyze data with results from computer models. The calibration of AVIRIS data is the process by which laboratory characterization data are applied to raw instrument data (digitized number versus spectral channels) to produce quantitative spectra (radiance versus wavelength) for each image pixel in units of spectral radiance. The AVIRIS sensor and calibration process are described by Vane and the application of the calibration data to the raw digital data is described by Green. This calibration process is validated for in-flight performance of the sensor using a rigorous ground-truth campaign. This workshop paper reviews the laboratory characterization data set that is used in the AVIRIS calibration process. The laboratory measurements used to acquire the calibration data are divided into three classes: 1) spectral calibration, 2) radiometric calibration, and 3) spatial calibration.

  13. Higher order moments of multiparticle azimuthal correlations

    E-print Network

    Ante Bilandzic

    2014-10-14

    We introduce a general procedure to pave the road towards the ultimate goal of deriving analytic expressions for the probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) of multiparticle azimuthal correlations. All multiparticle azimuthal correlators can be expressed analytically in terms of the real and imaginary parts of $M$-particle $Q$-vectors. We derive the analytic results for the p.d.f.'s of single-particle $Q$-vectors in the most general case and demonstrate that they can be expressed solely in terms of Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. This leads analytically to the expressions of the characteristic functions of $M$-particle $Q$-vectors in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind. From the obtained characteristics functions we calculate the higher order moments of the real and imaginary parts of $M$-particle $Q$-vectors and use them to obtain the higher order moments of multiparticle azimuthal correlators. Finally, these results are used to investigate the sensitivity of multiparticle azimuthal correlations and to illuminate requirements necessary for future anisotropic flow measurements.

  14. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Y.; B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  15. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

  16. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  17. Multiparticle States and the Hadron Spectrum on the Lattice

    E-print Network

    David C. Moore; George T. Fleming

    2006-07-18

    The Clebsch-Gordan decomposition is calculated for direct products of the irreducible representations of the cubic space group. These results are used to identify multiparticle states which appear in the hadron spectrum on the lattice. Consideration of the cubic space group indicates how combinations of both zero momentum and non-zero momentum multiparticle states contribute to the spectrum.

  18. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for clinical use is...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for clinical use is...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for clinical use is...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for clinical use is...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for clinical use is...

  3. Bulk viscosity of multiparticle collision dynamics fluids.

    PubMed

    Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

    2015-03-01

    We determine the viscosity parameters of the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) approach, a particle-based mesoscale hydrodynamic simulation method for fluids. We perform analytical calculations and verify our results by simulations. The stochastic rotation dynamics and the Andersen thermostat variant of MPC are considered, both with and without angular momentum conservation. As an important result, we find a nonzero bulk viscosity for every MPC version. The explicit calculation shows that the bulk viscosity is determined solely by the collisional interactions of MPC. PMID:25871248

  4. Simulation of background reduction and Compton depression in low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    E-print Network

    ShunLi Niu; Xiao Cai; ZhenZhong Wu; YuGuang Xie; BoXiang Yu; ZhiGang Wang; Jian Fang; XiLei Sun; LiJun Sun; YingBiao Liu; Long Gao; Xuan Zhang; Hang Zhao; Li Zhou; JunGuang Lv; Tao Hu

    2014-10-16

    High-purity germanium detectors are well suited to analysis the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside of the probe to shield gammas, outmost is a plastic scintillator to veto the cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector can improve the Peak-to-Compton ratio. Using the GEANT4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of the detectors to reach the design indexes. A group of experimental data from a HPGe spectrometer in using were used to compare with the simulation. As to new HPGe Detector simulation, considering the different thickness of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal thickness is 5.5cm, and the Peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. As the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50keV~2.8MeV), which is about 10-5 of environmental background.

  5. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used

  6. Acquisition of a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for Laboratory Study of Prebiotic Organic Geochemical Processes on the Early Earth, Mars, and Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This was a major equipment grant that provided funds ($72K) for purchase of a benchtop gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use in experimental studies of prebiotic organic compounds. An Agilent model 689015973 GC-MS was purchased and installed in the PI's lab in August of 2003. The instrument is now being used for a variety of research projects. The primary use of the instrument is to analyze and quantify organic products of laboratory experiments conducted by the PI. One example is shown, which shows organic products (predominantly n-alkanes) formed during Fischer-Tropsch-type abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. The analytical capabilities of the GC- MS allowed identification of the numerous organic products of this as well as other laboratory experiments. A key use of the instrument in this research is that the mass spectrometer capabilities allow use of isotopically labeled reactants to trace the progress of reactions and evaluate background contaminants. collaborative projects with other scientists involved in exobiology & astrobiology research (e.g., Mitch Schulte, NASA Ames; Katrina Edwards, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). For instance, an analysis of membrane lipids of an lithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria being grown on basalt as a source of metabolic energy, a project where the instrument is being used to evaluate possible biomarker compounds from these organisms is shown. These iron oxidizers are thought to be similar to those living within the ocean crust, and are being investigated as possible analog organisms to those on the early Earth or crust of Mars. The instrument has also been used by an outside investigator (graduate student Brandon Canfeld, Arizona State University) for identification and isotopic characterization of experimental products of abiotic organic synthesis experiments he is conducting with Dr. John Holloway. analysis of quality control samples for other NASA-funded projects. For instance, an analysis of residual hydrocarbon contaminants on the internal surface of the shell of an atmospheric sounding rocket is shown. This analysis was used to help determine the source of the contaminating compounds. In the future, the instrument will continue to be used for quality control analysis in clean rooms and instrument construction facilities within the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, where the GC-MS is housed.

  7. A comprehensive approach to studies of porous media (rocks) using a laboratory spectrometer and logging tool with similar operating characteristics.

    PubMed

    Taicher, Z; Coates, G; Gitartz, Y; Berman, L

    1994-01-01

    The value of NMR spectrometry as a way to understand the porosity and permeability of rocks is well documented. Other more esoteric parameters, such as restrictive diffusion, grain size distribution, and fluid viscosities have received less notice but are also available from the NMR measurements as laboratory studies have shown. With the introduction of gradient field spin-echo NMR well logging, all of these parameters become available in a routine way. To accomplish the goal of having a well log that systematically provides this complete array of NMR answers requires consideration of the measurement principles that can be applied. Magnetic field strength and the relative merits of gradient versus homogeneous magnetic fields methods, as well as the limitations presented by the well bore and wireline systems are a few examples of the factors that must be considered. As important, to the end user, is being provided a definitive link between the well logging response and laboratory measurements on rock samples that prove the meaning of the log. This is ideally accomplished when the laboratory measurements are attained using an apparatus that has the same operating characteristics as the log. For most well logging systems this is seldom accomplished to the degree desired, but it is readily attainable with NMR technologies. The consideration of these factors and the features and benefits of having such a capability are the focus of this paper. The technical attributes of such a comprehensive system, the Numar Corporation's "MRIL" and "CoreSpec1000", plus actual examples of laboratory and well bore data are provided to show the value of such an approach. PMID:8170320

  8. Innovative Imaging Spectrometer Calibration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, T.; Chovit, C.; Eastwood, M.

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory calibration of the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) allowed experimentation with several innovative calibration techniques that would improve calibration accuracy, provide independent checks for systematic errors, and reduce the time required to collect a calibration data set.

  9. Multidimensional spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Zanni, Martin Thomas (Madison, WI); Damrauer, Niels H. (Boulder, CO)

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  10. CD Spectrometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Doherty

    2000-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a compact disc to make a spectrometer, an instrument used to measure properties of light. Learners use their spectrometer to view a continuous spectrum produced by fluorescent light. This lesson guide also includes instructions on how to build a spectroscope from a cereal box.

  11. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J. Jr.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K. [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6670, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5345 (United States)

    1999-06-10

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

  12. Femtoscopic correlations in multiparticle production and beta-decay

    E-print Network

    Richard Lednicky

    2007-02-20

    The basics of formalism of femtoscopic and spectroscopic correlations are given, the orthogonal character of these correlations is stressed. The similarity and difference of femtoscopic correlations in multiparticle production and beta-decay is discussed.

  13. Anderson Localization for a Multi-Particle Quantum Graph

    E-print Network

    Mostafa Sabri

    2013-07-18

    We study a multi-particle quantum graph with random potential. Taking the approach of multiscale analysis we prove exponential and strong dynamical localization of any order in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm near the spectral edge. Apart from the results on multi-particle systems, we also prove Lifshitz-type asymptotics for single-particle systems. This shows in particular that localization for single-particle quantum graphs holds under a weaker assumption on the random potential than previously known.

  14. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  15. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chastagner

    2001-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  16. Measurement of the Helicity Difference in gamma-->p-->-->ppi+pi? with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sungkyun Park

    2010-08-01

    The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W [approximate] 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp gammap-->ppi+pi? will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a “complete” experiment for the reaction gammaN-->KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction gammap-->ppi+pi? will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

  17. The target asymmetry P_z in {gamma}p-->p{pi}^+{pi}^- with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sungkyun Park, CLAS Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are reflected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.9 GeV/c{sup 2} are generally predicted to have strong couplings to the {pi}{pi}N final states via {pi}{Delta} or {rho}N intermediate states. Double-pion photoproduction is therefore important to find and investigate properties of highmass resonances. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly- and circularly-polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. In this contribution, the extraction of the target asymmetry for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  18. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  19. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  20. Multiparticle systems in ? -Poincaré inspired by (2 +1 )D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by a Chern-Simons description of 2 +1 -dimensional gravity coupled to point particles we propose a new Lagrangian of a multiparticle system living in ? -Minkowski/? -Poincaré spacetime. We derive the dynamics of interacting particles with ? -momentum space, alternative to the one proposed in the "principle of relative locality" literature. The model that we obtain takes account of the nonlocal topological interactions between the particles, so that the effective multiparticle action is not a sum of their free actions. In this construction the locality of particle processes is naturally implemented, even for distant observers. In particular a particle process is characterized by a local deformed energy-momentum conservation law. The spacetime transformations are generated by total charges/generators for the composite particle system, and leave unaffected the locality of individual particle processes.

  1. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. (British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  2. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  3. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  4. Multi-particle Correlations in Quaternionic Quantum Systems

    E-print Network

    S. P. Brumby; G. C. Joshi; Ronald Anderson

    1994-06-09

    We investigate the outcomes of measurements on correlated, few-body quantum systems described by a quaternionic quantum mechanics that allows for regions of quaternionic curvature. We find that a multi-particle interferometry experiment using a correlated system of four nonrelativistic, spin-half particles has the potential to detect the presence of quaternionic curvature. Two-body systems, however, are shown to give predictions identical to those of standard quantum mechanics when relative angles are used in the construction of the operators corresponding to measurements of particle spin components.

  5. Multi-particle correlations in quaternionic quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Brumby, S P; Anderson, R

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the outcomes of measurements on correlated, few-body quantum systems described by a quaternionic quantum mechanics that allows for regions of quaternionic curvature. We find that a multi-particle interferometry experiment using a correlated system of four nonrelativistic, spin-half particles has the potential to detect the presence of quaternionic curvature. Two-body systems, however, are shown to give predictions identical to those of standard quantum mechanics when relative angles are used in the construction of the operators corresponding to measurements of particle spin components.

  6. Multi-particle collision dynamics algorithm for nematic fluids.

    PubMed

    Shendruk, Tyler N; Yeomans, Julia M

    2015-06-17

    Research on transport, self-assembly and defect dynamics within confined, flowing liquid crystals requires versatile and computationally efficient mesoscopic algorithms to account for fluctuating nematohydrodynamic interactions. We present a multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) based algorithm to simulate liquid-crystal hydrodynamic and director fields in two and three dimensions. The nematic-MPCD method is shown to successfully reproduce the features of a nematic liquid crystal, including a nematic-isotropic phase transition with hysteresis in 3D, defect dynamics, isotropic Frank elastic coefficients, tumbling and shear alignment regimes and boundary condition-dependent order parameter fields. PMID:26035731

  7. Multi-Particle Collision Dynamics Algorithm for Nematic Fluids

    E-print Network

    Tyler N. Shendruk; Julia M. Yeomans

    2015-04-18

    Research on transport, self-assembly and defect dynamics within confined, flowing liquid crystals requires versatile and computationally efficient mesoscopic algorithms to account for fluctuating nematohydrodynamic interactions. We present a multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) based algorithm to simulate liquid-crystal hydrodynamic and director fields in two and three dimensions. The nematic-MPCD method is shown to successfully reproduce the features of a nematic liquid crystal, including a nematic-isotropic phase transition with hysteresis in 3D, defect dynamics, isotropic Frank elastic coefficients, tumbling and shear alignment regimes and boundary condition dependent order parameter fields.

  8. Interconnection Effects in Multiparticle Production from WW Events at LEP

    E-print Network

    Alessandro De Angelis

    1998-05-07

    Interactions between the products of the hadronic decays of different Ws in WW pair events can occur at several stages: from the colour rearrangement between the quarks coming from the primary branching, to the gluon exchange during the parton cascade, to the mixing of identical pions due to Bose-Einstein correlations. Besides the intrinsic interest of their study related to the understanding of the multiparticle production mechanisms, these phenomena can affect the ultimate accuracy in the W mass measurement by LEP 2. The status of the experimental analysis on interconnection effects between W pairs hadronically decaying is reviewed in this paper.

  9. Investigating the multiparticle decay in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P. (INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Catania (Italy) GANIL, Caen (France))

    1994-06-01

    Exclusive measurements of light charged products (LCP) in the [sup 132]Xe+[sup 197]Au collisions at 44 MeV/nucleon have been performed using MEDEA 4[pi] detection system. The admixture of each partricle type into the LCP multiplicity is found to be almost independent of the impact parameter. The data are analyzed with a formalism where the fluctuations of the multiparticle decay are described by uncorrelated Poissonian statistical distributions. The impact parameter filtering is performed using the LCP multiplicity. Self-correlation and impact parameter averagining effects are identified. The dominance of the statistical contribution in the fluctuations of the LCP multiplicity is deduced.

  10. Investigating the multiparticle decay in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1994-06-01

    Exclusive measurements of light charged products (LCP) in the 132Xe+197Au collisions at 44 MeV/nucleon have been performed using MEDEA 4? detection system. The admixture of each partricle type into the LCP multiplicity is found to be almost independent of the impact parameter. The data are analyzed with a formalism where the fluctuations of the multiparticle decay are described by uncorrelated Poissonian statistical distributions. The impact parameter filtering is performed using the LCP multiplicity. Self-correlation and impact parameter averagining effects are identified. The dominance of the statistical contribution in the fluctuations of the LCP multiplicity is deduced.

  11. Photometric imaging near infrared spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.; Witteborn, F. C.; Stafford, P.; Moss, N.; Jared, D.

    1985-01-01

    A description of the design and performance of an imaging spectrometer intended for operation in the seven to fourteen micrometer wavelength range is presented. It is based upon a sixteen by sixteen element Si:Bi hybrid array, a circular variable filter wheel, and a microcomputer data acquisition system. The spatial-spectral photometric performances have been evaluated in the laboratory as well as field tested at astronomical observatories. The performance characteristics of the system are presented as well as laboratory and astronomical images.

  12. Quasi-power laws in multiparticle production processes

    E-print Network

    Grzegorz Wilk; Zbigniew W?odarczyk

    2015-03-30

    We review the ubiquitous presence in multiparticle production processes of quasi-power law distributions (i.e., distributions following pure power laws for large values of the argument but remaining finite, usually exponential, for small values). Special emphasis is placed on the conjecture that this reflects the presence in the produced hadronic systems of some intrinsic fluctuations. If described by parameter q they form, together with the scale parameter $T$ ("temperature"), basis of Tsallis distribution, ${f(X)\\sim [1 - (1-q)X/T]^{1/(1-q)}}$, frequently used to describe the relevant distributions (the X being usually a transverse momentum). We discuss the origin of such quasi-power law behavior based on our experience with the description of multiparticle production processes. In particular, we discuss Tsallis distribution with complex nonextensivity parameter q and argue that it is needed to describe log-oscillations as apparently observed in recent data on large momentum distributions in very high energy p-p collisions.

  13. Multiparticle Higgs and Vector Boson Amplitudes at Threshold

    E-print Network

    Valentin V. Khoze

    2014-11-06

    In a spontaneously broken gauge theory we consider (sub)-processes in which one virtual intermediate state (it can be a Higgs or a gauge field) produces many on-shell Higgses and massive vector bosons. In the kinematic regime where all final states are produced on their mass threshold, we show how to compute iteratively all tree-level amplitudes ${\\cal A}_{1\\to n+m}$ involving an arbitrary number $n$ of Higgs bosons and $m$ of longitudinal vector bosons in the final state, and list the amplitudes coefficients for up to $n=32$ and $m=32$. We find that these amplitudes exhibit factorial growth not only in the number of scalar fields, but also in the number of longitudinal gauge fields, ${\\cal A}_{1\\to n+m} \\sim n! \\,m!$. This growth is not expected to disappear at loop-level in the fixed-order perturbation theory. We conclude that at energies accessible at the next generation of hadron colliders, such as the 50-100 TeV FCC, where $\\sqrt{\\hat{s}}$ is sufficient to produce $\\gg 1/\\alpha_W$ of $W,Z$ and $H$, perturbation theory breaks down when applied to the multiparticle electroweak production, at least near the kinematic multiparticle mass threshold where the electroweak gauge-Higgs sector becomes strongly coupled.

  14. Multiparticle entanglement in graph-diagonal states: Necessary and sufficient conditions for four qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Weinstein, Yaakov S. [Quantum Information Science Group, MITRE, 260 Industrial Way West, Eatontown, New Jersey 07724 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.

  15. Entanglement Polytopes: Multiparticle Entanglement from Single-Particle Information

    E-print Network

    Michael Walter; Brent Doran; David Gross; Matthias Christandl

    2014-11-14

    Entangled many-body states are an essential resource for quantum computing and interferometry. Determining the type of entanglement present in a system usually requires access to an exponential number of parameters. We show that in the case of pure multi-particle quantum states, features of the global entanglement can already be extracted from local information alone. This is achieved by associating with any given class of entanglement an entanglement polytope---a geometric object which characterizes the single-particle states compatible with that class. Our results, applicable to systems of arbitrary size and statistics, give rise to local witnesses for global pure-state entanglement, and can be generalized to states affected by low levels of noise.

  16. Multiparticle Solutions in 2+1 Gravity and Time Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steif, Alan R.

    Multiparticle solutions for sources moving at the speed of light and corresponding to superpositions of single-particle plane-wave solutions are constructed in 2+1 gravity. It is shown that the two-particle spacetimes admit closed timelike curves provided the center-of-momentum energy exceeds a certain critical value. This occurs, however, at the cost of unphysical boundary conditions which are analogous to those affecting Gott’s time machine. As the energy exceeds the critical value, the closed timelike curves first occur at spatial infinity, then migrate inward as the energy is further increased. The total mass of the system also becomes imaginary for particle energies greater than the critical value.

  17. Simulating strongly correlated multiparticle systems in a truncated Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Thomas; Hallwood, David W.; Gulliksen, Jake; Brand, Joachim [New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Meyer, Hans-Dieter [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Representing a strongly interacting multiparticle wave function in a finite product basis leads to errors. Simple rescaling of the contact interaction can preserve the low-lying energy spectrum and long-wavelength structure of wave functions in one-dimensional systems and thus correct for the basis set truncation error. The analytic form of the rescaling is found for a two-particle system where the rescaling is exact. A detailed comparison between finite Hilbert space calculations and exact results for up to five particles show that rescaling can significantly improve the accuracy of numerical calculations in various external potentials. In addition to ground-state energies, the low-lying excitation spectrum, density profile, and correlation functions are studied. The results give a promising outlook for numerical simulations of trapped ultracold atoms.

  18. Beta-Delayed Multi-Particle Emission Studies at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, M. J. G.

    2003-09-01

    We report here on the recent ?-decay studies made at ISOLDE/CERN to determine the multiparticle breakup mechanism of excited states in light nuclei. The ?-2p emission in 31Ar is resolved. Mirror beta transitions in the A=9 chain are compared and a large asymmetry factor is deduced for the transitions to high excitation energy in 9Be (11.8 MeV) and 9B (12.2 MeV) fed in the ?-decay of 9Li and 9C respectively. It is shown that the asymmetry is not due to experimental problems or differences in the mechanisms of breakup or in the spin of the states, only differences in the partial decay branches of the breakup channels has been found.

  19. Multiparticle Simulation of Intrabeam Scattering for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; /Frascati; Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.; Pivi, M.T.F.; /SLAC

    2012-04-27

    In this communication we present the structure of a multiparticle tracking code to investigate intrabeam scattering effects in low emittance colliders. Simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.and with those of a novel semi-analythical model able to predict IBS effect in terms of emittance growths. Intrabeam scattering (IBS) is associated with multiple small angle scattering events leading to emittance growth. In most electron storage rings, the growth rates arising from IBS are usually much longer than damping times due to synchrotron radiation, and its effect is not observed. However, IBS growth rates increase with bunch charge density, and for machines such as SuperB, that operate with high bunch charges and very low emittances, the IBS growth rates can be large enough to observe significant emittance increase. Several formalisms have been developed for calculating IBS growth rates in storage rings, notably those by Piwinski, Bjorken and Mtingwa, and their high energy approximations. Calculations show that IBS should be manageable in both SuperB rings. However these analytical models, based on Gaussian bunch distributions, cannot investigate some interesting aspects of IBS such as its impact during the damping process and its effect on the beam distribution. We developed a multiparticle tracking code, based on the Zenkevich-Bolshakov algorithm, to investigate these effects. In this communication we present the structure of the code and some simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters. Simulation results are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.

  20. Entropy and specific heat as a measure of fluctuations in multiparticle production in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohsin Khan; W. Bari; M. D. Azmi; Vipin Gaur; A. R. Khan; M. Zafar; M. Irfan

    2011-01-01

    An analysis to disentangle information about the occurrence of dynamical fluctuations in multiparticle production in high\\u000a energy nucleus-nucleus collisions has been carried out in terms of fractal moments and entropy for the experimental and simulated\\u000a data using FRITIOF, UrQMD and HIJING generators. Although there is a possibility to thermodynamically interpret the final\\u000a state of multiparticle production by calculating the values

  1. Long-Wave Infrared Dyson Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for an ultra compact long-wave infrared slit spectrometer based on the dyson concentric design. The dyson spectrometer has been integrated in a dewar environment with a quantum well infrared photodetecor (QWIP), concave electron beam fabricated diffraction grating and ultra precision slit. The entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to maximize signal to noise ratio performance, hence eliminating thermal signal from transmissive elements and internal stray light. All of this is done while maintaining QWIP thermal control. A general description is given of the spectrometer, alignment technique and predicated performance. The spectrometer has been designed for optimal performance with respect to smile and keystone distortion. A spectral calibration is performed with NIST traceable targets. A 2-point non-uniformity correction is performed with a precision blackbody source to provide radiometric accuracy. Preliminary laboratory results show excellent agreement with modeled noise equivalent delta temperature and detector linearity over a broad temperature range.

  2. Identification of new transformation products during enzymatic treatment of tetracycline and erythromycin antibiotics at laboratory scale by an on-line turbulent flow liquid-chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Couillerot, Olivier; Panigoni, Karine; de Gunzburg, Jean; Bayer, Sally; Czaja, Rico; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the formation of transformation products (TPs) by the enzymatic degradation at laboratory scale of two highly consumed antibiotics: tetracycline (Tc) and erythromycin (ERY). The analysis of the samples was carried out by a fast and simple method based on the novel configuration of the on-line turbulent flow system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap - high resolution mass spectrometer. The method was optimized and validated for the complete analysis of ERY, Tc and their transformation products within 10 min without any other sample manipulation. Furthermore, the applicability of the on-line procedure was evaluated for 25 additional antibiotics, covering a wide range of chemical classes in different environmental waters with satisfactory quality parameters. Degradation rates obtained for Tc by laccase enzyme and ERY by EreB esterase enzyme without the presence of mediators were ?78% and ?50%, respectively. Concerning the identification of TPs, three suspected compounds for Tc and five of ERY have been proposed. In the case of Tc, the tentative molecular formulas with errors mass within 2 ppm have been based on the hypothesis of dehydroxylation, (bi)demethylation and oxidation of the rings A and C as major reactions. In contrast, the major TP detected for ERY has been identified as the "dehydration ERY-A", with the same molecular formula of its parent compound. In addition, the evaluation of the antibiotic activity of the samples along the enzymatic treatments showed a decrease around 100% in both cases. PMID:24972175

  3. JPL D-16479 Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    JPL D-16479 Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Level 1B Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology #12;JPL D-16479 Contents 1 Introduction 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 ii #12;Version 1.1 TES Level 1B ATBD JPL D-16479 5.2 Calibration phase alignment

  4. Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

  5. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  6. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Mcintosh; J Joe Cordaro

    2008-01-01

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for

  7. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K. G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2014-11-01

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.

  8. Multiparticle adhesive dynamics. Interactions between stably rolling cells.

    PubMed Central

    King, M R; Hammer, D A

    2001-01-01

    A novel numerical simulation of adhesive particles (cells) reversibly interacting with an adhesive surface under flow is presented. Particle--particle and particle--wall hydrodynamic interactions in low Reynolds number Couette flow are calculated using a boundary element method that solves an integral representation of the Stokes equation. Molecular bonds between surfaces are modeled as linear springs and stochastically formed and broken according to postulated descriptions of force-dependent kinetics. The resulting simulation, Multiparticle Adhesive Dynamics, is applied to the problem of selectin-mediated rolling of hard spheres coated with leukocyte adhesion molecules (cell-free system). Simulation results are compared to flow chamber experiments performed with carbohydrate-coated spherical beads rolling on P-selectin. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment, with the main observation being a decrease in rolling velocity with increasing concentration of rolling cells or increasing proximity between rolling cells. Pause times are found to increase and deviation motion is found to decrease as pairs of rolling cells become closer together or align with the flow. PMID:11463626

  9. Simulation of Pressure-Driven Flows in Nanochannels Using Multiparticle Collision Riyad Chetram Raghu and Jeremy Schofield*

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Simulation of Pressure-Driven Flows in Nanochannels Using Multiparticle Collision Dynamics Riyad ReceiVed: September 14, 2010 A multiparticle collision dynamics algorithm is presented to simulate gas of inlet and outlet regions of the simulated system and the boundary conditions that are appropriate

  10. Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 ?m spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 °C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

  11. The SLIM spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Kevin M; Ingle, James D

    2003-01-01

    A new spectrometer, here denoted the SLIM (simple, low-power, inexpensive, microcontroller-based) spectrometer, was developed that exploits the small size and low cost of solid-state electronic devices. In this device, light-emitting diodes (LED), single-chip integrated circuit photodetectors, embedded microcontrollers, and batteries replace traditional optoelectronic components, computers, and power supplies. This approach results in complete customizable spectrometers that are considerably less expensive and smaller than traditional instrumentation. The performance of the SLIM spectrometer, configured with a flow cell, was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial spectrophotometer. Thionine was the analyte, and the detection limit was approximately 0.2 microM with a 1.5-mm-path length flow cell. Nonlinearity due to the broad emission profile of the LED light sources is discussed. PMID:12530815

  12. Superheterodyne ESR-spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Karpovich; L. V. Cvirko; V. B. Odzhaev; V. N. Popok; I. I. Azarko; A. D. Tarasevitch; V. P. Tolstykh

    1999-01-01

    A superheterodyne ESR spectrometer for automatic measurements has been designed. Superheterodyne realisation of the super-high-frequency section, computer control and data processing allow one to study signals of absorption and dispersion without frequency modulation

  13. The HERMES Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ackerstaff; A. Airapetian; N. Akopov; M. Amarian; V. Andreev; E. C. Aschenauer; R. Avakian; H. Avakian; A. Avetissian; B. Bains; S. Barrow; W. Beckhusen; M. Beckmann; E. Belz; Th. Benisch; S. Bernreuther; N. Bianchi; J. Blouw; H. Böttcher; A. Borissov; J. Brack; B. Braun; B. Bray; S. Brons; W. Brückner; A. Brüll; H. J. Bulten; G. P. Capitani; P. Carter; P. Chumney; E. Cisbani; S. Clark; S. Colilli; H. Coombes; G. R. Court; P. Delheij; E. Devitsin; C. W. de Jager; E. De Sanctis; D. De Schepper; P. Di Nezza; M. Doets; M. Düren; A. Dvoredsky; G. Elbakian; J. Emerson; A. Fantoni; A. Fechtchenko; M. Ferstl; D. Fick; K. Fiedler; B. W. Filippone; H. Fischer; H. T. Fortune; J. Franz; S. Frullani; M.-A. Funk; N. D. Gagunashvili; P. Galumian; H. Gao; Y. Gärber; F. Garibaldi; G. Gavrilov; P. Geiger; V. Gharibyan; V. Giordjian; F. Giuliani; A. Golendoukhin; B. Grabowski; G. Graw; O. Grebeniouk; P. Green; G. Greeniaus; M. Gricia; C. Grosshauser; A. Gute; J. P. Haas; K. Hakelberg; W. Haeberli; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hasch; O. Hausser; R. Henderson; Th. Henkes; R. Hertenberger; Y. Holler; R. J. Holt; H. Ihssen; A. Izotov; M. Iodice; H. E. Jackson; A. Jgoun; C. Jones; R. Kaiser; J. Kelsey; E. Kinney; M. Kirsch; A. Kisselev; P. Kitching; H. Kobayashi; E. Kok; K. Königsmann; M. Kolstein; H. Kolster; W. Korsch; S. Kozlov; V. Kozlov; R. Kowalczyk; L. Kramer; B. Krause; A. Krivchitch; V. G. Krivokhijine; M. Kueckes; P. Kutt; G. Kyle; W. Lachnit; R. Langstaff; W. Lorenzon; M. Lucentini; A. Lung; N. Makins; V. Maleev; S. I. Manaenkov; K. Martens; A. Mateos; K. McIlhany; R. D. McKeown; F. Meißner; F. Menden; D. Mercer; A. Metz; N. Meyners; O. Mikloukho; C. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; R. Milner; V. Mitsyn; G. Modrak; J. Morton; A. Most; R. Mozzetti; V. Muccifora; A. Nagaitsev; Y. Naryshkin; A. M. Nathan; F. Neunreither; M. Niczyporuk; W.-D. Nowak; M. Nupieri; P. Oelwein; H. Ogami; T. G. O’Neill; R. Openshaw; V. Papavassiliou; S. F. Pate; S. Patrichev; M. Pitt; H. J. Plett; H. R. Poolman; S. Potashov; D. Potterveld; B. Povh; V. Prahl; G. Rakness; V. Razmyslovich; R. Redwine; A. R. Reolon; R. Ristinen; K. Rith; H. O. Roloff; G. Röper; P. Rossi; S. Rudnitsky; H. Russo; D. Ryckbosch; Y. Sakemi; F. Santavenere; I. Savin; F. Schmidt; H. Schmitt; G. Schnell; K. P. Schüler; A. Schwind; T.-A. Shibata; T. Shin; B. Siebels; A. Simon; K. Sinram; W. R. Smythe; J. Sowinski; M. Spengos; K. Sperber; E. Steffens; J. Stenger; J. Stewart; F. Stock; U. Stößlein; M. Sutter; H. Tallini; S. Taroian; A. Terkulov; D. Thiessen; B. Tipton; V. Trofimov; A. Trudel; M. Tytgat; G. M. Urciuoli; R. Van de Vyver; G. van der Steenhoven; J. J. van Hunen; D. van Westrum; A. Vassiliev; M. C. Vetterli; M. G. Vincter; E. Volk; W. Wander; T. P. Welch; S. E. Williamson; T. Wise; G. Wöbke; K. Woller; S. Yoneyama; K. Zapfe-Düren; T. Zeuli; H. Zohrabian

    1998-01-01

    The HERMES experiment is collecting data on inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarised positrons from polarised targets of H, D, and 3He. These data give information on the spin structure of the nucleon. This paper describes the forward angle spectrometer built for this purpose. The spectrometer includes numerous tracking chambers (micro-strip gas chambers, drift and proportional chambers) in

  14. Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p -Pb Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.

    2015-07-01

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v2 , are obtained in p -Pb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (? ) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The p -Pb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 nb-1 , were collected during the 2013 LHC p -Pb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semiperipheral PbPb collision data at ?{sNN }=2.76 TeV , corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5 ? b-1 and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the p -Pb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v2 coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the p -Pb and PbPb systems, the v2 values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large ? ? ) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a p -Pb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multiparticle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region.

  15. Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p-Pb Collisions.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dobur, D; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Grebenyuk, A; Léonard, A; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Zenoni, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Crucy, S; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva Diblen, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Dos Reis Martins, T; Molina, J; Mora Herrera, C; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santaolalla, J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Marinov, A; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Tao, J; Wang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Brochet, S; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Schulte, J F; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S

    2015-07-01

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v_{2}, are obtained in p-Pb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (?) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The p-Pb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35??nb^{-1}, were collected during the 2013 LHC p-Pb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02??TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semiperipheral PbPb collision data at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76??TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5???b^{-1} and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the p-Pb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v_{2} coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the p-Pb and PbPb systems, the v_{2} values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large ??) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v_{2} values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a p-Pb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multiparticle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region. PMID:26182092

  16. Fredholm determinants in the multi-particle hopping asymmetric diffusion model

    E-print Network

    Eunghyun Lee

    2014-10-16

    In this paper we treat the multi-particle hopping asymmetric diffusion model with the initial configuration $(0,0,...)$. For the multi-particle hopping asymmetric diffusion model with two free parameters, we find a Fredholm determinant representation for the probability distribution of the $m$th left-most particle's position at time $t$. For the one-parameter MADM with partial asymmetry we show that the Tracy-Widom distribution, $F_2(s)$, arises in the regime where $m,t \\to \\infty $ with $m/t$ fixed in $(0,1)$.

  17. Preliminary spectrometer results from E-802

    SciTech Connect

    Miake, Y.; Stephans, G.S.F.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents preliminary spectrometer results from the E-802 experiment at the Tandem-AGS accelerator complex at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The data presented were taken in late April of 1987 using a 14.5 GeV/c per nucleon /sup 28/Si beam from the AGS. Data were obtained for a variety of targets and spectrometer settings, but we present here the analysis of data for one target-angle combination: a Au target wth the spectrometer spanning 14/sup 0/ to 28/sup 0/ in the lab. At this energy the laboratory mid-rapidity angle in N-N collisions is approx. = 21/sup 0/. A higher K/sup +//..pi../sup +/ ratio than K/sup -//..pi../sup -/ ratio is observed. The primary goal for the E-802 experiment is to measure inclusive particle spectra with good particle identification (PID) over a wide range of rapidity and transverse momentum, and to correlate these spectra with observables that characterize the vent topology such as total charged particle multiplicity and neutral transverse energy. The acceptance of the spectrometer is large enough to span roughly one unit of rapidity in a single setting and is adequate for studies of particle-particle correlations. The spectrometer is also sufficiently compact (6.5 m in length) to allow a reasonable fraction of low momentum pions and kaons to traverse the entire particle identification system. Segmentation for the tracking and PID counters was designed to handle particle multiplicities up to 15 through the spectrometer and 20 in front of the magnet.

  18. On the partial-wave analysis of mesonic resonances decaying to multiparticle final states produced by polarized photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) using photon beams. In particular this report broadens this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  19. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  20. Proton structure from multiparticle contribution to elastic pp-scattering at 7 TeV

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Proton structure from multiparticle contribution to elastic pp-scattering at 7 TeV I.M. Dremin Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991, Russia The parton content of protons gets strong peripheral protons. The very first analyses [1, 2, 3] have lead to extremely interesting conclusions about

  1. Measurement of Renyi entropies in multiparticle production: a DO-LIST II

    E-print Network

    A. Bialas; W. Czyz; K. Zalewski

    2006-10-30

    Recently suggested method of measuring Renyi entropies of multiparticle systems produced in high-energy collisions is presented in the form of a "do-list", explaining explicitely how to perform the measurement and suggesting improvements in the treatment of the data.

  2. Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Mandel; Markus Greiner; Artur Widera; Tim Rom; Theodor W. Hänsch; Immanuel Bloch

    2003-01-01

    Entanglement lies at the heart of quantum mechanics, and in recent years has been identified as an essential resource for quantum information processing and computation. The experimentally challenging production of highly entangled multi-particle states is therefore important for investigating both fundamental physics and practical applications. Here we report the creation of highly entangled states of neutral atoms trapped in the

  3. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the GeoFTS design is mature and flight ready.

  4. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  5. New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chastagner; H. L. Daves; W. B. Hess

    1981-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-Dâ doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The

  6. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  7. Spectrometer for monitoring of atmospheric ozone (ozonometer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrolenskiy, Yury; Korablev, Oleg; Ionov, Dmitry; Viazovetskiy, Nikita; Tchikov, Konstantin; Krasavtsev, Valery; Moiseev, Pavel; Belyaev, Denis; Fedorova, Anna; Mantsevich, Sergey; Zhirnova, Yulia; Rumyantsev, Dmitry; Kananykhin, Igor; Viktorov, Alexey; Shatalov, Andrey; Zherebtsov, Evgeny; Kozyura, Alexey; Moryakin, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The spectrometer for the monitoring of Earth atmospheric ozone from the board of spacecraft is being designed. The aim of the spectrometer called "Ozonometer" is global and permanent monitoring of total ozone by means of measuring spectra of scattered solar radiation in near-UV and visible range of spectrum (300 - 500 nm). This range includes Huggins absorption band of ozone in near-UV (300 - 360 nm) and nitrogen dioxide NO2 absorption bands in visible light (400 - 500 nm). The optical design of the spectrometer is based on the Rowland circle scheme with holographic concave diffractive grating. An off-axis parabolic mirror is used as an entrance objective. The CCD detector is linear with 2048 pixels. The spectral resolution is up to 0.3 nm. The spectrometer is supposed to provide nadir observations but there is also an additional optical entrance orientated to Sun hemisphere in order to measure pure solar spectra. The spectrometer is being designed within Russian special federal program "Geophysics". Among the program, a group of 4 spacecrafts "Ionosphere" is to be launched in 2014-2015. They are planned to operate at a pair of circle solar-synchronous near-polar orbits (2 spacecrafts at each orbit). Up to the present moment, the qualification model of the spectrometer has been manufactured and tested. The first performance tests were completed at optical laboratories in St. Petersburg and Moscow with the help of Hg lamps and other light sources. After that, the field atmospheric measurements have been carried out in Moscow, Orel and at Kislovodsk high-altitude atmospheric station at Caucasus. The observations have been provided at zenith direction (scattered radiation) as well as solar direct measurements. The obtained results are presented.

  8. The control of drift in an analytical gamma ray spectrometer 

    E-print Network

    Fite, Lloyd Emery

    1961-01-01

    THE CONTROL OF DRIFT ZN AN ANALYTICAL GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER A Thesis By Lloyd Emery Fits Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of the Activation Analysis Research Laboratory Gamma Rey Spectrometer 5 3 Simplified Block Diagram of a Drift Control System as Described by de Waard 6 Block Diagram of a Drift Control System as Described by Scherbatskoy 7 5 Typical Gamma Ray Spectrum 6 Block...

  9. Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer at the HRIBF (ORNL, Oak Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woli?ska-Cichocka, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fija?kowska, A.; Karny, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gross, C. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rasco, B. C.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2014-06-01

    The Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) array has been designed, constructed, characterized, and applied to the decay studies of 238U fission products at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A MTAS commissioning run was performed in January 2012 at the mass separator on-line to the HRIBF Tandem accelerator. Preliminary results of MTAS data confirm known decay patterns of 142Ba and 142La deduced from an earlier study using a total absorption spectrometer technique.

  10. Pulsed Nozzle Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer: Advances and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Arunan; Sagarika Dev; Pankaj K. Mandal

    2004-01-01

    The pulsed nozzle Fourier transform microwave (PNFTMW) spectrometer was developed by Balle and Flygare [A new method for observing the rotational spectra of weak molecular complexes: KrHCl. J. Chem. Phys. 1979, 71 (6), 2723–2724 and 1980, 72 (2), 922–932] in 1979. The design, fabrication, and operation of this spectrometer are complicated and it has largely remained a research laboratory tool

  11. Alignment and Characterization of High Uniformity Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Geier, Sven; Hochberg, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers require precise adjustments, in some cases at the sub-micrometer level, in order to achieve auniform response over both the spectral and spatial dimensions. We describe a set of measurement techniques and theircorresponding alignment adjustments to achieve the 95% or higher uniformity specifications required for Earthobservingimaging spectrometers. The methods are illustrated with measurements from the Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer system that has been built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    During the past year, the Principal Investigator's research carried out under this contract has focused on an analysis of the implications of Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) results for the origin of Jupiter's atmosphere and the origin of the ice and other possible volatiles on the Galilean satellites.

  13. Mass spectrometer mixture calibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicks

    1986-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen isotope mixtures can be difficult to make for a number of reasons. The most difficult problem is the possibility of confronting extremely great and extremely small relative mass differences in the same analysis. Commercial mass spectrometers are now available that can overcome these problems. The analytical capabilities and limitations of these instruments will be discussed.

  14. ablation laser spectrometer

    E-print Network

    ablation laser mass spectrometer molecular beam REMPI laser NREL has designed and developed a combined laser ablation/ pulsed sample introduction/mass spectrometry platform that integrates pyrolysis and/or laser ablation with resonance- enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) time-of-flight mass

  15. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. M.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hauschild, K.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.

    2015-06-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of ?-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations.

  16. A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Susanna K.; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Hâkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mârten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J.

    2014-07-01

    High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al K? X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

  17. EXTENDING THE USEFUL LIFE OF OLDER MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

    2010-06-17

    Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261{trademark} Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

  18. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

  19. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  20. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  1. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Young; J. J. Berthelier; M. Blanc; J. L. Burch; A. J. Coates; R. Goldstein; M. Grande; T. W. Hill; R. E. Johnson; V. Kelha; D. J. Mccomas; E. C. Sittler; K. R. Svenes; K. Szegö; P. Tanskanen; K. Ahola; D. Anderson; S. Bakshi; R. A. Baragiola; B. L. Barraclough; R. K. Black; S. Bolton; T. Booker; R. Bowman; P. Casey; F. J. Crary; D. Delapp; G. Dirks; N. Eaker; H. Funsten; J. D. Furman; J. T. Gosling; H. Hannula; C. Holmlund; H. Huomo; J. M. Illiano; P. Jensen; M. A. Johnson; D. R. Linder; T. Luntama; S. Maurice; K. P. Mccabe; K. Mursula; B. T. Narheim; J. E. Nordholt; A. Preece; J. Rudzki; A. Ruitberg; K. Smith; S. Szalai; M. F. Thomsen; K. Viherkanto; J. Vilppola; T. Vollmer; T. E. Wahl; M. Wüest; T. Ylikorpi; C. Zinsmeyer

    2004-01-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding

  2. Non-contact multi-particle annular patterning and manipulation with ultrasound microbeam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changyang; Seob Jeong, Jong; Youn Hwang, Jae; Lee, Jungwoo; Kirk Shung, K

    2014-06-16

    Multiparticle-trapping offers diverse opportunities and applications in biotechnology. It can be applied to creating various functional materials or organizing reactive particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to trap and manipulate multi-particles in an annular pattern with a 24?MHz focused ring-type single element ultrasound transducer. Acoustic ring trap can be useful in undertaking biotropism studies due to an equal-distance condition from the center. Also, this ring trap could serve as a force shield to protect analysis area from other cells. The experimental results showed the capability of the proposed method as a multi-cell manipulator in formatting specific patterns of small cells like sperms. PMID:25114330

  3. Non-contact multi-particle annular patterning and manipulation with ultrasound microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changyang; Seob Jeong, Jong; Youn Hwang, Jae; Lee, Jungwoo; Kirk Shung, K.

    2014-06-01

    Multiparticle-trapping offers diverse opportunities and applications in biotechnology. It can be applied to creating various functional materials or organizing reactive particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to trap and manipulate multi-particles in an annular pattern with a 24 MHz focused ring-type single element ultrasound transducer. Acoustic ring trap can be useful in undertaking biotropism studies due to an equal-distance condition from the center. Also, this ring trap could serve as a force shield to protect analysis area from other cells. The experimental results showed the capability of the proposed method as a multi-cell manipulator in formatting specific patterns of small cells like sperms.

  4. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  5. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  6. Multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing description of nuclear many-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, C.; Pillet, N.; Le Bloas, J.; Berger, J.-F. [CEA/DAM/DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Zelevinsky, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In this work we discuss the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method which aims to describe the structure of atomic nuclei. Based on a variational principle it is able to treat in a unified way all types of long-range correlations between nucleons, without introducing symmetry breaking. The formalism is presented along with some preliminary results obtained for a few sd-shell nuclei. In the presented applications, the D1S Gogny force has been used.

  7. Dynamic many-body theory: Multiparticle fluctuations and the dynamic structure of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. E.; Krotscheck, E.; Lichtenegger, T.

    2015-05-01

    We present further progress in a systematic approach to the microscopic understanding of the dynamics of strongly interacting quantum fluids. Employing the concept of dynamic multiparticle fluctuations, we derive equations of motion for fluctuating n -body densities. We apply the theory to calculate the dynamic structure function of liquid 4He as a function of density and find, without any phenomenological input, overall excellent agreement with both experiments and, as far as available, simulation data.

  8. Holographic normal ordering and multi-particle states in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, G.; Schalm, K.; High Energy Physics; State Univ. of New York

    2000-01-01

    The general correlator of composite operators of N=4 supersymmetric gauge field theory is divergent. We introduce a means for renormalizing these correlators by adding a boundary theory on the AdS space correcting for the divergences. Such renormalizations are not equivalent to the standard normal ordering of current algebras in two dimensions. The correlators contain contact terms that contribute to the OPE; we relate them diagrammatically to correlation functions of compound composite operators dual to multi-particle states.

  9. Sensitivity to the impact parameter of the multiparticle decay at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Latora, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P. (INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Catania (Italy) Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, Caen (France))

    1994-12-01

    The multiparticle decay in collisions induced by 44 MeV/nucleon [sup 40]Ar and [sup 132]Xe projectiles on several targets is studied using MEDEA 4[pi] detection system. The impact parameter dependence of the charged particle multiplicity is determined. The dependence is strong in peripheral and midcentral collisions and becomes weaker in central collisions. The prediction of a molecular dynamics simulation is in agreement with the experiment.

  10. Sensitivity to the impact parameter of the multiparticle decay at intermediate energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Latora, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1994-12-01

    The multiparticle decay in collisions induced by 44 MeV/nucleon 40Ar and 132Xe projectiles on several targets is studied using MEDEA 4? detection system. The impact parameter dependence of the charged particle multiplicity is determined. The dependence is strong in peripheral and midcentral collisions and becomes weaker in central collisions. The prediction of a molecular dynamics simulation is in agreement with the experiment.

  11. Investigating graph isomorphism in cospectral graphs via multiparticle quantum walk in fermionic basis and entanglement entropy

    E-print Network

    M. A. Jafarizadeh; F. Eghbalifam; S. Nami

    2014-12-03

    We investigate the graph isomorphism (GI) in some cospectral networks. Two graph are isomorphic when they are related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices. We want to investigate the GI in two scalable (n + 2)-regular graphs G4(n; n + 2) and G5(n; n + 2), analytically by using the multiparticle quantum walk. These two graphs are a pair of non-isomorphic connected cospectral regular graphs for any positive integer n. In order to investigation GI in these two graphs, we rewrite the adjacency matrices of graphs in the antisymmetric fermionic basis and show that they are different for thesepairs of graphs. So the multiparticle quantum walk is able to distinguish pairs of non- isomorph graphs. Also we construct two new graphs T4(n; n + 2) and T5(n; n + 2) and repeat the same process of G4 and G5 to study the GI problem by using multiparticle quantum walk. Then we study GI by using the entanglement entropy. To this aim, we calculate entanglement entropy between two parts of network. In our model the nodes are considered as identical quantum harmonic oscillators. The entanglement entropy between two special parts of G4(n; n+2) and G5(n; n+2) are calculated analytically. It is shown that the entanglement entropy can distinguish pairs of non-isomorphic cospectral graphs too.

  12. The GRANIT spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan [ORNL; Beau, M [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Kreuz, Michael [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Nesvizhevsky, V. [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Kurlov, V [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Ac. Sci., Chernogolovka, Moscow, Russi; Pignol, G [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Protasov, K. [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Vezzu, Francis [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Voronin, Vladimir [Institute of Metal Physics, Russia

    2011-01-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  13. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  14. Silica aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters for the JLab Hall A spectrometers: improvements and proposed modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Luigi Lagamba; Evaristo Cisbani; S. Colilli; R. Crateri; R. De Leo; Salvatore Frullani; Franco Garibaldi; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; Mauro Iodice; Riccardo Iommi; A. Leone; M. Lucentini; A. Mostarda; E. Nappi; Roberto Perrino; L. Pierangeli; F. Santavenere; Guido M. Urciuoli

    2001-10-01

    Recently approved experiments at Jefferson Lab Hall A require a clean kaon identification in a large electron, pion, and proton background environment. To this end, improved performance is required of the silica aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters installed in the focal plane of the two Hall A spectrometers. In this paper we propose two strategies to improve the performance of the Cherenkov counters which presently use a hydrophilic aerogel radiator, and convey Cherenkov photons towards the photomultipliers by means of mirrors with a parabolic shape in one direction and flat in the other. The first strategy is aerogel baking. In the second strategy we propose a modification of the counter geometry by replacing the mirrors with a planar diffusing surface and by displacing in a different way the photomultipliers. Tests at CERN with a 5GeV/c multiparticle beam revealed that both the strategies are able to increase significantly the number of the detected Cherenkov photons and, therefore, the detector performance.

  15. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Visscher, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Zachary (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  16. A solenoidal spectrometer for positron-electron pairs produced in heavy-ion collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ahmad; Sam. M. Austin; B. B. Back; R. R. Betts; F. P. Calaprice; Chan K. C; A. Chishti; P. Chowdhury; C. Conner; R. W. Dunford; J. D. Fox; S. J. Freedman; M. Freer; S. B. Gazes; J. S. Greenberg; J. P. Greene; A. L. Hallin; Th. Happ; D. Henderson; N. I. Kaloskamis; E. Kashy; W. Kutschera; J. Last; C. J. Lister; Liu M; M. R. Maier; D. M. Mercer; D. Mikolas; P. A. A. Perera; M. D. Rhein; D. E. Roa; J. P. Schiffer; T. A. Trainor; P. Wilt; J. S. Winfield; M. Wolanski; F. L. H. Wolfs; A. H. Wuosmaa; G. Xu; A. R. Young; J. E. Yurkon

    1996-01-01

    A new solenoidal spectrometer, designed to study the production mechanism of electrons and positrons in heavy-ion collisions, has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The spectrometer uses a 300 G magnetic field to transport the leptons to two highly segmented silicon arrays that are centered on the solenoid axis, 1.2 m from the target. Positrons are identified by detecting their

  17. Remote measurements of actinide species in aqueous solutions using an optical fiber photoacoustic spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Robouch, P.B.; Silva, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-09-26

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, equipped with an 85 meter optical fiber, was used to perform absorption measurements of lanthanide and actinide samples, located in a glovebox. The spectrometer was tested using aqueous solutions of praseodymium and americium ions; the sensitivity for remote measurements was found to be similar to that achieved in the laboratory without the fiber. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. TDLAS Instrumentation and HNO3 Intercomparison A dual tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) was developed

    E-print Network

    at regular intervals. The Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) technique has sensitivity and time. The instrument employs two infrared diodes tuned to multiple absorption lines of HNO3 and NO2. Light from noise limits compared to the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS

  19. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  20. Developing Tools for Undergraduate Spectroscopy: An Inexpensive Visible Light Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderveen, Jesse R.; Martin, Brian; Ooms, Kristopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The design and implementation of an inexpensive, high-resolution Littrow-type visible light spectrometer is presented. The instrument is built from low-cost materials and interfaced with the program RSpec for real-time spectral analysis, making it useful for classroom and laboratory exercises. Using a diffraction grating ruled at 1200 lines/mm and…

  1. A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

  2. Control System for an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek F. Hopkins; M. Lizabeth Alexander; Ken R. Swanson; Michael A. Buschbach

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a control system for an ion trap mass spectrometer that is both inexpensive and flexible, allowing application of ion trap technology to a number of research areas. This project is part of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a U.S. Department of Energy national scientific user facility, located at Pacific Northwest

  3. The APEX digital Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B.; Philipp, S. D.; Krämer, I.; Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.

    2006-08-01

    Context: . We present the technology and first scientific results of a new generation of very flexible and sensitive spectrometers, well-suited for the needs of spectral-line radio and (sub)millimeter astronomy: Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FFTS), which are in operation at the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. Aims: . The FFTS for APEX is a novel high-resolution 2× 1 GHz bandwidth digital spectrometer backend. Due to its high frequency resolution, and the demonstrated capability of operating at high altitude, the FFTS became the facility spectrometer for spectral line observations at APEX. Methods: . The FFTS is based on one of the currently most powerful digitizer/analyzer boards available from Acqiris, Switzerland. The board incorporates two 1 Gsamples/s analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with 8-bit resolution which feed an on-board complex field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. The enormous processing power by today's FPGAs allow for a complete real-time FFT signal processing pipeline to decompose a 1 GHz band into 16 384 spectral channels in just one chip. Results: . Since May 2005 an MPIfR FFTS has been extensively used in all regular spectroscopic science observations. The performance at APEX was demonstrated to be very reliable and as good as measured in the first laboratory tests which finally led to the request to provide a second, facility type FFTS for APEX. The unit was delivered and commissioned in March this year. Conclusions: . Using a commercially available digitizer board, it was possible to develop a complete FFTS in only a few months. Successful observations at APEX demonstrate that this new generation of FPGA-based spectrometers easily matching and superseding the performance of older technology spectrometers and can built up much more easily. Furthermore, the by now available class of new high-speed ADCs and the continuous increase of FPGA processing power makes it very likely that FFTS can be pushed to broader bandwidth and even more spectral channels in the near future.

  4. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

  5. Broadband Liquid Dielectric Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Satyan; Arellano, Jesus; Mazzeo, Brian

    2009-10-01

    A dielectric spectrometer was built to measure the dielectric relaxation of proteins in solution. The dielectric cell consisted of two parallel stainless-steel electrodes (separation of 8.5 mm) embedded in PTFE. To provide temperature stability, thermally regulated water flowed through both electrodes. The cell was connected to a 4294A Precision Impedance Analyzer, providing impedance measurements from 40Hz to 110 MHz. Due to electrode polarization and high frequency parasitics, useful measurements were obtained for frequencies ranging from 10 kHz to 10 MHz. Calibration was performed using air, iso-propanol and deionized water. Experiments were also conducted on buffers and salt solutions. The dielectric relaxation of the protein beta-lactoglobulin was measured at mg/ml concentrations.

  6. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  7. The RHESSI Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Lin, R. P.; Turin, P.; Curtis, D. W.; Primbsch, J. H.; Campbell, R. D.; Abiad, R.; Schroeder, P.; Cork, C. P.; Hull, E. L.; Landis, D. A.; Madden, N. W.; Malone, D.; Pehl, R. H.; Raudorf, T.; Sangsingkeow, P.; Boyle, R.; Banks, I. S.; Shirey, K.; Schwartz, Richard

    2002-11-01

    RHESSI observes solar photons over three orders of magnitude in energy (3 keV to 17 MeV) with a single instrument: a set of nine cryogenically cooled coaxial germanium detectors. With their extremely high energy resolution, RHESSI can resolve the line shape of every known solar gamma-ray line except the neutron capture line at 2.223 MeV. High resolution also allows clean separation of thermal and non-thermal hard X-rays and the accurate measurement of even extremely steep power-law spectra. Detector segmentation, fast signal processing, and two sets of movable attenuators allow RHESSI to make high-quality spectra and images of flares across seven orders of magnitude in intensity. Here we describe the configuration and operation of the RHESSI spectrometer, show early results on in-flight performance, and discuss the principles of spectroscopic data analysis used by the RHESSI software.

  8. Ultimate sensitivity of heterodyne spectrometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Boucher; R. Bocquet; W. Chen; J. Burie

    1993-01-01

    Low noise heterodyne receivers are now used in a large variety of instruments such as radiotelescopes, far infrared laser side bands spectrometers, supersonic nozzle beams Fourier transform spectrometers, lidars or plasmas diagnostics devices. Numerous papers have been devoted to the analysis of heterodyne receivers in the attempt to reach ultimate performances. These previous papers usually retain the restrictive hypothesis of

  9. Preliminary testing of a prototype portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, L. L.; Anderson, N. B.; Stevenson, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral resource investigative work was built and tested. The prototype battery powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas proportional counters and two radioactive sources, Cd (10a) and Fe (55). Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

  10. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  11. A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Two-dimensional discrete wavelet analysis of multiparticle event topology in heavy ion collisions

    E-print Network

    I. M. Dremin; G. Kh. Eyyubova; V. L. Korotkikh; L. I. Sarycheva

    2007-11-11

    The event-by-event analysis of multiparticle production in high energy hadron and nuclei collisions can be performed using the discrete wavelet transformation. The ring-like and jet-like structures in two-dimensional angular histograms are well extracted by wavelet analysis. For the first time the method is applied to the jet-like events with background simulated by event generators, which are developed to describe nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies. The jet positions are located quite well by the discrete wavelet transformation of angular particle distribution even in presence of strong background.

  13. Effect of multiparticle correlations on the stability of electron-positron clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ipatov, A. N., E-mail: Andrei_ipatov@mail.ru; Ivanov, V. K.; Polozkov, R. G. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The total energy of electrically neutral electron-positron clusters with closed shells containing different numbers of pairs has been calculated. The inclusion of multiparticle correlations in the random phase approximation with exchange has allowed the reduction of the energy per pair of particles below the energy per dipositronium molecule. The calculations have revealed the region of the minimum of the total energy per pair of particles at the numbers of pairs in the range of 20 to 40, which assumingly correspond to the most stable electron-positron droplets.

  14. Properties of perturbative multi-particle amplitudes in $?^k$ and $O(N)$ theories

    E-print Network

    B. H. Smith

    1992-11-11

    Threshold amplitudes are considered for multi-particle production in $\\phi^k$ and $O(N) ~\\phi^4$ theories. It is found that the disappearance of tree-level threshold amplitudes of $2$ on-shell particles producing a large number of particles occurs in $\\phi^k$ theory only for $k=3$ and $k=4$. The one-loop correction to the threshold amplitude for a highly virtual scalar particle decaying into $n$ particles in an $O(N)$ model is derived.

  15. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  16. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  17. Multiparticle Sintering Dynamics: From Fractal-Like Aggregates to Compact Structures

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Multiparticle sintering is encountered in almost all high temperature processes for material synthesis (titania, silica, and nickel) and energy generation (e.g., fly ash formation) resulting in aggregates of primary particles (hard- or sinter-bonded agglomerates). This mechanism of particle growth is investigated quantitatively by mass and energy balances during viscous sintering of amorphous aerosol materials (e.g., SiO2 and polymers) that typically have a distribution of sizes and complex morphology. This model is validated at limited cases of sintering between two (equally or unequally sized) particles, and chains of particles. The evolution of morphology, surface area and radii of gyration of multiparticle aggregates are elucidated for various sizes and initial fractal dimension. For each of these structures that had been generated by diffusion limited (DLA), cluster–cluster (DLCA), and ballistic particle–cluster agglomeration (BPCA) the surface area evolution is monitored and found to scale differently than that of the radius of gyration (moment of inertia). Expressions are proposed for the evolution of fractal dimension and the surface area of aggregates undergoing viscous sintering. These expressions are important in design of aerosol processes with population balance equations (PBE) and/or fluid dynamic simulations for material synthesis or minimization and even suppression of particle formation. PMID:21488641

  18. Non-Euclidean ideal spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Earp, Henrique N Sá; Sicca, Vladmir

    2015-01-01

    We describe the mathematical scheme for an anomaly-free ideal spectrometer, based on a 2-dimensional plane medium with conical regions of bounded slope. Moreover, the construction may be realised in many different configurations.

  19. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  20. Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tietze-Jaensch; W. Schmidt; R. Geick

    1997-01-01

    After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a multiplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument.

  1. Mass spectrometer beam system for applications in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.

    1977-01-01

    A special gas inlet system is required for reduction of high ambient pressures to ion source operating pressures for mass spectrometer investigations in the stratosphere for the determination of the abundance of minor constituents. A system has been designed which combines a mass spectrometer and a gas inlet system reducing pressure by differential pumping using high-speed liquid helium pumps and small orifices. The gas particles are formed into a neutral beam with a flag mechanism proceeding into the mass spectrometer ion source where they are ionized for subsequent mass separation. A laboratory model has been tested under conditions simulating stratospheric pressures. It was shown that the process is able to identify gases with abundances below 10 to the -8th. Some of the problems associated with gas analysis of trace constituents have been alleviated, and other applications of the system have been identified, such as pollution control and medicine.

  2. An Optics Free Spectrometer for the Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.; Daybell, M. D.; Hoffman, J. R.; Gruntman, M. A.; Ogawa, H. S.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The optics-free spectrometer is a photon spectrometer. It provides the photon spectrum of a broadband source by converting photons of energy E into electrons of energy E', according to the Einstein relation, E' = E - Ei. E, is the ionization threshold of the gas target of interest (any of the rare gases are suitable) and E is the incoming photon energy. As is evident from the above equation, only a single order spectrum is produced throughout the energy range between the first and second ionization potentials of the rare gas used. Photons with energy above the second ionization potential produce two groups of electrons, but they are readily distinguished from each other. This feature makes this device extremely useful for determining the true spectrum of a continuum source or a many line source. The principle of operation and the laboratory results obtained with a representative configuration of the optics-free spectrometer are presented.

  3. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  4. Laboratory exercises incorporating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) encourage undergraduate students to

    E-print Network

    Beane, Rachel J.

    ABSTRACT Laboratory exercises incorporating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) encourage-pressure scanning electron microscopes (SEM) that can be equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Electron Backscatter Diffractometer (EBSD), has been used

  5. Faraday Discuss., 1998, 109, 121135 New carbon chains in the laboratory and in interstellar space

    E-print Network

    -chain molecules have been detected over the past two years with a Fourier-transform microwave (FTM) spectrometer (FTM) spectrometer,1 we have recently been able to identify in the laboratory a large number of carbon

  6. A simplified multi-particle collision dynamics method to simulate microvascular capillary Leonor Garca-Gutirrez1

    E-print Network

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    1 A simplified multi-particle collision dynamics method to simulate microvascular capillary blood;2 ABSTRACT Aims: Most blood flow models are applicable at arterial level but are not designed to reach down them more resistant to blood flow3 . Impairment of the microcirculation may also contribute

  7. Miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Michael P.; Anderson, Charles W.; Bryden, Wayne A.; Carlson, Micah A.; Ecelberger, Scott A.; Ko, Harvey W.

    1998-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is designing, fabricating and testing a small, high resolution, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) suitable for biomedical applications requiring lightweight, low-powered and portable instrumentation. This instrument can be used to identify solids, liquids and gases of both chemical and biological origins to quantify the habitat environment and support biomedical research and medical care. The virtue of the JHU/APL TOFMS technology presented here, resides in the promise for a small, lightweight, low- power, device that can be used continuously with advanced signal processing diagnostics. To date, JHU/APL has demonstrated mass capability beyond 10,000 Atomic Mass Units in a very small, low power prototype for biological analysis. The JHU/APL approach, described in this paper, is to design the instrument for both wide mass range and fine mass resolution by the use of electronic control in a tandem mass spectrometer instrument. In this paper we will outline the principle behind the operation of the APL's miniaturized TOFMS system and present examples of the analysis of chemical and biological substances. In addition, we will also describe a novel method for the collection of airborne particles for TOFMS analysis suitable for automated collection and analysis applications.

  8. A Novel MOEMS NIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihai, Zhang; Xiangxia, Mo; Yuanjun, Guo; Wei, Wang

    In order to detect luminous intensity of light signal in NIR (Near-infrared) wavelength range, a novel MOEMS(Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems) NIR spectrometer is proposed in the paper. It uses DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device) to band filter the input spectrum. The merits of DMD are small size, low price and high scan speed. Especially, when DMD acts as a Hadamard Transform encoding mask, the SNR (signal-to-noise-ratio) can be improved by multiplexing the light intensities. The structure and the theory of this spectrometer are analyzed. The Hadamard-S matrix and mask of 63-order and 127-order are designed. The output spectrum of the new spectrometer coincides with experimental result of Shimadzu spectrometer. The resolution of the new spectrometer is 19 nm over the spectral range between 900?1700 nm while single scan time is only 2.4S. The SNR is 44.67:1. The size of optical path is 70mm × 130 mm, and it has a weight less than 1Kg. It can meet the requirement of real time measurement and portable application.

  9. On-chip random spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Liew, S. F.; Sarma, R.; Cao, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectrometers are widely used tools in chemical and biological sensing, material analysis, and light source characterization. The development of a high-resolution on-chip spectrometer could enable compact, low-cost spectroscopy for portable sensing as well as increasing lab-on-a-chip functionality. However, the spectral resolution of traditional grating-based spectrometers scales with the optical pathlength, which translates to the linear dimension or footprint of the system, which is limited on-chip. In this work, we utilize multiple scattering in a random photonic structure fabricated on a silicon chip to fold the optical path, making the effective pathlength much longer than the linear dimension of the system and enabling high spectral resolution with a small footprint. Of course, the random spectrometer also requires a different operating paradigm, since different wavelengths are not spatially separated by the random structure, as they would be by a grating. Instead, light transmitted through the random structure produces a wavelengthdependent speckle pattern which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the input spectra after calibration. In practice, these wavelength-dependent speckle patterns are experimentally measured and stored in a transmission matrix, which describes the spectral-to-spatial mapping of the spectrometer. After calibrating the transmission matrix, an arbitrary input spectrum can be reconstructed from its speckle pattern. We achieved sub-nm resolution with 25 nm bandwidth at a wavelength of 1500 nm using a scattering medium with largest dimension of merely 50 ?m.

  10. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  11. Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

    NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express) and VIR (on DAWN).

  12. Noble gas abundance and isotope ratios in the atmosphere of Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Mahaffy; H. B. Niemann; A. Alpert; S. K. Atreya; J. Demick; T. M. Donahue; D. N. Harpold; T. C. Owen

    2000-01-01

    The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer provided the first data on the noble gas mixing and isotope ratios in the Jovian atmosphere. These measurements and the comparison with solar values constrain models of Jupiter's formation. Significant refinements to the initially reported abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon have been enabled through post-encounter laboratory calibrations using a refurbished engineering unit mass spectrometer

  13. Mesoscopic solvent simulations: multiparticle-collision dynamics of three-dimensional flows.

    PubMed

    Allahyarov, E; Gompper, G

    2002-09-01

    A recently developed mesoscopic solvent model with multiparticle-collision dynamics is applied to three-dimensional solvent flows in a channel with and without a spherical obstacle. The advantage of a gravitationally driven flow of the solvent over the flow induced by a pressure gradient in the calculation of the solvent viscosity is demonstrated. Three different algorithms for stochastic collision steps are investigated and compared. In particular, we have examined an alternative algorithm with relative velocities drawn from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at each collision step. This algorithm increases the numerical efficiency of the mesoscopic model for solvent flows with low and intermediate Reynolds numbers. Our simulation results for the recirculation length of stationary vortices behind a spherical obstacle are in good agreement with the previous experimental measurements. PMID:12366293

  14. Multiparticle breathers for a chain with double-quadratic on-site potential.

    PubMed

    Neusüss, S; Schilling, R

    1999-11-01

    We investigate the existence and properties of multiparticle breathers for a one-dimensional model with harmonic nearest neighbor interactions where a group of r particles (r=1,2,3, ...) perform interwell oscillations between both wells of a double-quadratic on-site potential. We find two types of such breathers. For the first type the breather frequency Omega is within the single-particle oscillator spectrum, and the "residence" time of each breather particle in the left and right well is about the same. For the second breather Omega is below that spectrum, and the ratio tau(L)/tau(R) of the residence time in the left and right wells is different from zero, and takes approximately rational values like 1/4,1/3,2/3,3/4, etc. This second type of breather occurs for two and more breather particles only. PMID:11970518

  15. Multi-particle entanglement and generalized N-particle teleportation using quantum statistical correlations

    E-print Network

    Atul Kumar; Mangala Sunder Krishnan

    2007-10-18

    Construction of multi-particle entangled states and direct teleportation of N-(spin 1/2) particles are important areas of quantum information processing. A number of different schemes which have been presented already, address the problem through controlled teleportation. In this article, a criterion based on standard quantum statistical correlations employed in the many body virial expansions is used to determine maximum entanglement for a N-particle state. These states remain entangled through proper traces to states for a smaller number of particles and can be generalized for arbitrary number of particles. It is shown that they are quite useful in generalized, N-particle, direct teleportation. The corresponding quantum gates are also indicated for teleportation schemes from simple computational basis states.

  16. Multi-particle FEM modeling on microscopic behavior of 2D particle compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. X.; An, X. Z.; Zhang, Y. L.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the discrete random packing and various ordered packings such as tetragonal and hexagonal close packed structures generated by discrete element method and honeycomb, which is manually generated were input as the initial packing structures into the multi-particle finite element model (FEM) to study their densification during compaction, where each particle is discretized as a FEM mesh. The macro-property such as relative density and micro-properties such as local morphology, stress, coordination number and densification mechanism obtained from various initial packings are characterized and analyzed. The results show that the coupling of discrete feature in particle scale with the continuous FEM in macro-scale can effectively conquer the difficulties in traditional FEM modeling, which provides a reasonable way to reproduce the compaction process and identify the densification mechanism more accurately and realistically.

  17. Function space requirements for the single-electron functions within the multiparticle Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohlenkamp, Martin J.

    2013-06-01

    Our previously described method to approximate the many-electron wavefunction in the multiparticle Schrödinger equation reduces this problem to operations on many single-electron functions. In this work, we analyze these operations to determine which function spaces are appropriate for various intermediate functions in order to bound the output. This knowledge then allows us to choose the function spaces in which to control the error of a numerical method for single-electron functions. We find that an efficient choice is to maintain the single-electron functions in L2 ? L4, the product of these functions in L1 ? L2, the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L4, a function times the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L2, and the nuclear potential times a function in L4/3. Due to the integral operator formulation, we do not require differentiability.

  18. Modern approaches for the theoretical description of multiparticle scattering and nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kukulin, V. I.; Rubtsova, O. A., E-mail: rubtsova-olga@yandex.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    A review of novel approaches to solution of multiparticle scattering problems in the area above three-body breakup together with the review of new computational technologies which provide very effective and ultrafast realization of the novel approaches with ordinary PC are given. The novel direction presented here is based on two key points: a new formulation of the quantum scattering theory in a discrete Hilbert space of stationary wave packets and the massive-parallel solution of the resulted matrix equations with usage of ultrafast graphic processors (the so called GPU-computations). For the reader's convenience, a short review of the modern GPU calculations for the medicine, physics, military applications etc. is presented.

  19. Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Schmidt, W.; Geick, R.

    1997-02-01

    After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a multiplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument. Despite these instrument merits its individual beam position at ISIS has only an unsatisfactorily weak flux, thus hindering this instrument yet to become fully competitive with other high-performance neutron spectrometers based at high-flux reactors. However, we strongly recommend a ROTAX-type instrument to be emphasized when the instrumentation suite of the future European spallation sources ESS will come under scrutiny.

  20. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  1. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  2. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Environics Ltd., Graanintie 5, P.O. Box 349, FI-50101, Mikkeli (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland) and Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  3. Searching for low-lying multi-particle thresholds in lattice spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahbub, M. Selim [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia) [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); CSIRO Computational Informatics, College Road, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Kamleh, Waseem [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia)] [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); Leinweber, Derek B., E-mail: derek.leinweber@adelaide.edu.au [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); Williams, Anthony G. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia)] [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    We explore the Euclidean-time tails of odd-parity nucleon correlation functions in a search for the S-wave pion–nucleon scattering-state threshold contribution. The analysis is performed using 2+1 flavor 32{sup 3}×64 PACS-CS gauge configurations available via the ILDG. Correlation matrices composed with various levels of fermion source/sink smearing are used to project low-lying states. The consideration of 25,600 fermion propagators reveals the presence of more than one state in what would normally be regarded as an eigenstate-projected correlation function. This observation is in accord with the scenario where the eigenstates contain a strong mixing of single and multi-particle states but only the single particle component has a strong coupling to the interpolating field. Employing a two-exponential fit to the eigenvector-projected correlation function, we are able to confirm the presence of two eigenstates. The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a N? scattering threshold and has a relatively small coupling to the three-quark interpolating field. We discuss the impact of this small scattering-state contamination in the eigenvector projected correlation function on previous results presented in the literature. -- Highlights: • Correlation-matrix projected correlators reveal more than one state contributing. • Results are associated with strong mixing of single and multi-particle states in QCD. • A two-exponential fit confirms the presence of two QCD eigenstates. •The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a nucleon–pion scattering threshold. •The impact of this small contamination on the higher-lying state is examined.

  4. The effect of particle rotation in multi-particle flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Adam; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In multi-particle flow simulations, particle rotation is difficult to calculate and is often imprecisely accounted for or ignored altogether. We examine the effect of these procedures on the overall flow characteristics through large systems of particles when the particle center is fixed and either allowed or not to rotate. We use a newly developed GPU-centric implementation of the Physalis method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of finite-size spheres. We investigate periodic systems of more than 100 randomly-distributed particles at Reynolds numbers up to 100. By considering flow characteristics such as mean velocity and pressure drop, we shed light on the importance of including particle rotation effects in large particle-flow simulations. In multi-particle flow simulations, particle rotation is difficult to calculate and is often imprecisely accounted for or ignored altogether. We examine the effect of these procedures on the overall flow characteristics through large systems of particles when the particle center is fixed and either allowed or not to rotate. We use a newly developed GPU-centric implementation of the Physalis method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of finite-size spheres. We investigate periodic systems of more than 100 randomly-distributed particles at Reynolds numbers up to 100. By considering flow characteristics such as mean velocity and pressure drop, we shed light on the importance of including particle rotation effects in large particle-flow simulations. Study supported by NSF grant CBET 1258398.

  5. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  6. Airborne earth-observing imaging spectrometers utilizing commercial cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Christopher; Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Eastwood, Michael; Geier, Sven; Zan, Jason

    2012-06-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing airborne hyperspectral imagers for the visible—shortwave-IR band, utilizing commercial cryocoolers as the primary cooling. Stability of the spectral calibration of the spectrometers is of paramount importance in the instrument performance. We describe the cryogenic package and the overall fielded system, detail the thermal performance requirements and their validation, and discuss design issues associated with utilizing mechanical cryocoolers for this application.

  7. Observation of laser feedback using a grating spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Erik G.; Schulz, Matthew A.

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for observing the effect of optical feedback in an extended cavity diode laser. A simple grating spectrometer is used to observe the naturally occurring wavelength spread and mode spacing for the diode. When the diode is provided with optical feedback from a grating in the Littman-Metcalf configuration, the tunability of the diode is easily observed. This setup presents an intuitive and cost-effective method for demonstrating optical feedback in an advanced undergraduate laboratory setting.

  8. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  9. The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10?as accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

  10. Comparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO 2 measurements using scattered sunlight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Elias; A. Jeff Sutton; Clive Oppenheimer; Keith A. Horton; Harold Garbeil; Vitchko Tsanev; Andrew J. S. McGonigle; Glyn Williams-Jones

    2006-01-01

    The correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), the principal tool for remote measurements of volcanic SO2, is rapidly being replaced by low-cost, miniature, ultraviolet (UV) spectrometers. We compared two of these new systems with\\u000a a COSPEC by measuring SO2 column amounts at K?lauea Volcano, Hawaii. The two systems, one calibrated using in-situ SO2 cells, and the other using a calibrated laboratory reference spectrum,

  11. MEMS-based Speckle Spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Sheinis, A I; Kuhlen, M Q

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new concept for a MEMS-based active spatial filter for astronomical spectroscopy. The goal of this device is to allow the use of a diffraction-limited spectrometer on a seeing limited observation at improved throughput over a comparable seeing-limited spectrometer, thus reducing the size and cost of the spectrometer by a factor proportional to r0/D (For the case of a 10 meter telescope this size reduction will be approximately a factor of 25 to 50). We use a fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) that incorporates an active MEMS mirror array to feed an astronomical spectrograph. A fast camera is used in parallel to sense speckle images at a spatial resolution of lambda/D and at a temporal frequency greater than that of atmospheric fluctuations. The MEMS mirror-array is used as an active shutter to feed speckle images above a preset intensity threshold to the spectrometer, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spectrogram. Preliminary calculations suggests an SNR improvement of...

  12. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  13. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  14. MEMS-based Speckle Spectrometer

    E-print Network

    A. I. Sheinis; L. Nigra; M. Q. Kuhlen

    2006-06-07

    We describe a new concept for a MEMS-based active spatial filter for astronomical spectroscopy. The goal of this device is to allow the use of a diffraction-limited spectrometer on a seeing limited observation at improved throughput over a comparable seeing-limited spectrometer, thus reducing the size and cost of the spectrometer by a factor proportional to r0/D (For the case of a 10 meter telescope this size reduction will be approximately a factor of 25 to 50). We use a fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) that incorporates an active MEMS mirror array to feed an astronomical spectrograph. A fast camera is used in parallel to sense speckle images at a spatial resolution of lambda/D and at a temporal frequency greater than that of atmospheric fluctuations. The MEMS mirror-array is used as an active shutter to feed speckle images above a preset intensity threshold to the spectrometer, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spectrogram. Preliminary calculations suggests an SNR improvement of a factor of about 1.4. Computer simulations have shown an SNR improvement of 1.1, but have not yet fully explored the parameter space.

  15. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  16. A phase-sensitive superheterodyne ultrasonic spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Banerjee; M. K. Gunasekaran; A. K. Raychaudhuri

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the design and fabrication details of a phase-sensitive radio-frequency superheterodyne ultrasonic spectrometer. They also present results of measurements to test the operation of the spectrometer. The spectrometer allows simultaneous measurements of both velocity and attenuation over a wide frequency range with little adjustment. It has been built mainly using commonly available RF circuit components.

  17. Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

    2010-05-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

  18. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) spectrometer design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  19. Atomic resonance spectrometers and filters (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, O.I.

    1987-09-01

    The authors review the physical principles of recording and filtering light quanta with the aid of atomic resonance media and assess the latest accomplishments and future applications of atomic resonance spectrometers and filters in various fields. Specific topics include fluorescence resonance spectrometers and their performance in absorption and emission spectroscopy;fluorescence resonance spectrometers working with excited atoms; resonance absorption filters; optoacoustic resonance spectrometers; magneto-optical filters; ionization resonance spectrometers using lasers; frequency standards for laser radiation and the detection of infrared and ultrahigh-frequency radiation.

  20. Novel imaging spectrometers and polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2013-12-01

    The use of two dimensional arrays has enabled the development of novel imaging spectrometers and polarimeters with snapshot capabilities, meaning the entire data cube can be recorded simultaneously. This presentation will discuss the development of spectrometer and polarimeter imagers that use new optical designs based on old ideas. The presentation contains an overview of the various types of imaging sensors that have been developed at the Optical Detection Lab of the University of Arizona. The goal of our research is to develop instruments capable of discriminating objects in biological tissue and within the human eye. Additionally, instruments of this type will be capable of spectrally monitoring simultaneously chemical or biological processes in real time in four dimensions (x,y,?,t).

  1. Improvement of miniature grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huaidong; Xu, Li; Chen, Kexin; Huang, Xingyue; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2008-03-01

    The trade-off between resolution and signal to noise ratio is a shackle to develop high performance miniature grating spectrometers. Concentrating on breaking this shackle, freeform optics and super-resolution restoration method for miniature grating spectrometers are proposed in this paper. Substituting a varying sagittal surface for a toroidal one, not only aberrations along dispersive direction can be reduced, but also aberrations perpendicular to dispersive direction can be reduced in a broad spectral range. This means both resolution and throughput would be multiplied. To reduce the remnant imperfection of system, subpixel-deconvolution process may be supplemented. By subpixel reconstruction, under-sampling due to finite pixel size of array detector would be got rid of. By deconvolution, blurring duo to slit and other system imperfection would be eliminated. Consequently, resolution and throughput would be further increased.

  2. Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.

  3. Large-scale calcium metal sample preparation for ⁴¹Ca isotope pre-enrichment and AMS (accelerator mass spectrometer). [Accelerator mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Henning; Z. Liu; H. F. Lucas; G. E. Thomas; H. L. Adair; W. B. Grisham

    1986-01-01

    Large quantities of high-purity Ca metal were successfully prepared and used in the Oak Ridge Calutron and subsequent AMS (accelerator mass spectrometer) measurements at Argonne National Laboratory. The high purity could be partly due to the pureness of the original source material for CaCOâ but mostly due to the method of Ca metal reduction involved. A further indication that this

  4. The AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, I.D.

    1988-09-01

    Livermore will have an operational Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) by mid-1989 as part of its new Multi-user Tandem Laboratory. The spectrometer was designed primarily for applications in archaeology and the geosciences and was co-funded by the University of California Regents. Radiological control for personnel protection, ion sources and injection systems, the tandem and all beam handling hardware are operated with a distributed processor computer control system. The Tandem is the former University of Washington injector FN which has been upgraded with Dowlish tubes, pelletron charging and SF/sub 6/ gas. Design goals for the AMS system, computer aided operation, automated measurement capability, initial results and some of our intended applications will be presented. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Indigenous development of static laser light scattering (SLS) spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, David; Kumar, Amit

    2013-02-01

    An indigenous laser light scattering spectrometer is being developed for the studies of biological cells, macromolecules and their interactions. A laboratory spectrometer is used and modified as scattering arm, Turn Table and Collimating arm. Both the arms have polarizers, one acting as polarizer and the other as analyzer. The scattered light from the scattering cell is analyzed by an analyzer and is fed to a PMT and a photon counting module. Except for the PMT all the accessories are being fabricated indigenously. The studies are based initially on the studies of red blood cells. Studies are focused on for their single particle and their aggregation behavior. Using the ORT program developed by Otto Glatter the morphology of red blood cells will be analyzed.

  6. A microelectromechanical systems-enabled, miniature triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven; Malcolm, Andrew; Wright, Christopher; O'Prey, Shane; Crichton, Edward; Dash, Neil; Moseley, Richard W; Zaczek, Wojciech; Edwards, Peter; Fussell, Richard J; Syms, Richard R A

    2015-03-17

    Miniaturized mass spectrometers are becoming increasingly capable, enabling the development of many novel field and laboratory applications. However, to date, triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometers, the workhorses of quantitative analysis, have not been significantly reduced in size. Here, the basis of a field-deployable triple quadrupole is described. The key development is a highly miniaturized ion optical assembly in which a sequence of six microengineered components is employed to generate ions at atmospheric pressure, provide a vacuum interface, effect ion guiding, and perform fragmentation and mass analysis. Despite its small dimensions, the collision cell efficiently fragments precursor ions and yields product ion spectra that are very similar to those recorded using conventional instruments. The miniature triple quadrupole has been used to detect thiabendazole, a common pesticide, in apples at a level of 10 ng/g. PMID:25708099

  7. Multi-way based calibration transfer between two Raman spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; van den Berg, Frans

    2010-06-01

    A standardization algorithm based on the application of Tucker3 models on the tensorized measurement signals is proposed to transfer calibration information between two Raman spectrometers. The secondary instrument in this study is a low cost and portable CCD based unit employing an efficient 532 nm green laser. The primary instrument is a high performance Fourier-transform based laboratory instrument using a low efficiency NIR laser at 1064 nm, albeit with very limited sample fluorescence interference. This work is a first investigation of calibration transfer on Raman spectral data which include different values of fluorescent background from one instrument to the other. The spectra of a small set of calibration samples are measured on both spectrometers. Using the ability of Tucker3 to estimate missing values in tensorized data, we reconstruct the spectrum of a new sample on the primary instrument based on its measured response of the secondary instrument without the need for constructing an explicit transfer model. This way spectra of a prediction sample measured on one spectrometer can be successfully transferred to another spectrometer as if it has been measured directly on the latter. Hence, the task of calibration transfer among instruments is posed as a missing data problem. A discrete wavelet transform is performed to improve the predictive ability. Performance criteria for judging the success of the calibration transfer are reported as the standard error of prediction for estimation of samples in a prediction set. By comparison, the proposed Tucker3 based standardization method shows a better performance as compared to piecewise direct standardization. The method is expected to be applicable for performing calibration transfer using data from instruments other than Raman spectrometers. PMID:20405058

  8. A novel dual-detector micro-spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Bruch, Reinhard; Gruska, Bernd; Gessner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Infrared analysis is a well-established tool for measuring composition and purity of various materials in industrial-, medical- and environmental applications. Traditional spectrometers, for example Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Instruments are mainly designed for laboratory use and are generally, too large, heavy, costly and delicate to handle for remote applications. With important advances in the miniaturization, ruggedness and cost efficiency we have designed and created a new type of a micromirror spectrometer that can operate in harsh temperature and vibrating environments This device is ideally suited for environmental monitoring, chemical and biological applications as well as detection of biological warfare agents and sensing in important security locations In order to realize such compact, portable and field-deployable spectrometers we have applied MOEMS technology. Thus our novel dual detector micro mirror system is composed of a scanning micro mirror combined with a diffraction grating and other essential optical components in order to miniaturize the basic modular set-up. Especially it periodically disperses polychromatic radiation into its spectral components, which are measured by a combination of a visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) single element detector. By means of integrated preamplifiers high-precise measurements over a wide dynamic wavelength range are possible. In addition the spectrometer, including the radiation source, detectors and electronics can be coupled to a minimum-volume liquid or gas-flow cell. Furthermore a SMA connector as a fiber optical input allows easy attachment of fiber based probes. By utilizing rapid prototyping techniques, where all components are directly integrated, the micro mirror spectrometer is manufactured for the 700-1700 nm spectral range. In this work the advanced optical design and integration of the electronic interface will be reviewed. Furthermore we will demonstrate the performance of the system and present characteristic measurement results. Finally advanced packaging issues and test results of the device will be discussed.

  9. Simulation of tethered oligomers in nanochannels using multi-particle collision dynamics.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Riyad Chetram; Schofield, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    The effect of a high Reynold's number, pressure-driven flow of a compressible gas on the conformation of an oligomer tethered to the wall of a square channel is studied under both ideal solvent and poor solvent conditions using a hybrid multiparticle collision dynamics and molecular dynamics algorithm. Unlike previous studies, the flow field contains an elongational component in addition to a shear component as well as fluid slip near the walls and results in a Schmidt number for the polymer beads that is less than unity. In both solvent regimes the oligomer is found to extend in the direction of flow. Under the ideal solvent conditions, torsional twisting of the chain and aperiodic cyclical dynamics are observed for the end of the oligomer. Under poor solvent conditions, a metastable helix forms in the end of the chain despite the lack of any attractive potential between beads in the oligomeric chain. The formation of the helix is postulated to be the result of a solvent induced chain collapse that has been confined to a single dimension by a strong flow field. PMID:22779677

  10. Function space requirements for the single-electron functions within the multiparticle Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohlenkamp, Martin J. [Department of Mathematics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Our previously described method to approximate the many-electron wavefunction in the multiparticle Schroedinger equation reduces this problem to operations on many single-electron functions. In this work, we analyze these operations to determine which function spaces are appropriate for various intermediate functions in order to bound the output. This knowledge then allows us to choose the function spaces in which to control the error of a numerical method for single-electron functions. We find that an efficient choice is to maintain the single-electron functions in L{sup 2} Intersection L{sup 4}, the product of these functions in L{sup 1} Intersection L{sup 2}, the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L{sup 4}, a function times the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L{sup 2}, and the nuclear potential times a function in L{sup 4/3}. Due to the integral operator formulation, we do not require differentiability.

  11. Hydrodynamics of discrete-particle models of spherical colloids: A multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, Simón; Wysocki, Adam; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic properties of a spherical colloid model, which is composed of a shell of point particles by hybrid mesoscale simulations, which combine molecular dynamics simulations for the sphere with the multiparticle collision dynamics approach for the fluid. Results are presented for the center-of-mass and angular velocity correlation functions. The simulation results are compared with theoretical results for a rigid colloid obtained as a solution of the Stokes equation with no-slip boundary conditions. Similarly, analytical results of a point-particle model are presented, which account for the finite size of the simulated system. The simulation results agree well with both approaches on appropriative time scales; specifically, the long-time correlations are quantitatively reproduced. Moreover, a procedure is proposed to obtain the infinite-system-size diffusion coefficient based on a combination of simulation results and analytical predictions. In addition, we present the velocity field in the vicinity of the colloid and demonstrate its close agreement with the theoretical prediction. Our studies show that a point-particle model of a sphere is very well suited to describe the hydrodynamic properties of spherical colloids, with a significantly reduced numerical effort.

  12. Solenoid Spectrometers for Reaccelerated Beam Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuosmaa, Alan

    2014-09-01

    The coming availability of reaccelerated rare-isotope beam promises many new advances in the study of nuclear structure. Already, measurements of transfer reactions with unstable beams have provided new information about nuclei far from stability. The necessity of performing these experiments in inverse kinematics, however, introduces technical challenges that accompany the potential gains that can be achieved. These include the resolution of excited states in the nuclei of interest, the suppression of backgrounds from beam impurities, and the identification of the reaction products. One approach that has been developed recently to cope with these challenges uses the uniform magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid to transport light charged particles from the target to an array of position-sensitive silicon detectors, both of which are positioned on the magnetic axis of the solenoid. An implementation of this concept, called HELIOS (the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer) has been in operation at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory since 2008, and has been used to study a variety of nucleon transfer reactions with stable and unstable beams. The technical concept and examples of recent experimental results will be discussed, and opportunities for studies at future reaccelerated beam facilities will be presented. The coming availability of reaccelerated rare-isotope beam promises many new advances in the study of nuclear structure. Already, measurements of transfer reactions with unstable beams have provided new information about nuclei far from stability. The necessity of performing these experiments in inverse kinematics, however, introduces technical challenges that accompany the potential gains that can be achieved. These include the resolution of excited states in the nuclei of interest, the suppression of backgrounds from beam impurities, and the identification of the reaction products. One approach that has been developed recently to cope with these challenges uses the uniform magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid to transport light charged particles from the target to an array of position-sensitive silicon detectors, both of which are positioned on the magnetic axis of the solenoid. An implementation of this concept, called HELIOS (the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer) has been in operation at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory since 2008, and has been used to study a variety of nucleon transfer reactions with stable and unstable beams. The technical concept and examples of recent experimental results will be discussed, and opportunities for studies at future reaccelerated beam facilities will be presented. Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract Numbers DE-FG02-04ER41320 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  14. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time-of-flightTOFtime-of-flight4

  15. Instrumental background in gamma-ray spectrometers flown in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    1992-01-01

    Techniques are presented for calculating the instrumental continuum background in gamma-ray spectrometers flown in low earth orbit (LEO), with special attention given to simple methods developed for scaling from the better-understood measurements and calculations of background in balloon-borne instruments to LEO (Gehrels, 1985). Results are presented in the form of predictions of the background and its components for spectrometers in LEO. These predictions are compared to the measured background for the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer (Mahoney et al., 1980), and predictions are made for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory mission and the Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer (Matteson et al., 1990) spectrometers. A comparison is made of various orbit options. It is shown that a critical factor is the number of times the instrument passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (which is the region of enhanced trapped particle fluxes in LEO) and the depth of penetration on each pass.

  16. Optical Design and Performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is a F/4, wide field (30deg) design, covering the spectral range 500-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

  17. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  18. Experiment M408: Beta spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marbach, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The beta spectrometer functioned as planned throughout the Gemini 10 mission. The cool temperatures that were recorded from the instrument during the mission were indicative that the evaporative cooler, coupled with apparently lower-than-expected spacecraft-adapter temperatures, maintained ideal operating conditions. The data facilitate a good analysis of the electron directional distribution. The omnidirectional flux that was calculated is apparently consistent with previous measurements. Representative electron spectra, measured during the Gemini 12 mission, established the apparent decay of the artificially injected electrons (from the Starfish high altitude nuclear test) to such low levels that natural trapped electrons were becoming detectable.

  19. MODIS: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This brochure describes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The first NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite, Terra, was launched on December 18, 1999, carrying five remote sensors. The most comprehensive EOS sensor is MODIS which offers a unique combination of features: it detects a wide spectral range of electromagnetic energy; it takes measurements at three spatial resolutions (levels of detail); it takes measurements all day, every day; and it has a wide field of view. This continual, comprehensive coverage allows MODIS to complete an electromagnetic picture of the globe every two days.

  20. Engine spectrometer probe and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

  1. Calibration of the LLNL Imaging Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Hazi, A. U.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2014-10-01

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g. Au foil) produce well collimated, broadband proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields in high-energy-density systems. The Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS) was previously designed and built (H. Chen 2010, RSI) for use with such laser produced proton beams. The IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 250 at 0.5 MeV and 350 at 2 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging direction. In order to better characterize the imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D FEA solver has been used to calculate the magnetic field of the IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to calibrate the imaging axis of the IPS. Experiments using alpha sources will be used to verify the calculated calibration. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. The APX Spectrometer for Martian Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining the chemical composition of any planetary body should be a prime science objective of each planetary mission. The APX spectrometer has been designed to provide a detailed and complete chemical composition of all major (except H) and minor elements with high accuracy, in situ and remotely. From such complete analyses a first-order mineralogy of analyzed samples can be deduced. Laboratory studies in the past have shown that rock types (e.g., dunites, basalts, Philippinate 300 sample) were a uniquely in blind test analyses. Such identification is more accurate than can be obtained from any other remote spectroscopic technique. The APX technique is based on three modes of nuclear and atomic interactions of alpha particles with matter resulting in three different energy spectra containing the compositional information. The instrument uses 50 to 100 mCi of Cm-242 or Cm-244 transuranium radioisotopes to provide a monoenergetic beam of alpha particles (6.01 MeV and 5.80 MeV respectively) and solid-state detectors for acquiring the energy spectra.

  3. Lunar mass spectrometer test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described along with results obtained in a test program conducted to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The subject instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer and an off axis electron multiplier ion counting detector. The major program emphasis was placed on demonstrating instrument resolution, sensitivity and S/N ratio over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 13th power torr. Ultrahigh vacuum tests were conducted and the minimum detectable partial pressure for neon, argon, krypton and xenon was successfully determined for the spectrometer using isotopes of these gases. With the exception of neon, the minimum detectable partial pressure is approximately 4 x 10 to the minus 14th power torr for the above gases.

  4. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  5. [Research on algorithm for self-absorption correction based on multi-particles LIBS spectra].

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhi-Bo; Dong, Feng-Zhong; Chen, Xing-Long; Wang, Jing-Ge; He, Wen-Gan; Fu, Hong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of self-absorption on quantitative analysis, the optimizing process of very fast simulated annealing algorithm was studied. According to basic theory of plasma emission spectrum, a new algorithm for self-absorpton correction based on multi-particles spectra was proposed, and the algorithm flowchart was given. With the self-absorption correction algorithm mentioned above, the spectra of refining slag and blast furnace slag were corrected. The effect of self-ab sorption correction on the quantitative analysis results was analyzed based on calibration free method. Comparison of Boltzmann plots before and after self-absorption correction indicated that the plasma temperatures calculated with spectra after self-absorption correction tended to be uniform, and remained stable around 11,600 K. The Boltzmann plots constructed with plasma spectra of the same particle after self-absorption correction indicated that the intercepts were almost the same except for one group data. With calibration free method and spectra after self-absorption correction, the contents of components in slag were analyzed. For refining slag, quantitative analysis precision of MgO was low. If ignoring the existence of MgO, the relative errors of quantitative analysis results of CaO, Al2 O3 and SiOs were much smaller. For blast furnace slag in which the content of MgO was 8.49%, the relative error of quantitative analysis result of Al2 O3 was 2.38%, which was the smallest. And the relative error of quantitative analysis result of MgO was 28.27%, which was still the biggest. PMID:25532357

  6. Evidence for collective multi-particle correlations in pPb collisions

    E-print Network

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-18

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v2, are obtained in pPb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (eta) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The pPb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse nanobarns, were collected during the 2013 LHC pPb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at sqrt(s[NN])= 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5 inverse microbarns and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the pPb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v2 coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the pPb and PbPb systems, the v2 values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large Delta[eta]) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a pPb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multi-particle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region.

  7. Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Padding, J. T.; Hemelrijk, C. K.

    2012-02-01

    The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed analysis. Their insights may guide empirical work. Particularly the recently introduced multiparticle collision dynamics method may be suitable for the study of moving organisms because it is computationally fast, simple to implement, and has a continuous representation of space. As regards the study of hydrodynamics of moving organisms, the method has only been applied at low Reynolds numbers (below 120) for soft, permeable bodies, and static fishlike shapes. In the present paper we use it to study the hydrodynamics of an undulating fish at Reynolds numbers 1100-1500, after confirming its performance for a moving insect wing at Reynolds number 75. We measure (1) drag, thrust, and lift forces, (2) swimming efficiency and spatial structure of the wake, and (3) distribution of forces along the fish body. We confirm the resemblance between the simulated undulating fish and empirical data. In contrast to theoretical predictions, our model shows that for steadily undulating fish, thrust is produced by the rear 2/3 of the body and that the slip ratio U/V (with U the forward swimming speed and V the rearward speed of the body wave) correlates negatively (instead of positively) with the actual Froude efficiency of swimming. Besides, we show that the common practice of modeling individuals while constraining their sideways acceleration causes them to resemble unconstrained fish with a higher tailbeat frequency.

  8. An ion mobility spectrometer sensor system for subsurface use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniella Morgos; Ivan Geroy; Richard G. Sevier; Molly M. Gribb; Kevin P. Ryan; Herbert H. Hill

    2010-01-01

    An ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) probe system for real-time, subsurface soil-gas sampling applications is presented. The\\u000a system includes an IMS and supporting electronics encased in a 51 mm diameter stainless steel probe housing. The IMS was challenged\\u000a in the laboratory with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (DtBP) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in zero air yielding reduced ion mobility\\u000a constants (Ko) values of 1.42 cm2\\/Vs (n?=?3) and 1.79?±?0.01 cm2\\/Vs

  9. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H. [Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (United States); Barhen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  10. SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Femec, D.A.; Killian, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    To assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contract-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP), the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurements and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The SGRS system software controls turntable and detector system activities. In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, this software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of-specific interest. This document describes the software design for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system.

  11. A Feasability Study of the Wheel Electrostatic Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Michael Ryan; Phillips, James Ralph; Kelley, Joshua David; Mackey, Paul J.; Holbert, Eirik; Clements, Gregory R.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Mars rover missions rely on time-consuming, power-exhausting processes to analyze the Martian regolith. A low power electrostatic sensor in the wheels of a future Mars rover could be used to quickly determine when the rover is driving over a different type of regolith. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center developed the Wheel Electrostatic Spectrometer as a feasibility study to investigate this option. In this paper, we discuss recent advances in this technology to increase the repeatability of the tribocharging experiments, along with supporting data. In addition, we discuss the development of a static elimination tool optimized for Martian conditions.

  12. Coarse-grain model for lipid bilayer self-assembly and dynamics: multiparticle collision description of the solvent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond; Mikhailov, Alexander S; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2012-08-01

    A mesoscopic coarse-grain model for computationally efficient simulations of biomembranes is presented. It combines molecular dynamics simulations for the lipids, modeled as elastic chains of beads, with multiparticle collision dynamics for the solvent. Self-assembly of a membrane from a uniform mixture of lipids is observed. Simulations at different temperatures demonstrate that it reproduces the gel and liquid phases of lipid bilayers. Investigations of lipid diffusion in different phases reveals a crossover from subdiffusion to normal diffusion at long times. Macroscopic membrane properties, such as stretching and bending elastic moduli, are determined directly from the mesoscopic simulations. Velocity correlation functions for membrane flows are determined and analyzed. PMID:22894383

  13. The BFKL Pomeron Calculus in zero transverse dimensions: summation of Pomeron loops and generating functional for the multiparticle production processes

    E-print Network

    E. Levin; A. Prygarin

    2007-04-16

    In this paper we address two problems in the BFKL Pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimensions: the summation of the Pomeron loops and the calculation of the processes of multiparticle generation. We introduce a new generating functional for these processes and obtain the evolution equation for it. We argue that in the kinematic range given by $ 1 \\ll \\ln(1/\\as^2) \\ll \\as Y \\ll \\frac{1}{\\as}$, we can reduce the Pomeron calculus to exchange of non-interacting Pomerons with the renormalized amplitude of their interaction with the target. Therefore, the summation of the Pomeron loops can be performed using Mueller, Patel, Salam and Iancu approximation.

  14. ADVANCED METHODS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT AND THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MULTIPARTICLE PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Alex J. Dragt

    2012-08-31

    Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.

  15. Recent Results from the Commissioning of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Ginter; J. H. Hamilton; A. V. Ramayya; C. J. Gross; J. W. Johnson; D. Shapira; Y. A. Akovali; M. J. Brinkman; J. Mas; J. W. McConnell; W. T. Milner; A. N. James

    1997-01-01

    The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy.) is designed (Cole, J. D., et al.) al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B70 (1992), 343. to transmit ions with rigidities of up to K = 100 resulting from fusion-evaporation and other

  16. Investigating the rp-process with the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Clark; R. C. Barber; B. Blank; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. E. Crawford; J. P. Greene; S. Gulick; J. C. Hardy; A. A. Hecht; A. Heinz; J. K. P. Lee; A. F. Levand; B. F. Lundgren; R. B. Moore; G. Savard; N. D. Scielzo; D. Seweryniak; K. S. Sharma; G. D. Sprouse; W. Trimble; J. Vaz; J. C. Wang; Y. Wang; B. J. Zabransky; Z. Zhou

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian Penning trap (CPT) mass spectrometer at the Argonne National Laboratory makes precise mass measurements of nuclides with short half-lives. Since the previous ENAM conference, many significant modifications to the apparatus were implemented to improve both the precision and efficiency of measurement, and now more than 60 radioactive isotopes have been measured with half-lives as short as one second

  17. Magnetic Fields1 Increasingly, instruments that generate large static magnetic fields (e.g., NMR spectrometers,

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Magnetic Fields1 Increasingly, instruments that generate large static magnetic fields (e.g., NMR spectrometers, MRI) are present in research laboratories. Such magnets typically have fields of 14,000 to 235,000 G (1.4 to 23.5 T), far above that of Earth's magnetic field, which is approximately 0.5 G

  18. Measurements of neutron energy spectra from 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction with Bonner sphere spectrometer, Nested Neutron Spectrometer and ROSPEC.

    PubMed

    Atanackovic, J; Matysiak, W; Witharana, S; Dubeau, J; Waker, A J

    2014-10-01

    Neutron spectrometry measurements were carried out at the McMaster Accelerator Laboratory (MAL), which is equipped with a 3-MV Van de Graaff-type accelerator. Protons were accelerated onto a thick natural lithium target inducing the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be threshold reaction. Depending on the proton energy, slightly different poly-energetic neutron fields were produced. Neutron spectra were measured at two incident proton energies: 2.15 and 2.24 MeV, which produced poly-energetic neutrons with maximum kinetic energies of 401 and 511 keV, respectively. Measurements were performed at a distance of 1.5 m from the target in the forward direction with three different instruments: Bonner sphere spectrometer, Nested Neutron Spectrometer and ROtational proton recoil SPECtrometer. PMID:24298169

  19. Multimode optical fiber based spectrometers

    E-print Network

    Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui

    2013-01-01

    A standard multimode optical fiber can be used as a general purpose spectrometer after calibrating the wavelength dependent speckle patterns produced by interference between the guided modes of the fiber. A transmission matrix was used to store the calibration data and a robust algorithm was developed to reconstruct an arbitrary input spectrum in the presence of experimental noise. We demonstrate that a 20 meter long fiber can resolve two laser lines separated by only 8 pm. At the other extreme, we show that a 2 centimeter long fiber can measure a broadband continuous spectrum generated from a supercontinuum source. We investigate the effect of the fiber geometry on the spectral resolution and bandwidth, and also discuss the additional limitation on the bandwidth imposed by speckle contrast reduction when measuring dense spectra. Finally, we demonstrate a method to reduce the spectrum reconstruction error and increase the bandwidth by separately imaging the speckle patterns of orthogonal polarizations. The mu...

  20. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    One of the Orbital Science experiments on Apollo 15 was a mass spectrometer designed to measure the composition and distribution of the lunar atmosphere. It operated for nearly 90 hours, producing spectra of an unexpectedly complex nature, indicating that many complex gas molecules exist in the vicinity of the spacecraft. The most plausible explanation is that there was continual vaporization of frozen or liquid drops of water, fuel, or other matter that had been ejected from the spacecraft with small relative velocity so that these particles remained in nearby orbits. The search for naturally occurring gases in these spectra involves a statistical analysis of the data which has not been completed to date. A theoretical prediction regarding the possibilities of detecting lunar volcanism from orbit is included.

  1. Lunar mass spectrometer test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedures used and the results are described, which were obtained in a test program to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer, and an off-axis electron multiplier ion-counting detector. Instrument resolution, sensitivity, and S/N ratio were demonstrated over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from ntorr to ptorr. The subject analyzer was also prepared for extended testing, in conjunction with two other candidate instruments, in a large molecular beam vacuum facility.

  2. ExoMars Raman laser spectrometer overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rull; A. Sansano; E. Díaz; C. P. Canora; A. G. Moral; C. Tato; M. Colombo; T. Belenguer; M. Fernández; J. A. R. Manfredi; R. Canchal; B. Dávila; A. Jiménez; P. Gallego; S. Ibarmia; J. A. R. Prieto; A. Santiago; J. Pla; G. Ramos; C. González

    2010-01-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, ExoMars mission. The RLS Instrument will perform Raman spectroscopy on crushed powered samples deposited on a small container after crushing the cores obtained by the Rover's drill system. This is the first time that a Raman spectrometer will be launched in an

  3. Lunar Mass Spectrometer Design Verification Thermal

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    the testing of the LMS Prototype model in the BxA Thermal Vacuum Test Chamber. 2. 0 INTRODUCTION The LunarLunar Mass Spectrometer Design Verification Thermal Vacuum Test LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER DESIGN VERIFICATION THERMAL VACUUM TEST REPORT Prepared By: Approved By: NO. RI!V. MO. ATM-1097 1 40 PAGI OF DATI 4

  4. Modeling of an infrared micro-spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Modeling of an infrared stationary micro-spectrometer integrated on a focal plane array S. Mouzali-SPECTROMETER INTEGRATED ON A FOCAL PLANE ARRAY Salima Mouzali (1) , Sidonie Lefebvre (1) , Sylvain Rommeluère (1) , Yann transform interferometer integrated on a classical Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array (FPA), of 640

  5. ELECTRON SPECTROMETER WITH TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dubinov; N. V. Minashkin; V. D. Selemir; N. V. Stepanov; V. E. Vatrunin

    1993-01-01

    The spectrometer allows to measure the spectrum of the electron beam, generated in the magnetized diode. Principle of the spectrometer's operation consists in spatial separation of Merent energies particles in gradient static magnetic field. Numerical integration of electron movement equations in the toroidal magnetic field %l\\/r -manner, is consistent with the experimental results received at 1-3000 accelerator. The results of

  6. A New Optical Aerosol Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonda, Mark; Malcolmson, Andrew; Bonin, Mike; Stratton, David; Rogers, C. Fred; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring aerosol particle size distributions from 0.02 to 100 micrometers has been developed. This instrument combines several optical methods in one, in-situ configuration; it can provide continuous data collection to encompass the wide dynamic size ranges and concentrations found in studies of modeled planetary atmospheres as well as terrestrial air quality research. Currently, the system is incorporated into an eight liter capacity spherical pressure vessel that is appropriate both for flowthrough and for in-situ particle generation. The optical sizing methods include polarization ratio, The scattering, and forward scattering detectors, with illumination from a fiber-coupled, Argon-ion laser. As particle sizes increase above 0.1 micrometer, a customized electronics and software system automatically shifts from polarization to diffraction-based measurements as the angular scattering detectors attain acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. The number concentration detection limits are estimated to be in the part-per-trillion (ppT by volume) range, or roughly 1000 submicron particles per cubic centimeter. Results from static experiments using HFC134A (approved light scattering gas standard), flow-through experiments using sodium chloride (NaCl) and carbon particles, and dynamic 'Tholin' (photochemical produced particles from ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated acetylene and nitrogen) experiments have been obtained. The optical spectrometer data obtained with particles have compared well with particle sizes determined by electron microscopy. The 'Tholin' tests provided real-time size and concentration data as the particles grew from about 30 nanometers to about 0.8 micrometers, with concentrations ranging from ppT to ppB, by volume. Tests are still underway, to better define sizing accuracy and concentration limits, these results will be reported.

  7. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical. PMID:26135449

  8. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  9. Two CdZnTe detector-equipped gamma-ray spectrometers for attribute measurements on irradiated nuclear fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Hartwell; P. L. Winston; D. J. Marts; L. D. Moore-McAteer; S. C. Taylor

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Some United States Department of Energy-owned spent fuel elements from foreign research reactors (FRRs) are presently being shipped from the reactor location to the US for storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two cadmium zinc telluride detector-based gamma-ray spectrometers have been developed to confirm the irradiation status of these fuels. One spectrometer is configured to operate

  10. Coupling of fully automated chip-based electrospray ionization to high-capacity ion trap mass spectrometer for ganglioside analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinaldo Almeida; Cristina Mosoarca; Marius Chirita; Valentina Udrescu; Nicolae Dinca; Željka Vukeli?; Mark Allen; Alina D. Zamfir

    2008-01-01

    NanoMate robot was coupled to a high-capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometer to create a system merging automatic chip-based electrospray ionization (ESI) infusion, ultrafast ion detection, and multistage sequencing at superior sensitivity. The interface between the NanoMate and HCT mass spectrometer consists of an in-laboratory constructed mounting device that allows adjustment of the robot position with respect to the mass

  11. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  12. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Guo, X. Y.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown) were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually). The experimental treatments were: i) L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii) LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii) LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv) S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05). The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05). The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05). The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone. PMID:25049635

  13. Investigations of 2? decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX

    SciTech Connect

    Rukhadze, Ekaterina [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: OBELIX Collaboration; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?{sup ?} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the 0{sup +} (1130 keV) and 2{sup +} (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

  14. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  15. Quantitative analysis of single aerosol particles with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangfu; Zhu, Guanghua; Xu, Qing; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Liu, Hui; Ding, Xunliang

    2010-10-01

    A laboratory confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer based on polycapillary X-ray optics (PXRO) was proposed to carry out the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles with smaller sizes than that of focal spot of the PXRO. The PXRO in the detection channel can both increase the collecting angle of the detector and lower the minimum detection limits of the XRF spectrometer. In order to reduce the effects of the PXRO on the analysis results, the sensitivities were corrected using a Gaussian function for the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles.

  16. The open-source neutral-mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-C, -D, and -E.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Potter, W. E.; Hickman, D. R.; Mauersberger, K.

    1973-01-01

    The open-source mass spectrometer will be used to obtain the number densities of the neutral atmospheric gases in the mass range 1 to 48 amu at the satellite location. The ion source has been designed to allow gas particles to enter the ionizing region with the minimum practicable number of prior collisions with surfaces. This design minimizes the loss of atomic oxygen and other reactive species due to reactions with the walls of the ion source. The principal features of the open-source spectrometer and the laboratory calibration system are discussed.

  17. Tunable Laser Spectrometers- from Earth Polar Ozone and Climate Studies to Mars Evolution and Planetary Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Christensen, L. E.; Flesch, G.; Forouhar, S.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the maturation of tunable laser spectrometers over the last three decades as semiconductor laser technology has produced high power single mode lasers operating at room temperature. Numerous examples will be given of applications in Earth science (e.g. polar ozone, atmospheric transport, photo- and heterogeneous chemistry, terrestrial isotope ratios), Mars evolution from Curiosity results, and how tunable laser spectrometers are poised to reveal gas composition and isotope ratios in the inner and outer planets like Venus, Titan and Saturn. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  18. Electron pair emission detected by time-of-flight spectrometers: Recent progress

    SciTech Connect

    Huth, Michael; Schumann, Frank O. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Trützschler, Andreas; Kirschner, Jürgen [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Widdra, Wolf [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We present results for electron coincidence spectroscopy using two time-of-flight (ToF) spectrometers. Excited by electron impact, the energy and momentum distribution of electron pairs emitted from the Cu(111) surface are resolved and a spectral feature related to the Shockley surface state is identified. By combining the two ToF spectrometers with a high-order harmonic generation light source, we demonstrate double photoemission spectroscopy in the laboratory that required synchrotron radiation in the past. Utilizing this setup, we report results for (?,2e) on NiO(001) on Ag(001) excited with light at 30?eV photon energy.

  19. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  20. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  1. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  2. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  3. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express, VIR on DAWN).

  4. LCLS Injector Straight-Ahead Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey , C.

    2010-12-10

    The spectrometer design was modified to allow the measurement of uncorrelated energy spread for the nominal lattice. One bunch from every 120 each second would be sent to the straight ahead spectrometer while the transverse cavity is on. The implementation of this 'stealing mode' will not be available for the LCLS commissioning and the early stage of operation. However, the spectrometer was redesigned to retain that option. The energy feedback relies independently on the beam position of the beam in the dispersive section of dogleg 1 (DL1). The main modification of the spectrometer design is the Pole face rotation of 7.5 degrees on both entrance and exit faces. The location and range of operation of the 3 quadrupoles remains unchanged relative to those of the earlier design.

  5. Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption

    E-print Network

    Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

  6. Spectrometer Images of Candidate Landing Sites for Next Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This composite shows four examples of 'browse' products the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument obtained of areas on Mars near proposed landing sites for NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. These examples are from two of more than 30 candidate sites. They are enhanced color images of West Candor chasm (A) and Nili Fossae trough (B); and false color images indicating the presence of hydrated (water-containing) minerals in West Candor (C); and clay-like (phyllosilicate) minerals in Nili Fossae (D).

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  7. Ruggedized Spectrometers Are Built for Tough Jobs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Curiosity Chemistry and Camera instrument, or ChemCam, analyzes the elemental composition of materials on the Red Planet by using a spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of light they emit. Principal investigator Roger Wiens worked with Ocean Optics, out of Dunedin, Florida, to rework the company's spectrometer to operate in cold and rowdy conditions and also during the stresses of liftoff. Those improvements have been incorporated into the firm's commercial product line.

  8. Hadamard spectrometer for passive LWIR standoff surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman V. Kruzelecky; Brian Wong; Jing Zou; Najeeb Mohammad; Wes Jamroz; Mohammed Soltani; Mohamed Chaker; Emile Haddad; Philips Laou; Suzanne Paradis

    2007-01-01

    Based on the principle of the Integrated Optical Spectrometer (IOSPEC), a waveguide-based, longwave infrared (LWIR) dispersive spectrometer with multiple input slits for Hadamard spectroscopy was designed and built intended for passive standoff chemical agent detection in 8 to 12mum spectral range. This prototype unit equips with a three-inch input telescope providing a field-of-view of 1.2 degrees, a 16-microslit array (each

  9. The ISO Long-Wavelength Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Saraceno; P. A. R. Ade; C. Armand; J.-P. Baluteau; M. J. Barlow; M. A. Buckley; J.-C. Berges; M. Burgdorf; E. Caux; C. Ceccarelli; R. Cerulli; S. E. Church; F. Cotin; P. Cox; P. Cruvellier; J. L. Culhane; G. R. Davis; A. di Giorgio; B. R. Diplock; D. L. Drummond; R. J. Emery; J. D. Ewart; J. Fischer; I. Furniss; W. M. Glencross; M. A. Greenhouse; M. J. Griffin; C. Gry; A. S. Harwood; A. S. Hazell; M. Joubert; K. J. King; T. Lim; R. Liseau; J. A. Long; D. Lorenzetti; S. Molinari; A. G. Murray; D. A. Naylor; B. Nisini; K. Norman; A. Omont; R. Orfei; T. J. Patrick; D. Pequignot; D. Pouliquen; M. C. Price; Nguyen-Q-Rieu; A. J. Rogers; F. D. Robinson; M. Saisse; G. Serra; S. D. Sidher; A. F. Smith; H. A. Smith; L. Spinoglio; B. M. Swinyard; D. Texier; W. A. Towlson; N. R. Trams; S. J. Unger; G. J. White

    1996-01-01

    The Long-Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) is one of two complementary spectrometers aboard the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) (Kessler et al., 1996A&A...315L..49D). It operates over the wavelength range 43-196.9mum at either medium (about 150 to 200) or high (6800 to 9700) spectral resolving power. This Letter describes the instrument and its modes of operation; a companion paper (Swinyard et

  10. Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Sandel; R. V. Yelle; C. F. Bruce; G. S. Chen; M. P. Chrisp; G. A. Fraschetti; T. N. Krabach; S. W. Petrick; D. H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; S. L. Soll; A. H. Vaughan; L. A. Soderblom

    1995-01-01

    We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300–2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300–500 nm, 500–1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (80 spectral channels, 70–150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a direction compatible with radio occultation experiments, is provided

  11. Compact hydrogen\\/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert O. Funsten; David J. McComas; Earl E. Scime

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently,

  12. The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Savard; R. C. Barber; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. Caggiano; J. Clark; J. E. Crawford; H. Fukutani; S. Gulick; J. C. Hardy; A. Heinz; J. K. P. Lee; R. B. Moore; K. S. Sharma; J. Schwartz; D. Seweryniak; G. D. Sprouse; J. Vaz

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes.\\u000a It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows\\u000a fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT\\u000a spectrometer and its

  13. A superheterodyne paramagnetic resonance pulse spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Llewellyn; P R Whittlestone; J M Williams

    1962-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is suitable for the measurement of the spin-lattice relaxation times of paramagnetic ions by a pulse method. A superheterodyne paramagnetic resonance spectrometer forms the basis of the apparatus. The X-band spectrometer uses only one klystron and operates at an intermediate frequency of 10 Mc\\/s. Relaxation times in the range 5 ?sec to 10 msec have

  14. The ISO Long-Wavelength Spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, P. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Armand, C.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Barlow, M. J.; Buckley, M. A.; Berges, J.-C.; Burgdorf, M.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cerulli, R.; Church, S. E.; Cotin, F.; Cox, P.; Cruvellier, P.; Culhane, J. L.; Davis, G. R.; di Giorgio, A.; Diplock, B. R.; Drummond, D. L.; Emery, R. J.; Ewart, J. D.; Fischer, J.; Furniss, I.; Glencross, W. M.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Griffin, M. J.; Gry, C.; Harwood, A. S.; Hazell, A. S.; Joubert, M.; King, K. J.; Lim, T.; Liseau, R.; Long, J. A.; Lorenzetti, D.; Molinari, S.; Murray, A. G.; Naylor, D. A.; Nisini, B.; Norman, K.; Omont, A.; Orfei, R.; Patrick, T. J.; Pequignot, D.; Pouliquen, D.; Price, M. C.; Nguyen-Q-Rieu; Rogers, A. J.; Robinson, F. D.; Saisse, M.; Saraceno, P.; Serra, G.; Sidher, S. D.; Smith, A. F.; Smith, H. A.; Spinoglio, L.; Swinyard, B. M.; Texier, D.; Towlson, W. A.; Trams, N. R.; Unger, S. J.; White, G. J.

    1996-11-01

    The Long-Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) is one of two complementary spectrometers aboard the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) (Kessler et al., 1996A&A...315L..49D). It operates over the wavelength range 43-196.9?m at either medium (about 150 to 200) or high (6800 to 9700) spectral resolving power. This Letter describes the instrument and its modes of operation; a companion paper (Swinyard et al, 1996) describes its performance and calibration.

  15. First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

  16. Absolute Calibration of a Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrometer Using Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hirotaka; Sakasai, Akira; Nishino, Nobuhiro; Koide, Yoshihiko; Akaoka, Nobuo; Hara, Makoto; Chiba, Shinichi; Sugie, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichiroh; Maezawa, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Naohiro

    1989-12-01

    A normal incidence spectrometer was absolutely calibrated for light 700-1250 Å in the first order and 350-650 Å in the second order using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The spectrometer was equipped with a 0.4 m, 2400 grooves/mm ruled concave grating with an Al+MgF2 coating and a blaze angle of 6.9°, and a multichannel detector. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized by a 1 m Seya-Namioka monochromator, and the absolute intensity of the incident photon flux was measured with a windowless far-UV photodiode calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA. The error in the sensitivity calibration was estimated to be 13-35%. The spectrometer is used to study impurity behaviors in the JT-60 tokamak.

  17. A new perspective on Mercury's surface composition and temperatures: Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Gabriele E.; Helbert, Jörn; Hiesinger, Harald; Peter, Gisbert

    2011-09-01

    MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer), scheduled for launch on board the Bepi Colombo Mercury Orbiter, will be the first mid-infrared imaging spectrometer to explore the innermost planet of the Solar System from orbit. The instrument is an advanced IR technology designed to study the surface composition, and surface temperature variations of planet Mercury. High resolution and global mid-IR spectral and temperature data obtained by MERTIS will contribute to a better understanding of Mercury's genesis and evolution. MERTIS uses an uncooled microbolometer detector array. It combines a push-broom IR grating spectrometer (TIS) with a radiometer (TIR) sharing the same optics, instrument electronics, and in-fight calibration components for a wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40 ?m, respectively. The paper summarizes the scientific objectives, observational goals, comparative laboratory spectral studies of mineral analogues, and introduces the technical overview and actual instrument development status of the experiment.

  18. A small gas inlet system for orbital mass-spectrometer calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.; Stell, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A gas inlet system is described for generating precise gas pressures that are to be used as calibration references for the mass spectrometers aboard the dual air density Explorer satellites. This gas inlet system was developed as an inflight calibration technique in which a known amount of onboard gas is released in the satellite cavity and is detected by the mass spectrometer. Although several flight mass spectrometer experiments have been proposed, none make use of the inflight calibration technique described in this report. Laboratory measurements and calibration of the metering leak technique for the gas inlet systems are discussed. The systems tested have metering leak rates between 2 and 4 microliters/sec at 298 K for argon-40, and they produce molecular flow up to 100 torr, which is the highest test pressure in this experiment. Test data show that metering leak rates are reproducible within 1 percent of established means for helium-3, helium-4, and argon-40.

  19. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R

    2010-02-09

    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better understand these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only provide at high-resolution the energy distribution, but also the protons angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from other methods using radiochromic film packs, CR39 films and other protons spectrometers. The basic characterizations and example data from this diagnostics will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, as part of the Cimarron project funded by LDRD-09SI11.

  20. SUB 1-Millimeter Size Fresnel Micro Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Koch, Laura; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Sangloon; King, Glen; Choi, Sang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-small micro spectrometer with less than 1mm diameter was constructed using Fresnel diffraction. The fabricated spectrometer has a diameter of 750 nmicrometers and a focal length of 2.4 mm at 533nm wavelength. The micro spectrometer was built with a simple negative zone plate that has an opaque center with an ecliptic shadow to remove the zero-order direct beam to the aperture slit. Unlike conventional approaches, the detailed optical calculation indicates that the ideal spectral resolution and resolving power do not depend on the miniaturized size but only on the total number of rings. We calculated 2D and 3D photon distribution around the aperture slit and confirmed that improved micro-spectrometers below 1mm size can be built with Fresnel diffraction. The comparison between mathematical simulation and measured data demonstrates the theoretical resolution, measured performance, misalignment effect, and improvement for the sub-1mm Fresnel micro-spectrometer. We suggest the utilization of an array of micro spectrometers for tunable multi-spectral imaging in the ultra violet range.

  1. An AOTF-LDTOF Spectrometer Suite for In Situ Organic Detection and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Glenar, D.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Boston, P.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Getty, S.

    2010-10-01

    On future surface missions to Mars, small bodies, and outer solar system satellites, increasingly robust sample screening and selection may be essential for achieving the maximum scientific benefit within limited payload resources. One approach to defining a sequence of analysis steps for a variety of missions is the identification of key organic functional groups by a spectroscopic prescreening tool, followed by organic compound analysis with mass spectrometric methods. We discuss the development of a miniature near-infrared point spectrometer, operating in the 1.7-4 micron region, based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. This instrument may be used to screen and corroborate analyses of samples containing organic biomarkers or mineralogical signatures suggestive of extant or extinct organic material collected in situ from planetary surfaces. The AOTF point spectrometer will be paired with a laser desorption time-of-flight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer and will prescreen samples for evidence of volatile or refractory organics before the laser desorption step and subsequent mass spectrometer measurement. AOTF systems provide great flexibility, being very compact, electronically programmable, with low power requirements. The LDTOF mass spectrometer provides pulsed-laser desorption and analysis of refractory organic compounds up to > 5,000 Da on a spatial scale of 10-30 mm, determined by the laser spot size at the target. We describe the prototype AOTF point spectrometer instrument and present laboratory analysis of geological samples of known astrobiological importance. An initial mineral and rock sample suite of planetary relevance was used in the laboratory for baseline testing. To this, we added a complement of astrobiologically relevant biosignatures from a variety of well characterized geomicrobial study sites. This work is supported by NASA's ASTID and EPSCoR programs through grant numbers NNX08AY44G and NNX08AV85A, respectively.

  2. A Miniature Spectrometer for the Detection of Organics and Identification of their Mineral Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Uckert, K.; Glenar, D.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Boston, P.; Getty, S.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.

    2012-10-01

    On future landed missions to Mars and small solar system bodies, efficient sample pre-screening will be necessary to select interesting targets for further analysis by analytical instruments with very limited time and power resources. Near infrared spectroscopy is well suited for rapid and non-invasive identification of mineral classes, and the possible presence of organic molecules. A small spectrometer on the surface also enables ground-truth for orbiting reflectance spectrometers operating at overlapping wavelengths. Here we describe a miniature acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) point spectrometer that is tunable from 1.6-3.6 microns. It identifies minerals associated with aqueous environments at sample scales of 1 mm, as well as organic molecules and volatiles, where they are present. Our low-power AOTF point spectrometer can be combined with other diagnostic instruments as part of a landed instrument package. It was recently integrated with a laser desorption time-of-flight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer developed at GSFC. The integration of the two instruments allows for coincident spectral measurements of a geologic sample. The LDTOF mass spectrometer shares an optical axis with the AOTF; follow-up measurements from the LDTOF are taken from an identical region on a sample of interest, allowing for a direct comparison between the two complementary data sets. The AOTF point spectrometer could be deployed in a variety of configurations, either as a stand-alone instrument or paired with the LDTOF, depending on the nature of the mission. The addition of AOTF technology to an in situ instrumentation suite could enable significant near-IR spectroscopic diagnostic capability without exceeding the resources of a small surface laboratory. This work was supported by NASA's ASTID and EPSCoR programs through grant numbers NNX08AY44G and NNX08AV85A, respectively.

  3. Development and Characterization of a High Resolution Portable Gamma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Muhammad

    The recent disaster of Fukushima in Japan combined with the high demand to enhance nuclear safety and to minimize personal exposure to radioactive materials has a significant impact on research and development of radiation detection instrumentation. Currently, there is ample effort worldwide in the pursuit of radiation detection to maximize the accuracy and meet international standards in terms of size and specifications to enable radiation protection decision making. Among the requirements is the development of a portable, light-weight gamma-ray isotope identifier to be used by first responders in nuclear accidents as well as for radiation security and identification of illicit material isotopes. From nuclear security perspective, research into advanced screening technologies has become a high priority in all aspects, while for occupational safety, and environmental radiation protection, the regulatory authorities are requiring specific performance of radiation detection and measuring devices. At the applied radiation laboratory of the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, UOIT, the development of a high resolution spectrometer for medium and high energy gamma ray has been conducted. The spectrometer used a newly developed scintillator based on a LaBr3(Ce) crystal. The detector has been modeled using advanced Monte Carlo code (MCNP/X code) for the response function simulation and parameter characterization. The simulation results have been validated by experimental investigations using a wide range of gamma radiation energies. The developed spectrometer has been characterized in terms of resolution and response in different fields. It has also been compared with other crystals such as NaI(TI) and LiI(Eu).

  4. Recent Development of a 36 meter Small-Angle Neutron Scattering BATAN Spectrometer (SMARTer) in Serpong Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Bharoto; Seong, Baek Seok

    2010-10-01

    The 36 meter small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer BATAN (SMARTer) in Serpong, Indonesia has been revitalised for several years. The work on replacing, upgrading and improving the control system and the experimental method were conducted in order to setup the spectrometer back in operation. Two main personal computers, one for handling and controlling the mechanical system and another one for acquiring neutron data were employed at the spectrometer. The standard and established SANS data reduction and analysis programs, such as GRASP and NIST Igor have been implemented to subtract the raw scattered neutron data with the backgrounds and then analyse the corrected data. The scattering data of ferrofluids samples, Fe3O4 and MnZnFe2O4 have been obtained using SANS spectrometers in BATAN Serpong, Indonesia and HANARO-KAERI, Republic of Korea for inter-laboratory comparison and investigation of proposed research interest. The results were comparable from both scattering data analysis.

  5. A high-resolution chirp transform spectrometer for microwave measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hartogh; G. K. Hartmann

    1990-01-01

    A microwave heterodyne spectrometer consists of a radiometer front-end and a real-time spectrum analyzer back-end. Common spectrometer types are filterbanks, autocorrelators and acousto-optic spectrometers (AOS). In this paper a high-resolution chirp transform spectrometer using reflective array compressor (RAC) filters with a time bandwidth product of 6400 is presented. The spectrometer has 1600 channels within a 40 MHz input bandwidth and

  6. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. (editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  7. The Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS)

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F. Scott; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Fujimoto, Ryuichi [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mitsuda, Kazuhiasa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Ohashi, Takaya [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan) and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States) and Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, JAXA, Tuskuba 305-8505 (Japan); Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Saitama University Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); RIKEN, Waco 351-0198 (Japan); Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); SRON, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2009-12-16

    The Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a high spectral resolution, cryogenic x-ray spectrometer that will fly on the Japan/U.S. Astro-H observatory in 2014. The SXS is composed of a 36 pixel, imaging, x-ray calorimeter array that will operate at 0.05 K utilizing a 2-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and a redundant pre-cooler design using both a 40 liter liquid helium tank and a 1.7 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Additional redundant Stirling cycle coolers provide pre-cooling for the (JT) and cool the outer thermal shields for the JT and the helium tank. The detector system, while similar to that flown on Suzaku, is composed of larger 0.81x0.81mm pixels, but has significantly better performance, currently predicted to be better than 4 eV FWHM at 6 keV with 95% quantum efficiency. This instrument is the result of a close collaboration between many institutions in the U.S. and Japan over the last 25 years. Here we will present an overview of the SXS instrument, the SXS cooling system, and recent laboratory improvements to the detector system.0.

  8. Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

  9. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  10. Performance of a Moderating Neutron Spectrometer That Uses Scintillating Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Barnett, Debra S.; Anderson, Dale N.; Smart, John E.; Knopf, Michael A.; Hartley, Stacey A.

    2001-08-03

    The Bonner sphere is the canonical example of instruments that provide a measure of neutron spectra by using moderating and absorbing materials together with thermal-neutron detectors. For such spectrometers, the instrument response reflects a statistical average of the energy spectrum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed neutron-sensitive cerium-activated scintillating fibers composed of lithium-silicate glass. These fibers present an enabling technology for efficient neutron spectroscopy. A moderating spectrometer was built as a testbed for materials identification. Based on the results of Monte Carlo experiments, six fiber layers are separated by polyethylene layers whose thickness has been chosen to maximize neutron spectral information. The completed, self-contained instrument, including electronics and data logging computer has a mass less than 35 kg, slightly more than half of which is polyethylene. Measurements have been performed by this instrument with various sources representing hard and soft neutron spectra. Because this instrument is a technology testbed, the data are recorded as pulse-height spectra. Results and future directions are presented.

  11. Variable filter array spectrometer of VPD PbSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez-Álvarez, R.; Fernández-Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano-Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    MWIR spectroscopy shows a large potential in the current IR devices market, due to its multiple applications (gas detection, chemical analysis, industrial monitoring, combustion and flame characterization, food packaging etc) and its outstanding performance (good sensitivity, NDT method, velocity of response, among others), opening this technique to very diverse fields of application, such as industrial monitoring and control, agriculture, medicine and environmental monitoring. However, even though a big interest on MWIR spectroscopy technique has been present in the last years, two major barriers have held it back from its widespread use outside the laboratory: the complexity and delicateness of some popular techniques such as Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR) spectrometers, and the lack of affordable specific key elements such a MWIR light sources and low cost (real uncooled) detectors. Recent developments in electrooptical components are helping to overcome these drawbacks. The need for simpler solutions for analytical measurements has prompted the development of better and more affordable uncooled MWIR detectors, electronics and optics. In this paper a new MWIR spectrometry device is presented. Based on linear arrays of different geometries (64, 128 and 256 elements), NIT has developed a MWIR Variable Filter Array Spectrometer (VFAS). This compact device, with no moving parts, based on a rugged and affordable detector, is suitable to be used in applications which demand high sensitivity, good spectral discrimination, reliability and compactness, and where an alternative to the traditional scanning instrument is desired. Some measurements carried out for several industries will be also presented.

  12. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

  13. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  14. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J. [IKP der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Materna, Th. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  15. A Wideband Spectrometer with RFI Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Dale E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Nita, Gelu M.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the design and construction of a wideband spectrometer of 500 MHz instantaneous bandwidth that includes automatic radio frequency interference (RFI) detection. The implementation is based on hardware developed at the Center for Astronomical Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The unique aspect of the spectrometer is that it accumulates both power and power-squared, which are then used to develop a spectral kurtosis (SK) estimator. The SK estimator statistics are used for real-time detection and excision of certain types of RFI embedded in the received signal. We report on the use of this spectrometer in the Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL). This instrument utilizes four of these 500 MHz bandwidth SK spectrometers in parallel, to achieve a 2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth that is time multiplexed over the entire 0.24-18 GHz radio frequency range, to study solar bursts. The performance of the spectrometers for excising RFI over this range is presented. It is found that the algorithm is especially useful for excising highly intermittent RFI but is less successful for RFI due to digital signals. A method we call multiscale SK is presented that addresses the known blindness of Kurtosis-based estimators to 50% duty-cycle RFI. The SK algorithm can also be applied to spectral channels prior to correlation to remove unwanted RFI from interferometer data.

  16. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  17. Modeling and testing of a modular imaging spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaofan; Schott, John R.; Gallagher, Timothy W.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling and testing of a modular imaging spectrometer instrument (MISI), with special emphasis on system and sub-system modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. The optical system was modeled using optical ray tracing methods. The dynamic deformation of the scan mirror was modeled using a finite element analysis method, and the image degradation due to the deformation is estimated using optical image formation theory. The detector and conditioning electronics were also modeled using the transfer function theory. This modeling approach was used as a tradeoff tool for the design of MISI. Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the performances of each sub-system on design criteria, and finally a field test is planned to test the overall optical/mechanical/electrical performance of the entire imaging chain.

  18. Micro-X X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, David

    2014-06-01

    Micro-X is a NASA funded, rocket borne X-ray imaging spectrometer utilizing Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) to perform high resolution microcalorimetry in the soft X-ray band on astronomical sources. The TESs utilize the 50 mK stage of an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) as a heat sink - one of the biggest challenges in payload design and calibration is to maintain the temperature of the detectors. To achieve the best thermal environment and therefore the best possible resolution of the detectors, we combine software modeling of heat flow within the instrument with data from laboratory tests of thermal connections between the Front End Assembly and ADR. We present a brief overview of the instrument design, recent lab results and modeling, and an update of ongoing progress with the preparations for launch.

  19. Polarization analysis for the thermal chopper spectrometer TOPAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Jörg; Soltner, Helmut; Babcock, Earl; Aldus, Robert J.; Salhi, Zahir; Gainov, Ramil R.; Brückel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We report on the progress of the construction of the thermal time-of-flight spectrometer with polarization analysis TOPAS at the Mayer-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ). The instrument components approach the status to be ready for installation. The special feature of the instrument is its capability for wide-angle polarization analysis in the thermal spectral range. Here we describe a novel approach to rotate the neutron spin adiabatically into the X, Y or Z direction of the laboratory frame by combination of permanent magnets aligned as Halbach rings and electrically generated fields. Despite the severe spatial restrictions the design exhibits a very high adiabaticity and interacts only weakly with the coil layout for the analyzing 3He spin filter cell (SFC).

  20. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  1. Development of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandmont, Frederic; Drissen, Laurent; Joncas, Gilles

    2003-02-01

    We present an overview of the past and current development of the Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) concept for ground telescopes produced in collaboration between ABB Bomem and Université Laval. This instrument intends to produce spectra of variable resolutions up to R = ?/?? = 10 000 from the near UV to the near IR (350 nm to 900 nm). It is designed to fit the f/8 focus of the Mont Mégantic 1.6m optical telescope in Québec. The large number of spatial elements (> 1 million pixels) is the novel aspect of this FTS design along with innovative metrology system. Heritage from Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) IFTS concept, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)- ABB Bomem instrument and commercial ABB Bomem DA series FTS are reviewed. Techniques for accurately servoing the moving mirror alignment to a value smaller than 0.1 arc second and position to sub nanometer value are discussed. Also presented are results from the assembled interferometer sub-system.

  2. Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Brown, G. V.; Schneider, M. B.; Baldis, H. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Cone, K. V.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Magee, E. W.; May, M. J.; Porter, F. S.

    2010-10-01

    We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of ˜6-60 Å. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  3. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar Coll. (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Japan); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  4. [Micro Hadamard transform near-infrared spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-hai; Muo, Xiang-xia; Guo, Yuan-jun; Wang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    A new type micro Hadamard transform (HT) near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer is proposed in the present paper. It has a MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems) blazed grating HT mask. It has merits of compactness, agility of dynamic mask generation and high scan speed. The structure and theory of this spectrometer are analyzed. The 63-order Hadamard-S matrix and mask are designed. The mask is dynamically generated by program of MOEMS blazed gratings. The spectrum is in agreement with that measured by Shimadzu spectrometer in experiments. It has a wavelength range between 900 and 1 700 nm, spectral resolution of 19 nm, single scan time of 2.4 s, SNR of 44.67:1, optical path of 70 mm x 130 mm, and weight under 1 kg. It can meet the requirement of real time detection and portable application. PMID:21942064

  5. 140-GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-01-01

    A pulsed microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 140 GHz for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules is described. The spectrometer incorporates a tunable Fabry--Perot cavity and a subharmonically pumped superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. A 70-GHz source supplying a high-efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at 30 MHz produces sidebands of sufficient power at 140 GHz to excite the molecules. The cavity is tuned to one of the modulation sidebands. The operation of the spectrometer is illustrated by the detection of emission signals from the 6(2, 4)--6(1, 5) transition of SO/sub 2/ gas. The generation of the electric dipole analog of nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) ''spin-echo'' signals by a ..pi../2-..pi.. pulse sequence is also described.

  6. Testing of Josephson Spectrometer with Waveguide Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatti, M.; Gundareva, I.; Pavlovskii, V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y.

    2014-05-01

    One of the challenges in public security is the quick and reliable identification of threat liquids in bottles, when vapour analysis is not possible. Recently, we demonstrated that it is possible to rapidly identify liquids by EM measurements of their dielectric functions in the sub-THz range with a high-Tc Josephson spectrometer. Following this approach, we have developed a Josephson spectrometer with a new radiation coupling system, based on dielectric waveguides. In this paper, we present the results of spectroscopic measurements on liquid samples of various purities including 30% H2O2/H2O, performed using our Josephson spectrometer with waveguide coupling. Also, the signal and noise characteristics of a classical Josephson detector used in our liquid identifier were numerically simulated and the power dynamic range was estimated for a wide spread of junction parameters.

  7. Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2009-02-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

  8. Broadband microwave absorption spectrometer for liquid media

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, P.; Gosnell, T.R.; Bigio, I.J.

    1988-12-01

    A broadband, continuous-sweep microwave spectrometer has been constructed for measurements of the absorption coefficient of aqueous solutions and other liquid media. The spectrometer makes use of the phase fluctuation optical heterodyne technique, which provides a direct measure of the microwave power deposited in the sample. Consequently, in contrast to the standard dielectrometric techniques that indirectly determine the absorption coefficient via separate measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, this spectrometer directly measures the microwave absorption coefficient. Broadband spectra are obtained using a transmission line to couple microwave power into the liquid sample. The absorption spectrum for deionized water in the range 3--20 GHz is presented as an example and shows excellent agreement with calculated values of the absorption coefficient based on previously published dielectric data.

  9. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier

    2010-01-01

    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  10. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  11. Detection of minijet production in $\\sqrt{s}$=1.8 TeV proton-antiproton collisions with multi-particle transverse energy correlation functions

    E-print Network

    Qing-Jun Liu

    1996-03-24

    Multi-particle transverse energy correlation(MTEC) functions are proposed to study minijet production in high energy proton-antiproton collisions. Obtainable with both the D0 and the CDF detector, the high-order MTEC functions are shown to be sensitive probes of jet internal structure as well as promising observables of detecting minijet production in $\\sqrt{s}$=1.8 TeV $p\\bar{p}$ collisions.

  12. A filter free dual transmission grating spectrometer for the extreme-ultraviolet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth R. Wieman; Leonid V. Didkovsky; Darrell L. Judge; Andrew R. Jones; Matthew Harmon

    2007-01-01

    We report the design and laboratory testing of a prototype dual-grating filter-free extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer that has potential as a highly stable instrument for measuring absolute solar irradiance in the X-ray through far ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument is based on the same freestanding transmission gratings and silicon photodiodes used on the successful Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) aboard SOHO

  13. A filter free dual transmission grating spectrometer for the extreme- ultraviolet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth R. Wieman; Leonid V. Didkovsky; Darrell L. Judge; Andrew R. Jones; Matthew Harmon

    We report the design and laboratory testing of a prototype dual-grating filter-free extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer that has potential as a highly stable instrument for measuring absolute solar irradiance in the X-ray through far ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument is based on the same freestanding transmission gratings and silicon photodiodes used on the successful Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) aboard SOHO

  14. Quadrupole mass spectrometer for Space Shuttle applications - Flight capabilities and ground calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Hunton; E. Trzcinski; J. B. Cross; L. H. Spangler; M. H. Hoffbauer; F. H. Archuleta; J. T. Visentine

    1986-01-01

    The AFGL Quadrupole Ion\\/Neutral Mass Spectrometer (QINMS), its flight capabilities, and a few examples of QINMS data from the STS-4 flight are discussed in addition to the beam facility and calibration procedures used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory facility. A 5-eV atomic oxygen beam is produced using a continuous optical discharge technique, and the resulting pumped beam has sufficient

  15. Scene-based spectral response function shape discernibility for the APEX imaging spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Brazile; Robert A. Neville; Karl Staenz; Daniel Schläpfer; Lixin Sun; Klaus I. Itten

    2006-01-01

    Scene-based spectrometer calibration is becoming increasingly interesting due to the decreasing cost of computing resources as compared with laboratory calibration costs. Three of the most important instrument parameters needed for deriving surface reflectance products are per-band bandwidths, i.e., full-width at half-maximum, band centers, and spectral response function (SRF) shape. Methods for scene-based bandwidth and band center retrieval based on curve

  16. High-energy resolution Thomson Parabola spectrometer for laser plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cuttone, G.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Ter-Avetisyan, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Tramontana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-26

    Thomson Parabola (TP) spectrometers are widely used devices for laser-driven beam diagnostics as they provide a complete set of information on the accelerated particles. A novel TP has been developed at LNS with a design able to detect protons up to 20 MeV. The layout design and some results obtained during the experimental campaign at PALS laboratory will be reported in the following.

  17. JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

  18. Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

  19. Microcomputer-controlled perturbed angular correlation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, H.; Gardner, J.A.; Su, H.T.; Rasera, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    A four-detector time-differential perturbed angular correlation spectrometer controlled by an inexpensive microcomputer is described. The use of twin-single-channel analyzers permits each detector to identify both gamma rays in the cascade. An improved gating logic system reduces the MCA/computer deadtime and allows larger sample activity and faster data accumulation. The twin-single-channel analyzer and gating circuit additions also permit simultaneous accumulation of two statistically independent sets of four-channel spectra. The spectrometer provides on-line display of raw data and the perturbation function derived from either set of four-channel spectra.

  20. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernat, Jacek; P¯ANDA collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P¯ANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ?(4040) ? DD¯ decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed.

  1. The Mass Spectrometer - How It Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clark, Jim

    This website includes a simple description of how a mass spectrometer works. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. Keywords: mass spectrometer, mass spectrometry, mass spectrum, mass spectra, spectrum, spectra, mass, ionisation, acceleration, deflection, detection

  2. What Is Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S. W. Ruff

    This site from Arizona State University presents information about the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) that was originally developed for use on the Mars Observer spacecraft. The TES is both an instrument and a technique that measures the thermal infrared energy (heat) emitted from Mars. Using this technique, scientists may be able to determine much about the geology and atmosphere of Mars by examining the spectral responses of specific minerals and gases. This site includes information about thermal infrared energy as well as understandable explanations of both the spectrometer itself and the spectroscopy technique.

  3. Automated Targeting for the MSL Rover ChemCam Spectrometer Tara Estlin*, Daniel Gaines*, Benjamin Bornstein*, Steve Schaffer*, Vandi Tompkins*,

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Steven

    with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide intelligent science images of rock targets using the MER Panoramic cameras. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars

  4. Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Riese; R. Spang; P. Preusse; M. Ern; M. Jarisch; D. Offermann; K. U. Grossmann

    1999-01-01

    The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment aboard the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) was successfully flown in early November 1994 (STS 66) and in August 1997 (STS 85). This paper focuses on the first flight of the instrument, which was part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science 3 (ATLAS 3) mission of NASA. During

  5. Monitoring of radioactivity in NW Irish Sea water using a stationary underwater gamma-ray spectrometer with satellite data transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Osvath; P. P. Povinec; H. D. Livingston; T. P. Ryan; S. Mulsow; J.-F. Commanducci

    2005-01-01

    Summary  An underground laboratory for low-level gamma- and beta-spectrometry has been constructed at IAEA-MEL, Monaco, for the analysis of environmental radionuclides. The laboratory is situated at a depth of 35 m water equivalent underground and equipped with 4, large volume HPGe detectors placed in a common lead shield with anti-cosmic plastic scintillator shielding. There is also an anti-Compton gamma-spectrometer, comprized of

  6. Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, E.O.

    1984-05-01

    A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

  7. Analysis of the Linear RF Mass Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Redhead; C. R. Crowell

    1953-01-01

    The linear rf mass spectrometer previously described is analyzed for small signal operation. The results are obtained in a closed form for any entrance phase where previously only a graphical solution for an optimized entrance phase was obtained. Expressions for resolving power and current efficiency are derived for both sine wave and square wave operation. It is shown that although

  8. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  9. Spectrometer results from BNL E802

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.; Akiba, Y.; Alburger, D.; Beavis, D.; Betts, R.R.; Birstein, L.; Bloomer, M.A.; Bond, P.D.; Chasman, C.; Chu, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of collisions of 14.5 GeV/c per nucleon /sup 28/Si ions with nuclear targets using the BNL E802 spectrometer are presented. A description of the experiment and preliminary particle production ratios are discussed. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Apollo 17 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment (S-169)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the ultraviolet spectrometer experiment are discussed, along with design and operational details, instrument preparation and performance, and scientific results. Information gained from the experiment is given concerning the lunar atmosphere and albedo, zodiacal light, astronomical observations, spacecraft environment, and the distribution of atomic hydrogen in the solar system and in the earth's atmosphere.

  11. A transmission grating spectrometer for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, R.J.; Hockaday, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gallegos, C.H.; Gonzales, J.M.; Mitton, V. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Radiation temperature is an important parameter in characterizing the properties of hot plasmas. In most cases this temperature is time varying caused by the short lived and/or time dependent nature of the plasma. Thus, a measurement of the radiation flux as a function of time is quite valuable. To this end the authors have developed a spectrometer that can acquire spectra with a time resolution of less than 1 ns and covers the spectral energy range from {approximately} 60 to 1,000 eV. The spectrometer consists of an entrance slit placed relatively near the plasma, a thin gold film transmission grating with aperture, a micro channel plate (MCP) detector with a gold cathode placed at the dispersion plane and an electron lens to focus the electrons from the MCP onto a phosphor coated fiber optic plug. The phosphor (In:CdS) has a response time of {approximately} 500 ps. This detector system, including the fast phosphor is similar to one that has been previously described. The spectrometer is in a vacuum chamber that is turbo pumped to a base pressure of {approximately} 5 x 10{sup 7} torr. The light from the phosphor is coupled to two streak cameras through 100 m long fiber optic cables. The streak cameras with their CCD readouts provide the time resolution of the spectrum. The spectrometer has a built in alignment system that uses an alignment telescope and retractable prism.

  12. Neutron spectrometer for fast nuclear reactors

    E-print Network

    M. Osipenko; M. Ripani; G. Ricco; B. Caiffi; F. Pompili; M. Pillon; M. Angelone; G. Verona-Rinati; R. Cardarelli; G. Mila; S. Argiro

    2015-05-25

    In this paper we describe the development and first tests of a neutron spectrometer designed for high flux environments, such as the ones found in fast nuclear reactors. The spectrometer is based on the conversion of neutrons impinging on $^6$Li into $\\alpha$ and $t$ whose total energy comprises the initial neutron energy and the reaction $Q$-value. The $^6$LiF layer is sandwiched between two CVD diamond detectors, which measure the two reaction products in coincidence. The spectrometer was calibrated at two neutron energies in well known thermal and 3 MeV neutron fluxes. The measured neutron detection efficiency varies from 4.2$\\times 10^{-4}$ to 3.5$\\times 10^{-8}$ for thermal and 3 MeV neutrons, respectively. These values are in agreement with Geant4 simulations and close to simple estimates based on the knowledge of the $^6$Li(n,$\\alpha$)$t$ cross section. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was found to be better than 100 keV when using 5 m cables between the detector and the preamplifiers.

  13. Neutron spectrometer for fast nuclear reactors

    E-print Network

    Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Caiffi, B; Pompili, F; Pillon, M; Angelone, M; Verona-Rinati, G; Cardarelli, R; Mila, G; Argiro, S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and first tests of a neutron spectrometer designed for high flux environments, such as the ones found in fast nuclear reactors. The spectrometer is based on the conversion of neutrons impinging on $^6$Li into $\\alpha$ and $t$ whose total energy comprises the initial neutron energy and the reaction $Q$-value. The $^6$LiF layer is sandwiched between two CVD diamond detectors, which measure the two reaction products in coincidence. The spectrometer was calibrated at two neutron energies in well known thermal and 3 MeV neutron fluxes. The measured neutron detection efficiency varies from 4.2$\\times 10^{-4}$ to 3.5$\\times 10^{-8}$ for thermal and 3 MeV neutrons, respectively. These values are in agreement with Geant4 simulations and close to simple estimates based on the knowledge of the $^6$Li(n,$\\alpha$)$t$ cross section. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was found to be better than 100 keV when using 5 m cables between the detector and the preamplifiers.

  14. Pump Effects in Planetary Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Harpold, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Mass spectrometers provide a useful tool in solar system exploration since fundamental questions of Solar System formation and evolution may be constrained by models based on the chemical and isotopic data provided by these instruments. For example, comparison of such data between the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets enables an understanding of mechanisms of atmospheric loss to space and production sources such as from planetary outgassing and from infall from objects such as comets. Over the past 25 years, mass spectrometers have been sent to Mars, Venus, Comet Halley, and Jupiter and are presently in transit to the Saturnian system to sample the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. The quality of data derived from a very small, lightweight, and rugged instrument is constrained not only by the mass analyzer itself, but also by the performance of its gas sampling and pumping systems. A comparison of several planetary mass spectrometer experiments is provided with a focus on the demands placed on the gas processing and pumping systems. For example, the figure below is a mass spectrum from deep in the atmosphere of Jupiter obtained from a quadrupole mass spectrometer developed in the early 1980's for the Galileo Probe (Niemann et al., Space Sci. Rev., 60, 111-142 (1992)). Measurements of Jovian noble gases and other species with this system is described.

  15. Biopolymer mass spectrometer with cryogenic particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Twerenbold

    1996-01-01

    A novel type of biopolymer mass spectrometer is proposed for massive proteins, polypeptides and DNA-fragments by replacing standard ionizing detectors with cryogenic particle detectors. The detection efficiency in ionizing detectors decreases rapidly with increasing biopolymer mass owing to the biopolymer's decreasing velocity. Cryogenic particle detectors, however, record the total kinetic energy deposited by the accelerated biopolymer. In a given electric

  16. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Napersville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  17. Variable resolution capability for multichannel filter spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Henry, P S

    1979-02-01

    In this paper we describe a new electronic instrument called a spectrum expander, which is a two-port digital signal-processing device whose output power spectrum Sout(f) is (approximately) a frequency-expanded replica of its input spectrum Sin(f): Sout(Ef) approximately Sin(f), where E is the expansion ratio (usually E>2). When inserted between a signal source and a spectrometer, the spectrum expander improves the effective resolution of the spectrometer, thereby permitting real-time, high-resolution measurements to be made. This capability is especially important in radio astronomy, where fixed-resolution multichannel filter spectrometers are common. Our treatment of the spectrum expander includes a discussion of its basic principles, formulation of design rules, a brief study of random noise and quantization effects, and presentation of data illustrating expander performance. The prototype expander, constructed from Schottky-TTL components, accepts any signal of bandwidth< or =12.5 MHz and expands it to fill a 128-channel spectrometer with 32-MHz total bandwidth. Signal degradation caused by processing with the spectrum expander is minimal; the signal-to-noise ratio at its output is measured to be approximately 0.1 dB lower than at its input. PMID:18699467

  18. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  19. Evaluation of a single-room, dedicated mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Todd Schulte; Frank E. Block

    1991-01-01

    A single-room dedicated mass spectrometer can be used to measure carbon dioxide, halogenated anesthetic agents, nitrous oxide,\\u000a nitrogen, and oxygen. This device challenges the multiplexed mass spectrometer, a current standard in measurement. This study\\u000a compared the single-room dedicated mass spectrometer with a conventional mass spectrometer that is normally used in a multiplexed\\u000a setting. In this study, a single-room dedicated Ohmeda

  20. Rotax, a spectrometer for coherent neutron inelastic scattering at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze, H.; Schmidt, W.; Geick, R.

    1989-01-01

    For neutron inelastic scattering at ISIS the rotating analyser crystal ( x) spectrometer (ROTAX) will be designed for 0-500 meV energy and 0-20 Å -1 momentum transfer. This inverted geometry time-of-flight machine will provide a flexibility and versatility being intermediate between conventional multianalyser crystal spectrometers (MAX) and triple axis spectrometers (TAS).

  1. Rotax, a spectrometer for coherent neutron inelastic scattering at ISIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tietze; W. Schmidt; R. Geick

    1989-01-01

    For neutron inelastic scattering at ISIS the rotating analyser crystal (x) spectrometer (ROTAX) will be designed for 0-500 meV energy and 0-20 Å-1 momentum transfer. This inverted geometry time-of-flight machine will provide a flexibility and versatility being intermediate between conventional multianalyser crystal spectrometers (MAX) and triple axis spectrometers (TAS).

  2. The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Kohl; R. Esser; L. D. Gardner; S. Habbal; P. S. Daigneau; E. F. Dennis; G. U. Nystrom; A. Panasyuk; J. C. Raymond; P. L. Smith; L. Strachan; A. A. Ballegooijen; G. Noci; S. Fineschi; M. Romoli; A. Ciaravella; A. Modigliani; M. C. E. Huber; E. Antonucci; C. Benna; S. Giordano; G. Tondello; P. Nicolosi; G. Naletto; C. Pernechele; D. Spadaro; G. Poletto; S. Livi; O. Lühe; J. Geiss; J. G. Timothy; G. Gloeckler; A. Allegra; G. Basile; R. Brusa; B. Wood; O. H. W. Siegmund; W. Fowler; R. Fisher; M. Jhabvala

    1995-01-01

    The SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS\\/SOHO) is composed of three reflecting telescopes with external and internal occultation and a spectrometer assembly consisting of two toric grating spectrometers and a visible light polarimeter. The purpose of the UVCS instrument is to provide a body of data that can be used to address a broad range of scientific questions regarding the nature

  3. JWST-MIRI spectrometer main optics qualification and verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Meijers; Ad Oudenhuysen; Ton Schoenmaker; Gabby Kroes; Rieks Jager; Evert Pauwels

    2007-01-01

    MIRI ('Mid Infrared Instrument') is the combined imager and integral field spectrometer for the 5-29 micron wavelength range under development for the JWST. In March 2007 the qualification and verification phase of the Spectrometer Main Optics (SMO), part of the MIRI spectrometer came to an end. In this phase it is shown that the SMO subsystem can provide the necessary

  4. An intercomparison of in situ gamma-ray spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.M.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.A. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurements Lab.] [and others

    1998-12-31

    The results of an intercomparison of in situ gamma-ray spectrometers that was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fall of 1997 are presented. Six different organizations participated in this intercomparison which involved simultaneous and sequential co-located field measurements at a site with typical background radiation and another site with elevated {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the soil. These field measurements were supplemented with laboratory-based measurements of point sources at three different energies and two different angles of irradiance. Among the participants, agreement in the field measurements results was generally within 15% of the group mean for each radionuclide. Comparisons to soil sample measurements at the background site show agreement of the group means to within 10% for the various radionuclides present after correcting for the effects of soil moisture. The point source measurement results indicate that the observed differences among groups may be related to systematic errors in their calibrations that result from uncertainty in the activities of the sources used, dissimilarities in the source-detector setup geometry, and inaccuracies in the detector model used in a theoretical calibration.

  5. SOL ACES: Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Brunner, R.; Eberhard, D.; Halford, B.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Konz, W.; Riedel, W.-J.; Wolf, H.

    The SOL-ACES experiment is prepared to be flown with the ESA SOLAR payload to the International Space Station as planned for the Shuttle mission E1 (Columbus) in August 2006. Four grazing incidence spectrometers of planar geometry cover the wavelength range from 16 to 220 nm with a spectral resolution from 0.5 to 2.3 nm. These high-efficiency spectrometers will be re-calibrated by two three-signal ionization chambers to be operated with 42 band pass filters on routine during the mission. Re-measuring the filter transmissions with the spectrometers also allows a very accurate determination of the changing second order (optical) efficiencies of the spectrometers as well as the stray light contributions to the spectral recording in different wavelength ranges. In this context the primary requirements for measurements of low radiometric uncertainty are discussed in detail. The absorbing gases in the ionization chambers are neon, xenon and a mixture of 10% nitric oxide and 90% xenon. The laboratory measurements confirm very high count rates such that optical attenuators have to be applied. In addition, possible interfering contributions to the recorded data as generated by secondary effects can be determined to a high degree of accuracy by this method. Hence, very accurate irradiance measurements are expected in terms of relative standard uncertainties (RSU) ranging from 5% to 3% depending on the wavelength range.

  6. Progress on the Fabrication and Testing of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, Steve; Green, M.A.; Li, Derun; Zisman, Michael

    2009-05-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an international collaboration that will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of a realistic cooling channel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. At each end of the cooling channel a spectrometer solenoid magnet consisting of five superconducting coils will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region. The scintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore will measure the muon beam emittance as it enters and exits the cooling channel. The 400 mm diameter warm bore, 3 meter long magnets incorporate a cold mass consisting of two coil sections wound on a single aluminum mandrel: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil section that matches the solenoid uniform field into the MICE cooling channel. The fabrication of the first of two spectrometer solenoids has been completed, and preliminary testing of the magnet is nearly complete. The key design features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets are presented along with a summary of the progress on the training and testing of the first magnet.

  7. Broadband Single-Shot Electron Spectrometer for GeV-Class Laser Plasma Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Wan, W.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Laser-plasma-based accelerators can provide electrons over a broad energy range and/or with large momentum spread. The electron beam energy distribution can be controlled via accurate control of laser and plasma properties, and beams with energies ranging from'0.5 to 1000 MeV have been observed. Measuring these energy distributions in a single shot requires the use of a diagnostic with large momentum acceptance and, ideally, sufficient resolution to accurately measure energy spread in the case of narrow energy spread. Such a broadband single-shot electron magnetic spectrometer for GeV-class laser-plasma-based accelerators has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A detailed description of the hardware and the design concept is presented, as well as a performance evaluation of the spectrometer. The spectrometer covered electron beam energies raging from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, and enabled the simultaneous measurement of the laser properties at the exit of the accelerator through the use of a sufficiently large pole gap. Based on measured field maps and 3rd-order transport analysis, a few percent-level resolution and determination of the absolute energy were achieved over the entire energy range. Laser-plasma-based accelerator experiments demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer as a diagnostic and its suitability for such a broadband electron source.

  8. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  9. IR spectrometers for Venus and Mars measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Rachel; Neefs, Eddy; Vandaele, Ann C.

    2012-07-01

    The SOIR spectrometer [1] is an infra-red spectrometer that has performed over 500 solar occultation measurements of the Venus atmosphere, profiling major and minor constituents and studying aerosol absorption, temperature and pressure effects. NOMAD is a 3-channel spectrometer for Mars occultation, limb and nadir measurements. 2 channels are infra-red, the other UV-visible. We will present the technology that enables SOIR and NOMAD to get to parts per billion mixing ratio sensitivities for trace atmospheric components and highlight the improvements made to the SOIR design to enable nadir viewing with NOMAD. Key components include the Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter with radio frequency driver that allows these spectrometers to select the wavelength domain under observation with no need for mechanical moving parts. It also allows background measurements because it is opaque when no RF is applied. The grating with 4 grooves/mm is a very hard to manufacture optical component, and suppliers were very difficult to find. The detector-cooler combination (working at 90K) is from Sofradir/Ricor and the model on board Venus Express is still working after 6 years in space (more on/off cycles that ON hour lifetime problem). The detector MCT mix is slightly altered for nadir observation, in order to reduce thermal background noise and the nadir channel spectrometer is cooled down to 173K by a large V-groove radiator. All the optical components have been enlarged to maximise signal throughput and the slit (that determines spatial and spectral resolution) has also been increased. The spacecraft attitude control system switches from yaw steering for nadir to inertial pointing for solar occultations. 1. Nevejans, D., E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.P. Dubois, and E. Villard, Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer. Applied Optics, 45(21), 5191-5206 (2006)

  10. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  11. O using QCL spectrometer for combustion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieta, T.; Merimaa, M.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a high-sensitivity laser-based spectrometer for simultaneous detection of sulphur dioxide (SO2) sulphur trioxide (SO3) and water for coal-fired combustion applications. The spectrometer is based on a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating at 7.16 ?m, capable of measuring all three components simultaneously in a single frequency sweep. An optical multipass cell having a total path length of 9.1 m is used at increased temperature and at low pressure to ensure reliable measurement of highly reactive SO3 and adequate separation of overlapping spectral features, respectively. Detection limits for SO2 and SO3 are 0.134 and 0.0073 ppm, respectively, when employing a 20-s sampling time.

  12. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D. (Pleasanton, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  13. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  14. A photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, E. M.; Bezerra, E.; Scalabrin, A.

    2005-06-01

    A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed for trace gas detection with absorption transitions in coincidence with CO2 laser emission lines (9,2-10,9 ?m: 920-1086 cm-1). The CO2 laser operates in 90 CW lines with power of up to 15 W. A PC-controlled step motor can tune the laser lines. The resonance frequency of first longitudinal mode of the photoacoustic cell is at 1600 Hz. The cell Q-factor and cell constant are measured close to 50 and 28 mVcmW-1, respectively. The spectrometer has been tested in preliminary studies to analyze the absorption transitions of ozone (O_3). The ethylene (C_2H_4) from papaya fruit is also investigated using N2 as carrier gas at a constant flow rate.

  15. Dds-Based Fast Scan Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, E. A.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.

    2010-06-01

    The technique of direct digital synthesis (DDS) has two important features which enable its application in microwave spectroscopy: micro-Hz tuning resolution and extremely fast frequency switching with continuous phase. We have applied a direct digital synthesizer in a PLL-spectrometer based on backward-wave oscillator (BWO). As result we have obtained an instrument that can cover a 100 GHz bandwidth in less than one hour with high spectral resolution and high precision of frequency measurement. The application of the spectrometer to sub-millimeter wave survey spectra records of several isotopic species of astrophysical molecules (methanol, formamide, methyl formate, aziridine) will be discussed. The support of Université de Lille 1 and le Programme National de Physique Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Analytical design of an Offner imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Blanco, X.; Montero-Orille, C.; Couce, B.; de La Fuente, R.

    2006-10-01

    We present the analytical design of an imaging spectrometer based on the three-concentric-mirror (Offner) configuration. The approach presented allows for the rapid design of this class of system. Likewise, high-optical-quality spectrometers are obtained without the use of aberration-corrected gratings, even for high speeds. Our approach is based on the calculation of both the meridional and the sagittal images of an off-axis object point. Thus, the meridional and sagittal curves are obtained in the whole spectral range. Making these curves tangent to each other for a given wavelength results in a significant decrease in astigmatism, which is the dominant residual aberration.RMS spot radii less than 5 mm are obtained for speeds as high as f/2.5 and a wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 µm. A design example is presented using a free interactive optical design tool.

  17. Data analysis for Skylab proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The data from a proton spectrometer flown aboard Skylab is examined. The instrument is sensitive to protons in the energy range 18 to 400 MeV. A partial failure of the spectrometer restricted spectral analysis to two energy bands, 18 to 27 MeV and 27 to 400 MeV. The directional data showed that a Gaussian angular distribution parameter of at least 70 degrees is required for the low energy band and at least 40 degrees for the high energy band. The data, integrated over angle, indicate that the AP3 model extrapolated down to 18-27 MeV is high by factors of 2 to 5 over most of the B-L space mapped. In the 27 to 400 MeV range, the AP3 model is 20 to 100 percent low at low and high values of L, and is high at medium L values in the B-L space mapped.

  18. The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, G.; Barber, R. C.; Boudreau, C.; Buchinger, F.; Caggiano, J.; Clark, J.; Crawford, J. E.; Fukutani, H.; Gulick, S.; Hardy, J. C.; Heinz, A.; Lee, J. K. P.; Moore, R. B.; Sharma, K. S.; Schwartz, J.; Seweryniak, D.; Sprouse, G. D.; Vaz, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT spectrometer and its injection system will be described in detail and its unique capabilities with respect to its initial physics program, concentrating on isotopes around the N=Z line with particular emphasis on isotopes of interest to low-energy tests of the electroweak interaction and the rp-process, will be highlighted.

  19. SolACES - Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Brunner, Raimund; Konz, Werner; Nikutowski, Bernd

    In the field of terrestrial climatology the most important goal is the quasi-continuous measurement of the solar irradiance with highest possible accuracy within the ISS (ESA) SOLAR mission. SolACES as a part of it will contribute to the solar EUV/UV irradiance aspects. These data will be provided to investigate further the impact of the solar irradiance variability on the Earth's climate changes as well as the thermospheric/ionospheric interactions that are pursued in the TIGER program, too. The four grating spectrometers of SolACES cover the wavelength range from 16 nm to 220 nm. 42 band pass filters are used to select EUV photon fluxes within wavelength subranges in order to determine their irradiances within three-signal recording ionisation chambers that are considered as primary detector standards. . Since spectrometers are not stable with respect to radiometric efficiency, re-measuring the filter transmissions and repeat the determination of the spectrometer efficiencies allow very accurate irradiance observations (2 The concept has been successfully tested with line emissions in the laboratory. Further, broadband as well as monochromatic synchrotron radiation has been used in the PTB laboratory of BESSY II electron synchrotron. There is good agreement with the BESSY II intercomparison. Still, the necessity to apply a re-calibration device showed up strongly. After the successful launch with the shuttle mission STS-122 on February 7th 2008 and the planned activation and commissioning of SolACES at the end of February 2008 we will extensively test all spectrometers and ionization chambers, i.e., we will repeatedly determine all filter transmissions and spectrometer efficiencies in the new environment and compare the results of the laboratory and BESSY II measurements. Additionally, a compare with SOVIM and SOL- SPEC of the SOLAR payload on the Columbus laboratory will help to perform measurements of high quality. First results of the EUV irradiance measurements will be presented in view of the scientific goals.

  20. Liquid helium cooled Fabry-Perot spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okuda, H.; Shibai, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Matsumoto, T.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of two successful efforts to construct cryogenic Fabry-Perot interferometers that are sufficiently compact and stable for such harsh conditions as those of balloon or space observations, as well as ground-based ones. Attention is given to the design features and performance of a Fabry-Perot interferometer incorporating an electromagnet actuator, the ISAS interferometer, a Fabry-Perot spectrometer with superconducting actuators, and the University of Arizona interferometer.

  1. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  2. Spectrometer of high energy gamma quantums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhintsev, I. D.; Melioranskiy, A. S.; Kalinkin, L. F.; Nagornykh, Y. I.; Pryakhin, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the apparatus GG-2M is given. The spectrometer contains a Cerenkov and scintillation (including anticoincidence) counter. The energies of the gamma quantums are measured by a shower calorimeter, in which scintillation counters are used in the capacity of detectors. Results are given for tuning the device on mu-mesons of cosmic rays. The data of physical tuning allow more reliable interpretation of the results of measurements which are received on the satellites.

  3. Time Dispersive Spectrometer Using Digital Switching Means

    DOEpatents

    Tarver, III, Edward E. (Livermore, CA); Siems, William F. (Spokane, WA)

    2004-09-07

    Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

  4. Advanced mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chastagner

    1984-01-01

    Two advanced prototype mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes were evaluated. The GAZAB is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4 and an abundance sensitivity of greater than 100,000 for the HT-D2 doublet. The MAT 250 HDT is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic focusing instrument with exceptionally high ion intensities

  5. The high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer HADES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Agakichiev; C. Agodi; H. Alvarez-Pol; E. Atkin; E. Badura; A. Balanda; A. Bassi; R. Bassini; G. Bellia; D. Belver; A. V. Belyaev; M. Benovic; D. Bertini; J. Bielcik; M. Böhmer; C. Boiano; H. Bokemeyer; A. Bartolotti; J. L. Boyard; S. Brambilla; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; V. Chepurnov; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; R. Coniglione; L. Cosentino; M. Dahlinger; H. W. Daues; M. Destefanis; J. Díaz; F. Dohrmann; R. Dressler; I. Durán; A. Dybczak; T. Eberl; W. Enghardt; L. Fabbietti; O. V. Fateev; C. Fernández; P. Finocchiaro; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; B. Fuentes; T. Galatyuk; C. Garabatos; J. A. Garzón; B. Genolini; R. Gernhäuser; C. Gilardi; H. Gilg; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; E. Grosse; F. Guber; J. Hehner; K. Heidel; T. Hennino; S. Hlavac; J. Hoffmann; R. Holzmann; J. Homolka; J. Hutsch; A. P. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jaskula; J. C. Jourdain; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; M. Kajetanowicz; K. Kanaki; T. Karavicheva; A. Kastenmüller; L. Kidon; P. Kienle; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; H. J. Körner; B. W. Kolb; U. Kopf; K. Korcyl; R. Kotte; A. Kozuch; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; R. Kulessa; A. Kurepin; T. Kurtukian-Nieto; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; J. Lehnert; U. Leinberger; C. Lichtblau; E. Lins; C. Lippmann; M. Lorenz; D. Magestro; L. Maier; P. Maier-Komor; C. Maiolino; A. Malarz; T. Marek; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; E. Migneco; D. Mishra; E. Morinière; J. Mousa; M. Münch; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; A. Nekhaev; W. Niebur; J. Novotny; R. Novotny; W. Ott; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; T. Pérez Cavalcanti; M. Petri; P. Piattelli; J. Pietraszko; R. Pleskac; M. Ploskon; V. Pospísil; J. Pouthas; W. Prokopowicz; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; J. Ritman; G. Roche; G. Rodriguez-Prieto; K. Rosenkranz; P. Rosier; M. Roy-Stephan; A. Rustamov; J. Sabin-Fernandez; A. Sadovsky; B. Sailer; P. Salabura; C. Salz; M. Sánchez; P. Sapienza; D. Schäfer; R. M. Schicker; A. Schmah; H. Schön; W. Schön; C. Schroeder; S. Schroeder; E. Schwab; P. Senger; K. Shileev; R. S. Simon; M. Skoda; V. Smolyankin; L. Smykov; M. Sobiella; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Stelzer; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; M. Suk; M. Szczybura; A. Taranenko; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; V. Tiflov; A. Tikhonov; P. Tlusty; A. Toia; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; A. Yu. Troyan; H. Tsertos; I. Turzo; A. Ulrich; D. Vassiliev; A. Vázquez; Y. Volkov; V. Wagner; C. Wallner; W. Walus; Y. Wang; M. Weber; J. Wieser; S. Winkler; M. Wisniowski; T. Wojcik; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. V. Zanevsky; K. Zeitelhack; A. Zentek; P. Zhou; D. Zovinec; P. Zumbruch

    2009-01-01

    HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion-induced collisions.\\u000a Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting\\u000a of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger\\u000a array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and

  6. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  7. Mass Spectrometer Containing Multiple Fixed Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskala, Robert; Celo, Alan; Voss, Guenter; Shaffer, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A miniature mass spectrometer that incorporates features not typically found in prior mass spectrometers is undergoing development. This mass spectrometer is designed to simultaneously measure the relative concentrations of five gases (H2, He, N2, O2, and Ar) in air, over the relative-concentration range from 10(exp -6) to 1, during a sampling time as short as 1 second. It is intended to serve as a prototype of a product line of easy-to-use, portable, lightweight, highspeed, relatively inexpensive instruments for measuring concentrations of multiple chemical species in such diverse applications as detecting explosive or toxic chemicals in air, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, measuring concentrations of deliberately introduced isotopes in medical and biological investigations, and general environmental monitoring. The heart of this mass spectrometer is an integral combination of a circular cycloidal mass analyzer, multiple fixed ion collectors, and two mass-selective ion sources. By circular cycloidal mass analyzer is meant an analyzer that includes (1) two concentric circular cylindrical electrodes for applying a radial electric field and (2) a magnet arranged to impose a magnetic flux aligned predominantly along the cylindrical axis, so that ions, once accelerated into the annulus between the electrodes, move along circular cycloidal trajectories. As in other mass analyzers, trajectory of each ion is determined by its mass-to-charge ratio, and so ions of different species can be collected simultaneously by collectors (Faraday cups) at different locations intersected by the corresponding trajectories (see figure). Unlike in other mass analyzers, the installation of additional collectors to detect additional species does not necessitate increasing the overall size of the analyzer assembly.

  8. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Johnson; R. L. Kinzer; J. D. Kurfess; M. S. Strickman; W. R. Purcell; D. A. Grabelsky; M. P. Ulmer; D. A. Hillis; G. V. Jung; R. A. Cameron

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM)

  9. Compact, self-contained optical spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.; Nogar, N.S. [Chemical Sciences and Technology, CST-1 MSJ565, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1995-11-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a self-contained, battery-operated, hand-held optical spectrometer. This unit contains an on-board optical excitation source, miniaturized monochromator, CCD detector, Peltier cooler, LCD display module, and microprocessor control. We demonstrate capabilities for qualitative fluorescence determinations and semiquantitative fluorescence and absorption measurements. Resolution is {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}1200 at 434 nm. {copyright} {ital 1995 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.}

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  11. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer Observations of Europa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Hendrix; C. A. Barth; C. W. Hord; A. I. F. Stewart; W. R. Pryor; K. E. Simmons; W. E. McClintock; J. J. Gebben; J. M. Ajello; K. L. Naviaux; J. J. Aiello; W. K. Tobiska; S. K. Stephens

    1996-01-01

    The Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) observed Jupiter's moon Europa on June 23, 1996 for 15 minutes before Europa entered eclipse and for 20 minutes after Europa emerged from eclipse. The phase angle during the observations was 44--49deg , and Europa's leading hemisphere (45deg longitude) was observed. We use the Hapke function, which relates the measured bidirectional reflectance to the single-scatter

  12. The Lick Observatory Hamilton Echelle Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven S. Vogt

    1987-01-01

    The Hamilton Echelle Spectrometer, installed at the coude focus of the Shane 3-m telescope, is a high-dispersion spectrograph optimized for use with today's largest available CCDs, and for the even larger CCDs expected in the future. It was designed primarily for high-resolution (R = 30,000 to 60,000) wide-bandpass spectroscopy of point-like sources down to a limiting magnitude of about V

  13. Ten channel filter-fluorescer spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Pruett; K. G. Tirsell; H. N. Kornblum; S. S. Glaros; D. E. Campbell; V. W. Slivinsky

    1978-01-01

    A ten channel filter-fluorescer spectrometer was designed for measuring x-ray spectra from 2 to 115 keV at the Argus and Shiva laser facilities. Previously x-ray spectra were measured with filtered detectors; however, the higher fluxes and more complicated spectra observed in recent experiments requires the greater photon energy definition of this technique. Five filter-detector channels are also incorporated in the

  14. Diagnostic Spectrometers for High Energy Density X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Seely, J. F.; Holland, G. E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-08-02

    A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x-ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule-class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser-produced plasmas; tabletop high-harmonic-generation x-ray sources; high-brightness zeta-pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x-ray free electron lasers and compact inverse-Compton x-ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high-energy-density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength-calibrated x-ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x-ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed-power-driven accelerator, laser-produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved-crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high-energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off-Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength-dispersive techniques. These efforts inform the optimization of diagnostic designs that will permit acquisition of high-resolution, hard x-ray spectra in the HED environment.

  15. Prismatic analyser concept for neutron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Jonas O.; Markó, Márton; Freeman, Paul G.; Jacobsen, Johan; Hansen, Rasmus L.; Christensen, Niels B.; Niedermayer, Christof; Mânsson, Martin; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Lefmann, Kim

    2014-11-01

    Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor of 2.4 in flux gain compared to a single flat analyser slab.

  16. High pressure fiber optic light scattering spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuiqin; Chu, Benjamin; Dhadwal, H. S.

    1998-05-01

    A high-pressure fiber-optic light-scattering spectrometer has been constructed for in situ observation of molecular dissolution/association as well as the polymerization process in supercritical fluids. Single (or multiple) fiber-optic probes, each comprised of a single optical fiber (or multiple optical fibers) and a graded index microlens, are used to transmit the incident laser beam and to receive the scattered light as well as the transmitted light from the high pressure cell. The direct immersion in the scattering medium of the fiber-optic probes makes the spectrometer more compact and more flexible with an easier alignment process. With the miniaturization and flexibility, our high-pressure light-scattering cell can be transported and adapted in combination with other physical techniques, such as synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering which requires a different set of windows (e.g., made of diamond) suitable for x-ray transmissions. This spectrometer has been successfully used for the in situ study of the molecular association behavior of a diblock copolymer of 1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate and vinyl acetate in supercritical carbon dioxide under pressures up to 552 bar.

  17. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  18. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  19. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  20. Real-time Raman sensing without spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho; Yang, Timothy K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bae, Sung Chul

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in various fields of science and technology ranging from analytical chemistry to biomedical imaging. In spite of unique features, Raman spectroscopy has also some limitations. Among them are weak Raman signal compared to strong fluorescence and relatively complicated setup with expensive and bulky spectrometer. In order to increase the sensitivity of Raman technique, many clever attempts have been made and some of them were very successful including CARS, SRS, and so on. However, these still requires expensive and more complicated setup. In this work, we have attempted to build a real-time compact Raman sensor without spectrometer. Conventional spectrometer was replaced with a narrow-band optical filter and alternatively modulated two lasers with slightly different wavelengths. At one laser, Raman signal from a target molecule was transmitted through the optical filter. At the other laser, this signal was blocked by the optical filter and could not be detected by photon detector. The alternative modulation of two lasers will modulate the Raman signal from a target molecule at the same modulation frequency. This modulated weak Raman signal was amplified by a lock-in amplifier. The advantages of this setup include compactness, low cost, real-time monitoring, and so on. We have tested the sensitivity of this setup and we found that it doesn't have enough sensitivity to detect single molecule-level, but it is still good enough to monitor the change of major chemical composition in the sample.

  1. Autonomously Calibrating a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program autonomously manages the calibration of a quadrupole ion mass spectrometer intended for use in monitoring concentrations and changes in concentrations of organic chemicals in the cabin air of the International Space Station. The instrument parameters calibrated include the voltage on a channel electron multiplier, a discriminator threshold, and an ionizer current. Calibration is achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum obtained while sweeping the parameter ranges in a heuristic procedure, developed by mass spectrometer experts, that involves detection of changes in signal trends that humans can easily recognize but cannot necessarily be straightforwardly codified in an algorithm. The procedure includes calculation of signal-to-noise ratios, signal-increase rates, and background-noise-increase rates; finding signal peaks; and identifying peak patterns. The software provides for several recovery-from-error scenarios and error-handling schemes. The software detects trace amounts of contaminant gases in the mass spectrometer and notifies associated command- and-data-handling software to schedule a cleaning. Furthermore, the software autonomously analyzes the mass spectrum to determine whether the parameters of a radio-frequency ramp waveform are set properly so that the peaks of the mass spectrum are at expected locations.

  2. Test kit/spectrometer for the analysis of petroleum substances using Friedel-Crafts colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanby, John D.; Hewitt, Alan D.; Lory, Ernest E.

    2001-02-01

    12 Laboratory and field results of the testing of a new, visible-range spectrometry utilizing the robust signals produced by Friedel-Crafts reaction compounds demonstrate the utility of a rapid, portable, and sensitive method of on-site analysis for petroleum substances in soil and water samples. Preliminary testing of the kits and spectrometer was performed at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH. Specific field protocols for the sampling and handling of soils for gasoline range organics and diesel range organics were established for the field sampling, which was conducted at the U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, CA. Co-located soil samples were collected and either split or homogenized for subsequent partitioning to provide samples for the on-site analysis by the field kit/spectrometer technology and for later analysis by off- site reference laboratories. Test kit colorimetric results are by visual and spectrometric methods, and are compared with reference laboratory results and CRREL analyses.

  3. Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

  4. Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Burns, S.; Hawreliak, J.; House, A.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenphysik, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.4–10?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV.

  5. Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Döppner, T; Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Kraus, D; Bachmann, B; Burns, S; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; House, A; Landen, O L; LePape, S; Ma, T; Pak, A; Swift, D

    2014-11-01

    We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.4-10?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV. PMID:25430193

  6. Construction of an inexpensive molecular Iodine spectrometer using a self developed Pohl wavemeter around 670 nm wavelength

    E-print Network

    Barthwal, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    We describe construction of an inexpensive Iodine Spectrometer with a home made Iodine vapour cell and a self developed wavemeter based on Pohl Interferometer, around 670 nm wavelength.This can be easily realised in an undergraduate teaching laboratory to demonstrate use of a diode laser interferometry using a Pohl interferometer and measurement of wavelength using image processing techniques.Visible alternative to the IR diode lasers, 670 nm diode laser used here give chance to undergraduate students to perform comprehensive though illustrative atomic physics experiments including the Zeeman effect, the Hanle effect, Magneto Optic Rotation (MOR) effect with a little tweaking in the present spectrometer. The advantage of the spectrometer is its ease of construction with readily available optics, electronics, evacuation and glass blowing facilities and easy analysis algorithm to evaluate the wavelength. The self developed algorithm of raster scanning and circular averaging gives the researcher insight into the...

  7. Improved spectral radiance responsivity calibration of charge-coupled-device (CCD) imaging spectrometer with an internally illuminated integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-rong; Zhang, Zhen-duo; Li, Fu-tian; Yang, Xiao-hu

    2009-07-01

    A technique for calibrating the spectral radiance responsivity of the CCD imaging spectrometer with an internally illuminated integrating sphere is described. The spectral radiance of the integrating sphere is obtained by two steps. Firstly, a Spectralon panel diffuser and an ultraviolet spectrometer are combined into a new spectral radiometer which transfers the spectral irradiance of a NIST standard of spectral irradiance to that of the receiving aperture of the integrating sphere. Subsequently, the spectral radiance of the integrating sphere is derived from heat transfer theory for Lambertian radiators. The overall uncertainty of determining the spectral radiance of the integrating sphere is +/-2.3%. On the basis of known spectral radiance, the radiance calibration of an available Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer in our laboratory has been completed in 200-400nm with an uncertainty of about +/-2.7%.

  8. Calibration of a helium-cooled infrared spatial radiometer and grating spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Larry; Sargent, Steve; Wyatt, Clair L.; Steed, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    Methods used by the Space Dynamics Laboratory of Utah State University (SDL/USU) to calibrate infrared sensors are described, using the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spatial radiometer and grating spectrometer as examples. A calibration equation and a radiometric model are given for each sensor to describe their responsivity in terms of individual radiometric parameters. The calibration equation terms include dark offset, linearity, absolute responsivity, and measurement uncertainty, and the radiometric model domains include spatial, spectral, and temporal domains. A portable calibration facility, designed and fabricated by SDL/USU, provided collimated, extended, diffuse scatter, and Jones sources in a single cryogenic dewar. This multi-function calibrator allowed calibration personnel to complete a full calibration of the IBSS infrared radiometer and spectrometer in two 15-day periods. A calibration data system was developed to control and monitor the calibration facility, and to record and analyze sensor data.

  9. The C1XS X-ray Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Maddison, B. J.; Howe, C. J.; Kellett, B. J.; Sreekumar, P.; Huovelin, J.; Crawford, I. A.; Duston, C. L.; Smith, D.; Anand, M.; Bhandari, N.; Cook, A.; Fernandes, V.; Foing, B.; Gasnaut, O.; Goswami, J. N.; Holland, A.; Joy, K. H.; Kochney, D.; Lawrence, D.; Maurice, S.; Okada, T.; Narendranath, S.; Pieters, C.; Rothery, D.; Russell, S. S.; Shrivastava, A.; Swinyard, B.; Wilding, M.; Wieczorek, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) is a compact X-ray spectrometer for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission. It exploits heritage from the D-CIXS instrument on ESA's SMART-1 mission. As a result of detailed developments to all aspects of the design, its performance as measured in the laboratory greatly surpasses that of D-CIXS. In comparison with SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1 is a science-oriented rather than a technology mission, leading to far more favourable conditions for science measurements. C1XS is designed to measure absolute and relative abundances of major rock-forming elements (principally Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe) in the lunar crust with spatial resolution ?25 FWHM km, and to achieve relative elemental abundances of better than 10%.

  10. Impacts of dichroic prism coatings on radiometry of the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX.

    PubMed

    Hueni, A; Schlaepfer, D; Jehle, M; Schaepman, M

    2014-08-20

    The generation of well-calibrated radiometric measurements from imaging spectrometer data requires careful consideration of all influencing factors, as well as an instrument calibration based on a detailed sensor model. Deviations of ambient parameters (i.e., pressure, humidity, temperature) from standard laboratory conditions during airborne operations can lead to biases that should be accounted for and properly compensated by using dedicated instrument models. This study introduces a model for the airborne imaging spectrometer airborne prism experiment (APEX), describing the impact of spectral shifts as well as polarization effects on the radiometric system response due to changing ambient parameters. Key issues are related to changing properties of the dichroic coating applied to the dispersing elements within the optical path. We present a model based on discrete numerical simulations. With the improved modeling approach, we predict radiometric biases with an root mean square error (RMSE) below 1%, leading to a substantial improvement of radiometric stability and predictability of system behavior. PMID:25321104

  11. STS-46 plasma composition measurements using the EOIM-3 mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hunton, D.E.; Trzcinski, E.; Gosselin, R.; Koontz, S.; Leger, L.; Visentine, J.T.

    1995-02-01

    One of the active instruments incorporated into the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials - 3 experiment was a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The primary objectives for this instrument, which was built by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and was a veteran of the STS-4 flight in 1982, were to quantify the flux of atomic oxygen striking the test surfaces in the EOIM-3 payload and to detect surface reaction products from the materials in the carousel. Other speakers in this session have covered the results of these experiments. Prior to the 40-hour-long dedicated EOIM-3 mission segment at the end of the STS-46 flight, the authors used the mass spectrometer to make measurements of ion and neutral gas composition in the shuttle environment. About 25 hours of data were collected during a variety of mission events, including Eureca deployment at high altitude and many tethered satellite system operations.

  12. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Korngut, P. M.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Renbarger, T.; Keating, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Hristov, V.; Lanz, A.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Smith, A. W. [Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu [Materion Barr Precision Optics and Thin Film Coatings, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  13. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anti?i?, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Biel?ík, J.; Biel?íková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; di Bari, D.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p -Pb at ?{sNN}=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at ?{sNN}=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p -Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p -Pb collisions. However, when a |? ? | gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p -Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of v2{4 } to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find v2{4 } ?v2{6 } ?0 which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the v2 distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p -Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a |? ? |>1.4 gap is placed.

  14. Environmental Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Information is provided regarding the Association of Environmental Laboratories which consists of environmental analysts concerned with the quality of laboratories charged with providing information in the field of environmental measurements. Included is a list of charter members and a statement of the goals of the organization. (MLB)

  15. Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) Description and User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Hiroi, Takahiro; Pratt, Steve F.; Patterson, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopic data acquired in the laboratory provide the interpretive foundation upon which compositional information about unexplored or unsampled planetary surfaces is derived from remotely obtained reflectance spectra. The RELAB is supported by NASA as a multi-user spectroscopy facility, and laboratory time can be made available at no charge to investigators who are in funded NASA programs. RELAB has two operational spectrometers available to NASA scientists: 1) a near- ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared bidirectional spectrometer and 2) a near- and mid- infrared FT-IR spectrometer. The overall purpose of the design and operation of the RELAB bidirectional spectrometer is to obtain high precision, high spectral resolution, bidirectional reflectance spectra of earth and planetary materials. One of the key elements of its design is the ability to measure samples using viewing geometries specified by the user. This allows investigators to simulate, under laboratory conditions, reflectance spectra obtained remotely (i.e., with spaceborne, telescopic, and airborne systems) as well as to investigate geometry dependent reflectance properties of geologic materials. The Nicolet 740 FT-IR spectrometer currently operates in reflectance mode from 0.9 to 25 Fm. Use and scheduling of the RELAB is monitored by a 4-member advisory committee. NASA investigators should direct inquiries to the Science Manager or RELAB Operator.

  16. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-06-05

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L..cap alpha../sub 1/ /sub 2/ lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures.

  17. Paleomagnetics Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the California Institute of Technology's Paleomagnetics Laboratory promotes its research of weakly magnetic geologic and biological materials. Users can learn about the facilities such as the biomagnetics lab and the automatic sampler. The website features the laboratory's recent research on many topics including extraterrestrial magnetism, magnetofossils, and historical geomagnetic field behavior. Visitors can find out more about the many laboratory members' research activities through links to their home pages. Researchers can download a selection of the group's publications. Everyone can enjoy the amazing images from recent geologic field trips across the globe.

  18. High resolution spectrometers for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J. L.; Vinogradov, I.; Kalinnikov, Yu.; Nevejans, D.; Neefs, E.; Le Barbu, T.; Durry, G.; Fedorova, A.; Grigoriev, A.

    Spectral measurements with high resolution give access to planetary atmospheres when observing from the Earth. Very high spectral resolution allows Doppler separation of the spectral lines in the planetary atmosphere from telluric ones, thus enabling to detect and to measure minor constituents and isotopic composition. These measurements, however, are generally full-disk averaged; also it is difficult to measure molecules abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. Therefore, spacecraft measurements at high spectral resolution are of great value in planetary missions. A review of spectrometers used in deep space missions and on the Earth orbit will be given; in particular, solar occultation high-resolution measurements will be addressed. The mass of existing state-of-the-art instruments (several tens to hundreds of kilograms) prevents them from being sent toward other planets. Even in the remote sensing of the Earth the tendencies are that compact and lightweight instrumentation has more chances to be flown. A new concept of a high-resolution near-IR spectrometer consisting of an echelle grating combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for separation of diffraction orders, is developed for space-borne studies of planetary atmospheres. An AOTF spectrometer with lower resolution (no echelle grating, ? v/?? s? 1200, mass 800 g) has been qualified and is now operational on the Mars Express orbiter. New compact design within the mass budget of 3-5 kg allows to reach the resolving power ? v/?? s of 20000-30000. A spectrometer, based on this principle, SOIR (Solar Occultation InfraRed) is being built for Venus Express (2005) ESA mission to study atmospheric structure and composition above clouds. The concept and the potential of such instrument for the studies of Mars and the Earth atmospheres, in particular, measurements of isotopes of water in the atmosphere, either in solar occultation profiling, or (on the Earth) observing solar glint for integral quantities of the components. Small size of hardware makes the instrument ideal for micro-satellites, which are now agile enough to provide necessary pointing for solar occultation or glint observations.

  19. ISO'S SHORT WAVELENGTH SPECTROMETER ULTIMATE SENSITIVITY

    E-print Network

    effects. For instance, for the small (120 \\Theta120 ¯m) InSb diode­detectors, which hardly have any memory/s 1 In:Sb 0.6 0.6 ­ 1.0 2 Si:Ga 0.6 1.5 ­ 3.5 3 Si:As BIBIB 0.5 4 ­ 5 4 Ge:Be 0.9 5 ­ 15 5 Si:Sb 0.5 2, the in­orbit noise levels of the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) detectors show a sig­ nificant

  20. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-06-07

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  1. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-07-29

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

  2. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  3. The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for ORFEUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel EUV spectrometer is presented for the ORFEUS-SPAS mission. It uses a set of four varied line-space spherical diffraction gratings to obtain high-resolution spectra of point sources at wavelengths between 390 and 1200 A. The spectra are recorded with two detector units, each containing curved-surface microchannel plates and a delay-line anode-readout system. An independent optical system detects the image of the source in the entrance aperture and tracks the source as it drifts during an observation, enabling a reconstruction of the spectra postflight. The overall system performance is discussed and illustrated by synthetic spectra.

  4. The RPC System for the Opera Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusini, S.

    2006-04-01

    OPERA is one of the two detectors foreseen in the CNGS (CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso) project, devoted to the detection of ?? ? ?? oscillations in the parameter region suggested by SuperKamiokande. The tracking system inside the iron yoke of the muon spectrometer makes use of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) with bakelite electrodes in a large scale application. We present here full design of the project. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents and efficiency. In the paper we present also some results on RPC aging studies.

  5. The 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, and accuracy of an 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer, an FM-CW system which employs a dual antenna system, is described. The antennas, transmitter, and a portion of the receiver are mounted at the top of a 26 meter hydraulic boom which is in turn mounted on a truck for system mobility. HH and VV polarized measurements are possible at incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 80 deg. Calibration is accomplished by referencing the measurements against a Luneberg lens of known radar cross section.

  6. Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

  7. Experiment S-191 visible and infrared spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnell, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication test, and utilization of the visible and infrared spectrometer portion of the S-191 experiment, part of the Earth Resources Experiment Package, on board Skylab is discussed. The S-191 program is described, as well as conclusions and recommendations for improvement of this type of instrument for future applications. Design requirements, instrument design approaches, and the test verification program are presented along with test results, including flight hardware calibration data. A brief discussion of operation during the Skylab mission is included. Documentation associated with the program is listed.

  8. New Positron Spectrometer for MEG Experiment Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, M.

    2014-08-01

    An upgrade of the MEG experiment, which searches for the lepton flavor violating decay, ? ? e?, at the highest sensitivity ever, is planned in order to improve the sensitivity down to ? 5 ×10-14. We plan to employ a stereo wire drift chamber with a unique volume for the tracking and a pixelated scintillation detector with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout for the timing measurement with improved efficiency and resolutions. We will describe the expected performance and the R&D status of the new spectrometer especially focusing on the new timing counter, which is expected to contribute better resolution of the relative timing between positron and gamma-ray.

  9. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  10. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  11. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  12. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  13. The sPHENIX Forward Angle Spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Richard Seto; for the PHENIX collaboration

    2012-09-25

    sPHENIX is a major upgrade proposed for the PHENIX detector. As part of this proposal, a forward spectrometer to cover the rapidity range 1

  14. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  15. Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Engineering Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Shoen, Steven S.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) successfully completed its first set of engineering test flights. HyTES was developed in support of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). HyspIRI is one of the Tier II Decadal Survey missions. HyTES currently provides both high spectral resolution (17 nm) and high spatial resolution (2-5m) data in the thermal infrared (7.5-12 micron) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. HyTES data will be used to help determine the optimum band positions for the HyspIRI Thermal Infrared (TIR) sensor and provide antecedent data for HyspIRI related studies.

  16. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  17. Introducing the ARGUS VI mass spectrometer to geo and thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heizler, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific advances come in multiple forms that include conceptual, intellectual and instrumentational. The newly commissioned ARGUS VI multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometers at the New Mexico Geochronology Research Laboratory (NMGRL) provide unprecedented precision for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology that, if accompanied by equal accuracy, has the potential to lead to instrumentally derived scientific advances. Many important questions that rely on the time dimension cannot be adequately answered due to sensitivity and precision limitations of MAP generation mass spectrometers. The ARGUS VI offers two modes of multi-collection for Ar isotopes: configuration 1) simultaneous faraday 40Ar through 36Ar measurement and configuration 2) simultaneous faraday 40Ar through 37Ar and 36Ar ion counting measurement. Precision limitations at mass 36 in configuration 1 reduces the effectiveness of the ARGUS VI to be subequal with single collector MAP instruments despite dramatically improved measurement of the atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar for determination of mass discrimination. In contrast, configuration 2 is highly effective at precisely measuring tiny quantities of 36Ar (<5e-19 moles) while still allowing measurement of the large quantities (~2e-13) of 40Ar and 39Ar on the faraday cups. This combination results in accurate determination of 40Ar* for all ranges of radiogenic yield. The ARGUS VI at the NMGRL is operated at 200 microamps of trap and a total emission of 450 microamps to yield a sensitivity of 1.2e-3 A/Torr and a mass 36 background of 2e-19 moles. Coupled with a low volume and ultraclean extraction line the net sensitively at 40Ar on a 1e12 ohm resistor faraday is 3-5e-17 moles/mV. High sensitively and low backgrounds allow precise measurement of age on small and young single crystals. For instance, a typical Fish Canyon tuff single crystal sanidine (0.5 mm) has a total age error of about 8 ka (1 sigma), with weighted mean populations giving uncertainties below 5 ka. A problem in achieving this precision and a normal distribution of analyses stems from neutron irradiation fluence gradients that make crystal-to-crystal dispersion in 40Ar/39Ar greater than the geological dispersion of 40Ar/40K. New analysis of AC-2 sanidine fluence monitor on the ARGUS VI yields an age of 1.1778±0.0007 Ma (1 sigma) relative to FC-2 at 28.02 Ma. This age is in exact agreement to several MAP-215-50 derived determinations at the NMGRL and demonstrates within lab reproducibility using highly variable instrumentation and techniques. The NMGRL age of AC-2 relative to FC-2 contrasts with published ages that are typically ~1.19 Ma. Variation of results between laboratories remains the principle hurdle to overcome as geochronologists strive to accurately and precisely calibrate Earth history and the ARGUS VI mass spectrometer offers potential to improve our understanding of the currently high level of interlab dispersion.

  18. A Spark Chamber Spectrometer for Space Protons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Madey; R. J. Churchill; Thomas Aggson

    1966-01-01

    A new radiation detector instrument system was conceived by one of us (R.M.) in 1962 to measure the spectra of energetic particles in space. A laboratory prototype of a flyable version of such an instrument system has now been constructed under contract to the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. It has been designed to measure unidirectional proton spectra in six

  19. A New Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS) in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qijun Fu; Huirong Ji; Zihai Qin; Zhicai Xu; Zhiguo Xia; Hongao Wu; Yuying Liu; Yihua Yan; Guangli Huang; Zhijun Chen; Zhenyu Jin; Qijun Yao; Congling Cheng; Fuying Xu; Min Wang; Libei Pei; Shanhuai Chen; Guo Yang; Chenming Tan; Suobiao Shi

    2004-01-01

    A new radio spectrometer, Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS) with characteristics of high time resolution, high-frequency resolution, high sensitivity, and wide frequency coverage in the microwave region is described. Its function is to monitor solar radio bursts in the frequency range of 0.7–7.6 GHz with time resolution of 1–10 ms. SBRS consists of five `component spectrometers' which work in five different wave

  20. Progress on characterization of a dualband IR imaging spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Beecken; Paul D. LeVan; Cory Lindh; Randall S. Johnson

    A dualband infrared focal plane array is the central component of a compact, low mass, multispectral imaging spectrometer with perfect spectral registration. The prototype spectrometer design uses a grating blaze chosen to be efficient over both 3.75-6.05 and 7.5-12.1µm, although the mercury cadmium telluride focal plane array limits the bandwidths with cutoff wavelengths near 5.2 and 10.5 µm. The spectrometer

  1. A time resolved spectrometer for high intensity relativistic electron beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack V. Walker; Jack Stevens

    1974-01-01

    A spectrometer system designed to measure the time-dependent kinetic energy of electrons from high current pulsed relativistic beam accelerators is described. The spectrometer, consisting of a three-element vacuum Compton diode, is simple, rugged, and self-driving. Calibration data are presented covering the energy range of 150 keV to 16 MeV. Applications and limitations of the spectrometer are discussed.

  2. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  3. BROOKHAVEN LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    ............................................. 6 Child Care Options.................................................. 7 Parent's Rights, and surrogate parents seeking to support each child's unique needs. 4. Learning is a process that is guided soBROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY Child Development Center Parent Handbook Revised 2009

  4. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests This section provides ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  5. Hydromechanics Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Kriebel

    The Hydromechanics Laboratory supports midshipmen education, as well as midshipmen, faculty and staff research, in the areas of naval architecture and ocean engineering. The laboratory facilities include a large towing tank (380-ft long, 26- ft wide, and 16-ft deep), a small towing tank (120-ft long, 8-ft wide, and 5-ft deep), a coastal engineering wave basin (52-ft long, 48-ft wide, and

  6. Visgraf Laboratory IMPA Visgraf Laboratory IMPA

    E-print Network

    1 Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA CNMAC 99 CNMAC 99 jonas@impa.br @impa.br Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro www.visgraf.impa.br www.visgraf.impa.br Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf Laboratory ­ IMPA Visgraf

  7. The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2009-10-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

  8. Recent developments towards low-cost MEMS spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilusha K. K. M. B.; Tripathi, Dhirendra; Mao, Haifeng; Antoszewski, Jarek; Nener, Brett D.; Dell, John M.; Faraone, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    While optical spectroscopy has shown great promise in a multitude of applications, the cost, size, and fragility of spectrometer instruments have hindered widespread application of the technology. :tvfEMS microspectrometers offer great hope for low-cost, lightweight, and robust spectrometers, paving the way for pervasive use in many fields. In this invited paper, we report on nearly 15 years of development on MEMS spectrometers in our research group, beginning with devices designed for the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and midwave infrared (MWIR), and moving on to our most recent work towards MEMS spectrometers in the visible and near infrared (NIR) as well as the thermal long-wave infrared (LWIR) bands.

  9. Development of a temporally and spatially resolved grazing incidence spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, D.D.; Fortner, R.J.; Price, D.F.; Stewart, R.E.; Gilman, C.; Helava, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design considerations are presented for a grazing incidence spectrometer which will resolve both temporally and spatially the emission from a wide variety of plasmas. The basis of the design involves use of microchannel plates (MCPs) which are curved to conform to the Rowland circle of the spectrometer. The spectra are obtained when the anode is properly biased. The use of multiple anodes allows gating and with appropriate delays results in sequential time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Simultaneous gating of the anodes with spatial resolution of < 100..mu.. for any given time frame can also be obtained. The efficiency of this spectrometer is also compared with conventional grazing incidence spectrometers.

  10. Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the SRG satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Finn E.; Westergaard, N. J.; Rasmussen, Ib L.; Schnopper, Herbert W.; Wiebicke, Hans-Joachim; Halm, Ingolf; Geppert, U. R.; Borozdin, K. N.

    1994-11-01

    The flight version of the Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X- GAMMA satellite is presented. The spectrometer is a panel that is placed in front of one of the SODART telescopes. It is composed of an array of the three Bragg crystals, LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001) for high resolution spectroscopy in the energy bands that encompass the H- and He-like emission line features from the cosmically important elements Fe, S, Ar and O. An energy resolution (E/(Delta) E) of 1250 will be obtained for He-like Fe emission, > 3000 for He-like S and Ar, > 700 for He-like O. In addition, the Si crystals will be coated with a multilayer that will allow spectroscopy with an energy resolution of approximately 80 in the energy band immediately below the C-K absorption edge of 0.284 keV. All the flight crystals are available and detailed calibrations have been obtained for each crystal. They confirm our specifications for the overall performance of the OXS. An estimate of the effective area in the 4 energy windows that are available to OXS yields > 100 cm2 from 5 to 7.4 keV, > 200 cm2 from 2.3 to 4.6 keV, approximately 10 cm+2) from 0.55 to 0.81 keV and approximately 100 cm2 from 0.175 to 0.28 keV.

  11. A rotatable electron spectrometer for multicoincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, University of Lund, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Forsell, J.-O. [VGScienta, Vallongatan 1, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Wannberg, B. [VGScienta, Vallongatan 1, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); BW Particle Optics AB, P.O. Box 55, SE-822 22 Alfta (Sweden); Legendre, S.; Palaudoux, J. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Oehrwall, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, S.; Piancastelli, M. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a rotatable hemispherical spectrometer with good energy and angular resolution, which can be positioned with the lens axis arbitrarily within a solid angle of 1 {pi}. The collection angle of the emitted electrons with respect to the polarization axis of the light is set by means of a three-axes goniometer, operating under vacuum. An important requirement for this setup was the possibility to perform coincidences between the electron analyzed by the spectrometer and one or several other particles, such as ions, electrons, or photons. The lens system and the hemispheres have been designed to accommodate such experimental demands, regarding parameters such as the resolving power, the acceptance angle, or the width of the kinetic energy window which can be recorded for a given pass energy. We have chosen to detect the impact position of the electron at the focal plane of the hemispherical analyzer with a delay line detector and a time-to-digital converter as acquisition card rather than using a conventional charge-coupled device camera.

  12. Hadamard spectrometer for passive LWIR standoff surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Wong, Brian; Zou, Jing; Mohammad, Najeeb; Jamroz, Wes; Soltani, Mohammed; Chaker, Mohamed; Haddad, Emile; Laou, Philips; Paradis, Suzanne

    2007-06-01

    Based on the principle of the Integrated Optical Spectrometer (IOSPEC), a waveguide-based, longwave infrared (LWIR) dispersive spectrometer with multiple input slits for Hadamard spectroscopy was designed and built intended for passive standoff chemical agent detection in 8 to 12?m spectral range. This prototype unit equips with a three-inch input telescope providing a field-of-view of 1.2 degrees, a 16-microslit array (each slit 60 ?m by 1.8 mm) module for Hadamard binary coding, a 2-mm core ZnS/ZnSe/ZnS slab waveguide with a 2 by 2 mm2 optical input and micro-machined integrated optical output condensor, a Si micro-machined blazing grating, a customized 128-pixel LWIR mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) LN2 cooled detector array, proprietary signal processing technique, software and electronics. According to the current configuration, it was estimated that the total system weight to be ~4 kg, spectral resolution <4cm -1 and Noise Equivalent Spectral Radiance (NESR) <10 -8 Wcm -2 sr -1cm -1 in 8 to 12 ?m. System design and preliminary test results of some components will be presented. Upon the arrival of the MCT detector array, the prototype unit will be further tested and its performance validated in fall of 2007.

  13. Calculations for Calibration of a Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations to calibrate a quadrupole mass spectrometer in an instrumentation system for identifying trace amounts of organic chemicals in air. In the operation of the mass spectrometer, the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of ions being counted at a given instant of time is a function of the instantaneous value of a repeating ramp voltage waveform applied to electrodes. The count rate as a function of time can be converted to an m/z spectrum (equivalent to a mass spectrum for singly charged ions), provided that a calibration of m/z is available. The present computer program can perform the calibration in either or both of two ways: (1) Following a data-based approach, it can utilize the count-rate peaks and the times thereof measured when fed with air containing known organic compounds. (2) It can utilize a theoretical proportionality between the instantaneous m/z and the instantaneous value of an oscillating applied voltage. The program can also estimate the error of the calibration performed by the data-based approach. If calibrations are performed in both ways, then the results can be compared to obtain further estimates of errors.

  14. Glucose determination with fiber optic spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Eva; Kemper, Ulf; Barschdorff, Dieter

    1999-05-01

    Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring is the aim of research activities concerning the detection of small glucose concentrations dissolved in water and blood plasma. One approach for these measurements is the exploitation of absorption bands in the near infrared. However, the strong absorption of water represents a major difficulty. Transmission measurements of glucose dissolved in water and in blood plasma in the spectral region around 1600 nm with one- beam spectrometers and a FT-IR spectrometer are discussed. The evaluation of the data is carried out using a two-layer Lambert-Beer model and neural networks. In order to reduce the dimensions of a potential measuring device, an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with an Erbium doped fiber amplifier as a radiation source is used. The fiber optic components are examined concerning their suitability. The smallest concentrations of glucose dissolved in water that can be separated are approximately 50 mg/dl. In the range of 50 mg/dl to 1000 mg/dl a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between real and estimated glucose concentrations is achieved using neural networks. In blood plasma so far glucose concentrations of about 100 mg/dl can be distinguished with good accuracy.

  15. The rotating spectrometer: Biotechnology for cell separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1991-01-01

    An instrument for biochemical studies, called the rotating spectrometer, separates previously inseparable cell cultures. The rotating spectrometer is intended for use in pharmacological studies which require fractional splitting of heterogeneous cell cultures based on cell morphology and swimming behavior. As a method to separate and concentrate cells in free solution, the rotating method requires active organism participation and can effectively split the large class of organisms known to form spontaneous patterns. Examples include the biochemical star, an organism called Tetrahymena pyriformis. Following focusing in a rotating frame, the separation is accomplished using different radial dependencies of concentrated algal and protozoan species. The focusing itself appears as concentric rings and arises from the coupling between swimming direction and Coriolis forces. A dense cut is taken at varying radii, and extraction is replenished at an inlet. Unlike standard separation and concentrating techniques such as filtration or centrifugation, the instrument is able to separate motile from immotile fractions. For a single pass, typical split efficiencies can reach 200 to 300 percent compared to the inlet concentration.

  16. Particle Charge Distribution Measurement for Commonly Generated Laboratory Aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Forsyth; Benjamin Y. H. Liu; Francisco J. Romay

    1998-01-01

    An improved particle charge analyzer system has been developed to measure the absolute charge distribution of common generated laboratory aerosols. The charge analyzer system consists of an integral cylindrical mobility analyzer used in conjunction with an optical aerosol spectrometer, with computer assisted operation and data reduction. The charge analyzer collects aerosol particles over an absolute electrical mobility range from 4.2*10

  17. Distinguishing mangrove species with laboratory measurements of hyperspectral leaf reflectance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Wang; Wayne P. Sousa

    2009-01-01

    As a first step in developing classification procedures for remotely acquired hyperspectral mapping of mangrove canopies, we conducted a laboratory study of mangrove leaf spectral reflectance at a study site on the Caribbean coast of Panama, where the mangrove forest canopy is dominated by Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. Using a high?resolution spectrometer, we measured the reflectance of

  18. Diode laser spectrometer for monitoring up to five atmospheric trace gases in unattended operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtke, G.; Kohn, W.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Riedel, W.J.; Wolf, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Physikalische Messtechnik, Heidenhofstrasse 8, D-7800 Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

    1989-09-01

    An automated diode laser spectrometer for recording concentrations of trace gases is described. It has been tested for unattended operation in the laboratory and at an atmospheric surveillance station for several months. The sensitivities reached are, e.g., 50 ppt for NO{sub 2} and 300 ppt for NO. In an optical path length of 100 m the lowest extinction measured in unattended operation is {similar to}1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} for a measuring time of {similar to}60 s. Recordings of trace gases are shown for urban and rural atmospheric conditions.

  19. SWEPP gamma-ray spectrometer system software user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Femec, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurement and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contact-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP). In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, the software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of specific interest, and provides controls for SGRS hardware as required. This document serves as a user`s guide for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system.

  20. Small mass spectrometer with extended measurement capabilities at high pressures. [for planetary atmosphere analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Zahn, U.; Mauersberger, K.

    1978-01-01

    For the in situ investigation of planetary atmospheres a small Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrometer has been developed. Its high-pressure performance has been improved by incorporating differential pumping between the ion source and the analyzing fields, shortening the path-length as well as increasing the extraction field in the ion source. In addition doubly ionized and dissociated ions are used for mass analysis. These measures make possible operation up to 0.01 millibars. Results of laboratory tests related to linearity, dynamic range, and mass resolution are presented, in particular for CO2.

  1. A Heavy Ion Recoil Detector for the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer (HELIOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cedric; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Lai, J.; Lindhart, L. E.; Macon, K. T.; Matos, M.; Rasco, B. C.

    2012-10-01

    The helical orbit spectrometer (HELIOS) is an instrument for studying nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have developed a gas filled Ionization chamber for use with HELIOS to detect heavy reaction products in coincidence at forward angles. Detection of coincident heavy ions will help distinguish the reaction channel of interest from fusion evaporation and reactions induced by beam contaminants. The counter provides high acceptance and allows for counting rates over 1e5 ions/s with good particle identification. Construction of the counter and results from initial test will be presented.

  2. The detector response matrices of the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Mitra, B.; Palmer, D. M.; Ramaty, R.; Teegarden, B. J.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N.; Pehl, R.; Owens, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) on the WIND spacecraft is a germanium detector primarily designed to measure high-resolution (~2-3 keV) spectra of bright gamma-ray bursts. The instrument response matrix, used to unfold photon spectra from the measured count spectra, has been obtained by modelling TGRS/WIND with the GEANT detector description and simulation package from CERN. The simulations were verified using laboratory measurements. We present a brief description of the TGRS instrument, as well as an outline of the measurements, simulations and software algorithms used in the generation of the detector response matrices.

  3. Submillimeter Laboratory Investigations: Spectroscopy and Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave spectroscopy is conducted in our laboratory on several different types of spectrometers. Our standard spectrometer utilizes the output of a phase-locked klystron operating in the 40-60 GHz region, which is sent into a crossed-waveguide harmonic generator, or "multiplier". The high frequency millimeter-and submillimeter-wave radiation is transmitted via quasi-optical techniques through an absorption cell and then onto a detector, which is either an InSb hot electron bolometer cooled to 1.4 K or a Si bolometer cooled to 0.3 K. The detector response is sent to a computer for measurement and analysis. The frequency range produced and detected in this manner goes from 80 GHz to upwards of 1 THz. Spectra are normally taken with source modulation, with line frequencies typically measured to an accuracy of 50-100 kHz. Higher accuracy is available when needed. Recently, we developed a new, broad-band spectrometer in our laboratory based on a free-running backward wave oscillator (BWO) of Russian manufacture as the primary source of radiation. The so-called FASSST (fast-scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique) system uses fast-scan and optical calibration methods rather than the traditional locking techniques. The output power from the BWO is split such that 90% goes into the absorption cell while 10% is coupled to a 40-meter Fabry-Perot cavity, which yields fringe? for frequency measurement. Results from this spectrometer on the spectrum of nitric acid (HNO3) show that 100 GHz of spectral data can be obtained in 5 seconds with a measurement accuracy of 50 kHz. Currently, the frequency range of the FASSST system in our laboratory is roughly 100-700 GHz.

  4. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Manganese and Other Metals in Welding Fumes by Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wisanti Laohaudomchok; Jennifer M. Cavallari; Shona C. Fang; Xihong Lin; Robert F. Herrick; David C. Christiani; Marc G. Weisskopf

    2010-01-01

    Elemental analysis of welding fume samples can be done using several laboratory-based techniques. However, portable measurement techniques could offer several advantages. In this study, we sought to determine whether the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) is suitable for analysis of five metals (manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and chromium) on 37-mm polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Using this filter fitted on a cyclone in

  5. Expert systems technology applied to instrument operation and data acquisition of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation covers the work done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by some computer programmers and analytical chemists specializing in mass spectrometry to develop an expert system for real-time tuning and optimization of operations of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). This capability is important to increase the sensitivity possible for selected compounds throughout the entire mass range of the instrument, rather than settling for the traditional normalized calibration which lowers sensitivity at both ends of the mass scale.

  6. Automation and Control of an Imaging Internal Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Paul L. Tremblay; Jill R. Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of an imaging internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). The I2LD-FTMS consists of a laser-scanning device [Scott and Tremblay, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2002, 73, 1108–1116] that has been integrated with a laboratory-built FTMS using a commercial data acquisition system (ThermoFinnigan FT\\/MS, Bremen, Germany). A new user interface has been developed in National

  7. Programmable ion mobility spectrometer: Time resolution improvement and ion counter comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.G.; Wilding, R.J. [Department of Meteorology, The University of Reading, P.O. Box 243, Earley Gate, Reading, Berks RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Atmospheric ion mobility spectrometers operating on the aspirated electrode principle require switching of a bias voltage to select ions of different mobility. The ion spectrum can be obtained by sweeping across a set of bias voltages. If rapid temporal changes in atmospheric ion spectra are to be measured, however, such as for a balloon-carried instrument, the sweep time across the ion spectrum must be kept short. As bias voltage steps can generate saturation in the mobility spectrometer's electrometer amplifier, the electrometer recovery time limits the ion mobility spectrum sweep rate. Here, active compensation of the charge injected at a bias voltage step is used to reduce the saturation time. Further, the optimal setting of the charge compensation circuitry provides a determination of the system capacitance, a necessary calibration parameter for absolute measurements. Using laboratory air, hourly variations in ion concentrations and air conductivity found using the voltage switching system were similar to those obtained with a traditional ion counter operating at a single mobility: ion growth, however, could only be detected using the ion spectrometer.

  8. Precision tracking at high background rates with the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Hertenberger, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Precision tracking at high background rates with the ATLAS muon spectrometer The ATLAS muon spectrometer performs to the specs of efficiency, occupancy and spatial resolution at present LHC peak-luminosities of $4 \\times 10^{33}$ $\\frac{1}{cm^2~s}$. Ten times higher peak-luminosities are envisaged after the LHC upgrade by end of this decade. Currently used tracking detectors in the most forward part of the muon spectrometer need to be replaced to cope with the expected huge background hit rates of up to 15~kHz/cm$^2$ to ensure muon trigger and precision reconstruction capabilities. Square meter sized micromegas or 15~mm diameter drift-tube detectors together with thin gap trigger detectors are under study as replacement. When exposed at our irradiation facility at the Garching Tandem accelerator laboratory, the track reconstruction efficiency and spatial resolution of 15~mm drift-tube detectors is robust against up to 20~kHz/cm$^2$ highly ionizing background hits. No signs of ageing were observed after accumu...

  9. An electrostatic autoresonant ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakov, A. V.; Hinch, B. J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    A new method for ion extraction from an anharmonic electrostatic trap is introduced. Anharmonicity is a common feature of electrostatic traps which can be used for small scale spatial confinement of ions, and this feature is also necessary for autoresonant ion extraction. With the aid of ion trajectory simulations, novel autoresonant trap mass spectrometers (ART-MSs) have been designed based on these very simple principles. A mass resolution {approx}60 is demonstrated for the prototypes discussed here. We report also on the pressure dependencies, and the (mV) rf field strength dependencies of the ART-MS sensitivity. Importantly the new MS designs do not require heavy magnets, tight manufacturing tolerances, introduction of buffer gases, high power rf sources, nor complicated electronics. The designs described here are very inexpensive to implement relative to other instruments, and can be easily miniaturized. Possible applications are discussed.

  10. Fourier transform spectrometer controller for partitioned architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamas-Selicean, D.; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.; Carlson, R.; Hand, K.; Pop, P.; Wadsworth, W.; Levy, R.

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Researchers at ESA and NASA advocated for the use of partitioned architecture to reduce this complexity. Partitioned architectures rely on platform mechanisms to provide robust temporal and spatial separation between applications. Such architectures have been successfully implemented in several industries, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture.

  11. Characterization of lead iodide for nuclear spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, T. E.; James, R. B.; Schieber, M.; Toney, J.; Van Scyoc, J. M.; Salary, L.; Hermon, H.; Lund, J.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.-T.; Cross, E.; Soria, E.; Shah, K.; Squillante, M.; Yoon, H.; Goorsky, M.

    1996-10-01

    We report on the results of a number of investigations into the material properties of lead iodide and their relation to x- and gamma-ray spectrometers. The effectiveness of zone refining as determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is demonstrated. We show that zone refining is effective in producing lead iodide with a higher degree of purity in terms of extrinsic dopants and we determine the segregation coefficients for a number of these impurities. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. The chemical etching characteristics, including etch rates, of lead iodide are presented for a number of etching solutions. Triple axis x-ray diffraction measurements have been employed to determine the structural perfection of the lead iodide after diamond sawing and etching and recovery of the crystallinity of the material is seen after Nal etching.

  12. 140 GHz pulsed fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, William F. (Oakland, CA); Leskovar, Branko (Moraga, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer (10), including means (11, 19) for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means (12) for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator (20) and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch (23) to the modulator. When the pulse switch (23) is on, the modulator (20) will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device (31) is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device (31) is controlled by the pulse switch (23).

  13. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1987-10-27

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal is disclosed. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch. 5 figs.

  14. The new chopper spectrometer at LANSCE, PHAROS

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.; Nutter, M.; Silver, R.N.; Hooten, D.T.; Ricketts, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    We describe the new chopper spectrometer PHAROS under design at Los Alamos. It is intended to provide 0.5% incident energy resolution for incident energies between 50 MeV and 2 eV. This will be achieved with a methane moderator and a 20m incident flight path on Flight Path 16 of the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The secondary flight path will be 4m for scattering angles between 10/degree/ and 140/degree/. For small scattering angles (down to 0.5/degree/), the secondary flight path can be extended to 10m. We include results of preliminary tests on phasing a prototype chopper and the Proton Storage Ring. These show that phasing can be achieved and that the width of the transmitted neutron pulse is in reasonable agreement with calculation. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Data analysis for Skylab proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    The measured values are compared to values derived from a proton environment model. Spectral data are compared, the omni-directional fluxes are found, a range of assumed pitch angle distributions are established, and the values which would be seen by an idealized proton spectrometer immersed in the model environment are computed. The measured values and calculated values are summed over time, then ratiod to provide spectral correction factors. The data are tabulated according to location, pitch angle, energy, assumed pitch angle distribution, and orientation in the earth-fixed coordinate system. With the aid of this data, detailed corrections to the proton model environment are derived. Best-fit, energy-dependent pitch angle distributions are also obtained. Some information is derived concerning the east-west asymmetry.

  16. Low-energy neutral-atom spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1982-04-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of a low energy neutral atom spectrometer are described. Time-of-flight analysis is used to measure the energy spectrum of charge-exchange deuterium atoms emitted from the PLT tokamak plasma in the energy range from 20 to 1000 eV. The neutral outflux is gated on a 1 ..mu..sec time scale by a slotted rotating chopper disc, supported against gravity in vacuum by magnetic levitation, and is detected by secondary electron emission from a Cu-Be plate. The energy dependent detection efficiency has been measured in particle beam experiments and on the tokamak so that the diagnostic is absolutely calibrated, allowing quantitative particle fluxes to be determined with 200 ..mu..sec time resolution. In addition to its present application as a plasma diagnostic, the instrument is capable of making a wide variety of measurements relevant to atomic and surface physics.

  17. The Coronal Ultraviolet Berkeley Spectrometer (CUBS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Brett C.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    1992-01-01

    We describe an instrument package to remotely measure thermospheric, exospheric, and plasmaspheric structure and composition. This instrument was flown aboard the second test flight of the Black Brant XII sounding rocket on December 5, 1989, which attained an apogee of 1460 km. The experiment package consisted of a spectrophotometer to measure He I 584 A, O II 834 A, O I 989 A, hydrogen Lyman beta (1025 A), hydrogen Lyman alpha (1216 A), and O I 1304 A transitions, and a photometer to measure the He II 304 A emission. The optical design of the spectrophotometer was identical to that of the Berkeley Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Airglow Rocket Spectrometer payload, flown on September 30, 1988 aboard the maiden flight of the Black Brant XII rocket. We present the initial data analysis and describe directions we will go toward the completion of our study.

  18. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  19. Spectrometer for new gravitational experiment with UCN

    E-print Network

    G. V. Kulin; A. I. Frank; S. V. Goryunov; D. V. Kustov; P. Geltenbort; M. Jentschel; A. N. Strepetov; V. A. Bushuev

    2015-02-11

    We describe an experimental installation for a new test of the weak equivalence principle for neutron. The device is a sensitive gravitational spectrometer for ultra-cold neutrons allowing to precisely compare the gain in kinetic energy of free falling neutrons to quanta of energy ${\\hbar}{\\Omega}$ transferred to the neutron via a non stationary device, i.e. a quantum modulator. The results of first test experiments indicate a collection rate allowing measurements of the factor of equivalence $ { \\gamma}$ with a statistical uncertainty in the order of $5{\\times}10^{-3}$ per day. A number of systematic effects were found, which partially can be easily corrected. For the elimination of others more detailed investigations and analysis are needed. Some possibilities to improve the device are also discussed.

  20. Spectrometer system for optical reflectance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Phillipps, Patrick G. (Inventor); Parker, Michael S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A spectrometer system includes a thermal light source for illuminating a sample, where the thermal light source includes a filament that emits light when heated. The system additionally includes a spectrograph for measuring a light spectrum from the sample and an electrical circuit for supplying electrical current to the filament to heat the filament and for controlling a resistance of the filament. The electrical circuit includes a power supply that supplies current to the filament, first electrical components that sense a current through the filament, second electrical components that sense a voltage drop across the filament, third electrical components that compare a ratio of the sensed voltage drop and the sensed current with a predetermined value, and fourth electrical components that control the current through the filament or the voltage drop across the filament to cause the ratio to equal substantially the predetermined value.

  1. ORFEUS-SPAS - The Berkeley EUV spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart; Hurwitz, Mark

    1990-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV spectrometer of ORFEUS-SPAS, a joint project of NASA and the BMFT, incorporates a set of four novel spherically figured, varied line-space gratings used in a geometry that is similar to that of the classic Rowland mount to span an interval of 390 and 1200 A. Two spectral detector units containing curved microchannel plates and delay-line anodes encode the arriving photons in digital format for telemetry. An additional optic directs the image of the source in the entrance aperture onto a sealed FUV detector which is used to track the source as it drifts during an observation, enabling a postflight reconstruction of the spacecraft pointing vector. This in turn makes it possible to define with precision the wavelength of each recorded photon.

  2. CHIPS: The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed at the University of California Berkeley, this Web site assists educators in integrating advanced space science research into their curriculum by allowing the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) mission to be available to the public. Users can learn about the topics such as the Interstellar Medium and the Local Bubble as well as concepts dealing with heat, light, temperature, and matter. The site provides many links to images of the launch, which took place on January 12, 2003. While learning why the mission is investigating the plasma between the stars, high school students will find activities and short questions that will help them better understand the difficult concepts. Students may also want to periodically visit this site because soon lessons dealing with exploration of ionization and radiation will be added.

  3. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  4. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  5. Los Alamos portable beta-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Brake, R.J.; Waechter, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The integration of a beta-ray detector to multichannel analyzer (MCA) and computer has resulted in a portable spectrometer for studying beta rays in the field. The present detector is a 5 cm diameter by 2 cm thick plastic scintillator manufactured by Bicron, Inc. Other detectors can easily be integrated into the package. The integral instrument package is 15 cm wide by 15 cm high by 25 cm long and weighs less than 10 pounds. Internal rechargeable batteries for 8 hours of field operation are included. The instrument contains a detector, an amplifier, a multichannel analyzer, and a liquid crystal display (LCD). A microprocessor controls all the functions of the instrument and is programmed to display all necessary information and 128-channel spectra on the LCD.

  6. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  7. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  8. Low power, CMOS digital autocorrelator spectrometer for spaceborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Kumar; Wilson, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A 128-channel digital autocorrelator spectrometer using four 32 channel low power CMOS correlator chips was built and tested. The CMOS correlator chip uses a 2-bit multiplication algorithm and a full-custom CMOS VLSI design to achieve low DC power consumption. The digital autocorrelator spectrometer has a 20 MHz band width, and the total DC power requirement is 6 Watts.

  9. THE NEW HRIBF RECOIL MASS SPECTROMETER | PERFORMANCE AND FIRST RESULTS

    E-print Network

    than 15 years recoil mass spectrometers have served as an important tool for nuclear structure for 146Tm new proton transitions were identi ed possibly from the population of excited states in 145Er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Chapter I. THE ROLE OF RECOIL MASS SPECTROMETERS IN NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPY 1 Nuclear Structure

  10. APEX: current status of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Schaepman; Klaus I. Itten; Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Daniel R. Schlapfer; Jason Brazile; Walter Debruyn; Andreas Neukom; Pieter B. Kempeneers; Renzo Moser; Thomas Schilliger; Marie van Quickelberghe; Markus Meng; Dominique Mollet; Peter Strobl; Peter Kohler; Gerd J. Ulbrich; Jens Piesbergen; Jose Gavira; Roland Meynart

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a joint Swiss\\/Belgian initiative started a project to build a new generation airborne imaging spectrometer, namely APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) under the ESA funding scheme named PRODEX. APEX is a dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the spectral range between 380 - 2500 nm. The spectral resolution will be better then 10 nm in the SWIR and < 5

  11. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsch, A.

    1998-08-01

    The ALICE forward muon spectrometer has been designed to measure the complete spectrum of heavy quark vector mesons via their muonic decay in pp, proton-nucleus (pA) and nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions. The design criteria are presented. The proposed technical realization of the spectrometer and its expected physics performance are summarized.

  12. Dualband infrared imaging spectrometer: observations of the moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. LeVan; Brian P. Beecken; Cory Lindh

    2008-01-01

    We reported previously on full-disk observations of the sun through a layer of black polymer, used to protect the entrance aperture of a novel dualband spectrometer while transmitting discrete wavelength regions in the MWIR & LWIR1. More recently, the spectrometer was used to assess the accuracy of recovery of unknown blackbody temperatures2. Here, we briefly describe MWIR observations of the

  13. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  14. Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip R. Christensen; Richard Peralta; Steven H. Silverman; Saadat Anwar; George Cannon; Noel Gorelick; Rolph Kheen; Tom Tourville; Duane Bates; Steven Ferry; Teresa Fortuna; John Jeffryes; William O'Donnell; Thomas Wolverton; Diana Blaney; Robert Denise; Joel Rademacher; Richard V. Morris; Steven Squyres

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes results of the calibration of the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) being built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) under contract to Arizona State University (ASU). This paper also serves as an update to an earlier paper (Peralta, et al., 2001) for mission description and instrument design. Mini-TES is a single detector Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS),

  15. The alpha magnetic spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Borgia

    2005-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to measure charged cosmic ray spectra up to the TV region, with high-energy photon detection capability up to few hundred GeV. AMS is a superconducting spectrometer with large acceptance, long duration (at least three years for the magnet) and state of the art particle identification techniques. AMS will investigate

  16. General Formulae for the Optimized Design of Fermi Chopper Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kajimoto, Ryoichi

    We report the procedures for the design optimization of a slitpackage which determine the performance of Fermi chopper spectrometer at a pulsed neutron source. The analytical formulae shown in this paper provide a wide variety of guidelines on the instrument design and contribute to the development for the next-generation Fermi chopper spectrometer.

  17. THE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE HUYGENS PROBE

    E-print Network

    Atreya, Sushil

    THE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE HUYGENS PROBE H. B. NIEMANN1,, S. K. ATREYA2,, S. J; Accepted in final form 25 May 1999 Abstract. The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) on the Huygens the composition (including isotope ratios) of several candidate surface materials. The GCMS is a quadrupole mass

  18. Distortion measurement of push-broom imaging spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuheng Chen; Yiqun Ji; Jiankang Zhou; Xinhua Chen; Xiaoxiao Wei; Weimin Shen

    2009-01-01

    The requirement for low distortion in either spatial or spectral direction of a push-broom imaging spectrometer has been recently recognized. Though distortion scale of as much as 1 or 2 pixels have been accepted in previous spectrometer designs, it is suggested to be limited to the order of hundredth of a pixel to preserve the validity and integrity of the

  19. Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip with Gradient Line Grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A spectrometer that includes a grating that disperses light via Fresnel diffraction according to wavelength onto a sensing area that coincides with an optical axis plane of the grating. The sensing area detects the dispersed light and measures the light intensity associated with each wavelength of the light. Because the spectrometer utilizes Fresnel diffraction, it can be miniaturized and packaged as an integrated circuit.

  20. Imaging Spectrometer Using a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Tomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design.

  1. Measurements of stratospheric composition using a star pointing spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deb J. Fish; Rod L. Jones; Ray A. Freshwater; Howard K. Roscoe; Derek J. Oldham

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric composition have been made with a novel star-pointing spectrometer. The instrument consists of a telescope that focuses light from stars, planets, or the moon onto a spectrometer and two dimensional CCD array detector. Atmospheric absorptions can be measured, from which atmospheric columns of several gases can be determined. The instrument was deployed in Abisko, 69 deg N,

  2. Solar Radio Spectrometer CALLISTO in Hurbanovo - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotovic, I.; Pinter, T.

    2014-02-01

    A solar radio spectrometer CALLISTO was installed in December 2011 in the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo in the frame of the ISWI (International Space Weather Initiative) program. The spectrometer registers solar radio radiation using a broadband antena in the range of frequencies from 45 to 870 MHz. This contribution presents the observing site of the instrument and the first results.

  3. CALLISTO A New Concept for Solar Radio Spectrometers

    E-print Network

    CALLISTO ­ A New Concept for Solar Radio Spectrometers Arnold O. Benz, Christian Monstein :....... Abstract. A new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO, is presented. It is a dual­channel frequency­agile receiver than one percent of the c # 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Callisto

  4. CALLISTO - A New Concept for Solar Radio Spectrometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold O. Benz; Christian Monstein; Hansueli Meyer

    A new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO, is presented. It is a dual-channel frequency-agile receiver based on commercially available consumer electronics. Its major characteristic is the low price for hardware and software, and the short as- sembly time, both two or more orders of magnitude below existing spectrometers. The instrument is sensitive at the physical limit and extremely stable. The total bandwidth

  5. Callisto – A New Concept for Solar Radio Spectrometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold O. Benz; Christian Monstein; Hansueli Meyer

    2005-01-01

    A new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO, is presented. It is a dual-channel frequency-agile receiver based on commercially available consumer electronics. Its major characteristic is the low price for hardware and software, and the short assembly time, both two or more orders of magnitude below existing spectrometers. The instrument is sensitive at the physical limit and extremely stable. The total bandwidth is

  6. An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Jim

    An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter contained in a cryogenic environment. Cyclotron emission from a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG heated microwave to optical frequencies.2 In this article an all-cryogenic spectrometer is presented that bypasses

  7. Development of Mossbauer spectrometer and it's application to characterization of

    E-print Network

    FeCO3 Development of M¨ossbauer spectrometer and it's application to characterization of FeCO3 film #12; #12; FeCO3 Development of M¨ossbauer spectrometer and it's application to characterization of FeCO3 film © #12; #12; (101 9 ) /( 1

  8. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  9. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  10. Modulated optical solid-state spectrometer applications in plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Howard

    1999-01-01

    A new electro-optically modulated optical solid-state (MOSS) interferometer has been constructed for the measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media. The instrument, which is based on the principle of the Fourier transform spectrometer, is rugged, compact, and inexpensive and offers a number of advantages over conventional grating based spectrometers. Most importantly, by

  11. Development of a temporally and spatially resolved grazing incidence spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Dietrich; R. J. Fortner; D. F. Price; R. E. Stewart; C. Gilman; H. Helava

    1980-01-01

    The design considerations are presented for a grazing incidence spectrometer which will resolve both temporally and spatially the emission from a wide variety of plasmas. The basis of the design involves use of microchannel plates (MCPs) which are curved to conform to the Rowland circle of the spectrometer. The spectra are obtained when the anode is properly biased. The use

  12. Spectral calibration for convex grating imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Chen, Yuheng; Shen, Weimin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an important role for acquiring target accurate spectrum. There are two spectral calibration types in essence, the wavelength scanning and characteristic line sampling. Only the calibrated pixel is used for the wavelength scanning methods and he spectral response function (SRF) is constructed by the calibrated pixel itself. The different wavelength can be generated by the monochromator. The SRF is constructed by adjacent pixels of the calibrated one for the characteristic line sampling methods. And the pixels are illuminated by the narrow spectrum line and the center wavelength of the spectral line is exactly known. The calibration result comes from scanning method is precise, but it takes much time and data to deal with. The wavelength scanning method cannot be used in field or space environment. The characteristic line sampling method is simple, but the calibration precision is not easy to confirm. The standard spectroscopic lamp is used to calibrate our manufactured convex grating imaging spectrometer which has Offner concentric structure and can supply high resolution and uniform spectral signal. Gaussian fitting algorithm is used to determine the center position and the Full-Width-Half-Maximum?FWHM?of the characteristic spectrum line. The central wavelengths and FWHMs of spectral pixels are calibrated by cubic polynomial fitting. By setting a fitting error thresh hold and abandoning the maximum deviation point, an optimization calculation is achieved. The integrated calibration experiment equipment for spectral calibration is developed to enhance calibration efficiency. The spectral calibration result comes from spectral lamp method are verified by monochromator wavelength scanning calibration technique. The result shows that spectral calibration uncertainty of FWHM and center wavelength are both less than 0.08nm, or 5.2% of spectral FWHM.

  13. EE 448 Laboratory Preface Laboratory Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    EE 448 Laboratory Preface Laboratory Introduction -1- EE 448 Preface 2/26/2007 Laboratory Introduction #12;EE 448 Laboratory Preface Laboratory Introduction -2- I. INTRODUCTION The electric machinery laboratory provides students with the opportunity to examine and experiment with different types

  14. Method and Apparatus for Accurately Calibrating a Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A calibration assembly for a spectrometer is provided. The assembly includes a spectrometer having n detector elements, where each detector element is assigned a predetermined wavelength value. A first source emitting first radiation is used to calibrate the spectrometer. A device is placed in the path of the first radiation to split the first radiation into a first beam and a second beam. The assembly is configured so that one of the first and second beams travels a path-difference distance longer than the other of the first and second beams. An output signal is generated by the spectrometer when the first and second beams enter the spectrometer. The assembly includes a controller operable for processing the output signal and adapted to calculate correction factors for the respective predetermined wavelength values assigned to each detector element.

  15. Method for Accurately Calibrating a Spectrometer Using Broadband Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Stephen; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for performing very fine calibration of a spectrometer. This process is particularly useful for modern miniature charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers where a typical factory wavelength calibration has been performed and a finer, more accurate calibration is desired. Typically, the factory calibration is done with a spectral line source that generates light at known wavelengths, allowing specific pixels in the CCD array to be assigned wavelength values. This method is good to about 1 nm across the spectrometer s wavelength range. This new method appears to be accurate to about 0.1 nm, a factor of ten improvement. White light is passed through an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, producing an optical signal with significant spectral variation. A simple theory can be developed to describe this spectral pattern, so by comparing the actual spectrometer output against this predicted pattern, errors in the wavelength assignment made by the spectrometer can be determined.

  16. BASIS: A New Backscattering Spectrometer at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Zamponi, Michaela M [ORNL; Hammons, Stephanie E [ORNL; Keener, Wylie S [ORNL; Hagen, Mark E [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A new spectrometer named BASIS has recently entered the general user program at the Spallation Neutron Source. BASIS is an acronym for Backscattering Silicon Spectrometer. While there are several operational reactor-based spectrometers that utilize backscattering reflection from silicon single crystals, such as IN10 and IN16 [1] at the ILL, France; HFBS [2] at the NCNR, USA; and SPHERES [3] at the FRM-II, JCNS, Germany, BASIS is the first silicon backscattering spectrometer built on a spallation neutron source. Conceptually, it is similar to previously built time-of-flight backscattering spectrometers that utilize reflections from pyrolytic graphite or mica, such as IRIS [4] and OSIRIS [5] at the ISIS, UK; LAM-80 [6] at the KENS, Japan; or MARS [7] at the SINQ, Switzerland.

  17. Appalachian Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Frostburg, Maryland, AL conducts research in aquatic ecology, landscape and watershed ecology, conservation biology and restoration ecology, behavioral and evolutionary ecology, and study both freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems of Maryland and other locations in the United States and the world. Site contains information regarding the facilities, faculty, on going research, education opportunities, and seminars. Also features information on the other UMCES laboratories.

  18. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  19. Laboratory 10 Control Systems Laboratory ECE3557 Laboratory 10

    E-print Network

    Laboratory 10 Control Systems Laboratory ECE3557 Laboratory 10 State Feedback Controller for Position Control of a DC Servo 10.1 Objective The objective of this laboratory is to position the gears, we will use the state space model of the DC servo introduced in the laboratory 3 (refer to [1

  20. The use of a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for field investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Margarete; Woelfl, Stefan; Óvári, Mihály; Tümpling jun, Wolf v.

    2003-12-01

    A newly developed, portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer was tested during a field campaign on Chilean lakes and a German river in January 2002. The field measurements were compared with laboratory measurements carried out on a stationary instrument in the German laboratory. For method validation certified reference material (NIST SRM 1640 Trace elements in natural water) and water samples from different freshwater sources were analyzed with both techniques and evaluated statistically. Based on these preliminary results, it could be concluded that the portable TXRF is a useful technique for the quantitative elemental screening of freshwater samples during field campaigns. Future tests with biological samples (e.g. biofilms and zooplankton), and suspended matter will provide information about the suitability of the portable TXRF for these materials.