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Sample records for laboratory multiparticle spectrometer

  1. MPS (Multiparticle Spectrometer) data acquisition software system

    SciTech Connect

    Saulys, A.C.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.

    1989-04-04

    A description of the software for a FASTBUS based data acquisition system in use at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer is presented. Data reading and formatting is done by the SLAC Scanner Processors (SSP's) resident in the FASTBUS system. A multiprocess software system on VAX computers is used to communicate with the SSP's, record the data, and monitor on-line the progress of high energy and heavy ion experiments. The structure and the performance of this system are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Advanced laboratory NMR spectrometer with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscegli, Clovis; Panepucci, Horacio; Farach, Horacio A.; Poole, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive NMR spectrometer that is suitable for use in an advanced laboratory course. The application of this spectrometer to the measurement of the oil content in corn seeds and the role of polymerization are presented.

  3. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  4. Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherall, James; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D.; Smith, Barry; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a for- mat suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064nm DeltaNu rst generation, eld-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064nm Bruker spectrometer and a 785nm Kaiser spectrometer. The steps taken to compensate for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and wavenumber sensitivity variation are described.

  5. Use of the Raman spectrometer in gemmological laboratories: review.

    PubMed

    Kiefert, Lore; Karampelas, Stefanos

    2011-10-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the development of Raman spectrometry in gemmological laboratories. While before 1990s, no commercial gemmological laboratory possessed such an instrument, all larger international labs have acquired these instruments by now. The Raman spectrometer is routinely used for the detection of emerald fillers, HPHT treatment of diamonds, analysis of the nature of a gemstone, analysis of gemstone inclusions and treatments, and the characterisation of natural or colour enhanced pearls and corals. Future developments in gemstone research lie in the closer analysis of the features of Raman and PL spectra and in the combination of several instruments. PMID:21530372

  6. Use of the Raman spectrometer in gemmological laboratories: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefert, Lore; Karampelas, Stefanos

    2011-10-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the development of Raman spectrometry in gemmological laboratories. While before 1990s, no commercial gemmological laboratory possessed such an instrument, all larger international labs have acquired these instruments by now. The Raman spectrometer is routinely used for the detection of emerald fillers, HPHT treatment of diamonds, analysis of the nature of a gemstone, analysis of gemstone inclusions and treatments, and the characterisation of natural or colour enhanced pearls and corals. Future developments in gemstone research lie in the closer analysis of the features of Raman and PL spectra and in the combination of several instruments.

  7. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM): Laboratory and Field Calibration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccubbin, I. B.; Green, R. O.; Mouroulis, P.; Van Gorp, B.; Dierssen, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) is an airborne sensor tailored specifically for the challenges of coastal ocean research. PRISM has high throughput, high-uniformity and low polarization sensitivity. PRISM is an airborne imaging spectrometer sensor that has been developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with funding from NASA's Earth Science and Technology Office, Airborne Science Office, and Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Office. Development of PRISM started in August 2009. Laboratory measurements of the sensor characteristics as well as measurements over land and water calibration sites will be reported. The objective of the PRISM program is to provide a facility instrument for the community of coastal ocean scientists in order to address specific science questions that have been identified by NASA as critical to the understanding of terrestrial processes. PRISM is a push-broom sensor, and utilizes a Dyson spectrometer, which has 3-nm spectral resolution from 350-1000 nm. The objective of the PRISM 2012 airborne campaign was to a) provide instrument calibration data by overflying specific well-characterized ground targets, and b) perform an investigation into the health of specific seagrass types as indicative of coastal habitat health in the Elkhorn Slough region of Monterey Bay, CA. In May and July of 2012 PRISM flew engineering test flights and an initial science campaign. The initial results from the May and July 2012 flight campaigns will be presented.

  8. Light Baryon Spectroscopy using the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Volker Crede

    2011-12-01

    Baryons are complex systems of confined quarks and gluons and exhibit the characteristic spectra of excited states. The systematics of the baryon excitation spectrum is important to our understanding of the effective degrees of freedom underlying nucleon matter. High-energy electrons and photons are a remarkably clean probe of hadronic matter, providing a microscope for examining the nucleon and the strong nuclear force. Current experimental efforts with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory utilize highly-polarized frozen-spin targets in combination with polarized photon beams. The status of the recent double-polarization experiments and some preliminary results are discussed in this contribution.

  9. A Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for VUV Laboratory Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J.

    2005-05-01

    All reflection Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) designs have the potential to revolutionize spectroscopy in the VUV. The advantages of interferometric spectrometers such as the Kitt Peak 1m Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) in the near UV, visible, and IR for laboratory measurements of spectroscopic data including emission branching fractions, improved level energies, and hyperfine/isotopic parameters are well documented. These advantages include: (1) very high spectral resolving powers, (2) excellent absolute wavenumber accuracy, (3) extremely broad spectral coverage, (4) high data collection rates, and (5) insensitivity to source drift during branching fraction measurements. Some progress has been made in extending spectroscopic interferometry into the VUV using modified versions of Chelsea Instruments FTS, but beam splitter performance issues and the problem of generally low sensitivity at wavenumbers above 67,000 cm-1 have proven to be quite stubborn. We are starting the construction of a SHS which has promise of extending spectroscopic interferometry to the window limit ( 90,000 cm-1) and eventually above the window limit. In addition to the lack of transmitting optics, the SHS has other advantages. Optical imperfections are much more serious in a traditional Michelson FTS than in a SHS. The localized fringes of equal thickness in a SHS deviate from straight lines due to optical imperfections, but such deviations can be corrected with software after transferring the interferogram from the CCD. Similar optical imperfections from either figure or index of refraction variations in a Michelson FTS lower fringe contrast and degrade the instrument sensitivity. The use of a CCD detector array to record the spatially distributed interferogram means that the SHS is quite compatible with transient, low duty cycle sources which are common in the VUV. Supported by NASA.

  10. a Simple, Cost Effective Raman-Fluorescence Spectrometer for Use in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Frank E.; Pride, Michael A.; Rojo, Michellle; Brinker, Katelyn R.; Walker, Zachary; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Mormile, Melanie R.; Grubbs, G. S., II

    2015-06-01

    Research, design, construction, and operation of a portable mixed Raman and Fluorescence type spectrometer implemented by the Missouri University of Science and Technology's Mars Rover Design Team will be presented. This spectrometer has been built for the team's annual competition. The spectrometer, completely built by undergraduates, is designed to use a 50 mW, 532 nm constant waveform laser to probe a sample of soil to find bacteria or bio-markers. However, initial tests of the spectrometer were carried out in a laboratory environment making the spectrometer also suitable for simple undergraduate physical chemistry or chemical physics laboratory experiments. The final cost of the device is roughly 2100, weighs 1.4 kg, and is 22.9 cm x 22.6 cm in size. Integrating the spectrometer with a computer database, results from the competition, complications of fitting mixed Raman-Fluorescence spectra, and future ideas/improvements will also be discussed.

  11. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM): Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Van Gorp, Byron; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael; Boardman, Joseph; Richardson, Brandon S.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Urquiza, Eugenio; Franklin, Brian D.; Gao, Bo-Cai

    2012-01-01

    We report the characteristics of the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne sensor specifically designed for the challenges of coastal ocean research. PRISM has high signal to noise ratio and uniformity, as well as low polarization sensitivity. Acquisition of high quality data has been demonstrated with the first engineering flight.

  12. The Los Alamos National Laboratory precision double crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.V.; Stevens, C.J.; Liefield, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the LANL precision double crystal X-ray spectrometer: Motivation for construction of the instrument; a brief history of the instrument; mechanical systems; motion control systems; computer control system; vacuum system; alignment program; scan programs; observations of the copper K{alpha} lines; and characteristics and specifications.

  13. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  14. Laboratory Calibration of a Field Imaging Spectrometer System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Changping; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Feizhou; Tong, Qingxi

    2011-01-01

    A new Field Imaging Spectrometer System (FISS) based on a cooling area CCD was developed. This paper describes the imaging principle, structural design, and main parameters of the FISS sensor. The FISS was spectrally calibrated with a double grating monochromator to determine the center wavelength and FWHM of each band. Calibration results showed that the spectral range of the FISS system is 437–902 nm, the number of channels is 344 and the spectral resolution of each channel is better than 5 nm. An integrating sphere was used to achieve absolute radiometric calibration of the FISS with less than 5% calibration error for each band. There are 215 channels with signal to noise ratios (SNRs) greater than 500 (62.5% of the bands). The results demonstrated that the FISS has achieved high performance that assures the feasibility of its practical use in various fields. PMID:22163746

  15. GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 μBq/kg sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J.

    2013-08-08

    A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg){sup −1} is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT’s under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

  16. GIOVE, a shallow laboratory Ge-spectrometer with 100 ?Bq/kg sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Denz, T.; Hakenmueller, J.; Hofacker, R.; Lackner, R.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Reisfelder, M.; Simgen, H.; Schreiner, J.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.; Westermann, J.

    2013-08-01

    A new germanium gamma spectrometer called GIOVE (Germanium spectrometer with Inner and Outer Veto) has been set up at the underground/shallow laboratory (15 m w.e.) of MPI-K. Its double plastic scintillator veto system and neutron moderation interlayer lower the background by more than one order of magnitude compared to the other existing spectrometer at this facility. The integral (40-2700 keV) background rate of about 290 counts (day kg)-1 is just a factor 4 to 8 above that of the GeMPI spectrometers operated at LNGS (3800 m w.e.) and thus proves that even under shallow overburden sub mBq/kg sensitivities are achievable. Extended material screening and neutron attenuation studies preceded the final design of the spectrometer. The technical realization of the spectrometer is described in detail with special emphasis on the inner veto system. For its optimisation a simulation model was developed for light collection on small low activity PMT's under various geometrical conditions. Radon suppression is accomplished by employing a gas tight sample container and a nitrogen flushed glove-box system with an airlock. The active volume of the crystal was modelled by absorption scanning measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The complete shield is implemented in a Geant4 based simulation framework.

  17. Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) for In-Situ Planetary Mineralogy: Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, Byron; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Blaney, Diana; Wilson, Daniel W.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Richardson, Brandon S.

    2012-01-01

    The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a miniature telescope and spectrometer system intended for mapping terrain mineralogy over distances from 1.5 m to infinity with spatial sampling of 1.35 mrad over a 33 deg field, and spectral sampling of 10 nm in the 600-2500 nm range. The core of the system has been designed for operation in a Martian environment, but can also be used in a terrestrial environment when placed inside a vacuum vessel. We report the laboratory and field calibration data that include spatial and spectral calibration, and demonstrate the use of the system.

  18. Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Koutroumpa, D; Leutenegger, M; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Trabert, E

    2009-08-25

    We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K- and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  19. A novel von Hamos spectrometer for efficient X-ray emission spectroscopy in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anklamm, Lars Schlesiger, Christopher; Malzer, Wolfgang; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2014-05-15

    We present a novel, highly efficient von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in the laboratory using highly annealed pyrolitic graphite crystals as the dispersive element. The spectrometer covers an energy range from 2.5 keV to 15 keV giving access to chemical speciation and information about the electronic configuration of 3d transition metals by means of the Kβ multiplet. XES spectra of Ti compounds are presented to demonstrate the speciation capabilities of the instrument. A spectral resolving power of E/ΔE = 2000 at 8 keV was achieved. Typical acquisition times range from 10 min for bulk material to hours for thin samples below 1 μm.

  20. Extent of multiparticle quantum nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nick S.; Linden, Noah; Massar, Serge

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that entangled quantum states are nonlocal: the corrrelations between local measurements carried out on these states cannot be reproduced by local hidden variable models. Svetlichny, followed by others, showed that multipartite quantum states are more nonlocal than bipartite ones in the sense that even some nonlocal classical models with (super-luminal) communication between some of the parties cannot reproduce the quantum correlations. Here we study in detail the kinds of nonlocality present in quantum states. More precisely, we enquire what kinds of classical communication patterns cannot reproduce quantum correlations. By studying the extremal points of the space of all multiparty probability distributions, in which all parties can make one of a pair of measurements each with two possible outcomes, we find a necessary condition for classical nonlocal models to reproduce the statistics of all quantum states. This condition extends and generalizes work of Svetlichny and others in which it was showed that a particular class of classical nonlocal models, the 'separable' models, cannot reproduce the statistics of all multiparticle quantum states. Our condition shows that the nonlocality present in some entangled multiparticle quantum states is much stronger than previously thought. We also study the sufficiency of our condition.

  1. Universal multifractality in multiparticle production

    SciTech Connect

    Florkowski, W.; Hwa, R.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The {ital G} moments for the multifractal analysis of multiparticle production are investigated in a model-independent way. By successive bin splitting and assuming the existence of a multiplicity splitting function that depends on multiplicity, but applicable at all steps of the splittings, we study the ergodicity of horizontal and vertical averaging, and derive a universality relation for the {ital G} moments. It relates the {ital G} moments for different initial multiplicities to a common scaling function {Gamma}{sub {ital q}}({xi}). The experimental verification of this scaling property would, on the one hand, signify self-similarity in the data, and, on the other, provide a convenient function for comparison not only among different experiments, but also between theory and experiment.

  2. Universal multifractality in multiparticle production

    SciTech Connect

    Florkowski, W.; Hwa, R.C.

    1990-09-01

    The G moments for the multifractal analysis of multiparticle production are investigated in a model-independent way. By successive bin splitting and assuming the existence of a multiplicity splitting function that depends on multiplicity, but applicable at all steps of the splittings, we study the ergodicity of horizontal- and vertical-averaging, and derive a universality relation of the G moments. It relates the G moments for different initial multiplicities to a common scaling function {Gamma}{sub q}({xi}). The experimental verification of this scaling property would, on the one hand, signify self-similarity in the data, and on the other, provide a convenient function for comparison not only among different experiments, but also between theory and experiment. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  4. Reflectance Anisotropy Measurements Using a Pushbroom Spectrometer Mounted on Uav and a Laboratory Goniometer - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, J.; Roosjen, P.; Bartholomeus, H.; Clevers, J.

    2015-08-01

    During 2014-2015 we have developed a new method to measure reflectance factor anisotropy using a pushbroom spectrometer mounted on a multicopter UAV. In this paper/presentation we describe the acquisition method and show the preliminary results of the experiment. To validate the measurements the same targets have also been measured with a laboratory goniometer system. The first experiments over sugar beet fields in 2014 show similar trends in both UAV and laboratory anisotropy data, but also some differences caused by differences in sampling and diffuse illumination. In 2015 a more extensive study on wheat, barley and potato fields were performed. The measurements were repeated on three days over the growth of the crops allowing linking the development of the crops to the anisotropy signals. On each day the anisotropy measurement was repeated 4-5 times with different solar zenith angles ranging from 60 to 40 allowing analysis how the solar angle affects the anisotropy. The first results of these experiments will be presented in this conference.

  5. Comparison of spectral data gathered from a laboratory spectrometer and TM images with and without shadow correction

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data from field samples were determined with a laboratory spectrometer (Beckman DK-2A). The spectral curves obtained with the spectrometer were correlated with the histograms determined from the images. The tightly defined histograms from the shadow corrected TM provided the best correlation with the rock data. Several units, including the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, showed multiple spectral patterns on both images and rock spectra. This difference was evaluated versus geochemistry, hematitic alteration, devitrification, pumice content, and degree of welding. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John L.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Gellert, Ralf; Andrushenko, Stefan M.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Maxwell, John A.; King, Penelope L.; Schofield, Cleste D. M.

    2012-09-01

    The alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission was calibrated for routine analysis of: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Y. The following elements were also calibrated, but may be too low to be measured (10s-100s ppm) for their usual abundance on Mars: V, Cu, Ga, As, Se and W. An extensive suite of geological reference materials, supplemented by pure chemical elements and compounds was used. Special attention was paid to include phyllosilicates, sulfates and a broad selection of basalts as these are predicted minerals and rocks at the Gale Crater landing site. The calibration approach is from first principles, using fundamental physics parameters and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix to calculate expected elemental signals for a given instrument setup and sample composition. Resulting concentrations for most elements accord with expected values. Deviations in elements of lower atomic number (Na, Mg, Al) indicate significant influences of mineral phases, especially in basalts, ultramafic rocks and trachytes. The systematics of these deviations help us to derive empirical, iterative corrections for different rock groups, based on a preliminary APXS analysis which assumes a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as the X-ray diffraction data from CheMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

  7. Laboratory calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for the Solar-B satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, James; Kent, Barry J.; Paustian, Wolfgang; Brown, Charles M.; Keyser, Christian; Anderson, Mark R.; Case, Giles C. R.; Chaudry, Rahil A.; James, Adrian M.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Pike, C. David; Probyn, Brian J.; Rippington, David J.; Seely, John F.; Tandy, Jason A.; Whillock, Matthew C. R

    2006-12-01

    The laboratory end-to-end testing of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) for the Solar-B satellite is reported. A short overview of the EIS, which observes in two bands in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength range, is given. The calibration apparatus is described, including details of the light sources used.The data reduction and analysis procedure are outlined. The wavelength calibration using a Penning source to illuminate the aperture fully is presented. We discuss the aperture determination using a radiometrically calibrated hollow-cathode-based source. We then give an account of the predicted and measured efficiencies from consideration of the efficiencies of individual optical elements in first order, an account of efficiencies out of band when radiation incident in one band is detected in the other, and efficiencies in multiple orders. The efficiencies measured in first order for in band and out of band are compared with the predictions and the sensitivity, and its uncertainties are derived. Application of the radiometric calibration is discussed.

  8. Phase space factors in multiparticle processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    General phase space theorems are discussed for the cases (A) with only energy conservation applied and (B) with energy and momentum conservation applied. It is shown that in the non-relativistic limit for N particles there is a very close relationship between the multiparticle phase space integral in case B and that for case A and N-1 particles.

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics using a Microcalorimeter and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Silver, Eric

    2004-01-01

    During the past year we have been preparing our new microcalorimeter system for permanent delivery to the NIST EBIT. Unfortunately, there have been delays due to technical difficulties in the fabrication of the two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and in the life expectancy of the thin windows used for internal thermal baffling of the infrared radiation. These problems have been solved and we are completing tests of the entire system and it will be set up at NIST during the first week of May. Several photos of the new system are shown in Figures 1A and 1B. This microcalorimeter spectrometer only requires helium refills every three days (as opposed to every 24 hours) and it will hold a temperature! of 65 mK for up to 48 hours (as opposed to 8 hours). Consequently, the efficiency of data acquisition will improve dramatically. In parallel we have published a paper that reviews our previous work (Takacs et al. 2003), especially on Fe XVII, in the context of recent measurements by other groups. This paper is included. We highlight a recent measurement of a broad band spectrum of Fe in Figure 2 that simultaneously includes L and K radiation. It is compared with the simulated spectrum of the Perseus Cluster that one could expect to obtain with a microcalorimeter in the focus of a grazing incidence telescope such as the one being designed for Constellation X. Both the charge state distributions and the relative intensity ratios of the emission lines within the particular charge state are very similar in the two spectra. This further demonstrates the importance and relevance of the laboratory measurements in predicting the components of cosmic spectra.

  10. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF SIX NEW/MODIFIED PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETERS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN CHARACTERIZED PAINT FILMS AND RESEARCH MATERIAL BOARDS (TECHNICAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was performed in 1994-1995 to identify and estimate the influence of key characteristics for evaluating the performance of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers. Six new/modified spectrometers, including HNU SEFA-Pb, Metorex X-MET, Niton X-L, Radiat...

  11. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF SIX NEW/MODIFIED PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETERS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN CHARACTERIZED PAINT FILMS AND RESEARCH MATERIAL BOARDS (APPENDICES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was performed in 1994-1995 to identify and estimate the influence of key characteristics for evaluating the performance of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers. Six new/modified spectrometers, including HNU SEFA-Pb, Metorex X-MET, Niton X-L, Radiat...

  12. Multiparticle entanglement as an emergent phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklin, Nikolai; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-02-01

    The question whether global entanglement of a multiparticle quantum system can be inferred from local properties is of great relevance for the theory of quantum correlations as well as for experimental implementations. We present a method to systematically find quantum states, for which the two- or three-body marginals do not contain any entanglement; nevertheless, the knowledge of these reduced states is sufficient to prove genuine multiparticle entanglement of the global state. With this we show that the emergence of global entanglement from separable local quantum states occurs frequently and for an arbitrary number of particles. We discuss various extensions of the phenomenon and present examples where global entanglement can be proven from marginals, even if entanglement cannot be localized in the marginals with measurements on the other parties.

  13. Multiparticle entanglement under the influence of decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghne, O.; Bodoky, F.; Blaauboer, M.

    2008-12-01

    We present a method to determine the decay of multiparticle quantum correlations as quantified by the geometric measure of entanglement under the influence of decoherence. With this, we compare the robustness of entanglement in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), cluster, W , and Dicke states of four qubits and show that the Dicke state is the most robust. Finally, we determine the geometric measure analytically for decaying GHZ and cluster states of an arbitrary number of qubits.

  14. Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological

  15. Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological…

  16. Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

    2011-12-01

    Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional XRF technology, to evaluate the handheld technology. All of these samples are fine-grained and homogeneous, and were selected to eliminate effects introduced to the data by inconsistencies in the sample matrix, or added complexities like increased vesicularity or phenocryst content. Our calibration curves are built from smooth, sawed surfaces. We have examined all major elements, minus Na (which falls below the instrument sensitivity). Initial tests show that reproducible and reliable calibration curves are produced for Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, and Si, but the curves produced for Mg, Mn, K and P include greater uncertainties. We are currently investigating how the instrument signal variably drops off as a function of surface roughness and distance to the instrument window. Through studies such as these in the simulated GeoLab setting, we can better understand the instrument's capabilities in a field environment, both on Earth and for potential future missions to other planetary surfaces.

  17. Multiparticle states and the hadron spectrum on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, David C.; Fleming, George T.

    2006-09-01

    The Clebsch-Gordan decomposition is calculated for direct products of the irreducible representations of the cubic space group. These results are used to identify multiparticle states which appear in the hadron spectrum on the lattice. Consideration of the cubic space group indicates how combinations of both zero momentum and nonzero momentum multiparticle states contribute to the spectrum.

  18. Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy in multiparticle scattering fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Dubnishchev, Yu N

    2011-03-31

    We discuss the basic scheme of laser Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy for the analysis of media with multiparticle scattering. It is shown that the Rayleigh scheme, in contrast to the heterodyne and differential schemes, is insensitive to the effects of multiparticle scattering. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

  19. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Matthew A.

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment. The high-time resolution data shows that rapid concentration changes of a common individual species can be lost with traditional bulk sampling, and a time resolution of 30 minutes is suggested to accurately represent these changes. Using the mass spectra collected from the extended sampling campaign, source apportionment was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF). The resulting model features six factors either correlated to specific sources (meat cooking, car emissions/road dust, diesel exhaust) or types of compounds (phthalates, alkanes/alkanoic acids, PAHs). The high-time resolution data allowed for the observation of specific trends in each factor's behavior as a function of time and wind direction relative to the receptor site. Elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) data is used to calculate the percentages of primary and secondary organic aerosol. Primary organic aerosol (POA) constituted the vast majority of the total carbon at 91% (an average of 2.8 +/- 1.1mug/m 3); 30% of which came from combustion, and 70% from non-combustion sources. These results can be explained by the PIAMS data: the diesel factor contributes to the combustion-related POA; the car/road dust, meat cooking, and alkane/alkanoic acid factors contribute the majority of non-combustion POA. The remaining factors represent <5% of the remaining OC. Considering the compatibility of data from the EC/OC and PIAMS, the ability of PIAMS to yield molecular species information to further define the primary and secondary organic aerosol factions is a distinct advantage in describing the behavior of the Wilmington organic aerosol. PIAMS was also applied to laboratory experiments. These experiments simulated complex environmental processes in order to focus on answering a central question. By mixing cholesterol aerosol with ozone in a smog chamber, and monitoring the concentration of cholesterol with PIAMS, the rate of reaction was determined. This rate indicates that cholesterol aerosol, which is a suggested source tracer, will remain in the ambient air for a few days under normal conditions. PIAMS was also used to assist in identifying products from the ozonolysis of various monoterpenes. The product ion peaks observed indicates that both the stabilized Criegee intermediate pathway and the hydroperoxide channel are both active pathways in yielding dimers and high-order oligomer.

  20. Comparison of laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at the beginning and end of the first flight season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Reimer, John H.; Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral and radiometric calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) were performed in the laboratory in June and November, 1987, at the beginning and end of the first flight season. Those calibrations are described along with changes in instrument characteristics that occurred during the flight season as a result of factors such as detachment of the optical fibers to two of the four AVIRIS spectrometers, degradation in the optical alignment of the spectrometers due to thermally-induced and mechanical warpage, and breakage of a thermal blocking filter in one of the spectrometers. These factors caused loss of signal in three spectrometers, loss of spectral resolution in two spectrometers, and added uncertainty in the radiometry of AVIRIS. Results from in-flight assessment of the laboratory calibrations are presented. A discussion is presented of improvements made to the instrument since the end of the first flight season and plans for the future. Improvements include: (1) a new thermal control system for stabilizing spectrometer temperatures, (2) kinematic mounting of the spectrometers to the instrument rack, and (3) new epoxy for attaching the optical fibers inside their mounting tubes.

  1. Molecular Structure Laboratory. Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FTNMR) Spectrometer and Ancillary Instrumentation at SUNY Geneseo

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, David K

    2015-12-31

    An Agilent 400-MR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer and ancillary equipment were purchased, which are being used for molecular structure elucidation.  The instrumentation is housed in a pre-existing facility designed specifically for its use. This instrument package is being used to expand the research and educational efforts of the faculty and students at SUNY-Geneseo and is made available to neighboring educational institutions and business concerns.  Funds were also used for training of College personnel, maintenance of the instrumentation, and installation of the equipment.

  2. Multiple detector focal plane array ultraviolet spectrometer for the AMPS laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of meeting the requirements of the amps spectroscopic instrumentation by using a multi-element focal plane detector array in a conventional spectrograph mount was examined. The requirements of the detector array were determined from the optical design of the spectrometer which in turn depends on the desired level of resolution and sensitivity required. The choice of available detectors and their associated electronics and controls was surveyed, bearing in mind that the data collection rate from this system is so great that on-board processing and reduction of data are absolutely essential. Finally, parallel developments in instrumentation for imaging in astronomy were examined, both in the ultraviolet (for the Large Space Telescope as well as other rocket and satellite programs) and in the visible, to determine what progress in that area can have direct bearing on atmospheric spectroscopy.

  3. For geological investigations with airborne thermal infrared multispectral images: Transfer of calibration from laboratory spectrometer to TIMS as alternative for removing atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Anderson, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical method to correct TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data for atmospheric effects by transferring calibration from a laboratory thermal emission spectrometer to the TIMS multispectral image. The method does so by comparing the laboratory spectra of samples gathered in the field with TIMS 6-point spectra for pixels at the location of field sampling sites. The transference of calibration also makes it possible to use spectra from the laboratory as endmembers in unmixing studies of TIMS data.

  4. Accuracy of the spectral and radiometric laboratory calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    The laboratory procedures, algorithms, measurements, and uncertainties associated with generation of the spectral and radiometric calibration of data acquired by AVIRIS are described. AVIRIS is an airborne sensor that obtains high-spatial-resolution image data of the earth in 224 spectral channels in four spectrometers covering the range from 400 to 2450 nm. The spectral calibration of AVIRIS agrees with the in-flight data to within two nanometers, and the absolute radiometric calibration is consistent with the in-flight verification to 10 percent over the spectral range. In-flight radiometric stability as measured by five consecutive passes over the surface calibration site is reported to be between three and five percent.

  5. Development and Applications of a Laboratory Micro X-ray Fluorescence (?XRF) Spectrometer Using Monochromatic Excitation for Quantitative Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Bauters, Stephen; Demey, Arne; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-07-01

    The analytical characterization and an application example of a novel laboratory X-ray fluorescence (?XRF) microprobe is presented, which combines monochromatic, focused X-ray beam excitation with a high-performance silicon drift detector (SDD) and two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) scanning capability. Because of the monochromatic excitation, below the (multiple) Compton/Rayleigh scattering peak region, the XRF spectra obtained by this laboratory spectrometer has similarly high peak-to-background ratios as those which can be obtained at synchrotron sources. However, the flux density difference between the proposed laboratory instrument and current synchrotron end stations is on the order of several orders of magnitude. As a result, sub-ppm minimum detection limits (MDL) for transition metals are obtained for a variety of sample matrices. The monochromatic excitation also allows for the efficient use of an iterative Monte Carlo simulation algorithm to obtain quantitative information on the analyzed samples. The analytical characteristics of this instrument and quantitative results, in combination with an iterative reverse Monte Carlo simulation algorithm, will be demonstrated using measurements conducted on an iron-containing meteorite. PMID:26006088

  6. Doubly Virtual Compton Scattering using the Hall A SuperBigBite spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Hall A SuperBigBite Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are a more general formalism englobing the concept of elastic form factor (FF) and parton distributions (PDFs) introducing a new independent variable called skewness xi in addition to usual variables which are defined for the PDFs and FF. Those distributions thus contain more information than the FF and PDFs allowing to give a more spatial and dynamical description of the nucleon. To measure GPDs one has to measure exclusive reaction. The simplest exclusive reaction is the exclusive production of photons or Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering. One drawback of this measurement is that the real photon constrains the measurement of the GPDs to the line ? =xbj . The Doubly Virtual Compton Scattering (DDVCS) is the similar process involving a virtual photon in the final state. This virtual photon decays into a dilepton pair allowing some values of xi different than xbj. High luminosity is required since cross sections are smaller by a factor 100. I will present an idea using the SuperBigBite Spectrometer to try to measure the DDVCS particularly in the dimuon channel.

  7. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF TUNABLE ATOMIC LINE MOLECULAR SPECTROMETERS FOR BENZENE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tunable Atomic Line Molecular Spectroscopy (TALMS) is a high resolution, differential absorption technique used in the ultraviolet region. Under Interagency Agreements EPA-80-D-X1014 and AD-89-F-2A008 with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, two prototype TALMS instruments were designe...

  8. Searching for hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward K.; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2016-03-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  9. HISS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

  10. Laboratory Astrophysics using a Microcalorimeter and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When we last reported, our new microcalorimeter system was being prepared for delivery and permanent installation at the NIST EBIT. This occurred in June 2003 and check-out with the internal calibration source and EBIT plasma x-rays took place over the next several months during which time we modified several component parts to improve the performance. These changes included: 1) A redesign of the x-ray calibration source from a direct electron impact source to one that irradiates the microcalorimeter with fluorescent x-rays. The resulting calibration lines are free of bremsstrahlung background; 2) The microcalorimeter electronic circuit has been significantly improved to ensure long-term stability for the lengthy upcoming runs of the EBIT. Both the preamplifier feedback resistors were changed and the first stage of the preamplifier redesigned. Several photos of the new system are shown in slides 3 and 4. This microcalorimeter spectrometer only requires helium refills every three days (as opposed to every 24 hours in our earlier system) and it will hold a temperature of 65 mK for up to 48 hours (as opposed to 8 hours). Consequently, the efficiency of data acquisition will improve dramatically. The first x-ray spectra of the new calibration source made with the 4-element detector array is shown. An example of the temperature control capabilities of the ADR for a 23 hour interval is shown. The horizontal line shows the temperature stability (about +/- 3 micro kelvin). There are a few short-lived heating excursions caused by technical staff working on the EBIT machine simultaneously. During actual experimental runs these are absent. This temporal profile was interrupted to test additional components of the system; otherwise, the temperature controlling would have continued for another 24 hours.

  11. Multi-particle eccentricities in collisions dominated by fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    We compute analytically the multi-particle eccentricities, ?m { 2 n }, for systems dominated by fluctuations, such as proton-nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we derive a general relation for < ?22n >. We further discuss the relations between various multi-particle eccentricities and demonstrate that ?2 { 2 } >?2 { 4 } ??2 { 6 } ??2 { 8 }, in agreement with recent numerical calculations in a Glauber model.

  12. The target asymmetry Pz in ?p?p?+?- with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungkyun; CLAS Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are reflected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.9 GeV/c2 are generally predicted to have strong couplings to the ??N final states via ?? or ?N intermediate states. Double-pion photoproduction is therefore important to find and investigate properties of highmass resonances. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly- and circularlypolarized photons incident on a longitually-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. In this contribution, the extraction of the target asymmetry for the reaction ?p?p?+?- will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  13. Measurement of the Helicity Difference in ?-->p-->-->p?+?- with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungkyun

    2010-08-01

    The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W ? 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp ?p?p?+?- will help us in our understanding of QCD. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a "complete" experiment for the reaction ?N?KY. In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction ?p?p?+?- will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

  14. Laboratory studies of peroxy radical reactions using the turbulent flow chemical ionisation mass spectrometer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacak, A.; Bardwell, M.; Percival, C.

    2003-04-01

    HO_x (sum of OH and HO_2) plays an important role in the formation of tropospheric O_3 recently Wennberg et al.,^1 pointed out that the formation of tropospheric O_3 is strongly dependent on the level of NO_x as a consequence of its reaction with RO_2 (where R=H or CH_3). It is therefore important to characterise the coupling of NO_x and RO_2 to understand the tropospheric O_3 budget. Model studies have shown in the mid to upper troposphere both HO_2NO_2 and CH_3O_2NO_2 may well constitute a significant fraction of NO_y (˜20%). Despite the importance of these species, there are little or no experimental data available on their formation in this region. At present models do not accurately describe the observed nitrogen partitioning, in particular underpredicting the ratio NO_x/NO_y Recently Brown et al.,^2 have measured key rate coefficients over a wider range of pressure and temperature than performed previously and have shown that the formation of NO_y is much slower than previously estimated from extrapolation of available kinetic data to low temperatures Gao et al.,^3 have observed that these new kinetic data improve the agreement between model and measurements in the lower stratosphere and troposphere respectively, but that discrepancies still exist which must be addressed. The temperatures (180-300 K) encountered in the troposphere pose a significant challenge to laboratory studies. Although much progress has been made in this respect over the years, there still remains considerable uncertainties in the kinetic data base, particularly for conditions of lowest temperature (180 - 250 K) and pressures (70 Torr) that pertain to the UTLS region. A turbulent flow CIMS (as shown in figure 1) has been developed to study the reaction of RO_2 with NO over the pressure range 70-760 Torr and temperatures as low as 170 K. The CIMS is used to detect all trace species in the flow tube. Chemical ionisation takes place through the following reaction scheme. X^- + RO_2 longrightarrow RO_2^- + X 210Po emitting a particles is used to ionise N_2 used as a carrier gas, thus creating secondary electrons. These electrons attach rapidly to the neutral precursor X (e.g. SF6) of the donor to produce X^-. The X^- ion can then react via a charge transfer with the RO_2 species of interest. The resultant RO_2^- is then passed to the mouth of a quadrupole-mass filter via a set of ion optics and detected by an ion multiplier. References (1) Wennberg, P.O., T.F. Hanisco, L. Jaegle, D.J. Jacob, E.J. Hintsa, E.J. Lazendorf, J.G. anderson, R.-S. Gao, E.R. Keim, S.G. Donnelly, L.A. Del Negro, D.W. Fahey, S.A. Mckeen, R.J. Salawitch, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, R.L. Herman, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, E.L. Atlas, S.M. Schauffler, F. Locke, C.T. McElroy and T.P. Bui, Science, 79, 49 (1999). (2) Brown S.S., R.K. Talukdar and A.R. Ravishankara, Chem. Phys. Lett., 99, 277 (1999). (3) Gao, R.S., D.W. Fahey, L.A. Del negro, S.G. Donnelly, E.R. Keim, J.A. Neuman, E. Teverovskaia, P.O. Wennberg, T.F. Hanisco, E.J. Lazendorf, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, J.C. Wilson, J.W. Elkins, R.M. Stimpfle, R.C. Cohen, C.T. McElroy, T.P. Bui, R.J. Salawitch, S.S. Brown, A.R. Ravishankara, R.W. Portmann, M.K.W. Ko D.K. Weisenstein and P.A. Newman, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 1153 (1999). (4) Seeley, J.V., J.T. Jayne and M.J. Molina, J. Phys. Chem., 00, 4019 (1996).

  15. Multiparticle decoherence-free subspaces in extended systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karasik, Raisa I.; Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Sanders, Barry C.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2007-07-15

    We develop a method to determine spatial configurations to realize decoherence-free subspaces for spatially extended multiparticle systems. We have assumed normal reservoir behavior including translational invariance of the reservoir and preparation in stationary states or mixture thereof and weak Markovian system-reservoir coupling that requires energy transfer. One important outcome of our method is a proof that there does not exist a multiparticle decoherence-free subspace in such systems except in the limit that the spatial extent of the system becomes infinitesimal.

  16. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

  17. Renormdynamics, multiparticle production, negative binomial distribution, and Riemann zeta function

    SciTech Connect

    Makhaldiani, N. V.

    2013-09-15

    After short introduction, we consider different aspects of the renormdynamics. Then scaling functions of the multiparticle production processes and corresponding stochastic dynamics are considered. Nonperturbative quasi-particle dynamics is considered on the base of the toy QCD-O(N)-sigma model. Last section concerns to the NBD-Riemann zeta function connection.

  18. Thin-window high-efficiency position sensitive proportional counter for the vacuum flat crystal spectrometers on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Goddard, R.; Wargelin, B.; Utter, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    We have mounted 1 {mu}m thick aluminized polyimide windows onto the position sensitive proportional counters employed by the wide-band flat crystal spectrometers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap experiment. The aluminized polyimide, supported by thin wires across the short axis of the window, is used to isolate the detection chamber of the proportional counters, which operate at a pressure of 760 Torr, from the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer. The windows are modified versions of those developed for the proportional counters which were used during ground calibration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The transmission properties of these windows are, therefore, well known. The increased transmission efficiency of the polyimide windows relative to the 4 {mu}m thick polypropylene window material previously employed by our proportional counters has extended the useful range of the spectrometer from roughly 20 to 30 Aa at energies below the carbon edge, as well as increasing detection efficiency at wavelengths beyond the carbon edge. Using an octadecyl hydrogen maleate crystal with 2d=63.5Aa, we demonstrate the increased wavelength coverage by measuring the resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines in helium-like NVII in two different density regimes. The thin polyimide windows have also increased the efficiency of the spectrometers entire wavelength range. To demonstrate the increased efficiency we compare the FeXVII spectrum in the 15--17 Aa band measured with the 1 {mu}m aluminized polyimide windows to the 4 {mu}m aluminized polypropylene windows. The comparison shows an average increase in efficiency of {approx}40%. The polyimide windows have a significantly lower leak rate than the polypropylene windows making it possible to achieve approximately an order of magnitude lower pressure in the spectrometer vacuum chamber which reduces the gas load on the trap region.

  19. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Y; B?achucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers. PMID:24784587

  20. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Y.; B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-15

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

  1. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with

  2. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

  3. Deterministic generation of multiparticle entanglement by quantum Zeno dynamics.

    PubMed

    Barontini, Giovanni; Hohmann, Leander; Haas, Florian; Estve, Jrme; Reichel, Jakob

    2015-09-18

    Multiparticle entangled quantum states, a key resource in quantum-enhanced metrology and computing, are usually generated by coherent operations exclusively. However, unusual forms of quantum dynamics can be obtained when environment coupling is used as part of the state generation. In this work, we used quantum Zeno dynamics (QZD), based on nondestructive measurement with an optical microcavity, to deterministically generate different multiparticle entangled states in an ensemble of 36 qubit atoms in less than 5 microseconds. We characterized the resulting states by performing quantum tomography, yielding a time-resolved account of the entanglement generation. In addition, we studied the dependence of quantum states on measurement strength and quantified the depth of entanglement. Our results show that QZD is a versatile tool for fast and deterministic entanglement generation in quantum engineering applications. PMID:26383948

  4. Deterministic generation of multiparticle entanglement by quantum Zeno dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barontini, Giovanni; Hohmann, Leander; Haas, Florian; Estve, Jrme; Reichel, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Multiparticle entangled quantum states, a key resource in quantum-enhanced metrology and computing, are usually generated by coherent operations exclusively. However, unusual forms of quantum dynamics can be obtained when environment coupling is used as part of the state generation. In this work, we used quantum Zeno dynamics (QZD), based on nondestructive measurement with an optical microcavity, to deterministically generate different multiparticle entangled states in an ensemble of 36 qubit atoms in less than 5 microseconds. We characterized the resulting states by performing quantum tomography, yielding a time-resolved account of the entanglement generation. In addition, we studied the dependence of quantum states on measurement strength and quantified the depth of entanglement. Our results show that QZD is a versatile tool for fast and deterministic entanglement generation in quantum engineering applications.

  5. Multiparticle systems in ? -Poincar inspired by (2 +1 )D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by a Chern-Simons description of 2 +1 -dimensional gravity coupled to point particles we propose a new Lagrangian of a multiparticle system living in ? -Minkowski/? -Poincar spacetime. We derive the dynamics of interacting particles with ? -momentum space, alternative to the one proposed in the "principle of relative locality" literature. The model that we obtain takes account of the nonlocal topological interactions between the particles, so that the effective multiparticle action is not a sum of their free actions. In this construction the locality of particle processes is naturally implemented, even for distant observers. In particular a particle process is characterized by a local deformed energy-momentum conservation law. The spacetime transformations are generated by total charges/generators for the composite particle system, and leave unaffected the locality of individual particle processes.

  6. The successful implementation of a licensed data management interface between a Sunquest® laboratory information system and an AB SCIEX™ mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    French, Deborah; Terrazas, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interfacing complex laboratory equipment to laboratory information systems (LIS) has become a more commonly encountered problem in clinical laboratories, especially for instruments that do not have an interface provided by the vendor. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is a great example of such complex equipment, and has become a frequent addition to clinical laboratories. As the testing volume on such instruments can be significant, manual data entry will also be considerable and the potential for concomitant transcription errors arises. Due to this potential issue, our aim was to interface an AB SCIEX™ mass spectrometer to our Sunquest® LIS. Materials and Methods: We licensed software for the data management interface from the University of Pittsburgh, but extended this work as follows: The interface was designed so that it would accept a text file exported from the AB SCIEX™ × 5500 QTrap® mass spectrometer, pre-process the file (using newly written code) into the correct format and upload it into Sunquest® via file transfer protocol. Results: The licensed software handled the majority of the interface tasks with the exception of converting the output from the Analyst® software to the required Sunquest® import format. This required writing of a “pre-processor” by one of the authors which was easily integrated with the supplied software. Conclusions: We successfully implemented the data management interface licensed from the University of Pittsburgh. Given the coding that was required to write the pre-processor, and alterations to the source code that were performed when debugging the software, we would suggest that before a laboratory decides to implement such an interface, it would be necessary to have a competent computer programmer available. PMID:23599901

  7. Description of multiparticle production by gluon-dominance mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abesalashvili, L. N.; Akhobadze, L. T.

    2009-01-01

    The parameters of Gluon-Dominance Model (GDM) for π - and charged particles are obtained in the multiplicity distributions of pA, pd, pp, p bar p , and π - p, π - n interactions. We have undertaken an attempt to give description of different processes of multiparticle production by means of a unifed approach based on quark-gluon picture using the phenomenological hadronization. We have obtained agreement of GDM with experimental data in a very wide energy range.

  8. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  9. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; L, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  10. Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and Radiation Properties Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Chen, H; Gu, M F; Kahn, S; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; May, M; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A; Thorn, D; Widmann, K

    2005-08-18

    The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. it is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include x-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, x-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and x-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

  11. QCD and Multiparticle Production - Proceedings of the XXIX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarcevic, Ina; Tan, Chung-I.

    2000-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Monday morning session: Hadronic Final States - Conveners: E. de Wolf and J. W. Gary * Session Chairman: J. W. Gary * Inclusive Jets at the Tevatron * Forward Jets, Dijets, and Subjets at the Tevatron * Inclusive Hadron Production and Dijets at HERA * Recent Opal Results on Photon Structure and Interactions * Review of Two-Photon Physics at LEP * Session Chairman: E. de Wolf * An Intriguing Area-Law-Based Hadron Production Scheme in e+e- Annihilation and Its Possible Extensions * Hyperfine Splitting in Hadron Production at High Energies * Event Selection Effects on Multiplicities in Quark and Gluon Jets * Quark and Gluon Jet Properties at LEP * Rapidity Gaps in Quark and Gluon Jets -- A Perturbative Approach * Monday afternoon session: Diffractive and Small-x - Conveners: M. Derrick and A. White * Session Chairman: A. White * Structure Functions: Low x, High y, Low Q2 * The Next-to-Leading Dynamics of the BFKL Pomeron * Renormalization Group Improved BFKL Equation * Session Chairman: G. Briskin * New Experimental Results on Diffraction at HERA * Diffractive Parton Distributions in Light-Cone QCD * The Logarithmic Derivative of the F2 Structure Function and Saturation * Spin Dependence of Diffractive DIS * Monday evening session * Session Chairman: M. Braun * Tests of QCD with Particle Production at HERA: Review and Outlook * Double Parton Scattering and Hadron Structure in Transverse Space * The High Density Parton Dynamics from Eikonal and Dipole Pictures * Hints of Higher Twist Effects in the Slope of the Proton Structure Function * Tuesday morning session: Correlations and Fluctuations - Conveners: R. Hwa and M. Tannenbaum * Session Chairman: A. Giovannini -- Fluctuations and Correlations * Bose-Einstein Results from L3 * Short-Range and Long-Range Correlations in DIS at HERA * Coior Mutation Model, Intermittency, and Erraticity * QCD Queuing and Hadron Multiplicity * Soft and Semi-hard Components in Multiplicity Distributions in the TeV Region * Qualitative Difference Between Particle Production Dynamics in Soft and Hard Processes * Session Chairman: M. Tannenbaum -- Bose-Einstein Correlations * Questions in Bose-Einstein Correlations * The Source Size Dependence on the mhadron Applying Fermi and Bose Statistics and I-Spin Invariance * Signal of Partial UA(1) Symmetry Restoration from Two-Pion Bose-Einstein Correlations * Multiparticle Bose-Einstein Correlations in Heavy-Ion Collisions * Tuesday afternoon session: Heavy Ion Collisions - Conveners: B. Müller and J. Statchel * Session Chairman: J. Stachel * Probing Baryon Freeze-out Density at the AGS with Proton Correlations * Centrality Dependence of Hadronic Observables at CERN SPS * Study of Transverse Momentum Spectra in pp Collisions with a Statistical Model of Hadronisation * Session Chairman: B. Brower * Production of Light (Anti-)Nuclei with E864 at the AGS * QCD Critical Point in Heavy-Ion Collision Experiments * Tuesday evening session * Session Chairman: H. M. Fried * Oscillating Hq, Event Shapes, and QCD * Critical Behavior of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition * Shadowing of Gluons at RHIC and LHC * Parton Distributions in Nuclei at Small x * Wednesday morning session: Diffraction and Small x - Conveners: M. Derrick and A. White * Session Chairman: C. Pajares * High-Energy Effective Action from Scattering of Shock Waves in QCD * The Triangle Anomaly in the Triple-Regge Limit * CDF Results on Hard Diffraction and Rapidity Gap Physics * DØ Results on Hard Diffraction * Interjet Rapidity Gaps in Perturbative QCD * Pomeron: Beyond the Standard Approach * Factorization and Diffractive Production at Collider Energies * Thursday morning session: Heavy Ion Collisions - Conveners: B. Müller and J. B. Stachel * Session Chairman: N. Schmitz * Summary of J/ψ Suppression Data and Preliminary Results on Multiplicity Distributions in PB-PB Collisions from the NA50 Experiment * Duality and Chiral Restoration from Dilepton Production in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions * Session Chairman: I. Sarcevic * Transport-Theoretical Analysis of Reaction Dynamics, Particle Production and Freeze-out at RHIC * Inclusive Particle Spectra and Exotic Particle Searches Using STAR * The First Fermi in a High Energy Nuclear Collision * Probing the Space-Time Evolution of Heavy Ion Collisions with Bremsstrahlung * Thursday afternoon session: Hadronic Final States - Conveners: E. de Wolf and J. Gary * Session Chairman: F. Verbeure * QCD with SLD * QCD at LEP II * Multidimensional Analysis of the Bose-Einstein Correlations at DELPHI * Study of Color Singlet with Gluonic Subsinglet by Color Effective Hamiltonian * Correlations and Fluctuations - Conveners: R. Hwa and M. Tannenbaum * Session Chairman: R. C. Hwa -- Fluctuations in Heavy-Ion Collisions * Scale-Local Statistical Measures and the Multiparticle Final State * Centrality and ET Fluctuations from p + Be to Au + Au at AGS Energies * Order Parameter of Single Event * Multiplicities, Transverse Momenta and Their Correlations from Percolating Colour Strings * Probing the QCD Critical Point in Nuclear Collisions * Event-by-Event Fluctuations in Pb + Pb Collisions at the CERN SPS * Friday morning session: High Energy Collisions and Cosmic-Ray/Astrophysics - Conveners: F. Halzen and T. Stanev * Session Chairman: U. Sukhatme * Rethinking the Eikonal Approximation * QCD and Total Cross-Sections * The Role of Multiple Parton Collisions in Hadron Collisions * Effective Cross Sections and Spatial Structure of the Hadrons * Looking for the Odderon * QCD in Embedded Coordinates * Session Chairman: F. Bopp * Extensive Air Sbowers and Hadronic Interaction Models * Penetration of the Earth by Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos and the Parton Distributions Inside the Nucleon * Comparison of Prompt Muon Observations to Charm Expectations * Friday afternoon session: Recent Developments - Conveners: R. Brower and I. Sarcevic * Session Chairman: G. Guralnik * The Relation Between Gauge Theories and Gravity * From Black Holes to Pomeron: Tensor Glueball and Pomeron Intercept at Strong Coupling * Summary Talks * Summary of Results of the Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Fixed Target Program * Review of Theory Talks * Summary of Experimental Talks * List of Participants

  12. Laboratory evaluation of a field-portable sealed source X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for determination of metals in air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Lawryk, Nicholas J; Feng, H Amy; Chen, Bean T

    2009-07-01

    Recent advances in field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP XRF) spectrometer technology have made it a potentially valuable screening tool for the industrial hygienist to estimate worker exposures to airborne metals. Although recent studies have shown that FP XRF technology may be better suited for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis of airborne lead in the workplace, these studies have not extensively addressed its ability to measure other elements. This study involved a laboratory-based evaluation of a representative model FP XRF spectrometer to measure elements commonly encountered in workplace settings that may be collected on air sample filter media, including chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc. The evaluation included assessments of (1) response intensity with respect to location on the probe window, (2) limits of detection for five different filter media, (3) limits of detection as a function of analysis time, and (4) bias, precision, and accuracy estimates. Teflon, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and mixed cellulose ester filter media all had similarly low limits of detection for the set of elements examined. Limits of detection, bias, and precision generally improved with increasing analysis time. Bias, precision, and accuracy estimates generally improved with increasing element concentration. Accuracy estimates met the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion for nearly all the element and concentration combinations. Based on these results, FP XRF spectrometry shows potential to be useful in the assessment of worker inhalation exposures to other metals in addition to lead. PMID:19387888

  13. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  14. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  15. Multifractal structure of multiparticle production in branching models

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.B. . Center for Particle Theory University of Texas, Austin, Texas . Department of Physics); Hwa, R.C. . Institute of Theoretical Science University of Oregon, Eugene . Department of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is described for the multifractal analysis of data on multiparticle production obtained at high energy either in experiment or in Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how the spectrum {ital f}({alpha}) of the rapidity-density index {alpha} can be determined from the multiplicity fluctuation of the rapidity distribution, as the resolution is changed. The branching model is used to illustrate the procedure. It is found that the {phi}{sup 3} model has a narrower {ital f}({alpha}) than the gluon model, suggesting that multifractality is a useful arena for confrontation between theory and experiment.

  16. Multifractal structure of multiparticle production in the branching models

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.B. ); Hwa, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the multifractal analysis of data on multiparticle production obtained at high energy either in experiment or in Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how the spectrum f({alpha}) of the rapidity-density index {alpha} can be determined from the multiplicity fluctuation of the rapidity distribution, as the resolution is changed. The branching model is used to illustrate the procedure. It is found that the {phi}{sup 3} model has a narrower f({alpha}) than the gluon model, suggesting that multifractality is a useful arena for confrontation between theory and experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Description of multiparticle production by gluon-dominance mode

    SciTech Connect

    Abesalashvili, L. N. Akhobadze, L. T.

    2009-01-15

    The parameters of Gluon-Dominance Model (GDM) for {pi}{sup -} and charged particles are obtained in the multiplicity distributions of pA, pd, pp, pp-bar, and {pi}{sup -}p, {pi}{sup -}n interactions. We have undertaken an attempt to give description of different processes of multiparticle production by means of a unifed approach based on quark-gluon picture using the phenomenological hadronization. We have obtained agreement of GDM with experimental data in a very wide energy range.

  18. Pseudoslit Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis C.; McCabe, George H.

    2004-01-01

    The pseudoslit spectrometer is a conceptual optoelectronic instrument that would offer some of the advantages, without the disadvantages, of prior linear-variable etalon (LVE) spectrometers and prior slit spectrometers. The pseudoslit spectrometer is so named because it would not include a slit, but the combined effects of its optical components would include a spatial filtering effect approximately equivalent to that of a slit. Like a prior LVE spectrometer, the pseudoslit spectrometer would include an LVE (essentially, a wedge-like narrowband- pass filter, the pass wavelength of which varies linearly with position in one dimension) in a focal plane covering an imaging planar array of photodetectors. However, the pseudoslit spectrometer would be more efficient because unlike a prior LVE spectrometer, the pseudoslit spectrometer would not have to be scanned across an entire field of view to obtain the spectrum of an object of interest that may occupy only a small portion of the field of view. Like a prior slit spectrometer, the pseudoslit spectrometer could acquire the entire spectrum of such a small object without need for scanning. However, the pseudoslit spectrometer would be optically and mechanically simpler: it would have fewer components and, hence, would pose less of a problem of alignment of components and would be less vulnerable to misalignment.

  19. Laboratory verification of the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Chang'e-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Liang; Li, Chun-Lai; Fu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Li-Yan; Ban, Cao; Li, Han; Zou, Yong-Liao; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    In the Chang'e-3 mission, the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Yutu rover is used to analyze the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. APXS data are only valid are only if the sensor head gets close to the target and integration time lasts long enough. Therefore, working distance and integration time are the dominant factors that affect APXS results. This study confirms the ability of APXS to detect elements and investigates the effects of distance and time on the measurements. We make use of a backup APXS instrument to determine the chemical composition of both powder and bulk samples under the conditions of different working distances and integration times. The results indicate that APXS can detect seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe under the condition that the working distance is less than 30 mm and having an integration time of 30 min. The statistical deviation is smaller than 15%. This demonstrates the instrument's ability to detect major elements in the sample. Our measurements also indicate the increase of integration time could reduce the measurement error of peak area, which is useful for detecting the elements Mg, Al and Si. However, an increase in working distance can result in larger errors in measurement, which significantly affects the detection of the element Mg.

  20. Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires Part 2: Analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieshop, A. P.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2008-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit mass resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to considerable evolution of the mass, the volatility and the level of oxygenation of biomass-burning OA. Photochemical oxidation produced substantial new OA, more than doubling the primary contribution after a few hours of aging under typical summertime conditions. Aging decreased the OA volatility of the total OA as measured with a thermodenuder; it also made the OA progressively more oxygenated in every experiment. With explicit knowledge of the condensed-phase mass spectrum (MS) of the primary emissions from each fire, each MS can be decomposed into primary and residual spectra throughout the experiment. The residual spectra provide an estimate of the composition of the photochemically produced OA. These spectra are also very similar to those of the oxygenated OA that dominates ambient AMS datasets. In addition, aged wood smoke spectra are shown to be similar to those from OA created by photo-oxidized dilute diesel exhaust and aged biomass-burning OA measured in urban and remote locations. This demonstrates that the oxygenated OA observed in the atmosphere can be produced by photochemical aging of dilute emissions from combustion of fuels containing both modern and fossil carbon.

  1. Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires 2: analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieshop, A. P.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2009-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit-mass-resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to considerable evolution of the mass, volatility and level of oxygenation of biomass-burning OA. Photochemical oxidation produced substantial new OA, more than doubling the OA mass after a few hours of aging under typical summertime conditions. Aging also decreased the volatility of the OA and made it progressively more oxygenated. The results also illustrate strengths of, and challenges with, using AMS data for source apportionment analysis. For example, the mass spectra of fresh and aged BBOA are distinct from fresh motor-vehicle emissions. The mass spectra of the secondary OA produced from aging wood smoke are very similar to those of the oxygenated OA (OOA) that dominates ambient AMS datasets, further reinforcing the connection between OOA and OA formed from photo-chemistry. In addition, aged wood smoke spectra are similar to those from OA created by photo-oxidizing dilute diesel exhaust. This demonstrates that the OOA observed in the atmosphere can be produced by photochemical aging of dilute emissions from different types of combustion systems operating on fuels with modern or fossil carbon. Since OOA is frequently the dominant component of ambient OA, the similarity of spectra of aged emissions from different sources represents an important challenge for AMS-based source apportionment studies.

  2. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J. Jr.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K.

    1999-06-10

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

  3. Acquisition of a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for Laboratory Study of Prebiotic Organic Geochemical Processes on the Early Earth, Mars, and Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This was a major equipment grant that provided funds ($72K) for purchase of a benchtop gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use in experimental studies of prebiotic organic compounds. An Agilent model 689015973 GC-MS was purchased and installed in the PI's lab in August of 2003. The instrument is now being used for a variety of research projects. The primary use of the instrument is to analyze and quantify organic products of laboratory experiments conducted by the PI. One example is shown, which shows organic products (predominantly n-alkanes) formed during Fischer-Tropsch-type abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. The analytical capabilities of the GC- MS allowed identification of the numerous organic products of this as well as other laboratory experiments. A key use of the instrument in this research is that the mass spectrometer capabilities allow use of isotopically labeled reactants to trace the progress of reactions and evaluate background contaminants. collaborative projects with other scientists involved in exobiology & astrobiology research (e.g., Mitch Schulte, NASA Ames; Katrina Edwards, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). For instance, an analysis of membrane lipids of an lithoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria being grown on basalt as a source of metabolic energy, a project where the instrument is being used to evaluate possible biomarker compounds from these organisms is shown. These iron oxidizers are thought to be similar to those living within the ocean crust, and are being investigated as possible analog organisms to those on the early Earth or crust of Mars. The instrument has also been used by an outside investigator (graduate student Brandon Canfeld, Arizona State University) for identification and isotopic characterization of experimental products of abiotic organic synthesis experiments he is conducting with Dr. John Holloway. analysis of quality control samples for other NASA-funded projects. For instance, an analysis of residual hydrocarbon contaminants on the internal surface of the shell of an atmospheric sounding rocket is shown. This analysis was used to help determine the source of the contaminating compounds. In the future, the instrument will continue to be used for quality control analysis in clean rooms and instrument construction facilities within the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, where the GC-MS is housed.

  4. Multiparticle entanglement in graph-diagonal states: Necessary and sufficient conditions for four qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Guehne, Otfried; Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.

  5. Correlation spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  6. The target asymmetry P_z in {gamma}p-->p{pi}^+{pi}^- with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sungkyun Park, CLAS Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are reflected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.9 GeV/c{sup 2} are generally predicted to have strong couplings to the {pi}{pi}N final states via {pi}{Delta} or {rho}N intermediate states. Double-pion photoproduction is therefore important to find and investigate properties of highmass resonances. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly- and circularly-polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. In this contribution, the extraction of the target asymmetry for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  7. Measurement of the Helicity Difference in gamma-->p-->-->ppi+pi? with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sungkyun Park

    2010-08-01

    The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W [approximate] 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp gammap-->ppi+pi? will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a complete experiment for the reaction gammaN-->KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction gammap-->ppi+pi? will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

  8. Multiparticle Solutions in 2+1 Gravity and Time Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steif, Alan R.

    Multiparticle solutions for sources moving at the speed of light and corresponding to superpositions of single-particle plane-wave solutions are constructed in 2+1 gravity. It is shown that the two-particle spacetimes admit closed timelike curves provided the center-of-momentum energy exceeds a certain critical value. This occurs, however, at the cost of unphysical boundary conditions which are analogous to those affecting Gotts time machine. As the energy exceeds the critical value, the closed timelike curves first occur at spatial infinity, then migrate inward as the energy is further increased. The total mass of the system also becomes imaginary for particle energies greater than the critical value.

  9. Control of current reversal in single and multiparticle inertia ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrondo, H. A.; Family, Fereydoon; Arizmendi, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the deterministic dynamics of underdamped single and multiparticle ratchets associated with current reversal, as a function of the amplitude of the external driving force. Two experimentally inspired methods are used. In the first method, the same initial condition is used for each new value of the amplitude. In the second method, the last position and velocity is used as the new initial condition when the amplitude is changed. The two methods are found to be complementary for control of current reversal, because the first one elucidates the existence of different attractors and gives information about their basins of attraction, while the second method, although history dependent, shows the locking process. We show that control of current reversals in deterministic inertia ratchets is possible as a consequence of a locking process associated with different mean velocity attractors. An unlocking effect is produced when a chaos to order transition limits the control range.

  10. Control of Current Reversal in Single and Multiparticle Inertia Ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Larrondo, H. A.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the deterministic dynamics of underdamped single and multiparticle ratchets associated with current reversal, as a function of the amplitude of the external driving force. Two experimentally inspired methods are used. In the first method the same initial condition is used for each new value of the amplitude. In the second method the last position and velocity is used as the new initial condition when the amplitude is changed. The two methods are found to be complementary for control of current reversal, because the first one elucidates the existence of different attractors and gives information about their basins of attraction, while the second method, although history dependent shows the locking process. We show that control of current reversals in deterministic inertia ratchets is possible as a consequence of a locking process associated with different mean velocity attractors. An unlocking effect is produced when a chaos to order transition limits the control range.

  11. Multidimensional spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Zanni, Martin Thomas (Madison, WI); Damrauer, Niels H. (Boulder, CO)

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  12. Benchmarking of Multiparticle Phase Scan and Acceptance Scan techniques for the Spallation Neutron Source linac

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Dong-O

    2007-01-01

    The importance of accurately setting the rf field amplitude and phase, called rf set-point is well received for a high intensity proton linac such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. As a technique to set the rf set-point of the SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), multiparticle phase scan technique based on realistic multiparticle tracking was applied and compared with the measurement data. The analysis showed an accurate agreement between the measurement and simulation even when the beam bunch is rather long (the Full Width Half Maximum beam bunch length entering the DTL tank 1 is about 27 a). Benchmarking of the multiparticle phase scan against acceptance scan showed an excellent agreement in the rf set-points obtained from the two techniques. The model was based on the realistic multiparticle tracking including space charge effect and the realistic BPM model unlike the previous works based on single particle tracking.

  13. Using the fractional interaction law to model the impact dynamics of multiparticle collisions in arbitrary form.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Jacek S

    2004-11-01

    Using the molecular dynamics method, we examine a discrete deterministic model for the motion of spherical particles in three-dimensional space. The model takes into account multiparticle collisions in arbitrary forms. Using fractional calculus we proposed an expression for the repulsive force, which is the so-called fractional interaction law. We then illustrate and discuss how to control (correlate) the energy dissipation and the collisional time for an individual particle within multiparticle collisions. We included in the multiparticle collisions the friction mechanism needed for the transition from coupled torsion-sliding friction through rolling friction to static friction. Analyzing simple simulations we found that binary collisions dominate in the strong repulsive state. However, weak repulsion is observed to be much stronger within multiparticle collisions. The presented numerical results can be used to realistically model the impact dynamics of an individual particle in a group of colliding particles. PMID:15600611

  14. Comparison of laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at the beginning and end of the first flight season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Reimer, John H.; Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral and radiometric calibrations of AVIRIS are described together with changes in instrument characteristics that occurred during the flight season. These changes include detachment of the optical fibers to two of the four AVIRIS spectrometers, degradation in the optical alignment of the spectrometers due to thermally induced and mechanical warpage, and breakage of a thermal blocking filter in one of the spectrometers. Means of improving the instrument are discussed.

  15. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  16. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  17. Exploring the Capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Spectrometer to Study Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrguez-Gasn, R.; Kiener, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Vilmer, N.; Hamadache, C.; Klein, K.-L.

    2014-05-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a European Space Agency hard X-ray/ ?-ray observatory for astrophysics, covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002, and since then the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors of the Anti-Coincidence Shield (ACS) of the Spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing light curves at photon energies above ? 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing long uninterrupted observing (about 90 % of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the shorter time needed to cross Earth's radiation belts. However, because of technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot be pointed at the Sun, and high-energy solar photons are always detected in nonstandard observation conditions. To make the data useable for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We checked the performance of the model employed for the Monte Carlo simulations using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations for the same sample of solar flares. We conclude that although INTEGRAL was not designed to perform solar observations, ACS is a useful instrument for solar-flare research. In particular, its relatively large effective area allows determining good-quality HXR/ ?-ray light curves for X- and M-class solar flares and, in some cases, probably also for C-class flares.

  18. Emergence of traveling density waves in cyclic multiparticle transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Giorgos; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Weele, Ko

    2015-08-01

    Multiparticle flow through a cyclic array of K connected compartments with a preferential direction is found to be able to organize itself in traveling waves. This behavior is connected with the transition between uniform flow and cluster formation. When the bias in the system is large, the particles flow freely in the preferred direction, with all compartments being equally filled at all times. Conversely, when the bias is small the particles cluster together in one compartment. The transition between these two regimes is found to involve an intermediate state in which the flow exhibits a density peak traveling periodically around the system. We relate the emergence of this traveling wave to a Hopf bifurcation and analytically derive the critical value of the "symmetry parameter" at which this bifurcation occurs. This critical value proves to be independent of the number of compartments, but the width of the intermediate regime (and thus the chance of observing traveling wave solutions) decreases sharply with growing K . The reverse transition follows a different course and takes place at a significantly lower value of the symmetry parameter; it is an abrupt transition from a clustered state to a uniform flow without an intermediate regime of stable traveling waves.

  19. Emergence of traveling density waves in cyclic multiparticle transport.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Giorgos; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Weele, Ko

    2015-08-01

    Multiparticle flow through a cyclic array of K connected compartments with a preferential direction is found to be able to organize itself in traveling waves. This behavior is connected with the transition between uniform flow and cluster formation. When the bias in the system is large, the particles flow freely in the preferred direction, with all compartments being equally filled at all times. Conversely, when the bias is small the particles cluster together in one compartment. The transition between these two regimes is found to involve an intermediate state in which the flow exhibits a density peak traveling periodically around the system. We relate the emergence of this traveling wave to a Hopf bifurcation and analytically derive the critical value of the "symmetry parameter" at which this bifurcation occurs. This critical value proves to be independent of the number of compartments, but the width of the intermediate regime (and thus the chance of observing traveling wave solutions) decreases sharply with growing K. The reverse transition follows a different course and takes place at a significantly lower value of the symmetry parameter; it is an abrupt transition from a clustered state to a uniform flow without an intermediate regime of stable traveling waves. PMID:26382392

  20. Thermostat for nonequilibrium multiparticle-collision-dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Varghese, Anoop; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC), a particle-based mesoscale simulation technique for complex fluid, is widely employed in nonequilibrium simulations of soft matter systems. To maintain a defined thermodynamic state, thermalization of the fluid is often required for certain MPC variants. We investigate the influence of three thermostats on the nonequilibrium properties of a MPC fluid under shear or in Poiseuille flow. In all cases, the local velocities are scaled by a factor, which is either determined via a local simple scaling approach (LSS), a Monte Carlo-like procedure (MCS), or by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energy (MBS). We find that the various scaling schemes leave the flow profile unchanged and maintain the local temperature well. The fluid viscosities extracted from the various simulations are in close agreement. Moreover, the numerically determined viscosities are in remarkably good agreement with the respective theoretically predicted values. At equilibrium, the calculation of the dynamic structure factor reveals that the MBS method closely resembles an isothermal ensemble, whereas the MCS procedure exhibits signatures of an adiabatic system at larger collision-time steps. Since the velocity distribution of the LSS approach is non-Gaussian, we recommend to apply the MBS thermostat, which has been shown to produce the correct velocity distribution even under nonequilibrium conditions. PMID:25679742

  1. Development of the versatile multi-particle code DYNAMION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaramyshev, S.; Barth, W.; Groening, L.; Kolomiets, A.; Tretyakova, T.

    2006-03-01

    The multiparticle code DYNAMION (DYNAMics of ION) was written in ITEP for precise beam dynamics simulation in high-current linear accelerators, and was used world-wide for linacs design and for study of linacs in operation. In collaboration between GSI and ITEP the DYNAMION code is in use since many years for the investigation of operation of the GSI high-current heavy-ion linac UNILAC. Results of the beam dynamics simulations are described and compared with other codes as well as with experimental data. The main feature of the code is the possibility to calculate the 3D particle motion in the whole linac potentially consisting of RFQs, different types of DTL structures, transport lines and other elements. During the last years, the development of the code was focused to the increasing of accuracy and reliability of calculations. These goals were reached by an improved description of the external fields inside the code. Additionally, data from measurements or from calculations done with external codes (e.g., focusing and accelerating fields, beam emittance, etc.) are usable. In the paper, the latest features of the DYNAMION code are presented.

  2. Interaction potentials from arbitrary multi-particle trajectory data.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Ian C; Crocker, John C; Sinno, Talid

    2015-09-21

    Understanding the complex physics of particle-based systems at the nanoscale and mesoscale increasingly relies on simulation methods, empowered by exponential advances in computing speed. A major impediment to progress lies in reliably obtaining the interaction potential functions that control system behavior - which are key inputs for any simulation approach - and which are often difficult or impossible to obtain directly using traditional experimental methods. Here, we present a straightforward methodology for generating pair potential functions from large multi-particle trajectory datasets, with no operational constraints regarding their state of equilibration, degree of damping or presence of hydrodynamic interactions. Using simulated datasets, we demonstrate that the method is highly robust against trajectory perturbations from Brownian motion and common errors introduced by particle tracking algorithms. Given the recent rapid pace of advancement in high-speed and three-dimensional microscopy and associated particle tracking algorithms, we anticipate a near future experimental regime where easily collected high-dimensional trajectory sets can be rapidly converted to the detailed interaction and hydrodynamic force fields required to replicate the system's physics in simulation. PMID:26235938

  3. Multiparticle moves in acceptance rate optimized monte carlo.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2015-11-15

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) based simulation methods are widely used to investigate molecular and nanoscale structures and processes. While the investigation of systems in MD simulations is limited by very small time steps, MC methods are often stifled by low acceptance rates for moves that significantly perturb the system. In many Metropolis MC methods with hard potentials, the acceptance rate drops exponentially with the number of uncorrelated, simultaneously proposed moves. In this work, we discuss a multiparticle Acceptance Rate Optimized Monte Carlo approach (AROMoCa) to construct collective moves with near unit acceptance probability, while preserving detailed balance even for large step sizes. After an illustration of the protocol, we demonstrate that AROMoCa significantly accelerates MC simulations in four model systems in comparison to standard MC methods. AROMoCa can be applied to all MC simulations where a gradient of the potential is available and can help to significantly speed up molecular simulations. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26459216

  4. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  5. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  6. Demonstration and characterization of distributed multiparticle-induced mode splitting in a microsphere resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xueying; Dong, Yongchao; Wang, Keyi

    2016-03-01

    Recently introduced mode splitting (MS) in whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) has been widely investigated as a highly sensitive sensing scheme. However, distributed multiparticle-induced MS has not been achieved experimentally up to date. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the multiparticle-induced MS where the sizes of detected particles are in a log-normal distribution using a microsphere resonator. We experimentally confirm that the total linewidth broadening is proportional to the number of adsorbed particles. The signal is immune to the angular positions of particles as well as the thermal fluctuations, which exhibits a more robust mechanism. Moreover, the proposed MS mechanism works equally well even under the unresolvable condition. Observation of mode splitting induced by distributed multiparticles provides a new way for concentration detection of nanoparticles in combustion, traffic exhaust and ambient atmosphere.

  7. Multi-particle assembled porous nanostructured MgO: its application in fluoride removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangaiah, Vijayakumar; Siddaramanna, Ashoka; Thimanna Chandrappa, Gujjarahalli

    2014-12-01

    In this article, a simple and economical route based on ethylene glycol mediated process was developed to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) multiparticle assembled nanostructured MgO using magnesium acetate and urea as reactants. Porous multiparticle chain-like MgO has been synthesized by the calcination of a solvothermally derived single nanostructured precursor. The prepared products were characterized by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, thermogravimetry, scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and N2 adsorption (BET). As a proof of concept, the porous multiparticle chain-like MgO has been applied in a water treatment for isolated and rural communities, and it has exhibited an excellent adsorption capability to remove fluoride in waste water. In addition, this method could be generalized to prepare other 1D nanostructures with great potential for various attractive applications.

  8. Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p -Pb Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ã.-.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. 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I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. 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    2015-07-01

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v2 , are obtained in p -Pb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (η ) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The p -Pb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 nb-1 , were collected during the 2013 LHC p -Pb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semiperipheral PbPb collision data at √{sNN }=2.76 TeV , corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5 μ b-1 and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the p -Pb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v2 coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the p -Pb and PbPb systems, the v2 values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large Δ η ) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a p -Pb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multiparticle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region.

  9. Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p-Pb Collisions.

    PubMed

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Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Rahmat, R; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Gray, J; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Sekaric, J; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Rusack, R; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Meier, F; Ratnikov, F; Snow, G R; Zvada, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Won, S; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Drozdetskiy, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Pirou, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Malik, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Hu, Z; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Zablocki, J; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Korjenevski, S; Petrillo, G; Verzetti, M; Vishnevskiy, D; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kovitanggoon, K; Kunori, S; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Friis, E; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Herv, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Levine, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Vuosalo, C; Woods, N

    2015-07-01

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v2, are obtained in p-Pb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (?) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The p-Pb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35??nb-1, were collected during the 2013 LHC p-Pb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02??TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semiperipheral PbPb collision data at ?sNN=2.76??TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5???b-1 and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the p-Pb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v2 coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the p-Pb and PbPb systems, the v2 values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large ??) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a p-Pb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multiparticle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region. PMID:26182092

  10. Evidence for collective multiparticle correlations in p–Pb collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; et al

    2015-06-29

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, v₂, are obtained in p−Pb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity (η) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The p-Pb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35  nb⁻¹, were collected during the 2013 LHC p-Pb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02  TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semiperipheral PbPb collision data at √s = 2.76  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5  μb⁻¹ and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the p−Pb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and themore » Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the v₂ coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the p−Pb and PbPb systems, the v₂ values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data support the interpretation of a collective origin for the previously observed long-range (large Δη) correlations in both systems. The ratios of v2 values corresponding to correlations including different numbers of particles are compared to theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic behavior of a p−Pb system dominated by fluctuations in the positions of participant nucleons. These results provide new insights into the multiparticle dynamics of collision systems with a very small overlapping region.« less

  11. Laser Doppler visualisation of the velocity field by excluding the influence of multiparticle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dubnishchev, Yu N; Chugui, Yu V; Kompenhans, J

    2009-10-31

    The method of laser Doppler visualisation and measurement of the velocity field in gas and liquid flows by suppressing the influence of multiparticle scattering is discussed. The cross section of the flow under study is illuminated by a laser beam transformed by an anamorphic optical system into a laser sheet. The effect of multiparticle scattering is eliminated by obtaining differential combinations of frequency-demodulated images of the laser sheet in different regions of the angular spectrum of scattered light. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Superdense Coding with Multi-particle GHZ State via Local Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Bin; Chen, Guo-Gui

    2012-06-01

    Controlled superdense coding with multi-particle GHZ state and multi-particles GHZ-class state via local measurement are explicitly exploited in this article. The amount of information transmitted from the senders to the receiver is controlled by the supervisor via his local measurement. It is shown that the amount of information is determined by the supervisor's measurement in the former case of GHZ state, and by the supervisor's measurement and the coefficients of the original GHZ-class state in the latter case.

  13. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  14. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old

  15. Multifractal structures in multiparticle production in p -p interactions at radical s = 1800 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rimondi, F. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna )

    1990-08-01

    Fractal structure in multiparticle production of {bar p} {minus} p minimum-bias'' interactions at {radical}s = 1800 GeV has been studied using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Preliminary results are shown and compared with very simple Monte Carlo models.

  16. Grille spectrometer (grille)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, M.; Besson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Grille spectrometer was designed and flown on Spaceklab 1 by two organizations: The Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales in France and the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy in Belgium. Its purpose is to study, on a global scale, atmospheric parameters between 15 and 150 km altitude. The investigation uses high-resolution (better than 0.1/cm) spectroscopic observations of the earth's limb in the wavelength range characteristic of the vibrational-rotational lines of the relevant atmospheric constituents. Characteristics and proposed modifications of the grille spectrometer are described. This instrument will be part of the atmospheric science research payload flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission planned for late 1990.

  17. Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

  18. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  19. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  20. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  1. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1996-11-25

    Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  2. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  3. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,

  4. The effect of a computer-based, spectrometer tutorial on chemistry students' learning in a UV/vis spectroscopy laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Nathan Brent

    It is common for fairly sophisticated instruments to be used in undergraduate, general chemistry, laboratory courses. Typically, these instruments are treated as incidental to the experiment: students are given extensive operating instructions, but told little or nothing about how they work, because understanding the instruments themselves is not an objective of the course. The implicit assumption is that chemical principles can be deduced simply from accurate data. However, cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1988, 2005) predicts it would be more difficult for students with limited prior knowledge to make sense of their data if they do not know how measurements made with the instruments are actually derived from their physical sample. Therefore, treating laboratory instruments as incidental may actually make it more difficult for students to learn the chemical concepts that underlie the data they collect. This experimental study was intended to determine whether a multimedia tutorial, designed to help students understand how a UV/vis spectrophotometer works, brings about any changes in performance on a laboratory experiment about food dye solutions. Working in pairs, 750 students were randomly assigned to receive either the tutorial (treatment) or an alternative task (comparison) as an introduction to an experiment that was a regular part of an undergraduate, general chemistry, laboratory course. Students' responses to all laboratory questions were collected and scored. The amount of time students spent on each laboratory task was collected as well. On average, treatment students completed many of the laboratory tasks significantly more quickly than comparison students. Treatment students typically also provided more concise responses to many of the laboratory questions. Unfortunately, no differences were found in scores on laboratory questions. Therefore, while there is evidence the tutorial helped students learn more efficiently, evidence could not be found that they learned more deeply. Potential explanations for these results and their implications are discussed.

  5. How To Light Special Hot Spots in Multiparticle-Film Configurations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Meng, Ling-Yan; Shan, Hang-Yong; Li, Jian-Feng; Qian, Lihua; Williams, Christopher T; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2016-01-26

    The precise control over the locations of hot spots in a nanostructured ensemble is of great importance in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and super-resolution optical imaging. However, for multiparticle configurations over metal films that involve localized and propagating surface plasmon modes, the locations of hot spots are difficult to predict due to complex plasmon competition and synergistic effects. In this work, theoretical simulations based on multiparticle-film configurations predict that the locations of hot spots can be efficiently controlled in the particle-particle gaps, the particle-film junctions, or in both, by suppressing or promoting specific plasmonic coupling effects in specific wavelength ranges. These findings offer an avenue to obtain strong Raman signals from molecules situated on single crystal surfaces and simultaneously avoid signal interference from particle-particle gaps. PMID:26580830

  6. Comparing multiparticle production within a two-component dual parton model with collider data

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, K.; Ranft, J. )

    1990-03-01

    The dual parton model (DPM) is very successful in describing hadronic multiparticle production. The version of DPM presented includes both soft and hard mechanisms. The hard component is described according to the lowest-order perturbative QCD--parton-model cross section. The model is formulated in the form of a Monte Carlo event generator. Results obtained with this event generator are compared with data on inclusive reactions in the TeV energy range of the CERN and Fermilab hadron colliders.

  7. Multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing description of nuclear many-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, C.; Pillet, N.; Le Bloas, J.; Berger, J.-F.

    2014-10-15

    In this work we discuss the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method which aims to describe the structure of atomic nuclei. Based on a variational principle it is able to treat in a unified way all types of long-range correlations between nucleons, without introducing symmetry breaking. The formalism is presented along with some preliminary results obtained for a few sd-shell nuclei. In the presented applications, the D1S Gogny force has been used.

  8. Energy evolution of the large-t elastic scattering and its correlation with multiparticle production

    SciTech Connect

    Troshin, S. M.

    2013-04-15

    It is emphasized that the collective dynamics associated with color confinement is dominating over a point-like mechanism related to a scattering of the proton constituents at the currently available values of the momentum transferred in proton elastic scattering at the LHC. Deep-elastic scattering and its role in the dissimilation of the absorptive and reflective asymptotic scattering mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the experimental signatures associated with the multiparticle production processes.

  9. Multiparticle content of Majorana zero modes in the interacting p -wave wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kells, G.

    2015-10-01

    In the topological phase of p -wave superconductors, zero-energy Majorana quasiparticle excitations can be well defined in the presence of local density-density interactions. Here, we examine this phenomenon from the perspective of matrix representations of the commutator H =[H ,] , with the aim of characterizing the multiparticle content of the many-body Majorana mode. To do this we show that, for quadratic fermionic systems, H can always be decomposed into subblocks that act as multiparticle generalizations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes/Majorana forms that encode single-particle excitations. In this picture, density-density-like interactions will break this exact excitation-number symmetry, coupling different subblocks and lifting degeneracies so that the eigenoperators of the commutator H take the form of individual eigenstate transitions |n >multiparticle excitation content of the Majorana zero modes of the one-dimensional p -wave lattice model. We find that the multiparticle content of the Majorana zero-mode operators is significant even at modest interaction strengths. This has important consequences for the stability of Majorana-based qubits when they are coupled to a heat bath. We will also discuss how these findings differ from previous work regarding the structure of the many-body Majorana operators and point out that this should affect how certain experimental features are interpreted.

  10. Four-loop perturbative Konishi from strings and finite size effects for multiparticle states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajnok, Zoltan; Janik, Romuald A.

    2009-02-01

    We derive the perturbative four loop anomalous dimension of the Konishi operator in N=4 SYM theory from the integrable string sigma model by evaluating the finite size effects using Lüscher formulas adapted to multimagnon states at weak coupling. We obtain these multiparticle generalizations of Lüscher formulas by studying certain exactly solvable relativistic integrable quantum field theories. The final result involves a summation of all bound states in the mirror theory and agrees with gauge theory perturbative computations.

  11. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  12. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a dominant role in most work using mass spectrometers. This is illustrated with recent results on the chemistry of C+.60 including the formation of covalent adducts with aromatic compounds. Quantitative analysis of methylated nucleosides and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug taxol are also discussed. A compendium of mass spectrometers constructed over the past three years is provided. This includes a variety of hybrid instruments, combinations of sector mass spectrometers with traps, instruments designed to study collision dynamics, and many more.

  13. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  14. Refinement of the Compton-Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer: II - Extraction of invisible element content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; King, Penelope L.; Nield, Emily; O'Meara, Joanne M.; Pradler, Irina

    2016-02-01

    The intensity ratio C/R between Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks of the exciting Pu L X-rays in the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is strongly affected by the presence of very light elements such as oxygen which cannot be detected directly by the APXS. C/R values are determined along with element concentrations by fitting APXS spectra of geochemical reference materials (GRMs) with the GUAPX code. A quantity K is defined as the ratio between the C/R value determined by Monte Carlo simulation based on the measured element concentrations and the fitted C/R value from the spectrum. To ensure optimally accurate K values, the choice of appropriate GRMs is explored in detail, with attention paid to Rb and Sr, whose characteristic K? X-ray peaks overlap the Pu L? scatter peaks. The resulting relationship between the ratio K and the overall oxygen fraction is linear. This provides a calibration from which the concentration of additional light invisible constituents (ALICs) such as water may be estimated in unknown rock and conglomerate samples. Several GRMs are used as 'unknowns' in order to evaluate the accuracy of ALIC concentrations derived in this manner.

  15. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer...

  16. Using a single purge and trap gas chromatograph mass spectrometer system to analyze for volatile organics in air, water and soil in a mobile laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shili Liu; Jainping Chen; Crowley, R.

    1997-12-31

    A method was developed and validated using a transportable purge and trap gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis. Routine purge and trap methodology allow for the use of one multi point calibration curve to quantify for the presence of volatile organics in water and high level soil samples. Atypical in application, is the use of a single purge and trap concentrator for the analysis of air. While not having to change the instrument configuration, an aliquot of air can be directly introduced into the purge and trap, and the data generated accurately compared to the water matrices standard curves. Air analysis starts by withdrawing air with a 100 milliliter (ml) gas tight syringe and injecting the sample into the sample port of the purge and trap GC/MS system. A vacuum assisted vaporized methanolic VOC standard is prepared in the syringe, and the measured response of the analytes were compared to the standard water curves response factors. For most of the 60 VOC`s tested the recoveries of the methanolic based verification standard ranged from 80% to 120% and the relative standard deviation values totaled less than 20%. The method for air analysis was also validated by analyzing a certified gas standard from an independent source. The quantitation range of the air syringe technique extended from low ppbv to 100 ppbv levels and the data quality of the air analysis was the same as the water analysis. A field feasibility case study was conducted analyzing water, soil and air with a transportable purge and trap GC/MS system on location at a highly contaminated LUST site in Connecticut.

  17. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  18. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  19. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  20. Commissioning of the HELIOS spectrometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lighthall, J. C.; Back, B. B.; Baker, S. I.; Freeman, S. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Kay, B. P.; Marley, S. T.; Rehm, K. E.; Rohrer, J. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shetty, D. V.; Vann, A. W.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Physics; Western Michigan Univ.; Univ. of Manchester

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and commissioning of a device based on a new concept for measurements of nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics. The HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer, HELIOS, was commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory by studying the {sup 28}Si(d,p){sup 29}Si reaction in inverse kinematics. This experiment served as a proof of principle for this previously untested concept, and was used to verify the response and performance characteristics of HELIOS.

  1. Effect of multiparticle correlations on the stability of electron-positron clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ipatov, A. N. Ivanov, V. K.; Polozkov, R. G.

    2013-10-15

    The total energy of electrically neutral electron-positron clusters with closed shells containing different numbers of pairs has been calculated. The inclusion of multiparticle correlations in the random phase approximation with exchange has allowed the reduction of the energy per pair of particles below the energy per dipositronium molecule. The calculations have revealed the region of the minimum of the total energy per pair of particles at the numbers of pairs in the range of 20 to 40, which assumingly correspond to the most stable electron-positron droplets.

  2. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in reactions involving multiple production of particles at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Belaga, V.V.; Chernov, G.M.

    1994-08-01

    Multiparticle azimuthal correlations between secondary charged shower particles produced in hadron-nucleon (hN) and hadron-nucleus (hA) collisions at energies of 200-400 GeV are studied using a new formalism. These correlations are observed in hN collisions up to maximum multiplicities. For the same multiplicities, correlations in hA collisions are weaker than in hN collisions. Rough estimates are obtained for the probabilities of production of charged particles via decays of two-particle resonances in the sets of collisions under study. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Multi-particle weak-strong simulation of RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,Y.; Abreu, N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; FischW; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2008-06-23

    To compensate the large tune spread generated by the beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton (pp) run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy round Gaussian electron beam or electron lens is proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. Using a weakstrong beam-beam interaction model, we carry out multiparticle simulations to investigate the effects of head-on beam-beam compensation on the proton beam's lifetime and emittance growth. The simplectic 6-D element-by-element tracking code SixTrack is adopted and modified for this study. The code benchmarking and preliminary simulation results are presented.

  4. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  5. Compact infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-05-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  6. Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sungkyun

    2010-08-05

    The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

  7. An analytical model of multi-particle electric double-layer interaction between identical spherical colloid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, Anton V.; Aryslanova, Elizaveta M.; Chivilikhin, Sergey A.

    2015-06-01

    The present work is devoted to the theoretical study of the colloid nanoparticle interaction. A simple analytical model for the multi-particle interaction between the amphoteric oxide nanoparticles with low surface potential has been developed. The model utilizes the framework of the DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeak) theory and accounts for the surface charge regulation during the multi-particle interaction. The results of this study demonstrate a good qualitative agreement with the experimental data and reveal the presence of the orientation effects during nanoparticle aggregation, which may cause the formation of aggregates with different morphologies.

  8. Multiparticle sintering dynamics: from fractal-like aggregates to compact structures.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-05-17

    Multiparticle sintering is encountered in almost all high temperature processes for material synthesis (titania, silica, and nickel) and energy generation (e.g., fly ash formation) resulting in aggregates of primary particles (hard- or sinter-bonded agglomerates). This mechanism of particle growth is investigated quantitatively by mass and energy balances during viscous sintering of amorphous aerosol materials (e.g., SiO(2) and polymers) that typically have a distribution of sizes and complex morphology. This model is validated at limited cases of sintering between two (equally or unequally sized) particles, and chains of particles. The evolution of morphology, surface area and radii of gyration of multiparticle aggregates are elucidated for various sizes and initial fractal dimension. For each of these structures that had been generated by diffusion limited (DLA), cluster-cluster (DLCA), and ballistic particle-cluster agglomeration (BPCA) the surface area evolution is monitored and found to scale differently than that of the radius of gyration (moment of inertia). Expressions are proposed for the evolution of fractal dimension and the surface area of aggregates undergoing viscous sintering. These expressions are important in design of aerosol processes with population balance equations (PBE) and/or fluid dynamic simulations for material synthesis or minimization and even suppression of particle formation. PMID:21488641

  9. Multiparticle Sintering Dynamics: From Fractal-Like Aggregates to Compact Structures

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Multiparticle sintering is encountered in almost all high temperature processes for material synthesis (titania, silica, and nickel) and energy generation (e.g., fly ash formation) resulting in aggregates of primary particles (hard- or sinter-bonded agglomerates). This mechanism of particle growth is investigated quantitatively by mass and energy balances during viscous sintering of amorphous aerosol materials (e.g., SiO2 and polymers) that typically have a distribution of sizes and complex morphology. This model is validated at limited cases of sintering between two (equally or unequally sized) particles, and chains of particles. The evolution of morphology, surface area and radii of gyration of multiparticle aggregates are elucidated for various sizes and initial fractal dimension. For each of these structures that had been generated by diffusion limited (DLA), clustercluster (DLCA), and ballistic particlecluster agglomeration (BPCA) the surface area evolution is monitored and found to scale differently than that of the radius of gyration (moment of inertia). Expressions are proposed for the evolution of fractal dimension and the surface area of aggregates undergoing viscous sintering. These expressions are important in design of aerosol processes with population balance equations (PBE) and/or fluid dynamic simulations for material synthesis or minimization and even suppression of particle formation. PMID:21488641

  10. Self-consistent approach to the description of relaxation processes in classical multiparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshin, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    The concept of time correlation functions is a very convenient theoretical tool in describing relaxation processes in multiparticle systems because, on one hand, correlation functions are directly related to experimentally measured quantities (for example, intensities in spectroscopic studies and kinetic coefficients via the Kubo-Green relation) and, on the other hand, the concept is also applicable beyond the equilibrium case. We show that the formalism of memory functions and the method of recurrence relations allow formulating a self-consistent approach for describing relaxation processes in classical multiparticle systems without needing a priori approximations of time correlation functions by model dependences and with the satisfaction of sum rules and other physical conditions guaranteed. We also demonstrate that the approach can be used to treat the simplest relaxation scenarios and to develop microscopic theories of transport phenomena in liquids, the propagation of density fluctuations in equilibrium simple liquids, and structure relaxation in supercooled liquids. This approach generalizes the mode-coupling approximation in the Götze-Leutheusser realization and the Yulmetyev-Shurygin correlation approximations.

  11. Identification of new transformation products during enzymatic treatment of tetracycline and erythromycin antibiotics at laboratory scale by an on-line turbulent flow liquid-chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Couillerot, Olivier; Panigoni, Karine; de Gunzburg, Jean; Bayer, Sally; Czaja, Rico; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the formation of transformation products (TPs) by the enzymatic degradation at laboratory scale of two highly consumed antibiotics: tetracycline (Tc) and erythromycin (ERY). The analysis of the samples was carried out by a fast and simple method based on the novel configuration of the on-line turbulent flow system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap - high resolution mass spectrometer. The method was optimized and validated for the complete analysis of ERY, Tc and their transformation products within 10 min without any other sample manipulation. Furthermore, the applicability of the on-line procedure was evaluated for 25 additional antibiotics, covering a wide range of chemical classes in different environmental waters with satisfactory quality parameters. Degradation rates obtained for Tc by laccase enzyme and ERY by EreB esterase enzyme without the presence of mediators were ∼78% and ∼50%, respectively. Concerning the identification of TPs, three suspected compounds for Tc and five of ERY have been proposed. In the case of Tc, the tentative molecular formulas with errors mass within 2 ppm have been based on the hypothesis of dehydroxylation, (bi)demethylation and oxidation of the rings A and C as major reactions. In contrast, the major TP detected for ERY has been identified as the "dehydration ERY-A", with the same molecular formula of its parent compound. In addition, the evaluation of the antibiotic activity of the samples along the enzymatic treatments showed a decrease around 100% in both cases. PMID:24972175

  12. Effects of relative density on microwave heating of various carbon powder compacts microwave-metallic multi-particle coupling using spatially separated magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Suzuki, S.; Hayashi, M.; Mitani, T.; Shinohara, N.; Nagata, K.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the microwave heating characteristics of non-magnetic conductive multi-particle systems using spatially separated electric and magnetic fields (Emax and Hmax, respectively) to determine the effects of the multi-particle structure on microwave heating. Pure carbon, carbon black, and artificial graphite multi-particle systems exhibited peak microwave absorption at specific relative densities only under Hmax. These absorptions can be categorized into two types: one originates from coupling between metal spheres, while the other originates from a heterogeneous distribution of particles.

  13. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  14. Long-Wave Infrared Dyson Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for an ultra compact long-wave infrared slit spectrometer based on the dyson concentric design. The dyson spectrometer has been integrated in a dewar environment with a quantum well infrared photodetecor (QWIP), concave electron beam fabricated diffraction grating and ultra precision slit. The entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to maximize signal to noise ratio performance, hence eliminating thermal signal from transmissive elements and internal stray light. All of this is done while maintaining QWIP thermal control. A general description is given of the spectrometer, alignment technique and predicated performance. The spectrometer has been designed for optimal performance with respect to smile and keystone distortion. A spectral calibration is performed with NIST traceable targets. A 2-point non-uniformity correction is performed with a precision blackbody source to provide radiometric accuracy. Preliminary laboratory results show excellent agreement with modeled noise equivalent delta temperature and detector linearity over a broad temperature range.

  15. Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

    2006-03-08

    Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple and the instrument is transportable. We are currently developing a fast neutron spectrometer with 0.1% energy resolution at 1 MeV neutron energy with an efficiency of > 1%. Our fast-neutron spectrometers use boron-based and {sup 6}LiF absorber crystals with Mo/Cu thermistors readout. They have achieved an energy resolution of 5.5 keV FWHM for 2.79 MeV deposited in {sup 10}B by thermal neutron capture (fig. 1), and 46 keV FWHM for fast (MeV) neutrons absorbed in {sup 6}LiF (fig. 2). Since the energy resolution does not depend on the neutron energy, we expect a similar energy resolution for MeV neutron energies. The response function is given simply by the cross section of the capture reaction, offset from zero by the Q-value of the capture reaction. This allows straightforward discrimination against gamma-events, most of which deposit less that Q{sub 6Li} = 4.79 MeV in the {sup 6}LiF absorber, and easy deconvolution of the neutron spectrum, since there is only a single capture reaction in {sup 6}Li and the spectrum is not affected by edge effects or geometric broadening. The current challenge for microcalorimeters is their necessarily small effective pixel area, {approx}1cm{sup 3} for neutron spectrometer pixels, and their slow decay time, {approx}10ms for neutron spectrometers. The pixel size is limited by the requirement for low Cabs for high energy resolution; the decay time is set by the intrinsically weak thermal coupling between materials at low temperatures. Both issues can be addressed by fabricating large detector arrays. This will enable high-precision neutron spectrometry with high statistics, such as simulated for Pu analysis in fig 3.

  16. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Chkhaidze, L. V. Djobava, T. D.; Kharkhelauri, L. L.; Kladnitskaya, E. N.

    2012-07-15

    Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of {pi}{sup -} mesons have been studied in dC, HeC, CC, CNe, MgMg, (d, He)Ta, CCu, CTa, and OPb collisions at momentum of 4.2, 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon within the standard transverse momentum analysis method of P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec. The data were obtained by SKM-200-GIBS and Propane Bubble Chamber Collaborations of JINR. The axis has been selected in the phase space and with respect to this axis {pi}{sup -} meson correlations were observed. The values of the coefficient of the correlations linearly depend on the mass numbers of projectile (A{sub P}) and target (A{sub T}) nuclei. The Quark-Gluon String Model satisfactorily describes the experimental results.

  17. Anomalous dynamical scaling in anharmonic chains and plasma models with multiparticle collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Livi, Roberto; Bufferand, Hugo; Ciraolo, Guido; Lepri, Stefano; Straka, Mika J.

    2015-12-01

    We study the anomalous dynamical scaling of equilibrium correlations in one-dimensional systems. Two different models are compared: the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain with cubic and quartic nonlinearity and a gas of point particles interacting stochastically through multiparticle collision dynamics. For both models—that admit three conservation laws—by means of detailed numerical simulations we verify the predictions of nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics for the structure factors of density and energy fluctuations at equilibrium. Despite this, violations of the expected scaling in the currents correlation are found in some regimes, hindering the observation of the asymptotic scaling predicted by the theory. In the case of the gas model this crossover is clearly demonstrated upon changing the coupling constant.

  18. Hydrodynamic correlations in shear flow: Multiparticle-collision-dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Anoop; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Winkler, Roland G.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    The nonequilibrium hydrodynamic correlations of a multiparticle-collision-dynamics (MPC) fluid in shear flow are studied by analytical calculations and simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations for a MPC fluid are linearized about the shear flow and the hydrodynamic modes are evaluated as an expansion in the wave vector. The shear-rate dependence and anisotropy of the transverse and longitudinal velocity correlations are analyzed. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic correlations in shear flow are anisotropic, specifically, the two transverse modes are no longer identical. In addition, our simulations reveal the directional dependence of the frequency and attenuation of the longitudinal velocity correlation function. Furthermore, the velocity autocorrelation functions of a tagged fluid particle in shear flow are determined. The simulation results for various hydrodynamic correlations agree very well with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Modern approaches for the theoretical description of multiparticle scattering and nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kukulin, V. I.; Rubtsova, O. A.

    2012-11-15

    A review of novel approaches to solution of multiparticle scattering problems in the area above three-body breakup together with the review of new computational technologies which provide very effective and ultrafast realization of the novel approaches with ordinary PC are given. The novel direction presented here is based on two key points: a new formulation of the quantum scattering theory in a discrete Hilbert space of stationary wave packets and the massive-parallel solution of the resulted matrix equations with usage of ultrafast graphic processors (the so called GPU-computations). For the reader's convenience, a short review of the modern GPU calculations for the medicine, physics, military applications etc. is presented.

  20. Multiparticle quantum Szilard engine with optimal cycles assisted by a Maxwell's demon.

    PubMed

    Cai, C Y; Dong, H; Sun, C P

    2012-03-01

    We present a complete-quantum description of a multiparticle Szilard engine that consists of a working substance and a Maxwell's demon. The demon is modeled as a multilevel quantum system with specific quantum control, and the working substance consists of identical particles obeying Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. In this description, a reversible scheme to erase the demon's memory by a lower-temperature heat bath is used. We demonstrate that (1) the quantum control of the demon can be optimized for a single-particle Szilard engine so that the efficiency of the demon-assisted thermodynamic cycle could reach the Carnot cycle's efficiency and (2) the low-temperature behavior of the working substance is very sensitive to the quantum statistics of the particles and the insertion position of the partition. PMID:22587045

  1. Multi-particle entanglement of charge qubits coupled to a nanoresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aty, M.; Larson, J.; Eleuch, H.; Obada, A.-S. F.

    2011-07-01

    The dynamics of charge qubits coupled to a nanomechanical resonator under the influence of both a phonon bath in contact with the resonator and irreversible decay of the qubits is considered. The focus of our analysis is devoted to multi-particle entanglement and the effects arising from the coupling to the reservoir. Even in the presence of the reservoirs, the inherent entanglement is found to be rather robust. Due to this fact, together with control of system parameters, the system may, therefore, be especially suited for quantum information processing. Our findings also shed light on the evolution of open quantum many-body systems. For instance, due to intrinsic qubit-qubit couplings our model is related to a driven XY spin model.

  2. Multiparticle quantum Szilard engine with optimal cycles assisted by a Maxwell's demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C. Y.; Dong, H.; Sun, C. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a complete-quantum description of a multiparticle Szilard engine that consists of a working substance and a Maxwell's demon. The demon is modeled as a multilevel quantum system with specific quantum control, and the working substance consists of identical particles obeying Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. In this description, a reversible scheme to erase the demon's memory by a lower-temperature heat bath is used. We demonstrate that (1) the quantum control of the demon can be optimized for a single-particle Szilard engine so that the efficiency of the demon-assisted thermodynamic cycle could reach the Carnot cycle's efficiency and (2) the low-temperature behavior of the working substance is very sensitive to the quantum statistics of the particles and the insertion position of the partition.

  3. Evaluation of the force and spatial dynamics of macrophage podosomes by multi-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Proag, Amsha; Bouissou, Anaïs; Vieu, Christophe; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Poincloux, Renaud

    2016-02-01

    Podosomes are submicron adhesive and mechanosensitive structures formed by macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts that are capable of protruding into the extracellular environment. Built of an F-actin core surrounded by an adhesion ring, podosomes assemble in a network interconnected by acto-myosin cables. They have been shown to display spatiotemporal instability as well as protrusion force oscillations. To analyse the entire population of these unstable structures, we have designed an automated multi-particle tracking adapted to both topographical and fluorescence data. Here we describe in detail this approach and report the measurements of individual and collective characteristics of podosome ensembles, providing an integrated picture of their activity from the complementary angles of organisation, dynamics, mobility and mechanics. We believe that this will lead to a comprehensive view of podosome collective behaviour and deepen our knowledge about the significance of mechanosensing mediated by protrusive structures. PMID:26342257

  4. Searching for low-lying multi-particle thresholds in lattice spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahbub, M. Selim; CSIRO Computational Informatics, College Road, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 ; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2014-03-15

    We explore the Euclidean-time tails of odd-parity nucleon correlation functions in a search for the S-wave pion–nucleon scattering-state threshold contribution. The analysis is performed using 2+1 flavor 32{sup 3}×64 PACS-CS gauge configurations available via the ILDG. Correlation matrices composed with various levels of fermion source/sink smearing are used to project low-lying states. The consideration of 25,600 fermion propagators reveals the presence of more than one state in what would normally be regarded as an eigenstate-projected correlation function. This observation is in accord with the scenario where the eigenstates contain a strong mixing of single and multi-particle states but only the single particle component has a strong coupling to the interpolating field. Employing a two-exponential fit to the eigenvector-projected correlation function, we are able to confirm the presence of two eigenstates. The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a Nπ scattering threshold and has a relatively small coupling to the three-quark interpolating field. We discuss the impact of this small scattering-state contamination in the eigenvector projected correlation function on previous results presented in the literature. -- Highlights: • Correlation-matrix projected correlators reveal more than one state contributing. • Results are associated with strong mixing of single and multi-particle states in QCD. • A two-exponential fit confirms the presence of two QCD eigenstates. •The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a nucleon–pion scattering threshold. •The impact of this small contamination on the higher-lying state is examined.

  5. Stationary Fourier spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, M. L.

    1993-02-01

    Theoretical performances of stationary Fourier spectrometers without mechanical scanning are compared with the performance of a scanning Fourier spectrometer. In spectrometers employing amplitude-splitting interferometers the reduction of fringe visibility, due to the extended source, can be avoided resulting in high optical throughput. In a wave-front-splitting interferometer the fringe contrast depends on the size of the source. However, the wave-front-splitting double-mirror spectrometer avoids the use of a beam splitter and forms an instrument especially suited for the detection of broad band radiation. Noise characteristics, spectral response, and resolving power of the double-mirror spectrometer are theoretically considered and measured. Due to the charge coupled device based detection the sensor characteristics affect the performance of stationary spectrometers. By background subtraction the effect of detection non-uniformity can be radically reduced increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the spectrometer. The maximum resolving power reached in measuring the spectra of two lasers was 1600.The stationary spectrometer is applicable to a wide range of measurements ranging from recording temporally variant wide-band radiation to monitoring the wavelength of lasers.

  6. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860 Section 862.2860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for...

  7. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  8. Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

  9. A low activity gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, C.; Sarracino, A.; Sverzellati, P. P.; Zanotti, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the features of a gamma ray spectrometer designed for very low activity measurement. Part of the measurements have been performed in an underground laboratory in the Mont Blanc tunnel. Comparative results obtained in different experiment conditions are reported.

  10. Performance of the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Porter, Frederick Scott; Gygax, John; Kelley, Richard L; Kilbourne, Caroline A; King, Jonathan M; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V; Thorn, Daniel B; Kahn, Steven M

    2008-10-01

    The EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS) is a new high-resolution, broadband x-ray spectrometer that has recently been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Trap Facility (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The ECS is an entirely new production class spectrometer that replaces the XRS/EBIT spectrometer that has been operating at EBIT since 2000. The ECS utilizes a 32-pixel x-ray calorimeter array from the XRS instrument on the Suzaku x-ray observatory. Eighteen of the pixels are optimized for the 0.1-10 keV band and yield 4.5 eV full width at half maximum energy resolution and 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV. In addition, the ECS includes 14 detector pixels that are optimized for the high-energy band with a bandpass from 0.5 to over 100 keV with 34 eV resolution and 32% quantum efficiency at 60 keV. The ECS detector array is operated at 50 mK using a five stage cryogenic system that is entirely automated. The instrument takes data continuously for over 65 h with a 2.5 h recycle time. The ECS is a nondispersive, broadband, highly efficient spectrometer that is one of the prime instruments at the EBIT facility. The instrument is used for studies of absolute cross sections, charge exchange recombination, and x-ray emission from nonequilibrium plasmas, among other measurements in our laboratory astrophysics program. PMID:19044469

  11. Theoretical study of the amphoteric oxide nanoparticle surface charge during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, A. V.; Aryslanova, E. M.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle surface charge plays an important role in many biological applications. In this study, an analytical surface charging model for the amphoteric oxide nanoparticles has been presented. The model accounts for the particle's electric double layer self-action on the charging process and the charge regulation during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions. The employment of the model allows to explicitly describe the nanoparticle agglomeration process and the accompanying agglomerate surface charge variation.

  12. Fractal structure in multiparticle production in e sup + e sup minus annihilations at 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1990-01-01

    The fractal structure in multiparticle production in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilations at 29 GeV has been studied using the HRS detector at PEP. Very high fractal moments have been measured and their implications are discussed in terms of an {alpha}-model and a thermodynamical model. Two-dimensional fractal moments in the rapidity and azimuthal angle space have also been measured and the results are compared to the Lund string model predictions. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Composite Spectrometer Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

  14. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  15. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  16. Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 ?m spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

  17. Planar integrated plasmonic mid-IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuierdo, P.; Nath, J.; Medhi, G.; Muraviev, A.; Fredricksen, C. J.; Buchwald, W. R.; Cleary, J. W.; Peale, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    Mid-IR spectrometers with adequate resolution for chemical sensing and identification are typically large, heavy, and require sophisticated non-stationary optical components. Such spectrometers are limited to laboratory settings. We propose an alternative based on semiconductor micro-fabrication techniques. The device consists of several enabling parts: a compact broad-band IR source, photonic waveguides, a photon-to-surface-plasmon transformer, a surfaceplasmon sample-interaction region, and an array of silicon ring-resonators and detectors to analyze the spectrum. Design considerations and lessons learned from initial experiments are presented.

  18. Spectrometer technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    A typical heterodyne remote sensing system contains three major elements: the antenna, the radiometer, and the spectrometer. The radiometer consists of the local oscillator, the mixer, and the intermediate frequency amplifiers. This subsystem performs the function of down converting the high frequency incident thermal emission signal to a lower intermediate frequency. The spectrometer measures the power spectrum of the down-converted signal simultaneously in many contiguous frequency channels. Typical spectrum analysis requirements involve measurement of signal bandwidths of 100 to 1000 MHz with a channel resolution of 0.5 to 10 MHz. Three general approaches are used for spectrometers: (1) filter banks, (2) Acousto-Optic Spectrometers (AOS's), and (3) digital autocorrelators. In contrast to the two frequency domain techniques, an autocorrelator works in the time domain. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the incoming signal is computed and averaged over the integration time. The averaged ACF is then Fourier transformed to obtain the signal power spectrum. Significant progress was made in the development of sub mm antennas and radiometers. It is now time to begin research in the development of low power spaceborne spectrometers and to reduce their size and weight. The near-term research goal will be to develop a prototype digital autocorrelation spectrometer, using VLSI gate array technology, which will have a small size, low power requirements, and can be used in spacecraft mm and sub mm radiometer systems. The long-range objective of this technology development is to make extremely low power, less than 10 mW/channel, small and stable wideband spectrometers which can be used in future mm and sub mm wavelength space missions such as the Large Deployable Reflector.

  19. SPEG: An energy loss spectrometer for GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, L.; Fernandez, B.; Gastebois, J.; Gillibert, A.; Mittig, W.; Barrette, J.

    1989-04-01

    Since July 1985, an energy loss spectrometer (SPEG) is under operation at the National Heavy Ion Laboratory (GANIL), at Caen (France). It has been designed to allow the study of quantum states populated in reactions induced by nuclei accelerated at energies up to 100 A MeV. The spectrometer has been designed by P. Birien. The optical properties and the main magnetic features have been calculated by Birien and Valero. A detailed reported of their study is given in ref. [1]. In the first part of the present paper, after recalling the specifications of the spectrometer, we shall give an overall description of the main characteristics, together with indications about the various shimming procedures which have been used to achieve the desired resolution (sections 1-4). In the second part, we shall describe various accessories and the different kinds of detectors which are used during experiments, with several illustrations of experimental results (sections 5 and 6).

  20. ExoMars Raman laser spectrometer overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, F.; Sansano, A.; Daz, E.; Canora, C. P.; Moral, A. G.; Tato, C.; Colombo, M.; Belenguer, T.; Fernndez, M.; Manfredi, J. A. R.; Canchal, R.; Dvila, B.; Jimnez, A.; Gallego, P.; Ibarmia, S.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Santiago, A.; Pla, J.; Ramos, G.; Gonzlez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, ExoMars mission. The RLS Instrument will perform Raman spectroscopy on crushed powered samples deposited on a small container after crushing the cores obtained by the Rover's drill system. This is the first time that a Raman spectrometer will be launched in an out planetary mission. The Instrument will be accommodated and operate inside the Rover's ALD (Analytical Laboratory Drawer), complying with COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Planetary Protection requirements. The RLS Instrument is composed by the following units: SPU (Spectrometer Unit); iOH: (Internal Optical Head); ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit). Other instrument units are EH (Electrical Harness), OH (Optical Harness) and RLS SW On-Board.

  1. Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

  2. Variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method applied to pairing correlations in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pillet, N.; Berger, J.-F.; Caurier, E.

    2008-08-15

    Applying a variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method whose purpose is to include correlations beyond the mean field in a unified way without particle number and Pauli principle violations, we investigate pairing-like correlations in the ground states of {sup 116}Sn, {sup 106}Sn, and {sup 100}Sn. The same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, namely, the D1S parametrization of the Gogny force, is used to derive both the mean field and correlation components of nuclear wave functions. Calculations are performed using an axially symmetric representation. The structure of correlated wave functions, their convergence with respect to the number of particle-hole excitations, and the influence of correlations on single-particle level spectra and occupation probabilities are analyzed and compared with results obtained with the same two-body effective interaction from BCS, Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov, and particle number projected after variation BCS approaches. Calculations of nuclear radii and the first theoretical excited 0{sup +} states are compared with experimental data.

  3. Modeling the locomotion of the African trypanosome using multi-particle collision dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Sujin B.; Stark, Holger

    2012-08-01

    The African trypanosome is a single flagellated micro-organism that causes the deadly sleeping sickness in humans and animals. We study the locomotion of a model trypanosome by modeling the spindle-shaped cell body using an elastic network of vertices with additional bending rigidity. The flagellum firmly attached to the model cell body is either straight or helical. A bending wave propagates along the flagellum and pushes the trypanosome forward in its viscous environment, which we simulate with the method of multi-particle collision dynamics. The relaxation dynamics of the model cell body due to a static bending wave reveals the sperm number from elastohydrodynamics as the relevant parameter. Characteristic cell body conformations for the helically attached flagellum resemble experimental observations. We show that the swimming velocity scales as the root of the angular frequency of the bending wave reminiscent of predictions for an actuated slender rod attached to a large viscous load. The swimming velocity for one geometry collapses on a single master curve when plotted versus the sperm number. The helically attached flagellum leads to a helical swimming path and a rotation of the model trypanosome about its long axis as observed in experiments. The simulated swimming velocity agrees with the experimental value.

  4. Function space requirements for the single-electron functions within the multiparticle Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohlenkamp, Martin J.

    2013-06-15

    Our previously described method to approximate the many-electron wavefunction in the multiparticle Schroedinger equation reduces this problem to operations on many single-electron functions. In this work, we analyze these operations to determine which function spaces are appropriate for various intermediate functions in order to bound the output. This knowledge then allows us to choose the function spaces in which to control the error of a numerical method for single-electron functions. We find that an efficient choice is to maintain the single-electron functions in L{sup 2} Intersection L{sup 4}, the product of these functions in L{sup 1} Intersection L{sup 2}, the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L{sup 4}, a function times the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L{sup 2}, and the nuclear potential times a function in L{sup 4/3}. Due to the integral operator formulation, we do not require differentiability.

  5. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Purqon, Acep; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of altitude also meets atmosphere's hydrostatic theory.

  6. From local to hydrodynamic friction in Brownian motion: A multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theers, Mario; Westphal, Elmar; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G.

    2016-03-01

    The friction and diffusion coefficients of rigid spherical colloidal particles dissolved in a fluid are determined from velocity and force autocorrelation functions by mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations. Colloids with both slip and no-slip boundary conditions are considered, which are embedded in fluids modeled by multiparticle collision dynamics with and without angular momentum conservation. For no-slip boundary conditions, hydrodynamics yields the well-known Stokes law, while for slip boundary conditions the lack of angular momentum conservation leads to a reduction of the hydrodynamic friction coefficient compared to the classical result. The colloid diffusion coefficient is determined by integration of the velocity autocorrelation function, where the numerical result at shorter times is combined with the theoretical hydrodynamic expression for longer times. The suitability of this approach is confirmed by simulations of sedimenting colloids. In general, we find only minor deviations from the Stokes-Einstein relation, which even disappear for larger colloids. Importantly, for colloids with slip boundary conditions, our simulation results contradict the frequently assumed additivity of local and hydrodynamic diffusion coefficients.

  7. Silica aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters for the JLab Hall A spectrometers: improvements and proposed modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Luigi Lagamba; Evaristo Cisbani; S. Colilli; R. Crateri; R. De Leo; Salvatore Frullani; Franco Garibaldi; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; Mauro Iodice; Riccardo Iommi; A. Leone; M. Lucentini; A. Mostarda; E. Nappi; Roberto Perrino; L. Pierangeli; F. Santavenere; Guido M. Urciuoli

    2001-10-01

    Recently approved experiments at Jefferson Lab Hall A require a clean kaon identification in a large electron, pion, and proton background environment. To this end, improved performance is required of the silica aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters installed in the focal plane of the two Hall A spectrometers. In this paper we propose two strategies to improve the performance of the Cherenkov counters which presently use a hydrophilic aerogel radiator, and convey Cherenkov photons towards the photomultipliers by means of mirrors with a parabolic shape in one direction and flat in the other. The first strategy is aerogel baking. In the second strategy we propose a modification of the counter geometry by replacing the mirrors with a planar diffusing surface and by displacing in a different way the photomultipliers. Tests at CERN with a 5GeV/c multiparticle beam revealed that both the strategies are able to increase significantly the number of the detected Cherenkov photons and, therefore, the detector performance.

  8. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  9. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  10. Shuttle imaging spectrometer optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, N. A.; Smith, S. T.; Sepulveda, C. A.; White, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the optical design and performance of the Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer (SISEX) optical system, which is being planned for the next generation of Earth remote sensing instruments. This optical system represents a new approach to remote sensing in which wide-field optics, dispersing elements, and area detector arrays are used in place of mechanical scanners, filters, and discrete detector elements or linear arrays. While the SISEX optical system is designed specifically for flight on Shuttle, the same optical approach is being used in the design of other remote sensing instruments, such as the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, which is expected to fly on the Earth Observing System.

  11. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  12. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S. (Folsom, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  13. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the GeoFTS design is mature and flight ready.

  14. Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B.; Davies, A. G.; Green, R. O.; Hedman, M. M.; Hibbits, C. A.; Langevin, Y. J.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Soderblom, J. M.; Cable, M. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Kim, W.; Dorsky, L. I.; Strohbehn, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa(MISE) instrument is designed to be able to unravel the composition of Europa, and to provide new insight into the processes that have in the past and continue to shape Europa, and on the habitability of Europa's ocean. The MISE design is the result of collaboration between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (John Hopkins' University). JPL's Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayan-1 and APL's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) comprise the technical basis for MISE. Internal JPL and APL investments in conjunction with NASA support under the ICEE program has allowed for instrument technology development and testing to achieve a design which would perform in Europa's radiation environment and meet potential sterilization requirements due to planetary protection.

  15. Improved photoionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poshchenrieder, W. P.; Samson, J. A. R.; Warneck, P.

    1970-01-01

    Improved spectrometer for gas analysis lessens the intensity problem that occurs in obtaining dispersed ultraviolet radiation. A filter, consisting of a selectively transmitting gas cell, a thin film or mirror, or a predispersing grating, alleviates problems of interference from higher-order spectral lines and from scattered ultraviolet light.

  16. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  17. [Research on algorithm for self-absorption correction based on multi-particles LIBS spectra].

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhi-Bo; Dong, Feng-Zhong; Chen, Xing-Long; Wang, Jing-Ge; He, Wen-Gan; Fu, Hong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of self-absorption on quantitative analysis, the optimizing process of very fast simulated annealing algorithm was studied. According to basic theory of plasma emission spectrum, a new algorithm for self-absorpton correction based on multi-particles spectra was proposed, and the algorithm flowchart was given. With the self-absorption correction algorithm mentioned above, the spectra of refining slag and blast furnace slag were corrected. The effect of self-ab sorption correction on the quantitative analysis results was analyzed based on calibration free method. Comparison of Boltzmann plots before and after self-absorption correction indicated that the plasma temperatures calculated with spectra after self-absorption correction tended to be uniform, and remained stable around 11,600 K. The Boltzmann plots constructed with plasma spectra of the same particle after self-absorption correction indicated that the intercepts were almost the same except for one group data. With calibration free method and spectra after self-absorption correction, the contents of components in slag were analyzed. For refining slag, quantitative analysis precision of MgO was low. If ignoring the existence of MgO, the relative errors of quantitative analysis results of CaO, Al2 O3 and SiOs were much smaller. For blast furnace slag in which the content of MgO was 8.49%, the relative error of quantitative analysis result of Al2 O3 was 2.38%, which was the smallest. And the relative error of quantitative analysis result of MgO was 28.27%, which was still the biggest. PMID:25532357

  18. Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Padding, J. T.; Hemelrijk, C. K.

    2012-02-01

    The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed analysis. Their insights may guide empirical work. Particularly the recently introduced multiparticle collision dynamics method may be suitable for the study of moving organisms because it is computationally fast, simple to implement, and has a continuous representation of space. As regards the study of hydrodynamics of moving organisms, the method has only been applied at low Reynolds numbers (below 120) for soft, permeable bodies, and static fishlike shapes. In the present paper we use it to study the hydrodynamics of an undulating fish at Reynolds numbers 1100-1500, after confirming its performance for a moving insect wing at Reynolds number 75. We measure (1) drag, thrust, and lift forces, (2) swimming efficiency and spatial structure of the wake, and (3) distribution of forces along the fish body. We confirm the resemblance between the simulated undulating fish and empirical data. In contrast to theoretical predictions, our model shows that for steadily undulating fish, thrust is produced by the rear 2/3 of the body and that the slip ratio U/V (with U the forward swimming speed and V the rearward speed of the body wave) correlates negatively (instead of positively) with the actual Froude efficiency of swimming. Besides, we show that the common practice of modeling individuals while constraining their sideways acceleration causes them to resemble unconstrained fish with a higher tailbeat frequency.

  19. Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Reid, Daniel A P; Hildenbrandt, H; Padding, J T; Hemelrijk, C K

    2012-02-01

    The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed analysis. Their insights may guide empirical work. Particularly the recently introduced multiparticle collision dynamics method may be suitable for the study of moving organisms because it is computationally fast, simple to implement, and has a continuous representation of space. As regards the study of hydrodynamics of moving organisms, the method has only been applied at low Reynolds numbers (below 120) for soft, permeable bodies, and static fishlike shapes. In the present paper we use it to study the hydrodynamics of an undulating fish at Reynolds numbers 1100-1500, after confirming its performance for a moving insect wing at Reynolds number 75. We measure (1) drag, thrust, and lift forces, (2) swimming efficiency and spatial structure of the wake, and (3) distribution of forces along the fish body. We confirm the resemblance between the simulated undulating fish and empirical data. In contrast to theoretical predictions, our model shows that for steadily undulating fish, thrust is produced by the rear 2/3 of the body and that the slip ratio U/V (with U the forward swimming speed and V the rearward speed of the body wave) correlates negatively (instead of positively) with the actual Froude efficiency of swimming. Besides, we show that the common practice of modeling individuals while constraining their sideways acceleration causes them to resemble unconstrained fish with a higher tailbeat frequency. PMID:22463238

  20. ADVANCED METHODS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT AND THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MULTIPARTICLE PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Alex J. Dragt

    2012-08-31

    Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.

  1. CAPS-plasma spectrometer for the Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, P.; Mursula, K.; Kelha, V.; Huomo, H.

    The Space Physics group at the Department of Physics, University of Oulu together with the Instrument Laboratory of the Technical Research Center of Finland will take part in the science definition, design and fabrication of the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) to be included as one of the three spectrometers to be built in the CAPS plasma spectrometer instrument. CAPS will also include an ion mass spectrometer and an electron spectrometer. All instruments will be designed and built, using the state of the art technique based on a long term heritage of participating co-investigator institutes. A description the Cassini project, of the IBS instrument as well as of the goals of the mission, is given.

  2. Spectrometer for monitoring of atmospheric ozone (ozonometer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrolenskiy, Yury; Korablev, Oleg; Ionov, Dmitry; Viazovetskiy, Nikita; Tchikov, Konstantin; Krasavtsev, Valery; Moiseev, Pavel; Belyaev, Denis; Fedorova, Anna; Mantsevich, Sergey; Zhirnova, Yulia; Rumyantsev, Dmitry; Kananykhin, Igor; Viktorov, Alexey; Shatalov, Andrey; Zherebtsov, Evgeny; Kozyura, Alexey; Moryakin, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The spectrometer for the monitoring of Earth atmospheric ozone from the board of spacecraft is being designed. The aim of the spectrometer called "Ozonometer" is global and permanent monitoring of total ozone by means of measuring spectra of scattered solar radiation in near-UV and visible range of spectrum (300 - 500 nm). This range includes Huggins absorption band of ozone in near-UV (300 - 360 nm) and nitrogen dioxide NO2 absorption bands in visible light (400 - 500 nm). The optical design of the spectrometer is based on the Rowland circle scheme with holographic concave diffractive grating. An off-axis parabolic mirror is used as an entrance objective. The CCD detector is linear with 2048 pixels. The spectral resolution is up to 0.3 nm. The spectrometer is supposed to provide nadir observations but there is also an additional optical entrance orientated to Sun hemisphere in order to measure pure solar spectra. The spectrometer is being designed within Russian special federal program "Geophysics". Among the program, a group of 4 spacecrafts "Ionosphere" is to be launched in 2014-2015. They are planned to operate at a pair of circle solar-synchronous near-polar orbits (2 spacecrafts at each orbit). Up to the present moment, the qualification model of the spectrometer has been manufactured and tested. The first performance tests were completed at optical laboratories in St. Petersburg and Moscow with the help of Hg lamps and other light sources. After that, the field atmospheric measurements have been carried out in Moscow, Orel and at Kislovodsk high-altitude atmospheric station at Caucasus. The observations have been provided at zenith direction (scattered radiation) as well as solar direct measurements. The obtained results are presented.

  3. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. M.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hauschild, K.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.

    2015-06-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations.

  4. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  5. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  6. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

  7. Ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (inventor); Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ion mass spectrometer is described which detects and indicates the characteristics of ions received over a wide angle, and which indicates the mass to charge ratio, the energy, and the direction of each detected ion. The spectrometer includes a magnetic analyzer having a sector magnet that passes ions received over a wide angle, and an electrostatic analyzer positioned to receive ions passing through the magnetic analyzer. The electrostatic analyzer includes a two dimensional ion sensor at one wall of the analyzer chamber, that senses not only the lengthwise position of the detected ion to indicate its mass to charge ratio, but also detects the ion position along the width of the chamber to indicate the direction in which the ion was traveling.

  8. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  9. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  10. Multilaser Herriott cell for planetary tunable laser spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Christopher G; Webster, Christopher R

    2007-10-01

    Geometric optics and matrix methods are used to mathematically model multilaser Herriott cells for tunable laser absorption spectrometers for planetary missions. The Herriott cells presented accommodate several laser sources that follow independent optical paths but probe a single gas cell. Strategically placed output holes located in the far mirrors of the Herriott cells reduce the size of the spectrometers. A four-channel Herriott cell configuration is presented for the specific application as the sample cell of the tunable laser spectrometer instrument selected for the sample analysis at Mars analytical suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission. PMID:17906720

  11. Design of the Compact Wide Swath Imaging Spectrometer (CWIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Green, R. O.

    2014-09-01

    The Compact Wide Swath Imaging Spectrometer (CWIS) is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer for the solar reflected spectrum (380-2500 nm) with wide swath (1600 elements), fast optical speed (F/1.8), and high uniformity (>=95%). The CWIS compact Dyson demonstrates a reduction in volume and mass over the equivalent Offner-type instrument. CWIS is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is intended to address the need for high signal to noise ratio compact imaging spectrometer systems for the visible short wave infrared wavelength range. Optical design, stray light modeling, and current status of the instrument are discussed.

  12. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  13. The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

  14. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  15. Energetic ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1982-01-01

    A new type of spectrometer for space application has been developed to measure separately mass/charge and the three-dimensional velocity distribution of incident ions. The instrument has relatively high resolution and allows rapid measurement of the four-dimensional set of mass/charge, speed, elevation angle, and azimuth angle. The instrument includes a sector magnet, an electrostatic deflector, microchannel plate detectors with position sensitive readout, and a set of grids with variable applied voltage.

  16. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  17. On the compaction of granular media using a multi-particle finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, Adam T.

    A Multi-Particle Finite Element Model (MPFEM) has been developed and was used to explore the compaction of granular media. Individual particles discretized with a finite element mesh allow for a full description of the contact mechanics and the local and global particle kinematics. Compaction modes ranging from hydrostatic to that of high shear are studied at various levels of interparticle friction to understand all stages of the powder compaction process. Isodensity curves in hydrostatic/deviatoric stress-space during densification are shown to take the equivalent shape of a cap and cone model. Such a mechanical response predicted by this model is softer than the one predicted by other models resulting from simplifications on interparticle contact behavior. The micromechanical behavior has also been studied with the MPFEM with focus on rearrangement and translational and rotational motion which are significantly affected by both interparticle friction and macroscopic stress triaxiality. Local deviatoric stresses and equivalent plastic strains are present during the formation of stress chains at low relative densities indicating that contact deformation can occur early in densification. Unloading of compacts was explored with MPFEM. The importance of interparticle cohesion was clearly demonstrated at the very last stages of unloading which was verified with experiments. Such analysis could aid in the diagnosis of problems with compact performance before ejection. Probing yield surfaces that describe comprehensively the overall material behavior of compacts were generated with the MPFEM. Analytical and computational discrepancies in the probing yield surfaces are a matter of the assumptions made regarding the particle constitutive behavior and more importantly the particle kinematics. With the MPFEM model, a 'softer' yield surface is obtained as compared with other modelling efforts. Differences seen between the strain paths are verified but are less extreme as those proposed by approximate analytical models and the DEM models. The results of MPFEM are in line with the recent experimental work of S. Galen (Drexel PhD 2004). This work illustrates that the MPFEM model is useful in describing the interparticle behavior and its effect on microscopic and macroscopic response for various strain histories at all stages of the powder compaction operation.

  18. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  19. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.

    1989-04-04

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  20. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.

    1991-06-18

    This patent describes an expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  1. A versatile photoelectron spectrometer for pressures up to 30 mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Susanna K.; Hahlin, Maria; Kahk, Juhan Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositza; Rensmo, Hâkan; Edström, Kristina; Hagfeldt, Anders; Siegbahn, Hans; Edwards, Mârten O. M.; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Backlund, Klas; Åhlund, John; Payne, David J.

    2014-07-01

    High-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique with applications in a wide range of fields ranging from fundamental surface science and catalysis to energy materials, environmental science, and biology. At present the majority of the high-pressure photoelectron spectrometers are situated at synchrotron end stations, but recently a small number of laboratory-based setups have also emerged. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new laboratory based high pressure photoelectron spectrometer equipped with an Al Kα X-ray anode and a hemispherical electron energy analyzer combined with a differentially pumped electrostatic lens. The instrument is demonstrated to be capable of measuring core level spectra at pressures up to 30 mbar. Moreover, valence band spectra of a silver sample as well as a carbon-coated surface (graphene) recorded under a 2 mbar nitrogen atmosphere are presented, demonstrating the versatility of this laboratory-based spectrometer.

  2. EXTENDING THE USEFUL LIFE OF OLDER MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

    2010-06-17

    Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261{trademark} Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

  3. Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

  4. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  5. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. T.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blanc, M.; Burch, J. L.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Grande, M.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Kelha, V.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Svenes, K. R.; Szeg, K.; Tanskanen, P.; Ahola, K.; Anderson, D.; Bakshi, S.; Baragiola, R. A.; Barraclough, B. L.; Black, R. K.; Bolton, S.; Booker, T.; Bowman, R.; Casey, P.; Crary, F. J.; Delapp, D.; Dirks, G.; Eaker, N.; Funsten, H.; Furman, J. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Hannula, H.; Holmlund, C.; Huomo, H.; Illiano, J. M.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Linder, D. R.; Luntama, T.; Maurice, S.; McCabe, K. P.; Mursula, K.; Narheim, B. T.; Nordholt, J. E.; Preece, A.; Rudzki, J.; Ruitberg, A.; Smith, K.; Szalai, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Viherkanto, K.; Vilppola, J.; Vollmer, T.; Wahl, T. E.; West, M.; Ylikorpi, T.; Zinsmeyer, C.

    2004-09-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturns magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding Saturns magnetosphere and its complex interactions with Titan, the icy satellites and rings, Saturns ionosphere and aurora, and the solar wind. Our design approach meets these goals by emphasizing two complementary types of measurements: high-time resolution velocity distributions of electrons and all major ion species; and lower-time resolution, high-mass resolution spectra of all ion species. The CAPS instrument is made up of three sensors: the Electron Spectrometer (ELS), the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS), and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). The ELS measures the velocity distribution of electrons from 0.6 eV to 28,250 keV, a range that permits coverage of thermal electrons found at Titan and near the ring plane as well as more energetic trapped electrons and auroral particles. The IBS measures ion velocity distributions with very high angular and energy resolution from 1 eV to 49,800 keV. It is specially designed to measure sharply defined ion beams expected in the solar wind at 9.5 AU, highly directional rammed ion fluxes encountered in Titans ionosphere, and anticipated field-aligned auroral fluxes. The IMS is designed to measure the composition of hot, diffuse magnetospheric plasmas and low-concentration ion species 1 eV to 50,280 eV with an atomic resolution M/?M 70 and, for certain molecules, (such asN 2 + and CO+), effective resolution as high as 2500. The three sensors are mounted on a motor-driven actuator that rotates the entire instrument over approximately one-half of the sky every 3 min.

  6. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  7. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  8. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Myers, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  9. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  10. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  11. The transition-edge EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Adams, Joseph; Bandler, Simon; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory; Chervenak, James; Doriese, Randy; Eckart, Megan; Irwin, Kent; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, Carl; Smith, Stephen; Ullom, Joel

    2014-07-01

    The Transition-edge EBIT Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (TEMS) is a 1000-pixel array instrument to be delivered to the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2015. It will be the first fully operational array of its kind. The TEMS will utilize the unique capabilities of the EBIT to verify and benchmark atomic theory that is critical for the analysis of high-resolution data from microcalorimeter spectrometers aboard the next generation of x-ray observatories. We present spectra from the present instrumentation at EBIT, as well as our latest results with time-division multiplexing using the current iteration of the TEMS focal plane assembly in our test platform at NASA/GSFC.

  12. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result, it is not possible for instructors to take full advantage of this equipment. Therefore, to facilitate accessibility to this tool, we have developed a realistic computer-based simulator. Using this software, students are able to practice their ability to identify the components of the original gas, thereby gaining a better understanding of the underlying physical laws. The software is available as a free download.

  13. Water Mass Map from Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    This map shows the estimated lower limit of the water content of the upper meter of Martian soil. The estimates are derived from the hydrogen abundance measured by the neutron spectrometer component of the gamma ray spectrometer suite on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    The highest water-mass fractions, exceeding 30 percent to well over 60 percent, are in the polar regions, beyond about 60 degrees latitude north or south. Farther from the poles, significant concentrations are in the area bound in longitude by minus 10 degrees to 50 degrees and in latitude by 30 degrees south to 40 degrees north, and in an area to the south and west of Olympus Mons (30 degrees to 0 degrees south latitude and minus 135 degrees to 110 degrees longitude).

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science in Washington. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

  14. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  15. Gamma ray spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gin, D.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.; Khilkevitch, E.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Pasternak, A.; Polunovsky, I.; Kiptily, V.

    2014-08-21

    Gamma diagnostics is considered to be primary for the confined ?-particles and runaway electrons measurements on ITER. The gamma spectrometer will be embedded into a neutron dump of the ITER Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic complex. It will supplement NPA measurements on the fuel isotope ratio and confined alphas/fast ions. In this paper an update on ITER gamma spectrometer developments is given. A new geometry of the system is described and detailed analysis of expected signals for the spectrometer is presented.

  16. Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

    2012-09-01

    A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

  17. Calibration of a High Resolution Soft X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Magee, E W

    2010-01-26

    A high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing grating for the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The spectrometer has a large radius of curvature, R=44.3 m, is operated at a 2{sup o} grazing angle and can record high signal-to-noise spectra when used with a low-noise, cooled, charge-coupled device detector. The instrument can be operated with a 10-25 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power on laser plasma sources, approaching 2000, or in slitless mode with a small symmetrical emission source. Results will be presented for the spectral response of the spectrometer cross-calibrated at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap facility using the broadband x-ray energy EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS).

  18. Particle Spectrometers for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthor, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    FRIB promises to dramatically expand the variety of nuclear systems available for direct experimental study by providing rates of many rare isotopes orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. A new generation of experimental systems, including new particle spectrometers will be critical to our ability to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by FRIB. The High-Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) will allow for experiments with the most neutron-rich and short-lived isotopes produced by in-flight fragmentation at FRIB. The bending capability of the HRS (8 Tm) matches to the rigidity for which rare isotopes are produced at the highest intensity in the FRIB fragment separator. The experimental program will be focused on nuclear structure and astrophysics, and allow for the use of other cutting-edge detection systems for gamma, neutron, and charged-particle detection. Stopped and reaccelerated beam studies will be an important compliment to in-flight techniques at FRIB, providing world-unique, high quality, intense rare isotope beams at low energies up to and beyond the Coulomb barrier--with the completion of ReA12--and serving many of the science goals of the broader facility, from nuclear structure and astrophysics to applications. Two specialized recoil spectrometers are being developed for studies with reaccelerated beams. SECAR, the Separator for Capture Reactions, will be built following ReA3, coupled to a windowless gas jet target, JENSA, and will focus on radiative capture reactions for astrophysics, particularly those needed to improve our understanding of novae and X-ray bursts. A recoil separator following ReA12 is proposed to address a variety of physics cases based on fusion-evaporation, Coulomb excitation, transfer, and deep-inelastic reactions by providing a large angular, momentum and charge state acceptance; a high mass resolving power; and the flexibility to couple to a variety of auxiliary detector systems. Two designs have been proposed to meet these needs, ISLA, the Isochronous Separator with Large Acceptance, and an electromagnetic M/Q separator SUPERB, the Separator for the Unique Products of Experiments with Radioactive Beams.

  19. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, X. Bech, D.; Van Roy, J.-P.; Géléoc, M.; Weber, S. J.

    2015-02-15

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H{sub 3} into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  20. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Urbain, X; Bech, D; Van Roy, J-P; Gloc, M; Weber, S J; Huetz, A; Picard, Y J

    2015-02-01

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H3 into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme. PMID:25725834

  1. Plastic scintillators in coincidence for the study of multi-particle production of sea level cosmic rays in dense medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, L. S.; Chan, K. W.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray particles at sea level penetrate a thick layer of dense medium without appreciable interaction. These penetrating particles are identified with muons. The only appreciable interaction of muons are by knock on processes. A muon may have single, double or any number of knock on with atoms of the material so that one, two, three or more particles will come out from the medium in which the knock on processes occur. The probability of multiparticle production is expected to decrease with the increase of multiplicity. Measurements of the single, double, and triple particles generated in a dense medium (Fe and Al) by sea level cosmic rays at 22.42 N. Lat. and 114.20 E. Long. (Hong Kong) are presented using a detector composed of two plastic scintillators connected in coincidence.

  2. Start-to-end Beam Optics Development and Multi-particle Tracking for the ILC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, F.a Batygin, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Sheppard, J.C.; Woodley, M.D.; /SLAC

    2007-01-25

    Undulator-based positron source is adopted as the ILC baseline design. Complete optics to transport the positron beam having large angular divergence and large energy spread from an immersed thin Ti target to the entrance of the 5 GeV damping ring injection line is developed. Start-to-end multi-particle tracking through the beamline is performed including the optical matching device, capture system, transport system, superconducting booster linac, spin rotators, and energy compressor. It shows that 49.8% of the positrons from the target are captured within the damping ring 6-D acceptance--A{sub x} + A{sub y} {le} 0.09 m and {Delta}E x {Delta}z ({+-} 25 MeV) x ({+-} 3.46cm)--at the entrance of the damping ring injection line. The field and alignment errors and orbit correction are analyzed.

  3. Simplified electrochemical multi-particle model for LiFePO4 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastali Majdabadi, Mehrdad; Farhad, Siamak; Farkhondeh, Mohammad; Fraser, Roydon A.; Fowler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A simplified physics-based model is developed to predict the performance of an LiFePO4 cathode at various operating and design conditions. Newman's full-order porous-electrode model is simplified using polynomial approximations for electrolyte variables at the electrode-level while a multi-particle model featuring variable solid-state diffusivity is employed at the particle level. The computational time of this reduced-order model is decreased by almost one order of magnitude compared to the full-order model without sacrificing the accuracy of the results. The model is general and can be used to expedite the simulation of any composite electrode with active-material particles of non-uniform properties (e.g., size, contact resistance, material chemistry etc.). In a broader perspective, this model is of practical value for electric vehicle power train simulations and battery management systems.

  4. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbain, X.; Bech, D.; Van Roy, J.-P.; Géléoc, M.; Weber, S. J.; Huetz, A.; Picard, Y. J.

    2015-02-01

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H3 into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  5. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  6. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  7. The RHESSI Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Lin, R. P.; Turin, P.; Curtis, D. W.; Primbsch, J. H.; Campbell, R. D.; Abiad, R.; Schroeder, P.; Cork, C. P.; Hull, E. L.; Landis, D. A.; Madden, N. W.; Malone, D.; Pehl, R. H.; Raudorf, T.; Sangsingkeow, P.; Boyle, R.; Banks, I. S.; Shirey, K.; Schwartz, Richard

    2002-11-01

    RHESSI observes solar photons over three orders of magnitude in energy (3 keV to 17 MeV) with a single instrument: a set of nine cryogenically cooled coaxial germanium detectors. With their extremely high energy resolution, RHESSI can resolve the line shape of every known solar gamma-ray line except the neutron capture line at 2.223 MeV. High resolution also allows clean separation of thermal and non-thermal hard X-rays and the accurate measurement of even extremely steep power-law spectra. Detector segmentation, fast signal processing, and two sets of movable attenuators allow RHESSI to make high-quality spectra and images of flares across seven orders of magnitude in intensity. Here we describe the configuration and operation of the RHESSI spectrometer, show early results on in-flight performance, and discuss the principles of spectroscopic data analysis used by the RHESSI software.

  8. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  9. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the minerals with different rock formations and to search for new minerals not resolved by OMEGA.

    CRISM has found that the iron-rich clays (lower left image) correspond with a layer of rock that is dark red in the true color view (upper left) and bright gray in the infrared (upper right). In addition, it has found previously undetected exposures of aluminum-rich clay, in a rock unit that is buff-colored in the true color view, and bluish in the infrared. Both types of rocks formed early in Mars' history, about 3.8 billion years ago. The difference in clay mineralogy reveals differences in the environment either over time or over a distance of kilometers. CRISM will be taking many more images of the Mawrth Vallis region to piece together the geologic history of this fascinating area that was once a wet oasis on Mars.

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

    CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials -- leading to new understanding of the climate.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Califonia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor and built the spacecraft.

  10. MEMS based digital transform spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Yariv; Ramani, Mouli

    2005-09-01

    Earlier this year, a new breed of Spectrometers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) engines has been introduced to the commercial market. The use of these engines combined with transform mathematics, produces powerful spectrometers at unprecedented low cost in various spectral regions.

  11. Multislit optimized spectrometer: flight-like environment test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, William S.; Valle, Tim; Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Spuhler, Peter; Hardesty, Chuck; Staples, Conor

    2014-09-01

    The NASA ESTO funded Multislit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS) Instrument Incubator Program advances a spatial multiplexing spectrometer for coastal ocean remote sensing from laboratory demonstration to flight-like environment testing. The multiple slit design reduces the required telescope aperture leading to mass and volume reductions over conventional spectrometers when applied to the GEO-CAPE oceans mission. This paper discusses the performance and characterization of the MOS instrument from laboratory and thermal vacuum testing. It also presents the current technology readiness level and possible future applications. Results of an ocean color data product simulation study using flight-like performance data from MOS are also covered. The MOS instrument implementation for GEO-CAPE provides system benefits that may lead to measurable cost savings and reductions in risks while meeting its science objectives.

  12. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  13. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

  14. DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

  15. Remote measurements of actinide species in aqueous solutions using an optical fiber photoacoustic spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.E. ); Robouch, P.B.; Silva, R.J. )

    1990-09-26

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, equipped with an 85 meter optical fiber, was used to perform absorption measurements of lanthanide and actinide samples, located in a glovebox. The spectrometer was tested using aqueous solutions of praseodymium and americium ions; the sensitivity for remote measurements was found to be similar to that achieved in the laboratory without the fiber. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Coastal Ocean Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; VanGorp, Byron E.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwppd, Michael; Wilson, Daniel W.; Richardson, Brandon; Dierssen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    PRISM is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. Its critical characteristics are high throughput and signal-to-noise ratio, high uniformity of response to reduce spectral artifacts, and low polarization sensitivity. We give a brief overview of the instrument and results from laboratory calibration measurements regarding the spatial, spectral, radiometric and polarization characteristics.

  17. A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

  18. Developing Tools for Undergraduate Spectroscopy: An Inexpensive Visible Light Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderveen, Jesse R.; Martin, Brian; Ooms, Kristopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The design and implementation of an inexpensive, high-resolution Littrow-type visible light spectrometer is presented. The instrument is built from low-cost materials and interfaced with the program RSpec for real-time spectral analysis, making it useful for classroom and laboratory exercises. Using a diffraction grating ruled at 1200 lines/mm and

  19. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  20. Developing Tools for Undergraduate Spectroscopy: An Inexpensive Visible Light Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderveen, Jesse R.; Martin, Brian; Ooms, Kristopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The design and implementation of an inexpensive, high-resolution Littrow-type visible light spectrometer is presented. The instrument is built from low-cost materials and interfaced with the program RSpec for real-time spectral analysis, making it useful for classroom and laboratory exercises. Using a diffraction grating ruled at 1200 lines/mm and…

  1. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY2nd QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORTDevelop the theory connecting pyrometer and streak camera spectrometer data to the material properties of beam heatedtargets and compare to the data

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-04-01

    This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects pyrometer and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that as the metallic foils are heated they break into droplets (cf. HIFS VNL Milestone Report FY 2009 Q4). Evaporation of the metallic surface will occur, but optical emission should be directly observable from the solid or liquid surface of the foil or from droplets. However, the emissivity of hot material may be changed from the cold material and interference effects will alter the spectrum emitted from small droplets. These effects have been incorporated into a theory of emission from droplets. We have measured emission using streaked spectrometry and together with theory of emission from heated droplets have inferred the temperature of a gold foil heated by the NDCX-I experiment. The intensity measured by the spectrometer is proportional to the emissivity times the blackbody intensity at the temperature of the foil or droplets. Traditionally, a functional form for the emissivity as a function of wavelength (such as a quadratic) is assumed and the three unknown emissivity parameters (for the case of a quadratic) and the temperature are obtained by minimizing the deviations from the fit. In the case of the NDCX-I experiment, two minima were obtained: at 7200 K and 2400 K. The best fit was at 7200 K. However, when the actual measured emissivity of gold was used and when the theoretical corrections for droplet interference effects were made for emission from droplets having radii in the range 0.2 to 2.0 microns, the corrected emissivity was consistent with the 2400 K value, whereas the fit emissivity at 7200 K shows no similarity to the corrected emissivity curves. Further, an estimate of the temperature obtained from beam heating is consistent with the lower value. This exercise proved to be a warning to be skeptical of assuming functional forms when they are unknown, and also represents a first success of the droplet emission theory. The thermal optical emission from a hot metal surface is polarized (for observation angles that are not normal to the surface). By observing the intensity of both polarizations at two or more observation angles the emissivity can be inferred directly, and the temperature at the surface unambiguously determined. Emission from the spolarization (where the E-field is parallel to the surface and normal to the wave vector) is generally less intense than emission from the p-polarization (E-field that is normal to the s-polarization E-field and the wave vector.) The emissivity and temperature may be inferred directly without assuming any specific functional form for the emissivity or resorting to published data tables (which usually do not apply when temperatures reach the WDM regime). We have derived the theory of polarized emission from hot metals, and consider an improved method of temperature determination that takes advantage of polarization measurements, which we call polarization pyrometry. Thus far we have successfully applied the theory to electrically heated metallic filaments, and will apply the theory to beam heated targets when chamber space constraints are removed that will make it feasible to observe the targets at multiple angles. For the case of experiments on NDCX-II, hydrodynamic expansion on a nanosecond timescale that is comparable to the heating time will result in an expanding fluid, with a strong (but finite) density and temperature gradient. Emission will be observed from positions in the foil near the critical density (where the observation photon frequency is equal to the local plasma frequency). By assuming a brightness temperature equal to the local fluid temperature at the critical frequency, a time history of the emission spectrum from an expanding foil can be synthesized from a hydrodynamic simulation of the target. We find that observations from the ultraviolet to the infrared will allow a probing of the target at different depths, and will allow a test of specific equations of state. Improved versions of this theory that integrate the electric field along a ray from the interior of the metal to observation point are being constructed to give a more accurate description of the emitted spectrum.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of method comparison studies of Masimo pulse co-oximeters (Radical-7 or Pronto-7) and HemoCue absorption spectrometers (B-Hemoglobin or 201+) with laboratory haemoglobin estimation.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, R; Kumar, D; Simmons, S W

    2015-05-01

    We assessed agreement in haemoglobin measurement between Masimo pulse co-oximeters (Rad-7 and Pronto-7) and HemoCue photometers (201+ or B-Hemoglobin) with laboratory-based determination and identified 39 relevant studies (2915 patients in Masimo group and 3084 patients in HemoCue group). In the Masimo group, the overall mean difference was -0.03 g/dl (95% prediction interval -0.30 to 0.23) and 95% limits of agreement -3.0 to 2.9 g/dl compared to 0.08 g/dl (95% prediction interval -0.04 to 0.20) and 95% limits of agreement -1.3 to 1.4 g/dl in the HemoCue group. Only B-Hemoglobin exhibited bias (0.53, 95% prediction interval 0.27 to 0.78). The overall standard deviation of difference was larger (1.42 g/dl versus 0.64 g/dl) for Masimo pulse co-oximeters compared to HemoCue photometers. Masimo devices and HemoCue 201+ both provide an unbiased, pooled estimate of laboratory haemoglobin. However, Masimo devices have lower precision and wider 95% limits of agreement than HemoCue devices. Clinicians should carefully consider these limits of agreement before basing transfusion or other clinical decisions on these point-of-care measurements alone. PMID:25943608

  3. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  4. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  5. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  6. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  7. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  8. Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R.

    1994-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 187}Re, and {sup 238}U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis.

  9. 20-channel airborne spectrometer 8- to 13-mkm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychak, Oleh; Nechyporuk, Sergij

    1999-09-01

    Construction of compact 20-channel airborne spectrometer 8- 13 mkm range is presented. Spectrometer optical part is based on the only metal optical elements as well as a carrier constructive elements. The result of laboratory testing of the spectrometer sensitivity and accuracy are presented. A possible way for unit sensitivity and accuracy improvement are shown. It has been carried out the analysis of possible ways for development of non-imaging spectrometer for 8-13 mkm spectral range. The selected scheme of spectrometer design is optimal from a point of view of ensuring the minimal error of temperature measurement with desired temperature sensitivity. The basic requirements to each of three spectrometer modules and some important parts were determined. Calibration module - the radiative temperature reproducibility relative error has to be less than 0.2 percent. Optical module - the IR energy dissipation in optical system has to be less than 55 percent, the collective objective area has to be approximately 200 cm2, the aperture ratio of collective objective should be approximately 1, the error of spectral channel location has to be less than 120 nm. Electronic module - the magnitude of equivalent input noise should be less than 8 nV Hz-1/2. The 20-element IR radiation detector on the basis of MCT with detectivity D* approximately 1.2 1010 cm Hz1/2 Wt-1 and photosensitive elements sizes of 250 X 250 mkm has been used.

  10. A magnetic multi purpose spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Ghio, F.; Jodice, M.; Urciuoli, G.M. ); De Leo, R. ); Blomqvist, K.I. . Inst. fuer Physik); Nervi, M.; Repetto, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The very high quality and precision of the CEBAF beam will allow the investigation of hypernuclear systems with high accuracy and resolution provided the appropriate experimental equipment is implemented. In this paper a possible design of a 1.3 GeV/c high resolution, short-orbit kaon spectrometer, to be used in combination with one of the two 4 GeV/c CEBAF Hall A spectrometer is presented. The facility is a multipurpose one, serving also as a second hadron arm with the capability of going out of the scattering plane and also serving as an electron spectrometer for large scattering angles.

  11. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  12. The role of multiparticle correlations and Cooper pairing in the formation of molecules in an ultracold gas of Fermi atoms with a negative scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.

    2012-11-15

    The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.

  13. Preliminary testing of a prototype portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, L. L.; Anderson, N. B.; Stevenson, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for use as an analyzer in mineral resource investigative work was built and tested. The prototype battery powered spectrometer, measuring 11 by 12 by 5 inches and weighing only about 15 pounds, was designed specifically for field use. The spectrometer has two gas proportional counters and two radioactive sources, Cd (10a) and Fe (55). Preliminary field and laboratory tests on rock specimens and rock pulps have demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer to detect 33 elements to date. Characteristics of the system present some limitations, however, and further improvements are recommended.

  14. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  15. Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

  16. Fast-neutron spectrometer developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moler, R. B.; Zagotta, W. E.; Baker, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Li6 sandwich-type neutron spectrometer is equipped with proportional counter for particle identification. System uses current-sensitive preamplifiers to minimize pile-up of gamma-ray and particle pulses.

  17. High energy electron crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kudyakov, T.; Willi, O.; Jochmann, A.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S.; Schramm, U.; Finken, K. H.

    2009-07-15

    A spectrometer has been developed to measure relativistic electrons produced in different types of plasmas, such as tokamak plasmas and laser produced plasmas. The spectrometer consists of nine Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce crystals, which are shielded by stainless steel filters. The absolute calibration of the spectrometer was performed at the superconducting electron linear accelerator Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance. The spectrometer can provide information about energy distribution of electrons and their numbers for the energy range between 4 and 30 MeV. The spectrum is analyzed by means of the Monte Carlo three-dimensional GEANT4 code. An energy resolution of about 10% is achieved.

  18. A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S. ); Weiss, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present the arrangement, direction of spectral dispersion and shift of polarization channels for both spectrometers, and the curvature of the spectra in the science spectrometer. In Section 2 we determine the best focus position of the detectors. The overall contrast of images at different positions of the detector stage is computed with the standard deviation of pixel values in the spectra containing region. In Section 3 we analyze high dynamic range images for each spectrometer and resolution obtained at the afore determined best focus positions. We deduce the ensquared energy from the FWHM of Gaussian fits perpendicular to the spectra.

  20. Imaging spectrometers using concentric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobb, Daniel R.

    1997-10-01

    Imaging spectrometers are increasingly use to measure the spectral radiance of Earth surface from aircraft and satellites. The design of optics for imaging spectrometers, covering the spectral range from visible through short-wave IR, can be simplified using the Dyson and Offner concentric relay design forms. Problems in integration of dispersing elements into these concentric relays are addressed. It is shown that use of dispersing prisms with curved faces can provide good performance in designs that are simple and compact.

  1. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  2. Multichannel Fabry-Perot spectrometer for infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Boyle, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A multichannel design which makes use of the radiation normally rejected in a Fabry-Perot spectrometer is described, with application to infrared astronomy. The present optical design minimizes the diameters of the etalon and optics. The use of spherical mirrors ensures that no radiation is lost through the entrance aperture, and the beams can be completely collimated at the etalon. Laboratory studies demonstrate that the ability to employ eight channels increases by a factor of four the flux integrated during a given time period compared with that of a single-channel instrument. The spectrometer is nondispersive, and the source can be imaged at each of several output spectral positions.

  3. Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer at the HRIBF (ORNL, Oak Ridge)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Grzywacz, R.K.; Gross, C.J.; Johnson, J.W.; Rasco, B.C.; Zganjar, E.F.

    2014-06-15

    The Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) array has been designed, constructed, characterized, and applied to the decay studies of {sup 238}U fission products at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A MTAS commissioning run was performed in January 2012 at the mass separator on-line to the HRIBF Tandem accelerator. Preliminary results of MTAS data confirm known decay patterns of {sup 142}Ba and {sup 142}La deduced from an earlier study using a total absorption spectrometer technique.

  4. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single wavelength band of 8 to 10 m, is based on a focal-plane array of HgCdTe photodetectors that are cooled to an operating temperature of 77 K by use of a closed-Stirling-cycle mechanical cooler. The nonuniformities of the HgCdTe photodetector array are small enough that the raw pixel data from the infrared subsystem can be used to recognize temperature differences on the order of 1 C. By use of a built-in blackbody calibration source that can be switched into the field of view, one can obtain bias and gain offset terms for individual pixels, making it possible to offset the effects of nonuniformities sufficiently to enable the measurement of temperature differences as small as 0.1 C.

  5. The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: a new, permanent user facility at the LLNL EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Doriese, W; Gygax, J; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; King, J; Irwin, K; Reintsema, C; Ullom, J

    2007-09-07

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is currently being completed and will be installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 2007. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory program. The new ECS spectrometer was built to be a low maintenance, high performance implanted silicon microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 {micro}s event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 60 hours at 50 mK. The XRS/EBIT program has been very successful, producing many results on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES instrument.

  6. Behavior of Dynamic Photonic Multiparticle Clusters in an Optical Trap under the Influence of Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavalin, Andrey; Henderson, Don

    2000-04-01

    Photonic crystals and clusters have attracted considerable attention of the physics, chemistry and material science communities. "Optical matter", consisting of particles, organized and assembled dynamically by photons, is a rapidly developing field that impacts basic and applied science. We have studied the interaction of 140 fs pulses from the Ti:Sapphire laser with two types of clusters: 1) dynamic photonic (DP) multiparticle clusters, which are created under the presence of optical forces that trap and produce optical binding among particles and 2)chemical (C)clusters that exist in the absence of an optical (assembled without optical trapping). Experimentally DP-clusters were created using CW radiation of Ar+- laser to trap a few microparticles (polystyrene, silica and zeolite) suspended in solution, while in other studies the C-clusters were trapped under the same conditions. The clusters were irradiated with the laser pulses that spatially overlap the zone of the optical trap. Experiments indicated the DP-clusters had symmetrical and vortex structure or were fragmented onto separated particles, depending on parameters of Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser radiation. In the case of C-clusters, the pulses from the Ti:Sapphire laser caused the C-cluster to move out of the trap without fragmentation.

  7. Glow discharge electron impact ionization source for miniature mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Song, Qingyu; Noll, Robert J; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2007-05-01

    A glow discharge electron impact ionization (GDEI) source was developed for operation using air as the support gas. An alternative to the use of thermoemission from a resistively heated filament electron source for miniature mass spectrometers, the GDEI source is shown to have advantages of long lifetime under high-pressure operation and low power consumption. The GDEI source was characterized using our laboratory's handheld mass spectrometer, the Mini 10. The effects of the discharge voltage and pressure were investigated. Design considerations are illustrated with calculations. Performance is demonstrated in a set of experimental tests. The results show that the low power requirements, mechanical ruggedness, and quality of the data produced using the small glow discharge ion source make it well-suited for use with a portable handheld mass spectrometer. PMID:17441220

  8. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main chamber at the inlet end. The inlet assembly is designed to offer improved (relative to prior such assemblies) laminar-flow performance within the main chamber. Dry aerosols are subjected to activation and growth in the supersaturation field. f) After aerosol activation, at the outlet end of the main chamber, a polished stainless-steel probe is used to sample droplets into a laser particle counter. The probe features an improved design for efficient sampling. The counter has six channels with size bins in the range of 0.5- to 5.0-micron diameter. g) To enable efficient sampling, the probe is scanned along the width axis of the main chamber (thereby effecting scanning along the temperature gradient and thereby, further, effecting scanning along the supersaturation gradient) by means of a computer-controlled translation stage.

  9. Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gege, Peter; Fries, Jochen; Haschberger, Peter; Schtz, Paul; Schwarzer, Horst; Strobl, Peter; Suhr, Birgit; Ulbrich, Gerd; Jan Vreeling, Willem

    A new facility designed to perform calibration measurements of airborne imaging spectrometers was established at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen. This Calibration Home Base (CHB) is optimized to characterize radiometrically, spectrally, and geometrically the APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) imaging spectrometer, which is currently being developed under the authority of the European Space Agency (ESA). It however can be used for other optical sensors as well. Computer control of major laboratory equipment allows automation of time consuming measurements. In APEX configuration (wavelength range: 380 to 2500 nm, instantaneous field of view: 0.48 mrad, field of view: 14 ?) spectral measurements can be performed to a wavelength uncertainty of 0.15 nm, geometric measurements at increments of 0.0017 mrad across track and 0.0076 mrad along track, and radiometric measurements to an uncertainty of 3% relative to national standard. The CHB can be adapted to similar sensors (including those with thermal infrared detectors) by exchanging the monochromator's lamp, the gratings and the filters, and by adjusting the distance between the sensor and folding mirror.

  10. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  11. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  12. Micromechanical shutter based mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, M.; Barabash, S.; Emanuelsson, M.; Brinkfeldt, K.; Enoksson, P.

    2009-06-01

    New shutter systems based on MEMS technology (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) allow to build new types of ultra-low weight mass spectrometers for applications in space. Applications include compact particle velocity filters and the replacement of the conventional carbon foil or secondary electrons emitting start surface used in time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The PRIMA instrument (PRIsma Mass Analyzer), a MEMS shutter based time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on the Solar WInd Monitor (SWIM) sensor developed for the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission, will be used for flight-verification of the MEMS shutter technique. We review the expected performance of this instrument. The PRIMA instrument will be launched on the Swedish Space Corporation's PRISMA satellite in 2008/2009.

  13. Far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, Rita T.; Betz, Al L.

    1995-01-01

    A far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer was designed and built by our group for observations of atomic and molecular lines from interstellar clouds. Linewidths as narrow as 1 km/s can be expected from such regions, and so the spectrometer is designed with sub-km/s resolution so that observed line profiles will be resolved. Since its debut on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) in 1985, the instrument has been used in regular annual flight programs from both Moffett Field, CA and Christchurch, NZ. The basic plan of the spectrometer remains unchanged from the original design presented at the previous airborne science symposium. Numerous improvements and updates to the technical capability have of course been included over the many years of operational service.

  14. The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

  15. Fieldable Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-10-01

    The infrared sensors group at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. To support these vital missions, PNNL is developing frequency-modulation techniques for remote probing over long optical paths by means of differential-absorption light detecting and ranging (LIDAR). This technique can easily monitor large areas, or volumes, that could only be accomplished with a large network of point sensors. Recently, PNNL began development of a rugged frequency-modulation differential-abosrption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system to conduct field experiments. To provide environmentla protection for the system and facilitate field deployments and operations, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and acquired. The trailer was outfitted with a shock-mounted optical bench, an electronics rack, a liquid nitrogen Dewar, and a power generator. A computer-controlled gimbal-mounted mirror was added to allow the telescope beam to be accurately pointed in both the vertical and horizontal plane. This turned out to be the most complicated addition, and is described in detail. This paper provides an overview of the FM-DIAL system and illustrates innovative solutions developed to overcome several alignment and stability issues encountered in the field.

  16. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  17. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  18. A high-throughput neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

  19. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  20. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  1. OPENCORE NMR: Open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments.

  2. OPENCORE NMR: open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments. PMID:18374613

  3. Miniature Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potember, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Major advances must occur to protect astronauts from prolonged periods in near-zero gravity and high radiation associated with extended space travel. The dangers of living in space must be thoroughly understood and methods developed to reverse those effects that cannot be avoided. Six of the seven research teams established by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) are studying biomedical factors for prolonged space travel to deliver effective countermeasures. To develop effective countermeasures, each of these teams require identification of and quantitation of complex pharmacological, hormonal, and growth factor compounds (biomarkers) in humans and in experimental animals to develop an in-depth knowledge of the physiological changes associated with space travel. At present, identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol. Many of these procedures are complicated and the identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol and associated laboratory equipment. To carry all of this equipment and chemicals on a spacecraft would require a complex clinical laboratory; and it would occupy much of the astronauts time. What is needed is a small, efficient, broadband medical diagnostic instrument to rapidly identify important biomarkers for human space exploration. The Miniature Time-Of- Flight Mass Spectrometer Project in the Technology Development Team is developing a small, high resolution, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to quantitatively measure biomarkers for human space exploration. Virtues of the JHU/APL TOFMS technologies reside in the promise for a small (less than one cubic ft), lightweight (less than 5 kg), low-power (less than 50 watts), rugged device that can be used continuously with advanced signal processing diagnostics. To date, the JHU/APL program has demonstrated mass capability from under 100 to beyond 10,000 atomic mass units (amu) in a very small, low power prototype for biological analysis. Further, the electronic nature of the TOFMS output makes it ideal for rapid telemetry to earth for in-depth analysis by ground support teams.

  4. Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K.

    2003-12-01

    An FTIR spectrometer equipped with a long-path gas cell can be used to measure breath alcohol concentrations in an instrumental analysis laboratory course. Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash. They also calculate their blood alcohol levels immediately after chewing bread. The main goal of the experiment is to provide the students with an interesting laboratory exercise that teaches them about infrared spectrometers. While the results are meant to be only semiquantitative, they have compared well with results from other published studies. A reference is included that describes how to fabricate a long-path gas cell.

  5. Interesting polarization-independent SERS detection performance induced by the rotation symmetry of multiparticle nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2016-01-29

    In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360 range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting. PMID:26655083

  6. Interesting polarization-independent SERS detection performance induced by the rotation symmetry of multiparticle nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360 range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting.

  7. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  8. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  9. Airborne spectrometer senses several gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Dowall, J.; Moffat, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Spectrometer's variable shutter permits observation of a wide range of plume widths. Adjustable grating, counter, and access window enable operator to reset grating's position during flight by resetting the counter to a predetermined number. Quartz correlation mask and spectral-aperture instrument-function filter are mounted in a replaceable precision frame.

  10. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  11. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

  12. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  13. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  14. G-Fresnel smartphone spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenji; Cheng, Gong; Edwards, Perry; Zhou, Ming-Da; Zheng, Siyang; Liu, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    We report a smartphone spectrometer with nanometer resolution working in the visible range. A G-Fresnel device with the dual functionality of focusing and dispersion is used to enable miniaturization. Proof of principle application to Bradford assay of protein concentration is also demonstrated. PMID:26645747

  15. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; di Bari, D.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil Svn, M.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p -Pb at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p -Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p -Pb collisions. However, when a |Δ η | gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p -Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of v2{4 } to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find v2{4 } ≃v2{6 } ≠0 which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the v2 distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p -Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a |Δ η |>1.4 gap is placed.

  16. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  17. Preliminary design and development of a reflectance spectrometer instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design for the reflectance spectrometer is described to be used on various terrestrial body missions. These improvements were made on the original Lunar Polar Orbiter design. These include a larger entrance mirror, rectangular aperture, multiple optical beams, spatial resolution, and a bandwidth extension to 5 microns. In addition, detailed electronic designs were produced for a charge amplifier and an amplifier/demodulator/integrator. Design of a microprocessor driven test system was begun. Laboratory tests were performed on a tuning fork chopper.

  18. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  19. Study of multiparticle jet production using calorimeters, high energy channeling, and other high energy physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, A.S.

    1990-10-01

    During this period, work was started on the construction of the backward gamma chambers to be used in experiment E683 at Fermilab. Work also is proceeding on various auxiliary experiments that can be performed with the experimental set-up. Work on the SSC accelerator and experiments began in 1984 with the participation of the principal investigator in the Snomass summer studies and continues with the funding of the accelerator and the location of its site in Texas. We are working with the large EMPACT/TEXAS collaboration on a large detector that the group has proposed. As well, the principal investigator is working on smaller experiments that can be executed at the SSC with less resources. Also, we are working on detector development and radiation tolerance of detectors such as scintillating fibers and data acquisition electronics. Experiments continue at Lehigh on growing whiskers'' in wire chambers. These whiskers affect the performance of wire chambers by providing corona discharge points within the chambers. We are able to study the growth of the whiskers in the laboratory and measure the whisker composition using Auger and ESCA spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscope. We are further developing results that were obtained earlier from various Monte-Carlo programs, including the effects of various momentum energy conservation methods on results, extrapolations to higher transverse momentum, granularity of detectors, and resolution of previous discrepancies. Results of radiation effects on various electronic devices were obtained. Work continued on new accelerator devices and concepts.

  20. Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1989-01-01

    Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

  1. Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleeson, P.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

  2. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  3. The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: A New, Permanent User Facility at the LLNL EBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, S.

    2007-01-01

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) has recently been completed and is currently being installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory. The new ECS spectrometer was built from the ground up to be a low maintenance, high performance microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 us event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 70 hours at 50 mK. The XRSIEBIT program has been extremely successful, producing over two-dozen refereed publications on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility, with many more publications in preparation. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. This proposed future instrument would include a hybrid detector system with 0.8 eV resolution in the band from 0.1-1.0 keV, 2 eV from 0.1-10 keV, and 30 eV from 0.5-100 keV, with high quantum efficiency in each band. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES spectrometer.

  4. New family of reflective spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Francesca; Gambicorti, Lisa; Marchi, Alessandro Zuccaro

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of spectrometers based on off-axis Schmidt and Schmidt-Cassegrain cameras are presented; they have been used for several instruments studies, mainly for European Space Agency and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Both dispersive prism and grating based configurations have interesting characteristics, such as: simplicity, low cost, high efficiency, small volume and weight, very low sensitivity to polarization and great flexibility also in multichannel (wavebands) configurations. The image quality is high, even with low relative apertures and great fields of view, allowing a very good correction of smile and keystone. The compensation of the slit curvature induced by a prism disperser is also demonstrated. This family of spectrometers was the topic of three patents, belonging to Selex-Galileo, while the intellectual property belongs to A. Romali et al.

  5. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  6. Concerning the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-25

    A modified Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is used for measuring atomic emission spectra with high resolution. This device is basically a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, but the Fourier transform is taken in the directions perpendicular to the optical propagation and heterodyned around one preset wavelength. In recent descriptions of this device, one specific phenomenon - the tilt of the energy front of wave packets when diffracted from a grating - was neglected. This led to an overestimate of the resolving power of this spectrograph, especially in situations when the coherence length of the radiation under test is in the order of the effective aperture of the device. The limits of usability are shown here together with some measurements of known spectral lines. PMID:26832561

  7. The Objective Double Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Willis, Thomas D.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The solar corona, supernova remnants, the hot diffuse interstellar gas in the Galaxy, galactic halos, and the hot intracluster gas in rich clusters of galaxies, are examples of extended astrophysical plasmas which emit line-rich spectra in the X-ray spectral range from 1.5 to 25 A. These phenomena represent a significant fraction of the baryonic matter in the universe. The study of the composition, structure and dynamics of these astrophysical plasmas requires observations with both high spectral and spatial resolution simultaneously. The Objective Double Crystal Spectrometer, coupled with a grazing incidence X-ray telescope, represents a stigmatic instrument which is highly efficient for the study of such sources. We describe the configuration and performance (spatial resolution, spectral resolution and efficiency) of the Objective Double Crystal spectrometer.

  8. Concerning the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean -Claude

    2016-01-22

    A modified Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is used for measuring atomic emission spectra with high resolution. This device is basically a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, but the Fourier transform is taken in the directions perpendicular to the optical propagation and heterodyned around one preset wavelength. In recent descriptions of this device, one specific phenomenon - the tilt of the energy front of wave packets when diffracted from a grating - was neglected. This led to an overestimate of the resolving power of this spectrograph, especially in situations when the coherence length of the radiation under test is in the order ofmore » the effective aperture of the device. In conclusion, the limits of usability are shown here together with some measurements of known spectral lines.« less

  9. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  10. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  11. Polarization and stray light considerations for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2010-08-01

    The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. The distinguishing characteristics of the design are high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The optical design is based on the Dyson spectrometer. We discuss here design refinements that are critical for stray light control and for reducing the polarization sensitivity of the entire instrument to below 2%.

  12. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of {sup 3}He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors.

  13. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  14. Versatile pulsed rf heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, A. A. V.; Owers-Bradley, J. R.; Calder, I. D.; Ketterson, J. B.; Halperin, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    We present the design of a versatile rf heterodyne spectrometer covering a 100 kHz to 190 MHz frequency range, which has been useful in nuclear magnetic resonance and acoustic experiments over its whole range. Commercial instruments were used wherever possible: two units, an rf pulse generator, and a 30-MHz IF amplifier/detector were constructed and are described in detail. Also, we briefly outline application to ultrasound and NMR measurements and interfacing to a minicomputer-based data processing system.

  15. Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments in gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the geochemical composition of the lunar surface are reported. The theory is discussed of discrete energy lines of natural radioactivity, and the lines resulting from the bombardment of the lunar surface by high energy cosmic rays. The gamma-ray spectrometer used in lunar orbit and during transearth coast is described, and a preliminary analysis of the results is presented.

  16. Properties of Haldane Excitations and Multiparticle States in the Antiferromagnetic Spin-1 Chain Compound CsNiCl3

    SciTech Connect

    Kenzelmann, M.; Cowley, R. A.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Tun, Z.; Coldea, Radu; Enderle, M.

    2002-01-01

    We report inelastic time-of-flight and triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of the excitation spectrum of the coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain system CsNiCl{sub 3}. Measurements over a wide range of wave-vector transfers along the chain confirm that above T{sub N} CsNiCl{sub 3} is in a quantum-disordered phase with an energy gap in the excitation spectrum. The spin correlations fall off exponentially with increasing distance with a correlation length {zeta} = 4.0(2) sites at T = 6.2K. This is shorter than the correlation length for an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain at this temperature, suggesting that the correlations perpendicular to the chain direction and associated with the interchain coupling lower the single-chain correlation length. A multiparticle continuum is observed in the quantum-disordered phase in the region in reciprocal space where antiferromagnetic fluctuations are strongest, extending in energy up to twice the maximum of the dispersion of the well-defined triplet excitations. We show that the continuum satisfies the Hohenberg-Brinkman sum rule. The dependence of the multiparticle continuum on the chain wave vector resembles that of the two-spinon continuum in antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains. This suggests the presence of spin-1/2 degrees of freedom in CsNiCl{sub 3} for T {approx}< 12 K, possibly caused by multiply frustrated interchain interactions.

  17. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; kesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; sman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimares da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.

    2014-11-01

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead-lead collisions at TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 b collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta GeV and in the pseudorapidity range . The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, , of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for -4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the coefficients are presented. The elliptic flow, , is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, and , are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. Models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.

  18. Landsat swath imaging spectrometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-throughput and high-uniformity pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution over the full visible to short-wave infrared band. The design is based on a 3200×480 element×18 μm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two Dyson-type spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Two telescope designs are shown to achieve the required swath and resolution from different altitudes. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  19. Beijing Q3D magnetic spectrometer and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhichang, Li; Yehao, Cheng; Chen, Yan; Jingang, Yang; Qinghua, Zhang; Shuyuan, Li; Kui, Zhao; Xiuqin, Lu; Chenglie, Jiang

    1993-11-01

    The Beijing Q3D magnetic spectrometer has been used for many experiments in this laboratory. It is found that the locations of the effective field boundaries (EFB) of the dipole magnets with the floating snakes are shifted towards the magnets, comparing with the design. Their effects on the ion-optical performances of the spectrometer were checked by the calculation with the program RAYTRACE and a method to reoptimize the performance with the program is described. The experimental investigation of the spectrometer performances has been carried out by the so-called "experimental ray-tracing" method. A method to adjust experimentally the focal plane angle in a finite region is proposed. The focal plane angle of 47.5 has been adjusted successfully to the original designed value, 45. By the use of this method not only the various features of the spectrometer are well determined, but also the empirical field-setting for every adjustable magnetic element is uniquely set up. Some of the applications are mentioned in this paper.

  20. Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

    2010-05-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

  1. Performance limits of stationary Fourier spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, M. L.; Kauppinen, J.; Ikonen, E.

    1991-09-01

    Theoretical performance limits of stationary Fourier spectrometers without mechanical scanning are analyzed and compared with the performance of a scanning Fourier spectrometer. Spectrometers employing uncollimated light are most favorable. In amplitude-splitting interferometers the reduction in fringe visibility brought about by the extended source can be avoided and leads to high optical throughput in the corresponding spectrometer. In a stationary wave-front-splitting interferometer, realized without a beam splitter, the fringe contrast depends on the size of the source. The use of a slit source increases the optical throughput of source-size-limited spectrometers.

  2. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) spectrometer design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  3. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  4. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time-of-flightTOFtime-of-flight4

  5. Solenoid Spectrometers for Reaccelerated Beam Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuosmaa, Alan

    2014-09-01

    The coming availability of reaccelerated rare-isotope beam promises many new advances in the study of nuclear structure. Already, measurements of transfer reactions with unstable beams have provided new information about nuclei far from stability. The necessity of performing these experiments in inverse kinematics, however, introduces technical challenges that accompany the potential gains that can be achieved. These include the resolution of excited states in the nuclei of interest, the suppression of backgrounds from beam impurities, and the identification of the reaction products. One approach that has been developed recently to cope with these challenges uses the uniform magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid to transport light charged particles from the target to an array of position-sensitive silicon detectors, both of which are positioned on the magnetic axis of the solenoid. An implementation of this concept, called HELIOS (the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer) has been in operation at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory since 2008, and has been used to study a variety of nucleon transfer reactions with stable and unstable beams. The technical concept and examples of recent experimental results will be discussed, and opportunities for studies at future reaccelerated beam facilities will be presented. The coming availability of reaccelerated rare-isotope beam promises many new advances in the study of nuclear structure. Already, measurements of transfer reactions with unstable beams have provided new information about nuclei far from stability. The necessity of performing these experiments in inverse kinematics, however, introduces technical challenges that accompany the potential gains that can be achieved. These include the resolution of excited states in the nuclei of interest, the suppression of backgrounds from beam impurities, and the identification of the reaction products. One approach that has been developed recently to cope with these challenges uses the uniform magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid to transport light charged particles from the target to an array of position-sensitive silicon detectors, both of which are positioned on the magnetic axis of the solenoid. An implementation of this concept, called HELIOS (the HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer) has been in operation at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory since 2008, and has been used to study a variety of nucleon transfer reactions with stable and unstable beams. The technical concept and examples of recent experimental results will be discussed, and opportunities for studies at future reaccelerated beam facilities will be presented. Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract Numbers DE-FG02-04ER41320 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William

    2008-01-01

    Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

  7. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  8. Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Harpold, D. N.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Owen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jupiter atmosphere's constituents, including their vertical variations, will be measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer instrument through in situ sampling; batch sampling will also be undertaken for noble gas composition and isotopic ratio determinations. The instrument's gas-sampling system is connected to a quadrupole mass analyzer for molecular weight analysis. Threshold values are lowered through sample enrichment by a factor of 100-500 for stable hydrocarbons and by a factor of 10 for noble gases. The instrument follows a sampling sequence of 8192 steps, at a rate of 2 steps/sec.

  9. FPGA based pulsed NQR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemnani, Preeti; Rajarajan, A. K.; Joshi, Gopal; Motiwala, Paresh D.; Ravindranath, S. V. G.

    2014-04-01

    An NQR spectrometer for the frequency range of 1 MHz to 5 MHZ has been designed constructed and tested using an FPGA module. Consisting of four modules viz. Transmitter, Probe, Receiver and computer controlled (FPGA & Software) module containing frequency synthesizer, pulse programmer, mixer, detection and display, the instrument is capable of exciting nuclei with a power of 200W and can detect signal of a few microvolts in strength. 14N signal from NaNO2 has been observed with the expected signal strength.

  10. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  11. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  12. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  13. Microfabricated saturated absorption laser spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Svenja A; Robinson, Hugh G; Hollberg, Leo

    2007-05-14

    We demonstrate a miniature microfabricated saturated absorption laser spectrometer. The system consists of miniature optics, a microfabricated Rb vapor cell, heaters, and a photodetector, all contained within a volume of 0.1 cm(3). Saturated absorption spectra were measured with a diode laser at 795 nm. They are comparable to signals obtained with standard table-top setups, although the rubidium vapor cell has an interior volume of only 1 mm(3). We discuss the performance and prospects for using such systems as a miniature optical wavelength reference, compatible with transportable instruments. PMID:19546933

  14. Development of {sup 129}I AMS for the LLNL spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Roberts, M.L.

    1993-09-17

    The Multi-user Tandem Laboratory at LLNL was designed to be a versatile facility which could be configured to develop new capabilities as determined by the requirements of sponsoring agencies and experimental programs. The initial design made some compromises, driven by both the usual budgetary constraints and uncertainties in program needs and support. We were recently funded by the Office of Arms Control in the US DOE to develop an {sup 129}I AMS capability. The first {sup 129}I measurements were performed this year after upgrades and modifications to the initially installed components were completed. The configuration of the present spectrometer and performance achieved to date will be described. Planned improvements to the injector and high energy spectrometer will be outlined.

  15. Scintillation gamma spectrometer for analysis of hydraulic fracturing waste products.

    PubMed

    Ying, Leong; O'Connor, Frank; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    Flowback and produced wastewaters from unconventional hydraulic fracturing during oil and gas explorations typically brings to the surface Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), predominantly radioisotopes from the U238 and Th232 decay chains. Traditionally, radiological sampling are performed by sending collected small samples for laboratory tests either by radiochemical analysis or measurements by a high-resolution High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. One of the main isotopes of concern is Ra226 which requires an extended 21-days quantification period to allow for full secular equilibrium to be established for the alpha counting of its progeny daughter Rn222. Field trials of a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector offers a more economic solution for rapid screenings of radiological samples. To achieve the quantification accuracy, this gamma spectrometer must be efficiency calibrated with known standard sources prior to field deployments to analyze the radioactivity concentrations in hydraulic fracturing waste products. PMID:25734826

  16. Observing gamma-ray bursts with the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, G. K.; Connell, P. H.; Naya, J. E.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The spectrometer for INTEGRAL (SPI) is a germanium spectrometer with a wide field of view and will provide the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission with the opportunity of studying gamma ray bursts. Simulations carried out to assess the response of the instrument using data from real burst data as input are reported on. It is shown that, despite the angular resolution of 3 deg, it is possible to locate the direction of bursts with an accuracy of a few arcmin, while offering the high spectral resolution of the germanium detectors. It is remarked that the SPI field of view is similar to the size of the halo of bursts expected around M 31 on galactic models. The detectability of bursts with such a halo is discussed.

  17. The AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, I.D.

    1988-09-01

    Livermore will have an operational Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) by mid-1989 as part of its new Multi-user Tandem Laboratory. The spectrometer was designed primarily for applications in archaeology and the geosciences and was co-funded by the University of California Regents. Radiological control for personnel protection, ion sources and injection systems, the tandem and all beam handling hardware are operated with a distributed processor computer control system. The Tandem is the former University of Washington injector FN which has been upgraded with Dowlish tubes, pelletron charging and SF/sub 6/ gas. Design goals for the AMS system, computer aided operation, automated measurement capability, initial results and some of our intended applications will be presented. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  18. An x-ray spectrometer for Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Ito, M.; Urai, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Sakai, N.; Iwazumi, T.; Kawata, H.; Ando, M.; Shiotani, N.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer has been designed and constructed for Compton scattering measurements using 40-70 keV x-rays from an ellipsoid multipole wiggler (EMPW) installed in the accumulation ring of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics at Tsukuba. The spectrometer has four sets of a Cauchois-type energy analyzer and an imaging plate, which are arranged on the surface of a cone and share a scattering angle of 160. In each energy-analyzing system, to increase signal to noise ratio a set of vertical and horizontal slits are inserted between the analyzer and the imaging plate. A resolution of 0.13 a.u. in terms of electron momentum was achieved. A Compton profile of a vanadium single crystal was measured with an integrated counting rate of 400 counts/s.

  19. A Computer-based Tutorial on Double-Focusing Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbar, Richard R.; Browman, Andrew A.; Mead, William C.; Williams, Robert A.

    1998-10-01

    WhistleSoft is developing a set of computer-based, self-paced tutorials on particle accelerators that targets a broad audience, including undergraduate science majors and industrial technicians. (See http://www.whistlesoft.com/s~ilbar/.) We use multimedia techniques to enhance the student's rate of learning and retention of the material. The tutorials feature interactive On-Screen Laboratories and use hypertext, colored graphics, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. Parts of our Dipoles module deal with the double-focusing spectrometer and occur throughout the piece. Radial focusing occurs in the section on uniform magnets, while vertical focusing is in the non-uniform magnets section. The student can even understand the ?2? bend angle on working through the (intermediate-level) discussion on the Kerst-Serber equations. This talk will present our discussion of this spectrometer, direct to you from the computer screen.

  20. An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

  1. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Yu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Tao

    2005-12-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension position-sensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown.

  2. Engine spectrometer probe and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

  3. Imaging spectrometer/camera having convex grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reininger, Francis M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer has fore-optics coupled to a spectral resolving system with an entrance slit extending in a first direction at an imaging location of the fore-optics for receiving the image, a convex diffraction grating for separating the image into a plurality of spectra of predetermined wavelength ranges; a spectrometer array for detecting the spectra; and at least one concave sperical mirror concentric with the diffraction grating for relaying the image from the entrance slit to the diffraction grating and from the diffraction grating to the spectrometer array. In one embodiment, the spectrometer is configured in a lateral mode in which the entrance slit and the spectrometer array are displaced laterally on opposite sides of the diffraction grating in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction. In another embodiment, the spectrometer is combined with a polychromatic imaging camera array disposed adjacent said entrance slit for recording said image.

  4. Lunar mass spectrometer test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described along with results obtained in a test program conducted to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The subject instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer and an off axis electron multiplier ion counting detector. The major program emphasis was placed on demonstrating instrument resolution, sensitivity and S/N ratio over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 13th power torr. Ultrahigh vacuum tests were conducted and the minimum detectable partial pressure for neon, argon, krypton and xenon was successfully determined for the spectrometer using isotopes of these gases. With the exception of neon, the minimum detectable partial pressure is approximately 4 x 10 to the minus 14th power torr for the above gases.

  5. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  6. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vidicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  7. Pupil aberrations in Offner spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Nez, Hctor; Prieto-Blanco, Xess; de la Fuente, Ral

    2012-04-01

    The light path function (LPF) of an Offner spectrometer is presented. The evaluation of the LPF of this spectrometer enables its imaging properties to be studied for arbitrary object and image positions, while avoiding the more complicated analysis of intermediate images generated by the diffraction grating, which is often involved. A power series expansion of the LPF on the grating coordinates directly determines pupil aberrations of the generated spectrum and facilitates the search for configurations with small low-order aberrations. This analysis not only confirms the possibility of reducing low-order aberrations in Rowland-type mounts, namely astigmatism and coma, as predicted in previous studies, but also proves that all third-order terms in the series expansion of the aberration function can be canceled at the image of the design point and for the corresponding design wavelength, when the design point is located on a plane orthogonal to the optical axis. Furthermore, fourth-order terms are computed and shown to represent the most relevant contribution to image blurring. Third- and fourth-order aberrations are also evaluated for Rowland mounts with the design point located outside the aforementioned plane. The study described in this manuscript is not restricted to small angles of incidence, and, therefore, it goes beyond Seidel and Buchdahl aberrations. PMID:22472819

  8. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  9. Low-Power CMOS Digital Autocorrelator Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Kumar M.; Wilson, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Prototype digital autocorrelator spectrometer circuit designed and built as assembly of few very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit chips. Spectrometer contains 128 frequency channels and operates at clock rate of as much as 40 MHz. Total dc power needed is only 6 W. Digital autocorrelator spectrometer consists of four 32-channel autocorrelator chips that collectively produce 128-point spectrum of input signal as computed by use of Fourier transform.

  10. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  11. Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. E. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A gamma ray spectrometer is described for use in intense radiation fields such as those in the vicinity of a rocket engine exhaust. A collimated radiation beam is Compton scattered toward shielded spectrometers to reduce the energy and intensity of the radiation and is energy selective among the spectrometers. The scattering targets are changeable to control the percentage of the radiation scattered. Sum-Compton coincidence techniques are employed for data selection.

  12. Qutrits in multiparticle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V N; Trubilko, A I

    2007-12-31

    The evolution of complex composite quantum systems which can be reduced to systems with a small dimensionality of the Hilbert space (of the qutrit, ququart type, etc.) is considered. In the case of the interaction of an ensemble of two-level atoms with light, the conditions are found under which a qutrit is produced from the light and atomic states. The properties and possible applications of a qutrit based of the Fock states of light in which two photons are distributed among three modes are discussed. It is shown that this state has the nonclassical photon statistics, is entangled and can be used as a quantum channel for the teleportation, dense coding, and key distribution. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  13. A Pulsed Spectrometer Designed for Feedback NQR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiano, J. L.; Ginsberg, M. D.

    2000-02-01

    A pulsed NQR spectrometer specifically designed to facilitate real-time tuning of pulse sequence parameters is described. A modular approach based on the interconnection of several rack-mounted blocks provides easy access to all spectrometer signals and simplifies the task of modifying the spectrometer design. We also present experimental data that demonstrates the ability of the spectrometer to increase the signal to noise ratio of NQR measurements by automatically adjusting the pulse width in the strong off-resonant comb pulse sequence.

  14. A compact electron spectrometer for an LWFA.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Crowell, R.; Li, Y.; Nemeth, K.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) beam as a driver for a compact free-electron laser (FEL) has been proposed recently. A project is underway at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to operate an LWFA in the bubble regime and to use the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam as a driver for a 3-m-long undulator for generation of sub-ps UV radiation. The Terawatt Ultrafast High Field Facility (TUHFF) in the Chemistry Division provides the 20-TW peak power laser. A compact electron spectrometer whose initial fields of 0.45 T provide energy coverage of 30-200 MeV has been selected to characterize the electron beams. The system is based on the Ecole Polytechnique design used for their LWFA and incorporates the 5-cm-long permanent magnet dipole, the LANEX scintillator screen located at the dispersive plane, a Roper Scientific 16-bit MCP-intensified CCD camera, and a Bergoz ICT for complementary charge measurements. Test results on the magnets, the 16-bit camera, and the ICT will be described, and initial electron beam data will be presented as available. Other challenges will also be addressed.

  15. Calibration of the LLNL Imaging Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Hazi, A. U.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2014-10-01

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g. Au foil) produce well collimated, broadband proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields in high-energy-density systems. The Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS) was previously designed and built (H. Chen 2010, RSI) for use with such laser produced proton beams. The IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 250 at 0.5 MeV and 350 at 2 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging direction. In order to better characterize the imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D FEA solver has been used to calculate the magnetic field of the IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to calibrate the imaging axis of the IPS. Experiments using alpha sources will be used to verify the calculated calibration. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

    2011-10-01

    We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is an F/4, wide field (30) design, covering the spectral range 600-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

  17. Optical Design and Performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is a F/4, wide field (30deg) design, covering the spectral range 500-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

  18. Progress on the Design and Fabircation of the MICE SpectrometerSolenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Lia, D.; Sizman, M.S.

    2007-06-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) willdemonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic coolingchannel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in theUK. A five-coil, superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet at each endof the cooling channel will provide a 4 T uniform field region for thescintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore tubes. The trackermodules are used to measure the muon beam emittance as it enters andexits the cooling channel. The cold mass for the 400 mm warm bore magnetconsists of two sections: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coilmatching section that matches the uniform field of the solenoid into theMICE cooling channel. The spectrometer solenoid detailed designandanalysis has been completed, and the fabrication of the magnets is wellunder way. The primary features of the spectrometer solenoid magnet andmechanical designs are presented along with a summary of key fabricationissues and photos of the construction.

  19. NA62 Low Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, V.

    2014-06-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at a precision measurement of the ultra-rare decay K^+ rightarrow ?^+?bar?. A low mass ( 1.8%X0) spectrometer, whose construction is ongoing, has been designed to track charged kaon decays products. The system operates in vacuum, and will be operative in October 2014, when the first physics run is scheduled. The straw detector is made of 4 stations, each equipped with 1792 straws, arranged in 4 views (X, Y, U and V). A high aperture magnet (MNP33), placed between the second and the third chamber, provides a 0.36T dipole vertical B-field, required to measure the momentum of the charged particles. A 64-straws prototype was constructed in 2010. It was used as test bench for electronics commissioning and detector characterization. Time resolution and space-time relation were measured. A first test with a full chamber and final beam setup was performed in November 2012.

  20. Clementine RRELAX SRAM particle spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.G.; Soli, G.A.; Blaes, B.R.; Ratliff, J.M.; Garrett, H.B. . Jet Propulsion Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2-[mu]m rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it (a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, (b) is not affected by electrons, and (c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5-day period.

  1. Clementine RRELAX SRAM Particle Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Soli, G.; Blaes, B.; Ratliff, J.; Garrett, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2 micron rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, b) is not affected by electrons, and c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5 day period.

  2. The Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Meier, A.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer and the other for the inner coma, with each obtaining complementary information in the region for which it is not optimized. The outer coma is characterized by the interaction between solar wind and comentary plasmas, the inner coma by the outflow of cometary neutrals and their ionization products. Both sensors feature mass imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by multidetector arrays. Resultant mass-per-charge resolution is greater than or = 20. Energy per charge, and the elevation and aximuth of incident ions are measured. Calibration and in-flight solar-wind data show that the IMS will meet its scientific goals for the Halley encounter.

  3. Mariner Mars 1969 infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Herr, K C; Forney, P B; Pimentel, G C

    1972-03-01

    The infrared spectrometer that recorded spectra of the atmosphere and surface of Mars during the Mariner 6 and 7 flyby missions is described. The instrument continuously scanned the 1.9-micro to 14.4-micro spectral region at 10 see per scan. Approximately 1% spectral resolution was furnished by two rotating, circular, variable interference filters. The spectral region 1.9-6.0 micro was recorded with a PbSe detector cooled to 175 K by radiation to deep space. The spectral region 3.9-14.4 micro was modulated by a cold (175 K) tuning fork chopper and recorded with a mercury-doped germanium detector cooled to 22 K by a Joule-Thomson two-stage (N(2) and H(2)) cryostat. The total weight of the instrument was 17.4 kg (monochromator plus electronics, 11.5 kg; gas delivery system, 5.9 kg), and it consumed 11 W of power. PMID:20111539

  4. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical. PMID:26135449

  5. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  6. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  7. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  8. Calibration of the Shuttle borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, Richard P.; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Guenther, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Shuttle Solar Backscatter UV (SSBUV) spectrometer that will be furnishing regular, on-orbit calibration checks of the ozone-monitoring instruments aboard NOAA satellites. The long-term ozone-monitoring program requires a reduction of uncharacterized drifts in the satellite instrument to a value lower than the expected ozone trend at the 95 percent confidence level; this translates into a requirement for the calibration of the SSBUV to a 1-sigma precision level of 1 percent from one flight to the next. A hierarchy of calibration standards is used to furnish redundancy and minimize biases; laboratory fixtures have been designed to minimize setup-induced systematic errors.

  9. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  10. Initial tests of the magnetic spectrometer at the TANDAR accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achterberg, E.; Pacheco, A. J.; di Tada, M.; Fernndez Niello, J. O.; Liberman, R.; Mart, G. V.; Ramrez, M.; Testoni, J. E.; Koide, K.

    1995-02-01

    A new magnetic spectrometer has started operating at the 20 UD tandem accelerator of the TANDAR laboratory. A large acceptance angle and the ability to handle a broad range of energies and masses are its main characteristics. The associated detection system consists of a multiwire vertical drift chamber, an ionization chamber and a plastic scintillator. The complete device was tested using the scattering of 12C, 16O, and 32S on 197Au, and 16O beams on 120Sn. A summary of the most important features of the system and the results of the tests are presented.

  11. SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Femec, D.A.; Killian, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    To assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contract-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP), the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurements and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The SGRS system software controls turntable and detector system activities. In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, this software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of-specific interest. This document describes the software design for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system.

  12. Smaller, Lighter Magnetic Sector For Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Tomassian, Albert D.

    1993-01-01

    Miniature, lightweight focal-plane magnetic sector of mass spectrometer (Mattauch-Herzog type) developed. Magnetic sector integral part of portable gas-chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Focal plane covers nominal range of 40 to 240 atomic mass units for 1-keV ion energy. System used for analyzing pollutants in field environments.

  13. Ion optics of LIDIA mass-spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepantsov, S. V.; Rodin, A. M.; Ter-Akopyan, G. M.

    The ion-optical characteristics of the ultrasensitive mass-spectrometer LIDIA designed to search for superheavy elements (A greater than 250) using a laser ion source and a multistage separation system have been calculated. The mass-spectrometer is under construction at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The results are compared with the experimental data.

  14. Development of a Submillimeter-Wavelength Immersion Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    2001-01-01

    The broad goal of this project was to develop a broadband, moderate-resolution spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths. Our original approach was to build an immersion grating spectrometer, and as such, the first step was to identify the best material (lowest loss, highest index) for the grating medium, and to characterize its properties at the foreseen optical-bench operating temperature of 1.5 K. To this end, we put our initial efforts into upgrading an existing laboratory submillimeter Fourier transform spectrometer, which allowed us to carry out the requisite materials measurements. The associated cryogenic detector dewar was also redesigned and rebuilt to carry out this work. This dewar houses the 1.5 K detector and the filter wheel used in the materials characterization. Our goal was to have the beam propagate through the samples as uniformly as possible, so the optics were redesigned to allow for the samples to be traversed by a well-defined collimated beam. The optics redesign also placed the samples at an image of the aperture stop located within the FTS. After the rebuild, we moved into the testing phase.

  15. Miniature mass spectrometer systems based on a microengineered quadrupole filter.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Andrew; Wright, Steven; Syms, Richard R A; Dash, Neil; Schwab, Marc-André; Finlay, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Two miniature mass spectrometer systems based on a microengineered quadrupole mass filter have been developed. One of the instruments has a footprint of 27 cm x 20 cm and is intended for laboratory use when space is at a premium. The other is portable and intended for use in the field. It is battery powered, weighs 14.9 kg, and is housed in a rugged case. This is the first example of a portable mass spectrometer incorporating an analyzer fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. The starting material for construction of the filters is a bonded silicon on insulator substrate, which is selectively etched using batch processing techniques to form coupling optics and springs that accurately hold 0.5 mm diameter stainless steel rods in the required geometry. Assembled filters measure 35 mm x 6 mm x 1.5 mm and are mounted, together with an ion source and channeltron detector, in small, interchangeable cartridges, which plug into a 220 cm(3) vacuum chamber. Recovery from accidental contamination or when servicing is required can be achieved within 5-10 min, as the cartridge is easily exchanged with a spare. A potential application to environmental monitoring has been investigated. The headspace above water spiked with dibutyl mercaptan was sampled with a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber, which was then injected directly into the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer. Using this method, the limit of detection was found to be approximately 5 ppm for a 15 s sampling period. PMID:20108919

  16. Development of near infrared spectrometer for gem materials study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindata, W.; Meesiri, W.; Wongkokua, W.

    2015-07-01

    Most of gem materials can be characterized by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Normally, mid infrared absorption technique has been applied for investigating fundamental vibrational modes. However, for some gem materials, such as tourmaline, NIR is a better choice due to differentiation. Most commercial NIR spectrometers employ complicated dispersive grating or Fourier transform techniques. In this work, we developed a filter type NIR spectrometer with the availability of high efficiency and low-cost narrow bandpass NIR interference filters to be taught in a physics laboratory. The instrument was designed for transmission-mode configuration. A 50W halogen lamp was used as NIR source. There were fourteen NIR filters mounted on a rotatory wheel for wavelength selection ranging from 1000-1650 nm with steps of 50 nm. A 1.0 mm diameter of InGaAs photodiode was used as the detector for the spectrometer. Hence, transparent gem materials can be used as samples for experiment. Student can learn vibrational absorption spectroscopy as well as Beer-Lambert law from the development of this instrument.

  17. The Beagle 2 X-ray spectrometer for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talboys, Dean Lee

    This thesis is concerned with the Beagle 2 X-ray spectrometer (XRS) for Mars. The scientific goals of the XRS were to perform (i) geochemical analyses of Martian rocks and soils and (ii) in situ 40K >40Ar dating of rocks. The major aims of this study were the development of the XRS to achieve its scientific goals and to inform the design of future versions of the instrument. The XRS is described and compared with the previous X-ray Spectrometers that have been successfully deployed on Mars. A characterisation of the XRS investigated the fundamental behaviour of the instrument in terms of its spectral features (gain, resolution and artefacts), gain variation with temperature of its components, deadtime and quantum efficiency. The XRS was calibrated to convert elemental intensities from its analyses into concentrations. The concentrations of several major and trace elements of interest in reference materials were linearly correlated with the certified concentration. The analytical performance of the XRS was evaluated in comparison with a terrestrial portable X-ray spectrometer (PXRF) and a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WD XRF). The performance was characterised in terms of accuracy, detection limit and fitting precision. This study showed the importance of energy resolution to the analytical performance of the XRS. The operational performance of the XRS was evaluated. The geochemical composition of several basalts analysed by the XRS agreed with complementary analyses by the PXRF and WD XRF. The 40K >40Ar radiometric ages for two basalts were determined using the K content in the basalts in conjunction with their 40Ar isotope content (analysed by a laboratory version of the Beagle 2 Gas Analysis Package). The 40K 40Ar ages were found to differ to the Ar-Ar ages because of various effects associated with inhomogeneity of the K content in the rock and radiogenic40Ar loss.

  18. Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer and of a miniature hemispherical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer were made. The extremely high sensitivity of these instruments and their ability to operate at D region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D region ion composition measurements.

  19. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to generate a moderate electric field. Positive ions leaving the membrane holes would be accelerated in this electric field. The resulting flux of ions away from the ionization membrane would create a partial vacuum that would draw more of the gas medium through the membrane. The figure depicts a filter electrode and detector electrodes located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a transverse AC electric field superimposed on a ramped DC electric field. The AC field would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions. At a given instant of time, the trajectories of most of the ions would be bent toward the electrodes, causing most of the ions to collide with the electrodes and thereby become neutralized. The DC field would partly counteract the dispersive effect of the AC field, straightening the trajectories of a selected species of ions; the selection would vary with the magnitude of the applied DC field. The straightening of the trajectories of the selected ions would enable them to pass into the region between the detector electrodes. Depending on the polarity of the voltage applied to the detector electrodes, the electric field between the detector electrodes would draw the selected ions to one of these electrodes. Hence, the current collected by one of the detector electrodes would be a measure of the abundance of ions of the selected species. The ramping of the filter- electrode DC voltage would sweep the selection of ions through the spectrum of ionic species.

  20. Measurements of neutron energy spectra from 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction with Bonner sphere spectrometer, Nested Neutron Spectrometer and ROSPEC.

    PubMed

    Atanackovic, J; Matysiak, W; Witharana, S; Dubeau, J; Waker, A J

    2014-10-01

    Neutron spectrometry measurements were carried out at the McMaster Accelerator Laboratory (MAL), which is equipped with a 3-MV Van de Graaff-type accelerator. Protons were accelerated onto a thick natural lithium target inducing the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be threshold reaction. Depending on the proton energy, slightly different poly-energetic neutron fields were produced. Neutron spectra were measured at two incident proton energies: 2.15 and 2.24 MeV, which produced poly-energetic neutrons with maximum kinetic energies of 401 and 511 keV, respectively. Measurements were performed at a distance of 1.5 m from the target in the forward direction with three different instruments: Bonner sphere spectrometer, Nested Neutron Spectrometer and ROtational proton recoil SPECtrometer. PMID:24298169

  1. Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Klarmann, J.; Israel, M. H.; Garrard, T. L.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag (LISA) is an experiment designed to measure the isotopic composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays for elements extending from beryllium through zinc. The overall objectives of this investigation are to study the origin and evolution of galactic matter; the acceleration, transport, and time scales of cosmic rays in the galaxy; and search for heavy antinuclei in the cosmic radiation. To achieve these objectives, the LISA experiment will make the first identifications of individual heavy cosmic ray isotopes in the energy range from about 2.5 to 4 GeV/n where relativistic time dilation effects enhance the abundances of radioactive clocks and where the effects of solar modulation and cross-section variations are minimized. It will extend high resolution measurements of individual element abundances and their energy spectra to energies of nearly 1 TeV/n, and has the potential for discovering heavy anti-nuclei which could not have been formed except in extragalactic sources.

  2. Airborne fourier infrared spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.D.; Uthe, E.E.; Laan, J. van der

    1996-10-01

    A commercial Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer has been interfaced to a 35 cm aperture telescope and a digital data processing and display system and flown in a downward-viewing configuration on a Queen Air aircraft. Real-time spectral analysis and display software were developed to provide the means to direct aircraft flight operations based on atmospheric and/or surface features identified on 1 to 8 cm{sup -1} resolution infrared spectra. Data are presented from ground-based tests consisting of simultaneous horizontal path measurements by the FTIR system and an infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) observing gas volumes generated in an open-ended chamber. Airborne FUR data are presented on the tracking of a surface-released puff of SF{sub 6} gas to a downwind distance of 45 km in a time period of 1.5 hours. The experiment demonstrated the real time tracking of a gas tracer cloud to provide atmospheric transport and diffusion information and for directing airborne in-situ sensors for optimum cloud sampling. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  4. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  5. AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, G. P.

    1997-05-01

    The ACIS is an advanced X-ray camera for the AXAF scheduled to be launched in 1998. The camera is composed of two arrays of CCDs, one optimized for imaging using four CCDs abutted in a square array, and a linear array of six CCDs optimized for imaging the dispersed spectrum formed by the High and Medium Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometers. The imaging array is tipped with respect to the optical axis to better approximate the curved focal surface formed by the AXAF Wolter Type I optics. The spectroscopic array has a slight tilt to follow the Rowland circle of the grating focus. The CCD camera and electronics were built at the MIT Center for Space Research and Lincoln Laborator. Much of the thermal and mechanical design as well as the power system were carried out at Lockheed-Martin in Denver, Colorado. The CCDs have been calibrated at MIT and the synchrotron at BESSY in Berlin, Germany. The entire flight instrument has been calibrated at the XRCF facility at Marshall Space flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The anticipated instrument performance characteristics based on the calibration reluts will be pre A few examples of possible observations will werve to illustrate the great scientific capabilities of the AXAF.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of the Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhagen, P.; Kniss, T.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.; Jones, I. W.; VanSteveninck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to greater than 10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron effective dose and dose equivalent rates and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cutoff. The measured cosmic-ray neutron spectra have almost no thermal neutrons, a large "evaporation" peak near 1 MeV and a second broad peak near 100 MeV which contributes about 69% of the neutron effective dose. At high altitude, geomagnetic latitude has very little effect on the shape of the spectrum, but it is the dominant variable affecting neutron fluence rate, which was 8 times higher at the northernmost measurement location than it was at the southernmost. The shape of the spectrum varied only slightly with altitude from 21 km down to 12 km (56 - 201 grams per square centimeter atmospheric depth), but was significantly different on the ground. In all cases, ambient dose equivalent was greater than effective dose for cosmic-ray neutrons.

  7. An expert system for geologic mapping with imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Seznec, O.; Krotkov, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from visible and infrared reflectance spectra and an expert system has been designed, implemented, and successfully tested that allows automated identification of minerals based on their spectral characteristics. A suite of laboratory spectra of common minerals was analyzed and the absorption band characteristics tabulated and used to develop a generalized knowledge base for analysis of the reflectance spectra. A tree hierarchy was designed to emulate the decision process followed by an experienced analyst for analysis of laboratory and field reflectance spectra and aircraft imaging spectrometer spectra. Good results were obtained with the expert system for all three types of spectra, with the critical factor in the analysis being the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectral data.

  8. Identification of hydrothermal alteration assemblages using airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, field and laboratory spectra and samples for X-ray diffraction analysis were collected in argillically altered Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada. From laboratory and field spectral measurements in the 2.0 to 2.4 micron range and using a spectroradiometer with a 4 nm sampling interval, the absorption band centers for kaolinite were loacted at 2.172 and 2.215 microns, for montmorillonite at 2.214 micron and for illite at 2.205. Based on these values and the criteria for resolution and separtion of spectral features, a spectral sampling interval of less than 4 nm is necessary to separate the clays. With an AIS spectral sampling interval of 9.3 nm, a spectral matching algorithm is more effective for separating kaolinite, montmorillonite, ad illite in Hot Creek Range than using the location of absorption minima alone.

  9. Laboratory Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, D.D.

    1999-10-08

    Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

  10. Use of Eutectic Fixed Points to Characterize a Spectrometer for Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Saber G. R.; Fox, Nigel P.; Woolliams, Emma R.; Winkler, Rainer; Pegrum, Heather M.; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken T. V.

    2007-12-01

    A small palm-sized, reference spectrometer, mounted on a remote-controlled model helicopter is being developed and tested by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in conjunction with City University, London. The developed system will be used as a key element for field vicarious calibration of optical earth observation systems in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region. The spectrometer is hand held, low weight, and uses a photodiode array. It has good stray light rejection and wide spectral coverage, allowing simultaneous measurements from 400 to 900 nm. The spectrometer is traceable to NPL’s primary standard cryogenic radiometer via a high-temperature metal-carbon eutectic fixed-point blackbody. Once the fixed-point temperature has been determined (using filter radiometry), the eutectic provides a high emissivity and high stability source of known spectral radiance over the emitted spectral range. All wavelength channels of the spectrometer can be calibrated simultaneously using the eutectic transition without the need for additional instrumentation. The spectrometer itself has been characterized for stray light performance and wavelength accuracy. Its long-term and transportation stability has been proven in an experiment that determined the “World’s Bluest Sky”—a process that involved 56 flights, covering 100,000 km in 72 days. This vicarious calibration methodology using a eutectic standard is presented alongside the preliminary results of an evaluation study of the spectrometer characteristics.

  11. Comparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO2 measurements using scattered sunlight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Oppenheimer, C.; Horton, K.A.; Garbeil, H.; Tsanev, V.; McGonigle, A.J.S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2006-01-01

    The correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), the principal tool for remote measurements of volcanic SO2, is rapidly being replaced by low-cost, miniature, ultraviolet (UV) spectrometers. We compared two of these new systems with a COSPEC by measuring SO2 column amounts at Ki??lauea Volcano, Hawaii. The two systems, one calibrated using in-situ SO2 cells, and the other using a calibrated laboratory reference spectrum, employ similar spectrometer hardware, but different foreoptics and spectral retrieval algorithms. Accuracy, signal-to-noise, retrieval parameters, and precision were investigated for the two configurations of new miniature spectrometer. Measurements included traverses beneath the plumes from the summit and east rift zone of Ki??lauea, and testing with calibration cells of known SO2 concentration. The results obtained from the different methods were consistent with each other, with <8% difference in estimated SO2 column amounts up to 800 ppm m. A further comparison between the COSPEC and one of the miniature spectrometer configurations, the 'FLYSPEC', spans an eight month period and showed agreement of measured emission rates to within 10% for SO2 column amounts up to 1,600 ppm m. The topic of measuring high SO2 burdens accurately is addressed for the Ki??lauea measurements. In comparing the foreoptics, retrieval methods, and resultant implications for data quality, we aim to consolidate the various experiences to date, and improve the application and development of miniature spectrometer systems. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  12. A compact high-energy neutron spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, F D; Buffler, A; Allie, M S; Herbert, M S; Nchodu, M R; Jones, D T L; Smit, F D; Nolte, R; Dangendorf, V

    2007-01-01

    A compact liquid organic neutron spectrometer based on a single NE213 liquid scintillator (5 cm diameter x 5 cm) is described. The spectrometer is designed to measure neutron fluence spectra over the energy range 2-200 MeV and is suitable for use in neutron fields having any type of time structure. Neutron fluence spectra are obtained from measurements of two-parameter distributions (counts versus pulse-height and pulse shape) using the Bayesian unfolding code MAXED. Calibration and test measurements made using a pulsed neutron beam with a continuous energy spectrum are described and the application of the spectrometer to radiation dose measurements is discussed. PMID:17575291

  13. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  14. Acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Reyes, George; Rider, David; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    A remote sensing multispectral imaging instrument is being developed that uses a high resolution, fast programmable acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) as the spectral bandpass filter. A compact and fully computer controllable AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that operates in the visible wavelength range (0.5-0.8 microns) has been built and tested with success. A second imaging spectrometer operating in the near-infrared wavelength range (1.2-2.4 microns) is also under experimental investigation. The design criteria meeting various system issues, such as imaging quality, spectral response, and field of view (FOV), are discussed. An experiment using this AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard is described.

  15. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  16. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  17. Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

    2007-01-01

    A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

  18. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  19. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months.

  20. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-O IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 micron (1000-4000/cm) to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications. One application will be the remote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the same airmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefringent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches to achieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, system architecture and recent experimental progress will be presented.

  1. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-0IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 pm (1000 -4000 cm-') to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications [l-51. One application will be theremote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the sameairmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefiingent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches toachieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventionalFourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, systemarchitecture and recent experimental progress will be presen.

  2. LCLS Injector Straight-Ahead Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey , C.

    2010-12-10

    The spectrometer design was modified to allow the measurement of uncorrelated energy spread for the nominal lattice. One bunch from every 120 each second would be sent to the straight ahead spectrometer while the transverse cavity is on. The implementation of this 'stealing mode' will not be available for the LCLS commissioning and the early stage of operation. However, the spectrometer was redesigned to retain that option. The energy feedback relies independently on the beam position of the beam in the dispersive section of dogleg 1 (DL1). The main modification of the spectrometer design is the Pole face rotation of 7.5 degrees on both entrance and exit faces. The location and range of operation of the 3 quadrupoles remains unchanged relative to those of the earlier design.

  3. AUTOMATION OF AN ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an overview of the functional description and major features of an automated ultraviolet-visible spectrometer system intended for environmental measurements application. As such, it defines functional specifications and requirements which are divided into the chlor...

  4. The Apollo X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Bjorkholm, P.; Gray, P.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was a part of a geochemical package flown on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions. The device was to map the concentrations of aluminum, magnesium, and silicon in the lunar regolith along the spacecraft ground track. A functional description of the spectrometer is given and the telemetry data format is discussed together with the pulse height analyzer, the pulse shape discriminator, questions of in-flight calibration, and the flight results.

  5. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-12-01

    The {sup 3}He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  7. Detecting contamination with a QCL spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haibach, Frederick G.; Mazurenko, Alexander; Deutsch, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Block Engineering has developed a widely tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectrometer, a probe, and algorithms specific to detecting low levels of surface contamination. This paper discusses the basic technology of the QCL spectrometer both in a standoff and probe based configuration. It provides information on the algorithms and probes developed for this application. The paper compares the QCL based technique to other approaches for detecting surface contamination.

  8. Ion Mass/Velocity/Charge Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. M.; Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ion spectrometer distributes ions two-dimensionally and measures three characteristics of incident-ion beam: (1) mass/charge distribution, (2) ion velocity distribution, and (3) direction of incidence. Also useful for diagnosis in experimental plasma physics in collisionless regime. Ion spectrometer uses novel combination of standard electrostatic and magnetic deflection techniques to sort incident ions according to speed, diretion of incidence, and mass/ charge ratio.

  9. Infrared Fabry-Perot and heterodyne spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A.

    1977-01-01

    The status of infrared instrumentation for astronomical investigations at U.C. Berkeley is described with emphasis on the techniques of high spectral and spatial resolution. Present instrumentation includes three Fabry-Perot spectrometers for the 10, 20, and 100 micron wavelength regions, a submillimeter receiver using an optically pumped laser, a 10 micron heterodyne spectrometer for studies of planetary atmospheres, and a 2-element 10 micron stellar interferometer for measuring the angular diameters of infrared stars.

  10. High acceptance magnetic spectrometer for RNB studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savajols, H.

    2004-12-01

    Large magnetic spectrometers have always played a crucial role in nuclear structure and reactions-mechanism studies and are essential for studies using radioactive beams. Recently new magnetic spectrometers have been designed to achieve the highest possible efficiency to detect the reaction products with large angular dispersion. Solid angle of the order of 100 msr can be employed by using very large optical elements. In this case however, ion-optical aberrations must be carefully treated to reach high resolving power.

  11. Ruggedized Spectrometers Are Built for Tough Jobs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Curiosity Chemistry and Camera instrument, or ChemCam, analyzes the elemental composition of materials on the Red Planet by using a spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of light they emit. Principal investigator Roger Wiens worked with Ocean Optics, out of Dunedin, Florida, to rework the company's spectrometer to operate in cold and rowdy conditions and also during the stresses of liftoff. Those improvements have been incorporated into the firm's commercial product line.

  12. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express, VIR on DAWN).

  13. Testing results and current status of FTS-2, an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for SCUBA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gom, Brad; Naylor, David

    2010-07-01

    The SCUBA-2 imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS-2) is a dual-band Mach-Zehnder imaging spectrometer, built for use with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). FTS-2 will provide resolving powers of R ~ 10 to 5000 across the 450 and 850 ?m bands, with a FOV up to 5 arcmin2. The instrument has been built and tested, with first light on the telescope planned for fall 2010. We present the alignment process, laboratory test results, and discuss the first science targets in the context of other similar space and ground-based instruments.

  14. Electron pair emission detected by time-of-flight spectrometers: Recent progress

    SciTech Connect

    Huth, Michael; Schumann, Frank O.; Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Trützschler, Andreas; Kirschner, Jürgen; Widdra, Wolf

    2014-02-10

    We present results for electron coincidence spectroscopy using two time-of-flight (ToF) spectrometers. Excited by electron impact, the energy and momentum distribution of electron pairs emitted from the Cu(111) surface are resolved and a spectral feature related to the Shockley surface state is identified. By combining the two ToF spectrometers with a high-order harmonic generation light source, we demonstrate double photoemission spectroscopy in the laboratory that required synchrotron radiation in the past. Utilizing this setup, we report results for (γ,2e) on NiO(001) on Ag(001) excited with light at 30 eV photon energy.

  15. A preliminary design study for a cosmic X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are described of theoretical and experimental investigations aimed at the development of a curved crystal cosmic X-ray spectrometer to be used at the focal plane of the large orbiting X-ray telescope on the third High Energy Astronomical Observatory. The effort was concentrated on the development of spectrometer concepts and their evaluation by theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and laboratory testing with breadboard arrangements of crystals and detectors. In addition, a computer-controlled facility for precision testing and evaluation of crystals in air and vacuum was constructed. A summary of research objectives and results is included.

  16. Tunable Laser Spectrometers- from Earth Polar Ozone and Climate Studies to Mars Evolution and Planetary Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Christensen, L. E.; Flesch, G.; Forouhar, S.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the maturation of tunable laser spectrometers over the last three decades as semiconductor laser technology has produced high power single mode lasers operating at room temperature. Numerous examples will be given of applications in Earth science (e.g. polar ozone, atmospheric transport, photo- and heterogeneous chemistry, terrestrial isotope ratios), Mars evolution from Curiosity results, and how tunable laser spectrometers are poised to reveal gas composition and isotope ratios in the inner and outer planets like Venus, Titan and Saturn. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  17. Investigations of 2? decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX

    SciTech Connect

    Rukhadze, Ekaterina [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horska 3a Collaboration: OBELIX Collaboration; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?{sup ?} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the 0{sup +} (1130 keV) and 2{sup +} (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

  18. The open-source neutral-mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-C, -D, and -E.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Potter, W. E.; Hickman, D. R.; Mauersberger, K.

    1973-01-01

    The open-source mass spectrometer will be used to obtain the number densities of the neutral atmospheric gases in the mass range 1 to 48 amu at the satellite location. The ion source has been designed to allow gas particles to enter the ionizing region with the minimum practicable number of prior collisions with surfaces. This design minimizes the loss of atomic oxygen and other reactive species due to reactions with the walls of the ion source. The principal features of the open-source spectrometer and the laboratory calibration system are discussed.

  19. Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Magee, E W; Dunn, J; Brown, G V; Cone, K V; Park, J; Porter, F S; Kilbourne, C A; Kelley, R L; Beiersdorfer, P

    2010-10-01

    The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10-50 Å waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources. PMID:21034013

  20. First measurements using the ALS Soft X-ray Fourier Transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Spring, J.

    1997-08-01

    Commissioning of a Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) is under way at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution spectroscopy in the photon experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  1. Determination of Ethanol in Alcohol Samples Using a Modular Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Caryn L.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer for use in the undergraduate laboratory. An Ar+ ion laser operating at 105-mW is used as the source. A small, computer-controlled CCD spectrometer is used as the detector. The instrumental design is simple enough that students can readily assemble the components themselves, but they require assistance to align the optics. Because of the samples chosen, no sample preparation is necessary. The analytical performance of the instrument was evaluated by determining the ethanol content in vodka, gin, Everclear, rum, and whiskey .

  2. Hardware and software for ground tests of onboard charged particle spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batischev, A. G.; Galper, A. M.; Grishin, S. A.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Niadvetski, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    The article presents a hardware and software complex for ground tests of onboard charged particle spectrometers that are designed at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI for monitoring of nuclear-physical factors of space weather and can be installed in a wide class of satellites. The structural scheme and operating principles of component parts are discussed. The main algorithm and software features are presented. The technique of ground spectrometer tests and calibrations in various measurement modes at atmospheric cosmic particle flows, both in autonomous laboratories and in interface tests as part of a satellite, is also described.

  3. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  4. SUB 1-Millimeter Size Fresnel Micro Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Koch, Laura; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Sangloon; King, Glen; Choi, Sang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-small micro spectrometer with less than 1mm diameter was constructed using Fresnel diffraction. The fabricated spectrometer has a diameter of 750 nmicrometers and a focal length of 2.4 mm at 533nm wavelength. The micro spectrometer was built with a simple negative zone plate that has an opaque center with an ecliptic shadow to remove the zero-order direct beam to the aperture slit. Unlike conventional approaches, the detailed optical calculation indicates that the ideal spectral resolution and resolving power do not depend on the miniaturized size but only on the total number of rings. We calculated 2D and 3D photon distribution around the aperture slit and confirmed that improved micro-spectrometers below 1mm size can be built with Fresnel diffraction. The comparison between mathematical simulation and measured data demonstrates the theoretical resolution, measured performance, misalignment effect, and improvement for the sub-1mm Fresnel micro-spectrometer. We suggest the utilization of an array of micro spectrometers for tunable multi-spectral imaging in the ultra violet range.

  5. Measurements with the KATRIN pre-spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornschein, L.; The Katrin Collaboration

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is a direct measurement of the absolute mass of the electron (anti)neutrino by means of precise spectroscopy of the tritium ?-spectrum near its endpoint. The pre-spectrometer is part of the KATRIN reference set-up where it will work as a pre-filter for low energy ?-decay electrons that are inessential for the determination of the ?-mass. Since its delivery in autumn 2003 the pre-spectrometer has been the first major hardware component of KATRIN in operation at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK). The vacuum measurements were successfully completed in early 2005. The main results are an outgassing rate for the stainless steel surface of the pre-spectrometer of 10 -12 mbar l/s cm 2 at room temperature and a final pressure below 10 -11 mbar. This corresponds to the specification of the main spectrometer. The amount of Non-Evaporable-Getter (NEG) strips needed can be restricted to about 3000 m and the additional cooling of the main spectrometer is optional, if a combined pumping system of NEG and turbo-molecular pumps (TMPs) is installed, that will provide a sufficient pumping speed. The modification of the pre-spectrometer set-up for the electromagnetic measurements is nearly completed, and the measurements will start in spring 2006.

  6. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. PMID:23931839

  7. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system is used to monitor the behavior of the NIS throughout flight operations. In addition, results are discussed from a vicarious calibration campaign at Railroad Valley Playa in Nevada collected during a Landsat 8 overpass.

  8. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  9. The LINUS UV imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. S.; Harkins, Richard M.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2003-09-01

    We present an overview of the Naval Postgraduate School's new LINUS instrument. This is a spectral imager designed to observe atmospheric gas plumes by means of absorption spectroscopy, using background Rayleigh-scattered daylight as an illumination source. It is a pushbroom instrument, incorporating a UV-intensified digital camera, interchangeable gratings and filters, and a DC servo-controlled image scanning system. LINUS has been developed to operate across both the near-ultraviolet and the short visible wavelength portions of the spectrum in overlapping passbands. This paper provides an outline of LINUS's design, operation and capabilities, and it summarizes results from initial laboratory and field trials.

  10. Spectrometer Images of Candidate Landing Sites for Next Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This composite shows four examples of 'browse' products the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument obtained of areas on Mars near proposed landing sites for NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. These examples are from two of more than 30 candidate sites. They are enhanced color images of West Candor chasm (A) and Nili Fossae trough (B); and false color images indicating the presence of hydrated (water-containing) minerals in West Candor (C); and clay-like (phyllosilicate) minerals in Nili Fossae (D).

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  11. Conformation and diffusion behavior of ring polymers in solution: A comparison between molecular dynamics, multiparticle collision dynamics, and lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Govind A.; Chang, Jen-fang; Chen, Yeng-long; Khare, Rajesh

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the effect of chain topology on the structural properties and diffusion of polymers in a dilute solution in a good solvent. Specifically, we have used three different simulation techniques to compare the chain size and diffusion coefficient of linear and ring polymers in solution. The polymer chain is modeled using a bead-spring representation. The solvent is modeled using three different techniques: molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a particulate solvent in which hydrodynamic interactions are accounted through the intermolecular interactions, multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) with a point particle solvent which has stochastic interactions with the polymer, and the lattice Boltzmann method in which the polymer chains are coupled to the lattice fluid through friction. Our results show that the three methods give quantitatively similar results for the effect of chain topology on the conformation and diffusion behavior of the polymer chain in a good solvent. The ratio of diffusivities of ring and linear polymers is observed to be close to that predicted by perturbation calculations based on the Kirkwood hydrodynamic theory.

  12. First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Bni, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

  13. A small gas inlet system for orbital mass-spectrometer calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.; Stell, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A gas inlet system is described for generating precise gas pressures that are to be used as calibration references for the mass spectrometers aboard the dual air density Explorer satellites. This gas inlet system was developed as an inflight calibration technique in which a known amount of onboard gas is released in the satellite cavity and is detected by the mass spectrometer. Although several flight mass spectrometer experiments have been proposed, none make use of the inflight calibration technique described in this report. Laboratory measurements and calibration of the metering leak technique for the gas inlet systems are discussed. The systems tested have metering leak rates between 2 and 4 microliters/sec at 298 K for argon-40, and they produce molecular flow up to 100 torr, which is the highest test pressure in this experiment. Test data show that metering leak rates are reproducible within 1 percent of established means for helium-3, helium-4, and argon-40.

  14. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-10-15

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  15. Wide-field imaging spectrometer for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Korniski, Ronald J.; Green, Robert O.; Wilson, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the design, tolerancing, and laboratory breadboard of an imaging spectrometer for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Hyperspectral and Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. The spectrometer is of the Offner type but with a much longer slit than typical designs, with 1600 resolvable spatial elements along the slit for a length of 48 mm. Two such spectrometers cover more than the required swath while maintaining high throughput and signal-to-noise thanks to the large pixel size (30 ?m), relatively high speed (F/2.8) and small number of reflections. We also demonstrate a method for measuring smile using a linear array, and use the method to prove the achievement of negligible smile of less than 2% of a pixel over the entire 48 mm slit. Thus we show that this high-heritage, all-spherical mirror design can serve the requirements of the HyspIRI mission.

  16. Versatile high resolution crystal spectrometer with x-ray charge coupled device detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnsley, R.; Peacock, N. J.; Dunn, J.; Melnick, I. M.; Coffey, I. H.; Rainnie, J. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Nelms, N.

    2003-04-01

    A family of Johann configuration curved crystal spectrometers has been designed to share the basic engineering features of compactness, modularity, facility of alignment and focus, and incorporation of solid-state charge coupled device detector arrays. These detectors have intrinsically low noise, useful energy resolution, two-dimensional position sensitivity, and readout modes that are programmable. The spectrometers, although relatively compact, with a Rowland circle diameter in the range 0.5-2 m, can still have sufficient resolving power, dispersion, and throughput to be invaluable in high resolution studies of atomic and plasma sources. This article discusses the basic design features and performance of these doubly dispersive spectrometers and illustrates their versatility by applications to studies of a wide range of laboratory x-ray sources such as line emission from highly ionized atoms in the extended plasmas of Tokamaks and nearly point plasmas produced by focused laser irradiation of solids and in beam-foil experiments and electron beam ion traps.

  17. Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features.

    PubMed

    Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Guanter, Luis; Cogliati, Sergio; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Migliavacca, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Rossini, Micol; Colombo, Roberto

    2010-05-20

    The accurate spectral characterization of high-resolution spectrometers is required for correctly computing, interpreting, and comparing radiance and reflectance spectra acquired at different times or by different instruments. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the spectral characterization of field spectrometer data using sharp atmospheric or solar absorption features present in the measured data. The algorithm retrieves systematic shifts in channel position and actual full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the instrument by comparing data acquired during standard field spectroscopy measurement operations with a reference irradiance spectrum modeled with the MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code. Measurements from four different field spectrometers with spectral resolutions ranging from 0.05 to 3.5nm are processed and the results validated against laboratory calibration. An accurate retrieval of channel position and FWHM has been achieved, with an average error smaller than the instrument spectral sampling interval. PMID:20490248

  18. A new perspective on Mercury's surface composition and temperatures: Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Gabriele E.; Helbert, Jrn; Hiesinger, Harald; Peter, Gisbert

    2011-09-01

    MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer), scheduled for launch on board the Bepi Colombo Mercury Orbiter, will be the first mid-infrared imaging spectrometer to explore the innermost planet of the Solar System from orbit. The instrument is an advanced IR technology designed to study the surface composition, and surface temperature variations of planet Mercury. High resolution and global mid-IR spectral and temperature data obtained by MERTIS will contribute to a better understanding of Mercury's genesis and evolution. MERTIS uses an uncooled microbolometer detector array. It combines a push-broom IR grating spectrometer (TIS) with a radiometer (TIR) sharing the same optics, instrument electronics, and in-fight calibration components for a wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40 ?m, respectively. The paper summarizes the scientific objectives, observational goals, comparative laboratory spectral studies of mineral analogues, and introduces the technical overview and actual instrument development status of the experiment.

  19. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R

    2010-02-09

    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better understand these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only provide at high-resolution the energy distribution, but also the protons angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from other methods using radiochromic film packs, CR39 films and other protons spectrometers. The basic characterizations and example data from this diagnostics will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, as part of the Cimarron project funded by LDRD-09SI11.

  20. Integrating the MANX 6-D Muon Cooling Experiment with the MICE Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S.A.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The MANX experiment is to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a short two-period long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being setup at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. This paper shall consider the various approaches to integrate MANX into the RAL hall using the MICE spectrometers. This study shall discuss the matching schemes used to minimize losses and prevent emittance growth between the MICE spectrometers and the MANX HCC. Also the placement of additional detection planes in the matching region and the HCC to improve the resolution will be examined.

  1. Panoramic Imaging Spectroscopy with the Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Van Gorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Borden, M.; Smith-Dryden, S. D.; Bender, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilson, D.

    2012-12-01

    In Situ imaging spectroscopy provides a way to address complex questions of geological evolution for aqueous, volcanic, and impact processes by mapping mineral composition at the spatial scale of rocks and outcrops. Spectroscopy from 500-2600 nm is an established technique for measuring the mineralogy of sedimentary and igneous rocks, outcrops, and regoliths. Minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, carbonates, clays, and sulfates exhibit absorption features that are highly diagnostic of their structure and composition in this wavelength range. Imaging spectroscopy allows for mineralogy to be mapped at geological important special scales thus allowing for the investigation of the spatial relationship between minerals and compositions and of the geologic and geochemical processes of planets, asteroids, comets, and moons. The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a JPL developed imaging spectrometer suitable for inclusion on a Mars or lunar rover or asteroid lander but packaged for operation at terrestrial ambient conditions. UCIS is an Offner spectrometer using JPL e-beam gratings, HgCdTe detectors with many components having direct heritage from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). UCIS covers the wavelength range from 500-2600 nm with 10 nm sampling/resolution with a 30 deg. field of view with and instantaneous field of view 1.4 mrad (spatial sampling of 4.2 mm at 3 m.) The optical head of the instrument has a mass of < 2 kg on the mass and takes 5.2 W of power (Van Gorp et al. 2011). The instrument has completed calibration and has begun field trials. Initial trials were carried out in the JPL "Mars Yard" robotic testbed. The Mars Yard contains a large number of basaltic boulders and other rocks/soils. Additional rocks and spectrally interesting materials were place in the Mars Yard to fully assess the ability of the instrument to identify spectrally distinct material. To collect data the instrument was mounted with the spectrometer slit oriented in elevation on a precision controlled stage. The slit was then scanned in azimuth to build up a spatial image. Telluric absorption features were calibrated out using Spectralon calibration target taken before and after the scan of the Mars Yard. Spectra of selected materials in the Mars Yard were collected with an Analytical Spectral Devices Field Spectrometer to compare to the UCIS spectrometer. Initial results show clear spectral features consistent with the mineralogies present. Additional field trials are planned in September in geologically interesting locations. Reference: Van Gorp et al., Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer, SPIE Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Aug 21-25, 2011. Acknowledgements: This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Work was carried out with JPL Research and Technology Development Funding. False color (RGB) image reconstruction of part of the Mars Yard Panorma

  2. IR Spectrometer Using 90-Degree Off-Axis Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Malone, Ian J. McKenna

    2008-03-01

    A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement single-point pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

  3. IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

    2008-09-02

    A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

  4. Development and Characterization of a High Resolution Portable Gamma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Muhammad

    The recent disaster of Fukushima in Japan combined with the high demand to enhance nuclear safety and to minimize personal exposure to radioactive materials has a significant impact on research and development of radiation detection instrumentation. Currently, there is ample effort worldwide in the pursuit of radiation detection to maximize the accuracy and meet international standards in terms of size and specifications to enable radiation protection decision making. Among the requirements is the development of a portable, light-weight gamma-ray isotope identifier to be used by first responders in nuclear accidents as well as for radiation security and identification of illicit material isotopes. From nuclear security perspective, research into advanced screening technologies has become a high priority in all aspects, while for occupational safety, and environmental radiation protection, the regulatory authorities are requiring specific performance of radiation detection and measuring devices. At the applied radiation laboratory of the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, UOIT, the development of a high resolution spectrometer for medium and high energy gamma ray has been conducted. The spectrometer used a newly developed scintillator based on a LaBr3(Ce) crystal. The detector has been modeled using advanced Monte Carlo code (MCNP/X code) for the response function simulation and parameter characterization. The simulation results have been validated by experimental investigations using a wide range of gamma radiation energies. The developed spectrometer has been characterized in terms of resolution and response in different fields. It has also been compared with other crystals such as NaI(TI) and LiI(Eu).

  5. An AOTF-LDTOF Spectrometer Suite for In Situ Organic Detection and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Glenar, D.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Boston, P.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Getty, S.

    2010-10-01

    On future surface missions to Mars, small bodies, and outer solar system satellites, increasingly robust sample screening and selection may be essential for achieving the maximum scientific benefit within limited payload resources. One approach to defining a sequence of analysis steps for a variety of missions is the identification of key organic functional groups by a spectroscopic prescreening tool, followed by organic compound analysis with mass spectrometric methods. We discuss the development of a miniature near-infrared point spectrometer, operating in the 1.7-4 micron region, based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. This instrument may be used to screen and corroborate analyses of samples containing organic biomarkers or mineralogical signatures suggestive of extant or extinct organic material collected in situ from planetary surfaces. The AOTF point spectrometer will be paired with a laser desorption time-of-flight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer and will prescreen samples for evidence of volatile or refractory organics before the laser desorption step and subsequent mass spectrometer measurement. AOTF systems provide great flexibility, being very compact, electronically programmable, with low power requirements. The LDTOF mass spectrometer provides pulsed-laser desorption and analysis of refractory organic compounds up to > 5,000 Da on a spatial scale of 10-30 mm, determined by the laser spot size at the target. We describe the prototype AOTF point spectrometer instrument and present laboratory analysis of geological samples of known astrobiological importance. An initial mineral and rock sample suite of planetary relevance was used in the laboratory for baseline testing. To this, we added a complement of astrobiologically relevant biosignatures from a variety of well characterized geomicrobial study sites. This work is supported by NASA's ASTID and EPSCoR programs through grant numbers NNX08AY44G and NNX08AV85A, respectively.

  6. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  7. Spectral calibration of programmable imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guojun; Liao, Zhibo; Jiao, Wenchun; Zong, Xiaoying; He, Xuhua; Wang, Haichao

    2015-10-01

    Programmable imager spectrometer can provide flexible data by changing the spectrum section number, central wavelength, spectral width and spatial resolution in orbit. Spectral calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an important role for acquiring accurate spectrum, two spectral calibration types are in essence: wavelength calibration and Full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). Base on the character of programmable imager spectrometer, designed a set of spectral calibration system. Wavelength calibration realized by utilizing the Monochromatic light of high precision monochromator, during the test, changed output parameters of monochromator according to the spectral bandwidth of imager spectrometer. The FWHM is constructed by a set of variable narrow spectrum lines that is output by tunable laser. Gaussian fitting algorithm is used to determine center wavelength and the FWHM of the characteristic spectrum line, Spectral pixels are calibrated by quadratic polynomial, standard spectroscopic lamp is used to verify wavelength calibration result accuracy. The calibration result indicates that FWHM is better than 2nm, the wavelength uncertainty is less than 0.6nm, meet the calibration requirements of programmable imaging spectrometer.

  8. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

  9. Design and Performance of a Spectrometer for Deployment on MISSE 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary; Beymer, Jim; Robb, Andrew; Longino, James; Perry, George; Stewart, Alan; Finkenor, Miria

    2009-01-01

    A spectrometer for reflectance and transmission measurements of samples exposed to the space environment has been developed for deployment on the Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 7. The instrument incorporates a miniature commercial fiber optic coupled spectrometer with a computer control system for detector operation, sample motion and illumination. A set of three spectrometers were recently integrated on the MISSE7 platform with launch and deployment on the International Space Station scheduled for summer of this year. The instrument is one of many active experiments on the platform. The performance of the instrument prior to launch will be discussed. Data from samples measured in the laboratory will be compared to those from the instrument prior to launch. These comparisons will illustrate the capabilities of the current design. The space environment challenges many materials. When in operation on the MISSE 7 platform, the new spectrometer will provide real time data on the how the space environment affects the optical properties of thermal control paints and optical coatings. Data obtained from comparison of pre and post flight measurements on hundreds of samples exposed on previous MISSE platforms have been reported at these meetings. With the new spectrometer and the ability to correlate measured changes with time on orbit and the occurrence of both natural events and human activities, a better understanding of the processes responsible for degradation of materials in space will be possible.

  10. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. (Editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  11. The Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS)

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F. Scott; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhiasa; Ohashi, Takaya

    2009-12-16

    The Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a high spectral resolution, cryogenic x-ray spectrometer that will fly on the Japan/U.S. Astro-H observatory in 2014. The SXS is composed of a 36 pixel, imaging, x-ray calorimeter array that will operate at 0.05 K utilizing a 2-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and a redundant pre-cooler design using both a 40 liter liquid helium tank and a 1.7 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Additional redundant Stirling cycle coolers provide pre-cooling for the (JT) and cool the outer thermal shields for the JT and the helium tank. The detector system, while similar to that flown on Suzaku, is composed of larger 0.81x0.81mm pixels, but has significantly better performance, currently predicted to be better than 4 eV FWHM at 6 keV with 95% quantum efficiency. This instrument is the result of a close collaboration between many institutions in the U.S. and Japan over the last 25 years. Here we will present an overview of the SXS instrument, the SXS cooling system, and recent laboratory improvements to the detector system.0.

  12. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  13. Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

  14. New method of respiratory gas analysis: light spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fraser, R B; Turney, S Z

    1985-09-01

    A multigas concentration analyzer particularly suited for respiratory gas analysis has been developed using a new principle based on the measurement of the intensity of light emitted by excited atoms or ions in a direct current glow discharge. This glow discharge spectral emission gas analyzer (GDSEA), or light spectrometer, simultaneously measures O2, N2, CO2, He, and N2O gas concentrations with a 0-90% response time of 100 ms and a sample rate of less than 20 ml/min in a short gas sample line configuration. Mole accuracy and resolution of the GDSEA using a short sample line were determined in the laboratory to be +/- 0.15 to +/- 0.7% and 0.02-0.05%, respectively. In the clinical setting a comparative evaluation was made with a mass spectrometer in a long sample line, computerized, multibed, respiratory monitoring system. Results indicate a close agreement between the two instruments with differences in mixed inspiratory or expiratory O2 and CO2 concentrations of less than 2% and of derived variables, such as O2 consumption, CO2 production, and respiratory exchange ratio, of less than 5%. PMID:4055556

  15. An EUV spectrometer for atmospheric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Link, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS) experiment, designed to investigate the interactions between the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The primary objective of this experiment is the verification the feasibility of using EUV observations as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and its plasma environment. The expected information provided by spectroscopic measurements of EUV emission will include data on the excitation mechanisms, excitation rates, and branching ratios. The BEARS experimental package consists of a high-resolution EUV airglow spectrometer, a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to measure both the solar radiations and the geocoronal emissions, and a moderate-resolution solar EUV spectrometer. In a test experiment, the instruments were carried aboard a four-stage sounding rocket to a peak altitude of about 960 km and obtained airglow spectra in the 980-1060 A range and in the 1300-1360 range.

  16. Portable instant display and analysis reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A portable analysis spectrometer (10) for field mineral identification is coupled to a microprocessor (11) and memory (12) through a bus (13) and A/D converter (14) to display (16) a spectrum of reflected radiation in a band selected by an adjustable band spectrometer (20) and filter (23). A detector array (21) provides output signals at spaced frequencies within the selected spectrometer band which are simultaneously converted to digital form for display. The spectrum displayed is compared with a collection of spectra for known minerals. That collection is stored in memory and selectively displayed with the measured spectrum, or stored in a separate portfolio. In either case, visual comparison is made. Alternatively, the microprocessor may use an algorithm to make the comparisons in search for the best match of the measured spectrum with one of the stored spectra to identify the mineral in the target area.

  17. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  18. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l∕mm VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction. PMID:23126988

  19. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  20. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  1. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong; Goldsten, John

    2002-10-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a ? spectrometer and in the ?-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution ? detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge ? detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband.

  2. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  3. Fast neutron detection with a segmented spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, T. J.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D. K.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    A fast neutron spectrometer consisting of segmented plastic scintillator and 3He proportional counters was constructed for the measurement of neutrons in the energy range 1-200 MeV. We discuss its design, principles of operation, and the method of analysis. The detector is capable of observing very low neutron fluxes in the presence of ambient gamma background and does not require scintillator pulse-shape discrimination. The spectrometer was characterized for its energy response in fast neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the fast neutron flux and energy response at 120 m above sea-level (39.130N, 77.218W) and at a depth of 560 m in a limestone mine are presented. Finally, the design of a spectrometer with improved sensitivity and energy resolution is discussed.

  4. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  5. Landsat-swath imaging spectrometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the design of a high-throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution. The design is based on a 3200 x 480 element x 18 ?m pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  6. Testing of Josephson Spectrometer with Waveguide Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatti, M.; Gundareva, I.; Pavlovskii, V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y.

    2014-05-01

    One of the challenges in public security is the quick and reliable identification of threat liquids in bottles, when vapour analysis is not possible. Recently, we demonstrated that it is possible to rapidly identify liquids by EM measurements of their dielectric functions in the sub-THz range with a high-Tc Josephson spectrometer. Following this approach, we have developed a Josephson spectrometer with a new radiation coupling system, based on dielectric waveguides. In this paper, we present the results of spectroscopic measurements on liquid samples of various purities including 30% H2O2/H2O, performed using our Josephson spectrometer with waveguide coupling. Also, the signal and noise characteristics of a classical Josephson detector used in our liquid identifier were numerically simulated and the power dynamic range was estimated for a wide spread of junction parameters.

  7. Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

  8. An Auger photoelectron coincidence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurgate, S.; Todd, B.; Lohmann, B.; Stelbovics, A.

    1990-12-01

    The feasibility of photoelectron Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy from solid surfaces has been demonstrated by Haak et al. [Ph. D. thesis, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, 1983; Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1825 (1978); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 696 (1984)]. They were able to show the considerable power of the technique in deconvoluting the L23M45M45 line of Cu by finding those parts of the line that were due to a 2p3/2 hole and those which were due to a 2p1/2 hole. However, the technique is a difficult one, requiring two analyzers rather than one and complex coincidence electronics. Even then a single spectrum can take weeks to acquire. This initial work was followed up by Jensen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 71 (1989); Physical Electronics Conference abstract A-5, July, 1988] using a synchrotron to provide the radiation and a means of getting very good timing resolution. They were able to acquire Cu spectra in 2-3 days using this system. We have constructed a set of electron analyzers specifically for this experiment. We used the ideas of Vlkel and Sandner [J. Phys. E 16, 456 (1983)] to produce analyzers that have good angular acceptance, good energy resolution, and very good timing resolution. With this system we are able to measure coincidence line shapes, for elements with large enough cross section, within a few days using a standard laboratory dc x-ray source.

  9. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

  11. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmerling, Walter; Subramanian, T. S.; McDonald, W. John; Kaplan, Selig N.; Sadoff, Ahren; Gabor, George

    1983-02-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energ, d E/d x, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics.

  12. Compact Raman Spectrometers Would Detect Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William R.; Adler-Golden, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Compact Raman spectrometers developed to measure concentrations of hydrogen as low as hundreds of parts per million in air, nitrogen, or other carrier gases. Advantages include speed, dynamic range, and ease of calibration. Design concept incorporates Raman-scattering apparatus into compact instrument of hydrogen leaking into stream of gas or into gas enclosed in small space. Should hydrogen-fueled cars and trucks come into widespread use, instruments used to detect leaks from vehicles and supply equipment, to help prevent explosions. Similar spectrometers developed to detect other gases emitting characteristic Raman spectra.

  13. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  14. Real-Time Linux Driving a Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter; Harris, Andrew; Isaak, Kate; Morgan, James; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    We have been upgrading the software front-end to WASP (Wideband Autocorrelating SPectrometer, operating from 800 to 4000 MHz) from Lynx-OS to Real-Time Linux and will discuss Real-Time software aspects. We are using a standard parallel ``PIO'' card to receive data from the spectrometer and standard GPIB interfaces that drive a frequency synthesizer for bandpass calibration. WASP and its front-end computer are fully mobile and can be taken to any suitable radio telescope. The front-end is typically connected via Ethernet to the actual observing computer at the telescope. We will also discuss a typical observing setup in such a loosely coupled environment.

  15. NASA applications for acousto-optic spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.

    1984-01-01

    Small, compact, and rugged IF spectrometers are needed in high resolution heterodyne receivers designed for a new generation of space-borne telescopes planned for the next decade. Acousto-optic Spectrometers (AOS) promise to provide the necessary bandwidth and resolution in a package which is compact, power efficient, and ruggedized for space applications. Sensitivity, linearity, and stability are the primary goals of an astronomical receiver and these features must be demonstrated in order for an AOS to be accepted in place of more conventional RF or digital technology.

  16. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 ?m, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  17. Noiseless coding for the Gamma Ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, R.; Lee, J. J.

    1985-06-01

    The payload of several future unmanned space missions will include a sophisticated gamma ray spectrometer. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return from this instrument. This report investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to represent gamma ray spectrometer data more efficiently without any loss in data integrity. Performance results demonstrate compression factors from 2.5:1 to 20:1 in comparison to a standard representation. Feasibility was also demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using an Intel 8086 processor.

  18. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T.; Edgar, R. J.; Juda, M.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Mccammon, D.; Snowden, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Skinner, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment, or 'DXS', is designed to measure the spectrum of the low-energy diffuse X-ray background with about 10 eV energy resolution and 15-deg spatial resolution. During a 5-day Space Shuttle mission, DXS is to measure the spectrum of ten 15 x 15 deg regions lying along a single 150-deg-long great circle arc on the sky. DXS carries two large-area X-ray Bragg spectrometers for the 44-84 A wavelength range; these permit measurement of the wavelength spectrum of the cosmic low-energy diffuse X-ray background with good spectral resolution.

  19. The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jean C.

    2006-01-01

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission will provide high sensitivity, high-resolution spectra in the soft x-ray band. The RGS performance requirements are specified as a resolving power of greater than 300 and an effective area of greater than 1000 sq cm across most of the 0.25 to 2.0 keV band. These requirements are driven by the science goals of the mission. We will describe the performance requirements and goals, the reference design of the spectrometer, and examples of science cases where we expect data from the RGS to significantly advance our current understanding of the universe.

  20. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.