Note: This page contains sample records for the topic laboratory multiparticle spectrometer from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

MPS (Multiparticle Spectrometer) data acquisition software system  

SciTech Connect

A description of the software for a FASTBUS based data acquisition system in use at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer is presented. Data reading and formatting is done by the SLAC Scanner Processors (SSP's) resident in the FASTBUS system. A multiprocess software system on VAX computers is used to communicate with the SSP's, record the data, and monitor on-line the progress of high energy and heavy ion experiments. The structure and the performance of this system are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Saulys, A.C.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.

1989-04-04

2

Effective mass trigger at the Brookhaven Multi-Particle Spectrometer (MPS)  

SciTech Connect

An effective mass trigger for use at the Brookhaven Multiparticle Spectrometer (MPS) is described. It is a microprocessor based device using extensive fast memory attached to proportional wire chambers in the MPS magnetic field. It will select kinematic quantities unique to the reaction being studied, thereby permitting higher sensitivities and a reduction in data-processing cost for MPS experiments. The principles of operation for this trigger, and the results of simulations to assess its performance, are presented.

Willen, E H

1980-01-01

3

Advanced laboratory NMR spectrometer with applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given of an inexpensive NMR spectrometer that is suitable for use in an advanced laboratory course. The application of this spectrometer to the measurement of the oil content in corn seeds and the role of polymerization are presented.

Biscegli, Clovis; Panepucci, Horacio; Farach, Horacio A.; Poole, Charles P.

1982-01-01

4

A Solenoidal Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solenoidal spectrometer is described. This instrument has several features which make it especially adaptable to use in an undergraduate laboratory. One is that the coil geometry is such that the student may readily verify that the range of variation of the magnetic field on the principal axis is less than 14 percent. Secondly, the baffle geometry is of sufficient

Byron T. Wright

1952-01-01

5

Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)|

Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

1982-01-01

6

Adapting Raman spectra from laboratory spectrometers to portable detection libraries.  

PubMed

Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a format suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064 nm DeltaNu first generation, field-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064 nm Bruker Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectrometer and a 785 nm Kaiser dispersive spectrometer. The steps taken to adapt for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and relative intensity response are described. Effects due to the differing excitation laser wavelengths were found to be minimal, indicating--at least for the near-infrared (NIR)--that data can be ported between different systems, so long as certain measures are taken with regard to the reference and field spectra. PMID:23622433

Weatherall, James C; Barber, Jeffrey; Brauer, Carolyn S; Johnson, Timothy J; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D; Smith, Barry T; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

2013-02-01

7

Use of the Raman spectrometer in gemmological laboratories: review.  

PubMed

The current paper gives an overview of the development of Raman spectrometry in gemmological laboratories. While before 1990s, no commercial gemmological laboratory possessed such an instrument, all larger international labs have acquired these instruments by now. The Raman spectrometer is routinely used for the detection of emerald fillers, HPHT treatment of diamonds, analysis of the nature of a gemstone, analysis of gemstone inclusions and treatments, and the characterisation of natural or colour enhanced pearls and corals. Future developments in gemstone research lie in the closer analysis of the features of Raman and PL spectra and in the combination of several instruments. PMID:21530372

Kiefert, Lore; Karampelas, Stefanos

2011-04-02

8

Light Baryon Spectroscopy using the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Baryons are complex systems of confined quarks and gluons and exhibit the characteristic spectra of excited states. The systematics of the baryon excitation spectrum is important to our understanding of the effective degrees of freedom underlying nucleon matter. High-energy electrons and photons are a remarkably clean probe of hadronic matter, providing a microscope for examining the nucleon and the strong nuclear force. Current experimental efforts with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory utilize highly-polarized frozen-spin targets in combination with polarized photon beams. The status of the recent double-polarization experiments and some preliminary results are discussed in this contribution.

Volker Crede

2011-12-01

9

The development of laboratory ion sources for mass spectrometer calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron impact ion sources were developed for the purpose of quadrupole mass spectrometer calibration in the laboratory. Prototype ion sources were constructed, and tested for operation in both positive and negative ion modes. In the positive mode, sensitivities approaching 10 (exp-3) A/torr were obtained at the highest filament currents tested. Ion currents were linear over an order of magnitude in pressure. Collected ion currents generally increased with electron energy, following somewhat the trend with total ionization cross section. The results of energy analysis of the ion beams are consistent with Gaussian beams with relatively wide variances. Typical beam energies peaked in the regime of 30-35V, with variances of 17-18V. The ion beams did not appear to be fully accelerated at the analyzing electrode. The beams generally seemed to become more Gaussian with reduced variances at the lower electron energies. The use of magnets did not noticeably improve ion source performance in the positive ion mode. However, it did eliminate a significant background current problem at the collector plate. In the negative ion mode, total collected negative ion currents using SF6 were approximately two orders of magnitude less than under comparable conditions in the positive ion mode.

Calo, J. M.; Lilly, W. D.

1993-08-01

10

The Los Alamos National Laboratory precision double crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on the LANL precision double crystal X-ray spectrometer: Motivation for construction of the instrument; a brief history of the instrument; mechanical systems; motion control systems; computer control system; vacuum system; alignment program; scan programs; observations of the copper K{alpha} lines; and characteristics and specifications.

Morgan, D.V.; Stevens, C.J.; Liefield, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-03-01

11

Laboratory Calibration of a Field Imaging Spectrometer System  

PubMed Central

A new Field Imaging Spectrometer System (FISS) based on a cooling area CCD was developed. This paper describes the imaging principle, structural design, and main parameters of the FISS sensor. The FISS was spectrally calibrated with a double grating monochromator to determine the center wavelength and FWHM of each band. Calibration results showed that the spectral range of the FISS system is 437–902 nm, the number of channels is 344 and the spectral resolution of each channel is better than 5 nm. An integrating sphere was used to achieve absolute radiometric calibration of the FISS with less than 5% calibration error for each band. There are 215 channels with signal to noise ratios (SNRs) greater than 500 (62.5% of the bands). The results demonstrated that the FISS has achieved high performance that assures the feasibility of its practical use in various fields.

Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Changping; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Feizhou; Tong, Qingxi

2011-01-01

12

Discontinuity Formulas for Multiparticle Amplitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality...

H. P. Stapp

1976-01-01

13

Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K-and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.; Frankel, M.; Traebert, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Adams, J. S.; Kelly, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Koutroumpa, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S. [NASA/GSFC Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 21201 (United States); Kahn, S. M. [Stanford University Physics Department, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Thorn, D. B. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-12-16

14

Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K- and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Brown, G V; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Koutroumpa, D; Leutenegger, M; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Trabert, E

2009-08-25

15

The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

Campbell, J. L.

2012-10-01

16

Multiparticle extension of the higher spin algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle extension of a higher spin algebra l is introduced as the Lie superalgebra associated with the universal enveloping algebra U(l). While conventional higher spin symmetry does not mix n-particle states with different n, multiparticle symmetries do so. Quotients of multiparticle algebras are considered, that act on the space of n-particle states with 0 ? n ? k analogous to the space of first k Regge trajectories of string theory. Original higher spin algebra is reproduced at k = 1. Full multiparticle algebras are conjectured to describe vacuum symmetries of string-like extensions of higher spin gauge theories. The relation of the multiparticle algebras with 3D current operator algebras is described. The central charge parameter, to be related to the parameter { {N}} in AdS/CFT correspondence, enters via the definition of supertrace. Extension to higher p-brane-like symmetries is introduced inductively.

Vasiliev, M. A.

2013-05-01

17

Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF  

SciTech Connect

SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

Yoneda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2012-11-12

18

Extent of multiparticle quantum nonlocality  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that entangled quantum states are nonlocal: the corrrelations between local measurements carried out on these states cannot be reproduced by local hidden variable models. Svetlichny, followed by others, showed that multipartite quantum states are more nonlocal than bipartite ones in the sense that even some nonlocal classical models with (super-luminal) communication between some of the parties cannot reproduce the quantum correlations. Here we study in detail the kinds of nonlocality present in quantum states. More precisely, we enquire what kinds of classical communication patterns cannot reproduce quantum correlations. By studying the extremal points of the space of all multiparty probability distributions, in which all parties can make one of a pair of measurements each with two possible outcomes, we find a necessary condition for classical nonlocal models to reproduce the statistics of all quantum states. This condition extends and generalizes work of Svetlichny and others in which it was showed that a particular class of classical nonlocal models, the 'separable' models, cannot reproduce the statistics of all multiparticle quantum states. Our condition shows that the nonlocality present in some entangled multiparticle quantum states is much stronger than previously thought. We also study the sufficiency of our condition.

Jones, Nick S.; Linden, Noah; Massar, Serge [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Laboratoire d'Information Quantique and Centre for Quantum Information and Communication, C.P. 165/59, Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2005-04-01

19

Wide-field-of-view imaging spectrometer (WFIS): from a laboratory demonstration to a fully functional engineering model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the status of the ongoing development of the laboratory Wide Field-of-view Imaging Spectrometer (WFIS) and the new engineering model WFIS. The design is shown to provide a unique solution to wide field hyperspectral imaging with several advantages over traditional scanning systems. Tests of the engineering model, funded under NASA's Instrument Incubator program, take the WFIS to the

Robert E. Haring; Randy Pollock; Richard M. Cross; Terri Greenlee

2002-01-01

20

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams  

SciTech Connect

The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector.

Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1997-04-01

21

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission was calibrated for routine analysis of: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Y. The following elements were also calibrated, but may be too low to be measured (10s-100s ppm) for their usual abundance on Mars: V, Cu, Ga, As, Se and W. An extensive suite of geological reference materials, supplemented by pure chemical elements and compounds was used. Special attention was paid to include phyllosilicates, sulfates and a broad selection of basalts as these are predicted minerals and rocks at the Gale Crater landing site. The calibration approach is from first principles, using fundamental physics parameters and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix to calculate expected elemental signals for a given instrument setup and sample composition. Resulting concentrations for most elements accord with expected values. Deviations in elements of lower atomic number (Na, Mg, Al) indicate significant influences of mineral phases, especially in basalts, ultramafic rocks and trachytes. The systematics of these deviations help us to derive empirical, iterative corrections for different rock groups, based on a preliminary APXS analysis which assumes a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as the X-ray diffraction data from CheMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Campbell, John L.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Gellert, Ralf; Andrushenko, Stefan M.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Maxwell, John A.; King, Penelope L.; Schofield, Céleste D. M.

2012-09-01

22

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a suite of over 60 geochemical reference standards for the calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). For the elements P, S, Cl and Br we have supplemented this suite by adding various amounts of relevant chemical compounds to a powdered basalt standard. Special attention has been paid to include phyllosilicates, sulphates and a broad selection of igneous basalts as these are predicted key deposits at the MSL landing site, Gale Crater. The calibration is performed from first principles using x-ray excitation cross sections for the alpha particle and x-ray radiation source and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix. Remaining deviations indicate significant influences of mineral phases especially for light elements in basalts, ultra-mafic rocks and trachytes. Supporting x-ray diffraction work has helped to derive empirical, iterative corrections for distinct rock types, based on the first APXS analysis, assuming a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as x-ray diffraction data from ChemMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Perrett, G. M.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; Andrushenko, S. M.

2011-12-01

23

Time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer for the Z machine at Sandia national laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed, fabricated, calibrated, and fielded a fast, time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer to observe the evolution of wire pinch spectra at the Z machine at Sandia national laboratories. The instrument has two convex cylindrical crystals (PET and KAP). Both crystals Bragg reflect X-rays into an array of ten silicon diodes, providing continuous spectral coverage in twenty channels from

D. V. Morgan; S. Gardner; R. Lijiestrand; M. Madlener; S. Slavin; M. Wu; T. J. Nash; V. L. Kantsyrev; D. A. Fedin

2003-01-01

24

Multiparticle Entanglement of Hot Trapped Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient method to produce multiparticle entangled states of ions in an ion trap for which a wide range of interesting effects and applications have been suggested. Our preparation scheme exploits the collective vibrational motion of the ions, but it works in such a way that this motion need not be fully controlled in the experiment. The ions

Klaus Mølmer; Anders Sørensen

1999-01-01

25

Multiparticle clusters and carbon superstructure in martensite  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of experimentally verified concentration expansion tensor values, stress induced two-particle C-C potentials have been calculated in harmonic approximation. A calculation method has been developed and expressions derived for the evaluation of multiparticle interaction potentials and cluster population. The temperature range of the applicability of the method has been estimated. On the basis of this method it has

L. Dabrowski; Otwock-Swierk Poland

1995-01-01

26

[Central wavelength shift analysis between laboratory and field spectral calibrations of grating based imaging spectrometer].  

PubMed

Spectral calibration must be carried out in order to determine its central wavelength and half-wave band width of each pixel before the usage of imaging spectrometer. But it was found out that these parameters vary as environment changes. The present paper studies the effect based on test field data. The authors analyzed the optical structure and compared the working environmental parameters. Then a theoretical model is established and the influences of vibration, distortion and temperature parameters are evaluated. The theoretical model and the caculation results are in good consistency, which testifies the theoretical model. This research will shed some light on the high accuracy spectral calibration of the grating based imaging spectrometer and its manufacture. PMID:24159894

Wang, Ming-Zhi; Yan, Lei; Yang, Bin; Gou, Zhi-Yang

2013-08-01

27

TIME-RESOLVED 1-10 keV CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR THE Z MACHINE AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, fabricated, calibrated, and fielded a fast, time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer to observe the evolution of wire pinch spectra at the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. The instrument has two convex cylindrical crystals (PET and KAP). Both crystals Bragg reflect x-rays into an array of ten silicon diodes, providing continuous spectral coverage in twenty channels from 1.0 to 10 keV. The spectral response of the instrument has been calibrated from 1.0 to 6.3 keV at beamline X8A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The time response of the 1-mm2 silicon detectors was measured with the Pulsed X-ray Source at Bechtel Nevada's Los Alamos Operations, where 2-nanosecond full-width half-maximum (FWHM) waveforms with 700-picosecond rise times typically were observed. The spectrometer has been fielded recently on several experimental runs at the Z Machine. In this paper, we present the time-resolved spectra resulting from the implosions of double-nested tungsten wire arrays onto 5-mm diameter foam cylinders. We also show the results obtained for a double-nested stainless steel wire array with no target cylinder. The spectrometer was located at the end of a 7.1-meter beamline on line-of sight (LOS)21/22, at an angle 12{sup o} above the equatorial plane, and was protected from the debris field by a customized dual-slit fast valve. The soft detector channels below 2.0 keV recorded large signals at pinch time coinciding with signals recorded on vacuum x-ray diodes (XRDs). On experiment Z993, the spectrometer channels recorded a second pulse with a hard x-ray emission spectrum several nanoseconds after pinch time.

D. V. Morgan; S. Gardner; R. Liljestrand; M. Madlener; S. Slavin; M. Wu

2003-06-01

28

Laboratory evaluation of the PCP Large Reaction Volume Ion Mobility Spectrometer (LRVIMS)  

SciTech Connect

The PCP, Inc. Large Reaction Volume ion Mobility Spectrometer (LRVIMS) was characterized and evaluated for use as a contraband explosives vapor detector in personnel and package portal screening applications. The limit-of-detection was found to be a constant {approximately}0.3 PPT experimentally and in calibrations using a Thermedics RDX generator. The minimum LOD in terms of RDX vapor molecular flow rate was {approximately}1.8 {times} 10{sup 9} molecules/sec at 16.6 L/min airflow through the 100 cm{sup 2} square tube area of this ion mobility spectrometer. Samples of 0.5 gm of TNT in plastic bags in the center of the personnel screening portal were easily detected. Bomb quantity (8 oz) samples of TNT and Comp B (40% TNT, 60% RDX) were also detectable in the personnel portal configuration. No detections of RDX were possible in any position of either C-4 or Comp B or of PETN in Detasheet or Det Cord. Operation in the presence of observed background interferants, operation at very low airflow rates, and proposed operation in conjunction with preconcentrators, also are described. 14 figs.

Schellenbaum, R.L.; Hannum, D.W.

1990-03-01

29

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF TUNABLE ATOMIC LINE MOLECULAR SPECTROMETERS FOR BENZENE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tunable Atomic Line Molecular Spectroscopy (TALMS) is a high resolution, differential absorption technique used in the ultraviolet region. Under Interagency Agreements EPA-80-D-X1014 and AD-89-F-2A008 with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, two prototype TALMS instruments were designe...

30

Criterion for faithful teleportation with an arbitrary multiparticle channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general criterion which allows one to judge if an arbitrary multiparticle entanglement channel can be used to teleport faithfully an unknown quantum state of a given dimension. We also present a general multiparticle teleportation protocol which is applicable for all channel states satisfying this criterion.

Cheung, Chi-Yee; Zhang, Zhan-Jun

2009-08-01

31

Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy in multiparticle scattering fluids  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the basic scheme of laser Doppler optical mixing spectroscopy for the analysis of media with multiparticle scattering. It is shown that the Rayleigh scheme, in contrast to the heterodyne and differential schemes, is insensitive to the effects of multiparticle scattering. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

Dubnishchev, Yu N [S S Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2011-03-31

32

Proton periphery activated by multiparticle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that protons become more active at the periphery with increase of their collision energy. By computing the impact parameter distribution of the proton-proton overlap function at LHC energies and comparing it with ISR (and Spp¯S for pp¯) data, we conclude that the peripheral region of protons plays an increasing role in the rise of total cross sections through multiparticle dynamics. The size of the proton as well as its blackness increase with energy. The protons become more black both in the central region and, especially, at the periphery. This effect can be related to the ridge phenomenon and to the inelastic diffraction processes at LHC energies.

Dremin, I. M.; Nechitailo, V. A.

2013-10-01

33

Multi-Particle Production of Hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenology of multi-particle production of hadrons is reviewed, with emphasis on the results at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): the first part of the review focuses on the basic kinematic measurements of charged tracks and identified hadrons in minimum bias interactions; the second part reports the short- and long-range correlation studies; the third part concentrates on the underlying event phenomenology in different final states; the fourth part, which constitutes a bottom line on the phenomenology of multiple parton interactions, considers the consequences of multiple hard-scatterings in a single hadron-hadron collisions. Some relevant highlights from the heavy ion program are also discussed.

Bartalini, Paolo

2013-05-01

34

The target asymmetry Pz in ?p-->p?+?- with the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are reflected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.9 GeV/c2 are generally predicted to have strong couplings to the ??N final states via ?? or ?N intermediate states. Double-pion photoproduction is therefore important to find and investigate properties of highmass resonances. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly- and circularlypolarized photons incident on a longitually-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. In this contribution, the extraction of the target asymmetry for the reaction ?p-->p?+?- will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

Park, Sungkyun; CLAS Collaboration

2012-04-01

35

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in ?-->p-->-->p?+?- with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W ~ 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp ?p-->p?+?- will help us in our understanding of QCD. The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ``complete'' experiment for the reaction ?N-->KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction ?p-->p?+?- will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Park, Sungkyun

2010-08-01

36

A high-capacity gamma-ray spectrometer facility in the NIST irradiation laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As the demand for greater throughput and shorter turnaround times for analytical work is increasing, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has come under pressure to substantially improve its performance in these areas. Of course, such improvements are expected without any loss of quality in other performance parameters, such as precision and accuracy. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is responding to the aforementioned demands with increased utilization of short-lived ultrashort-lived nuclides and high-rate counting techniques in INAA. Part of this effort involves, in the course of the renovation of the NIST research reactor irradiation laboratories, the establishment of a newly designed gamma-ray spectrometry facility with three high-rate, high-resolution germanium detectors. The three detectors allow simultaneous counting of three samples and/or standards irradiated at the same time. The detector systems have been evaluated in a preliminary setup and are now being relocated in close proximity of the irradiation terminals to achieve short sample transfer times.

Zeisler, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (United States)

1998-12-31

37

Infrared Fourier spectrometer for laboratory use and for astronomical studies from aircraft and ground-based telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable, versatile, IR Fourier spectrometer is described that provides 0.5 per cm spectral resolution in the 0.87-5.6-micron region. This spectrometer is employed in a varied program of astronomical observations from ground-based telescopes and from the NASA 91.5-cm airborne IR telescope. A number of spectral results are presented to illustrate the performance of this spectrometer in astronomical applications.

H. P. Larson; Uwe Fink

1975-01-01

38

Infrared Fourier spectrometer for laboratory use and for astronomical studies from aircraft and ground-based telescopes.  

PubMed

A portable, versatile, ir Fourier spectrometer is described that provides 0.5 cm(-1) spectral resolution in the 0.87-5.6-microm region. This spectrometer is employed in a varied program of astronomical observations from round-based telescopes and from the NASA 91.5-cm airborne ir telescope. A number of spectral results are presented to illustrate the performance of this spectrometer in astronomical applications. PMID:20154967

Larson, H P; Fink, U

1975-09-01

39

Laboratory studies of peroxy radical reactions using the turbulent flow chemical ionisation mass spectrometer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HO_x (sum of OH and HO_2) plays an important role in the formation of tropospheric O_3 recently Wennberg et al.,^1 pointed out that the formation of tropospheric O_3 is strongly dependent on the level of NO_x as a consequence of its reaction with RO_2 (where R=H or CH_3). It is therefore important to characterise the coupling of NO_x and RO_2 to understand the tropospheric O_3 budget. Model studies have shown in the mid to upper troposphere both HO_2NO_2 and CH_3O_2NO_2 may well constitute a significant fraction of NO_y (˜20%). Despite the importance of these species, there are little or no experimental data available on their formation in this region. At present models do not accurately describe the observed nitrogen partitioning, in particular underpredicting the ratio NO_x/NO_y Recently Brown et al.,^2 have measured key rate coefficients over a wider range of pressure and temperature than performed previously and have shown that the formation of NO_y is much slower than previously estimated from extrapolation of available kinetic data to low temperatures Gao et al.,^3 have observed that these new kinetic data improve the agreement between model and measurements in the lower stratosphere and troposphere respectively, but that discrepancies still exist which must be addressed. The temperatures (180-300 K) encountered in the troposphere pose a significant challenge to laboratory studies. Although much progress has been made in this respect over the years, there still remains considerable uncertainties in the kinetic data base, particularly for conditions of lowest temperature (180 - 250 K) and pressures (70 Torr) that pertain to the UTLS region. A turbulent flow CIMS (as shown in figure 1) has been developed to study the reaction of RO_2 with NO over the pressure range 70-760 Torr and temperatures as low as 170 K. The CIMS is used to detect all trace species in the flow tube. Chemical ionisation takes place through the following reaction scheme. X^- + RO_2 longrightarrow RO_2^- + X 210Po emitting a particles is used to ionise N_2 used as a carrier gas, thus creating secondary electrons. These electrons attach rapidly to the neutral precursor X (e.g. SF6) of the donor to produce X^-. The X^- ion can then react via a charge transfer with the RO_2 species of interest. The resultant RO_2^- is then passed to the mouth of a quadrupole-mass filter via a set of ion optics and detected by an ion multiplier. References (1) Wennberg, P.O., T.F. Hanisco, L. Jaegle, D.J. Jacob, E.J. Hintsa, E.J. Lazendorf, J.G. anderson, R.-S. Gao, E.R. Keim, S.G. Donnelly, L.A. Del Negro, D.W. Fahey, S.A. Mckeen, R.J. Salawitch, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, R.L. Herman, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, E.L. Atlas, S.M. Schauffler, F. Locke, C.T. McElroy and T.P. Bui, Science, 79, 49 (1999). (2) Brown S.S., R.K. Talukdar and A.R. Ravishankara, Chem. Phys. Lett., 99, 277 (1999). (3) Gao, R.S., D.W. Fahey, L.A. Del negro, S.G. Donnelly, E.R. Keim, J.A. Neuman, E. Teverovskaia, P.O. Wennberg, T.F. Hanisco, E.J. Lazendorf, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, J.C. Wilson, J.W. Elkins, R.M. Stimpfle, R.C. Cohen, C.T. McElroy, T.P. Bui, R.J. Salawitch, S.S. Brown, A.R. Ravishankara, R.W. Portmann, M.K.W. Ko D.K. Weisenstein and P.A. Newman, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 1153 (1999). (4) Seeley, J.V., J.T. Jayne and M.J. Molina, J. Phys. Chem., 00, 4019 (1996).

Bacak, A.; Bardwell, M.; Percival, C.

2003-04-01

40

Asymptotic behaviour of eigenfunctions for multiparticle Schrödinger operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

O'Connor's approach to spatial exponential decay of eigenfunctions for multiparticle Schrödinger Hamiltonians is developed from the point of view of analytic perturbations with respect to transformation groups.

J. M. Combes; L. Thomas

1973-01-01

41

A VUV Photoionization Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer with a RF-Powered VUV Lamp for Laboratory-Based Organic Aerosol Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS) has been developed for real-time, quantitative chemical analysis of organic particles in laboratory environments. A nozzle of ? 0.12 mm orifice combined with an aerodynamic lens assembly and a three stage differential pumping system is used to sample particles at atmospheric pressure. The particles are vaporized on a thermal heater,

Jinian Shu; Shaokai Gao; Yao Li

2008-01-01

42

Simultaneous atmospheric measurements using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometers at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory during spring 2006, and comparisons with the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2006 Canadian Arctic ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) Validation Campaign collected measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, 80.05° N, 86.42° W, 610 m above sea level) at Eureka, Canada from 17 February to 31 March 2006. Two of the ten instruments involved in the campaign, both Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs), were operated simultaneously, recording atmospheric solar absorption spectra. The first instrument was an ABB Bomem DA8 high-resolution infrared FTS. The second instrument was the Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared (PARIS-IR), the ground-based version of the satellite-borne FTS on the ACE satellite (ACE-FTS). From the measurements collected by these two ground-based instruments, total column densities of seven stratospheric trace gases (O3, HNO3, NO2, HCl, HF, NO, and ClONO2 were retrieved using the optimal estimation method and these results were compared. Since the two instruments sampled the same portions of atmosphere by synchronizing observations during the campaign, the biases in retrieved columns from the two spectrometers represent the instrumental differences. These differences were consistent with those seen in previous FTS intercomparison studies. Partial column results from the ground-based spectrometers were also compared with partial columns derived from ACE-FTS version 2.2 (including updates for O3, HDO and N2O5 profiles and the differences found were consistent with the other validation comparison studies for the ACE-FTS version 2.2 data products. Column densities of O3, HCl, ClONO2, and HNO3 from the three FTSs were normalized with respect to HF and used to probe the time evolution of the chemical constituents in the atmosphere over Eureka during spring 2006.

Fu, D.; Walker, K. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Strong, K.; Sung, K.; Fast, H.; Daffner, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Fogal, P.; Kolonjari, F.; Loewen, P.; Manney, G. L.; Mikhailov, O.

2008-03-01

43

Multiparticle states in deformed special relativity  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the properties of multiparticle states in deformed special relativity (DSR). Starting from the Lagrangian formalism with an energy dependent metric, the conserved Noether current can be derived which is additive in the usual way. The integrated Noether current had previously been discarded as a conserved quantity, because it was correctly realized that it does no longer obey the DSR transformations. We identify the reason for this mismatch in the fact that DSR depends only on the extensive quantity of total four momentum instead of the energy-momentum densities as would be appropriate for a field theory. We argue that the reason for the failure of DSR to reproduce the standard transformation behavior in the well established limits is due to the missing sensitivity to the volume inside which energy is accumulated. We show that the soccer-ball problem is absent if one formulates DSR instead for the field densities. As a consequence, estimates for predicted effects have to be corrected by many orders of magnitude. Further, we derive that the modified quantum field theory implies a locality bound.

Hossenfelder, S. [Perimeter Institute 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2007-05-15

44

Multiparticle collision dynamics modeling of viscoelastic fluids.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the rheological properties of viscoelastic fluids by mesoscopic hydrodynamics methods, we develop a multiparticle collision (MPC) dynamics model for a fluid of harmonic dumbbells. The algorithm consists of alternating streaming and collision steps. The advantage of the harmonic interactions is that the integration of the equations of motion in the streaming step can be performed analytically. Therefore, the algorithm is computationally as efficient as the original MPC algorithm for Newtonian fluids. The collision step is the same as in the original MPC method. All particles are confined between two solid walls moving oppositely, so that both steady and oscillatory shear flows can be investigated. Attractive wall potentials are applied to obtain a nearly uniform density everywhere in the simulation box. We find that both in steady and oscillatory shear flows, a boundary layer develops near the wall, with a higher velocity gradient than in the bulk. The thickness of this layer is proportional to the average dumbbell size. We determine the zero-shear viscosities as a function of the spring constant of the dumbbells and the mean free path. For very high shear rates, a very weak "shear thickening" behavior is observed. Moreover, storage and loss moduli are calculated in oscillatory shear, which show that the viscoelastic properties at low and moderate frequencies are consistent with a Maxwell fluid behavior. We compare our results with a kinetic theory of dumbbells in solution, and generally find good agreement. PMID:18412477

Tao, Yu-Guo; Götze, Ingo O; Gompper, Gerhard

2008-04-14

45

SNS backscattering spectrometer, BASIS  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design and current performance of the backscattering silicon spectrometer (BASIS), a time-of-flight backscattering spectrometer built at the spallation neutron source (SNS) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). BASIS is the first silicon-based backscattering spectrometer installed at a spallation neutron source. In addition to high intensity, it offers a high-energy resolution of about 3.5 {mu}eV and a large and variable energy transfer range. These ensure an excellent overlap with the dynamic ranges accessible at other inelastic spectrometers at the SNS.

Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL

2011-01-01

46

Multiparticle decoherence-free subspaces in extended systems  

SciTech Connect

We develop a method to determine spatial configurations to realize decoherence-free subspaces for spatially extended multiparticle systems. We have assumed normal reservoir behavior including translational invariance of the reservoir and preparation in stationary states or mixture thereof and weak Markovian system-reservoir coupling that requires energy transfer. One important outcome of our method is a proof that there does not exist a multiparticle decoherence-free subspace in such systems except in the limit that the spatial extent of the system becomes infinitesimal.

Karasik, Raisa I. [Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Berkeley Quantum Information Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Sanders, Barry C. [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Whaley, K. Birgitta [Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Berkeley Quantum Information Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2007-07-15

47

Numerical method for interaction between multiparticle and complex structures.  

PubMed

We propose a numerical method for dealing with interactions between multiple particles and complex structures. In the method, the structures are represented on a grid by using the level set method. The interactions of particles and structures are calculated by a method based on the discrete element method. The method can treat the interaction between multiparticle and complex structures robustly. PMID:16383573

Yokoi, Kensuke

2005-10-28

48

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this outstanding problem. Experiments on lepton-induced jet-phenomenology in TRISTAN (KEK) have started already and further development will be expected also at LEP (CERN), SLC (Stanford) and others. For the hadronic and nuclear reactions, we would encounter many new exciting physics, in near future, at Tevatron (Fermi Lab.), the dream facility SSC (under planning), RHIC (Brookhaven) and others. Experiments on proton-antiproton collisions at TeV energies and on relativistic heavy-ion collisions have already started. The latter investigates the possible phase transition of hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma. Experimental confirmation of this phase transition would give big effects on many branches of physics. As a whole, the future of physics on multiparticle production will be quite promising. Therefore, we especially expect a fresh power by many young theorists in this field of physics. Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics, and it utilizes variety of methods and models. It well be therefore a rather troublesome task to grasp the present status of this widely extended physics as a whole. There are many excellent review papers. However, they are concerned with rather restricted topics with current interest. At this situation, it will be useful if there is a comprehensive review which covers a whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. This is the point of the author's motivation for writing the present review article. We hope that this article will contribute to a partial resolution of the above mentioned situation and in particular, young theorists then become more interested in this field. In writing the present article, the authors have put their attention to the following points: It should cover most of important topics of multiparticle dynamics at high energies, including e^+e^- annihilation, lepton-hadron and nuclear reactions; it should be described on the basis of modern viewpoint, especially, of QCD as far as we can; it should also cover good phenomenological models or pictures even though their theoretical foundatio

Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

49

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this outstanding problem. Experiments on lepton-induced jet-phenomenology in TRISTAN (KEK) have started already and further development will be expected also at LEP (CERN), SLC (Stanford) and others. For the hadronic and nuclear reactions, we would encounter many new exciting physics, in near future, at Tevatron (Fermi Lab.), the dream facility SSC (under planning), RHIC (Brookhaven) and others. Experiments on proton-antiproton collisions at TeV energies and on relativistic heavy-ion collisions have already started. The latter investigates the possible phase transition of hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma. Experimental confirmation of this phase transition would give big effects on many branches of physics. As a whole, the future of physics on multiparticle production will be quite promising. Therefore, we especially expect a fresh power by many young theorists in this field of physics. Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics, and it utilizes variety of methods and models. It well be therefore a rather troublesome task to grasp the present status of this widely extended physics as a whole. There are many excellent review papers. However, they are concerned with rather restricted topics with current interest. At this situation, it will be useful if there is a comprehensive review which covers a whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. This is the point of the author's motivation for writing the present review article. We hope that this article will contribute to a partial resolution of the above mentioned situation and in particular, young theorists then become more interested in this field. In writing the present article, the authors have put their attention to the following points: It should cover most of important topics of multiparticle dynamics at high energies, including e^+e^- annihilation, lepton-hadron and nuclear reactions; it should be described on the basis of modern viewpoint, especially, of QCD as far as we can; it should also cover good phenomenological models or pictures even though their theoretical foundatio

Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

50

Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires Part 2: Analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit mass resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to considerable evolution of the mass, the volatility and the level of oxygenation of biomass-burning OA. Photochemical oxidation produced substantial new OA, more than doubling the primary contribution after a few hours of aging under typical summertime conditions. Aging decreased the OA volatility of the total OA as measured with a thermodenuder; it also made the OA progressively more oxygenated in every experiment. With explicit knowledge of the condensed-phase mass spectrum (MS) of the primary emissions from each fire, each MS can be decomposed into primary and residual spectra throughout the experiment. The residual spectra provide an estimate of the composition of the photochemically produced OA. These spectra are also very similar to those of the oxygenated OA that dominates ambient AMS datasets. In addition, aged wood smoke spectra are shown to be similar to those from OA created by photo-oxidized dilute diesel exhaust and aged biomass-burning OA measured in urban and remote locations. This demonstrates that the oxygenated OA observed in the atmosphere can be produced by photochemical aging of dilute emissions from combustion of fuels containing both modern and fossil carbon.

Grieshop, A. P.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2008-09-01

51

Criterion for testing multiparticle negative-partial-transpose entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We revisit the criterion of multiparticle entanglement based on the overlaps of a given quantum state {rho} with maximally entangled states. For a system of m particles, each with N distinct states, we prove that {rho} is m-particle negative partial transpose entangled, if there exists a maximally entangled state vertical bar MES>, such that >1/N. While this sufficiency condition is weaker than the Peres-Horodecki criterion in all cases, it applies to multi-particle systems, and becomes especially useful when the number of particles (m) is large. We also consider the converse of this criterion and illustrate its invalidity with counter examples.

Zeng, B. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou, D.L. [Center for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu, Z. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); You, L. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2003-10-01

52

Cumulants, coherence, and contamination in multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry  

SciTech Connect

We examine the formalism of multiparticle correlations used in Bose-Einstein interferometry with pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We include incoherent and quantum optics coherent contributions as well as the effect of contamination from particles included in the correlation that are not pions. We give expressions for the correlation functions and normalized cumulants for orders 2{endash}5 in the presence of these effects. We show that in the presence of coherence the normalized cumulants include an additional contribution besides that usually called the {open_quote}{open_quote}true{close_quote}{close_quote} multiparticle correlation. We also consider the {ital Q}=0 intercepts of the correlation functions and normalized cumulants in the presence of coherence and of contamination and show that values of the intercept of the normalized cumulant as a function of order can distinguish these two effects. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Cramer, J.G.; Kadija, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen, Germany Department of Physics FM--15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

1996-02-01

53

Multiparticle Dynamics in the E-? Tracking Code ESME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESME has developed over a twenty year period from its origins as a program for modeling rf gymnastics to a rather general facility for that fraction of beam dynamics of synchrotrons and storage rings which can be properly treated in the two dimensional longitudinal phase space. The features of this program which serve particularly for multiparticle calculations are described, some uderlying principles are noted, and illustrative results are given.

MacLachlan, James A.

2002-12-01

54

Multiparticle Simulation of Intrabeam Scattering for SuperB  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication we present the structure of a multiparticle tracking code to investigate intrabeam scattering effects in low emittance colliders. Simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.and with those of a novel semi-analythical model able to predict IBS effect in terms of emittance growths. Intrabeam scattering (IBS) is

M. Biagini; M. Boscolo; T. Demma; A. W. Chao; K. L. F. Bane; M. T. F. Pivi

2012-01-01

55

Quantum computation and multiparticle entanglement with trapped atoms and ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapped atoms and ions are promising candidates for the construction of a quantum computer and the generation of multiparticle entanglement. In my talk I will present various schemes that I have developed during my Ph.d., which enables practical implementations of quantum information processing and entanglement of several particles. For trapped ions I will present a method to implement gates between the ions by using bichromaticlight. If two ions are illuminated with light detuned above and below resonance, the absorption of photon in a single ion is forbidden but the simultaneous absorption of a photon in each of the ions is allowed by the resonance condition. This process can by used to implement gates between ions in thermal motion, and by illuminating a string of ions, it can also be used to generate multiparticle entanglement. Following this proposal D. Winelands ion trapping group was able to produce maximally entangled states of four ions. For atoms in an optical lattice it has been proposed to create a quantum computer by moving two lattices with respect to each other. A full quantum computer requires the ability to address the individual atoms in the lattice which is very complicated due to the short distance between the atoms in the lattice. But even without access to the individual atoms, the atoms in the lattices can be used to perform non-trivial quantum computations. I'll show that by performing lattice displacements and addressing the atoms collectively, the atoms in the lattices can simulate the dynamics of a ferro-magnet. Furthermore the interaction can also by used to form multiparticle entangled spin squeezed states, which could potentially increase the precision of atomic clocks. Spin squeezed states can also be produced by the collisional interaction in a BEC. I'll show that if a single resonant pulse is shined onto the atoms in a BEC, the collisional interaction in the subsequent free evolution will prepare the atoms in a multiparticle entangled state.

Sørensen, Anders S.

2003-05-01

56

Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed

Tekeshi Kanki; Kisei Kinoshita; Hiroyuki Sumiyoshi; Fujio Takagi

1989-01-01

57

Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires 2: analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit-mass-resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to considerable evolution of the mass, volatility and level of oxygenation of biomass-burning OA. Photochemical oxidation produced substantial new OA, more than doubling the OA mass after a few hours of aging under typical summertime conditions. Aging also decreased the volatility of the OA and made it progressively more oxygenated. The results also illustrate strengths of, and challenges with, using AMS data for source apportionment analysis. For example, the mass spectra of fresh and aged BBOA are distinct from fresh motor-vehicle emissions. The mass spectra of the secondary OA produced from aging wood smoke are very similar to those of the oxygenated OA (OOA) that dominates ambient AMS datasets, further reinforcing the connection between OOA and OA formed from photo-chemistry. In addition, aged wood smoke spectra are similar to those from OA created by photo-oxidizing dilute diesel exhaust. This demonstrates that the OOA observed in the atmosphere can be produced by photochemical aging of dilute emissions from different types of combustion systems operating on fuels with modern or fossil carbon. Since OOA is frequently the dominant component of ambient OA, the similarity of spectra of aged emissions from different sources represents an important challenge for AMS-based source apportionment studies.

Grieshop, A. P.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

2009-03-01

58

A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J. Jr.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K. [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6670, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5345 (United States)

1999-06-10

59

Correlation spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-04-13

60

CD Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a compact disc to make a spectrometer, an instrument used to measure properties of light. Learners use their spectrometer to view a continuous spectrum produced by fluorescent light. This lesson guide also includes instructions on how to build a spectroscope from a cereal box.

Doherty, Paul

2000-01-01

61

Time Projection Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The time projection chamber (TPC) is discussed. Its advantage is its ability to collect a great deal of information on multiparticle reactions from high-energy colliding beam experiments. The TPC makes it possible to reconstruct all the charged particles ...

H. L. Anderson

1979-01-01

62

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in gamma-->p-->-->ppi+pi? with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W [approximate] 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp gammap-->ppi+pi? will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a “complete” experiment for the reaction gammaN-->KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction gammap-->ppi+pi? will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Sungkyun Park

2010-08-01

63

Undergraduate Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described here is a simple static-field mass spectrometer which has had usefulness both as an undergraduate laboratory instrument and as a piece of demonstration apparatus. The design provides for the adjustment of such parameters as magnet position, slit widths and heights, and allows the use of different types of sources and detectors. Ion currents are large enough to be easily

John W. Dewdney

1960-01-01

64

Refinement of the Compton-Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectra from the Mars rover alpha particle X-ray spectrometers contain the elastic and inelastic scatter peaks of the plutonium L X-rays emitted by the instrument's 244Cm source. Various spectrum fitting approaches are tested using the terrestrial twin of the APXS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, in order to provide accurate extraction of the L? and L? Compton/Rayleigh intensity ratios, which can provide information about light "invisible" constituents such as water in geological samples. A well-defined dependence of C/R ratios upon mean sample atomic number is established using a large and varied set of geochemical reference materials, and the accuracy of this calibration is examined. Detailed attention is paid to the influence of the rubidium and strontium peaks which overlap the L? scatter peaks. Our Monte Carlo simulation code for prediction of C/R ratios from element concentrations is updated. The ratio between measured and simulated C/R ratios provides a second means of calibration.

Campbell, J. L.; Perrett, G. M.; Maxwell, J. A.; Nield, E.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Lee, M.; O'Meara, J. M.; Pradler, I.

2013-05-01

65

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experime...

C. K. Bayne D. L. Donohue R. Fiedler

1994-01-01

66

Investigating the multiparticle decay in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions  

SciTech Connect

Exclusive measurements of light charged products (LCP) in the [sup 132]Xe+[sup 197]Au collisions at 44 MeV/nucleon have been performed using MEDEA 4[pi] detection system. The admixture of each partricle type into the LCP multiplicity is found to be almost independent of the impact parameter. The data are analyzed with a formalism where the fluctuations of the multiparticle decay are described by uncorrelated Poissonian statistical distributions. The impact parameter filtering is performed using the LCP multiplicity. Self-correlation and impact parameter averagining effects are identified. The dominance of the statistical contribution in the fluctuations of the LCP multiplicity is deduced.

Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P. (INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Catania (Italy) GANIL, Caen (France))

1994-06-01

67

Investigating the multiparticle decay in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exclusive measurements of light charged products (LCP) in the 132Xe+197Au collisions at 44 MeV/nucleon have been performed using MEDEA 4? detection system. The admixture of each partricle type into the LCP multiplicity is found to be almost independent of the impact parameter. The data are analyzed with a formalism where the fluctuations of the multiparticle decay are described by uncorrelated Poissonian statistical distributions. The impact parameter filtering is performed using the LCP multiplicity. Self-correlation and impact parameter averagining effects are identified. The dominance of the statistical contribution in the fluctuations of the LCP multiplicity is deduced.

del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

1994-06-01

68

Temperature inhomogeneities simulated with multiparticle-collision dynamics.  

PubMed

The mesoscopic simulation technique known as multiparticle collision dynamics is presented as a very appropriate method to simulate complex systems in the presence of temperature inhomogeneities. Three different methods to impose the temperature gradient are compared and characterized in the parameter landscape. Two methods include the interaction of the system with confining walls. The third method considers open boundary conditions by imposing energy fluxes. The transport of energy characterizing the thermal diffusivity is also investigated. The dependence of this transport coefficient on the method parameters and the accuracy of existing analytical theories is discussed. PMID:22380031

Lüsebrink, Daniel; Ripoll, Marisol

2012-02-28

69

New correlation functions for multi-particle processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new family of correlation functions for the study of multi-particle processes, the ``split-bin'' correlation functions. Split-bin correlation functions are similar to scaled factorial moments, but they are less susceptible to some systematic errors, such as double-counting of particles. Unlike scaled factorial moments, split-bin correlation functions can be constructed using continuous variables, such as transverse energy. They can also be used to help differentiate between correlations due to jet-like and resonance-like sources.

Voloshin, Sergei; Seibert, David

1990-10-01

70

SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER  

DOEpatents

A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

1960-06-21

71

Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

Chastagner, P.

2001-08-01

72

The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

1986-04-01

73

Effects of twisted noncommutativity in multi-particle Hamiltonians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-commutativity induced by a Drinfel'd twist produces Bopp-shift-like transformations for deformed operators. In a single-particle setting the Drinfel'd twist allows to recover the non-commutativity obtained from various methods which are not based on Hopf algebras. In multi-particle sector, on the other hand, the Drinfel'd twist implies novel features. In conventional approaches to non-commutativity, deformed primitive operators are postulated to act additively. A Drinfel'd twist implies non-additive effects which are controlled by the coproduct. We stress that in our framework, the central element denoted as ? is associated to an additive operator whose physical interpretation is that of the Particle Number operator. We illustrate all these features for a class of (abelian twist-deformed) 2D Hamiltonians. Suitable choices of the parameters lead to the Hamiltonian of the non-commutative Quantum Hall Effect, the harmonic oscillator, the quantization of the configuration space. The non-additive effects in the multi-particle sector, leading to results departing from the existing literature, are pointed out.

Kuznetsova, Zhanna; Toppan, Francesco

2013-07-01

74

Kinetic model for the chemical dissolution of multiparticle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic model is designed to interpret fraction reacted/time curves obtained from leaching multiparticle concentrates. The effect of individual particle shape on fraction reacted/time curves was determined by comparing data obtained from leaching a sphere and numerous irregular particles of malachite made by breaking up blocks of ore. All the leaching processes were carried out under the same experimental conditions. Finally, a kinetic model is presented which includes both size and shape of the particles. Experimental results show that fraction reacted/time curves are nearly the same for all particles with the same initial size/shape factor ratio. The importance of the solid's shape in interpreting heterogeneous kinetic data is clearly shown.

Núñez, C.; Espiell, F.

1985-09-01

75

Entanglement polytopes: multiparticle entanglement from single-particle information.  

PubMed

Entangled many-body states are an essential resource for quantum computing and interferometry. Determining the type of entanglement present in a system usually requires access to an exponential number of parameters. We show that in the case of pure, multiparticle quantum states, features of the global entanglement can already be extracted from local information alone. This is achieved by associating any given class of entanglement with an entanglement polytope-a geometric object that characterizes the single-particle states compatible with that class. Our results, applicable to systems of arbitrary size and statistics, give rise to local witnesses for global pure-state entanglement and can be generalized to states affected by low levels of noise. PMID:23744943

Walter, Michael; Doran, Brent; Gross, David; Christandl, Matthias

2013-06-01

76

Beta-Delayed Multi-Particle Emission Studies at ISOLDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here on the recent ?-decay studies made at ISOLDE/CERN to determine the multiparticle breakup mechanism of excited states in light nuclei. The ?-2p emission in 31Ar is resolved. Mirror beta transitions in the A=9 chain are compared and a large asymmetry factor is deduced for the transitions to high excitation energy in 9Be (11.8 MeV) and 9B (12.2 MeV) fed in the ?-decay of 9Li and 9C respectively. It is shown that the asymmetry is not due to experimental problems or differences in the mechanisms of breakup or in the spin of the states, only differences in the partial decay branches of the breakup channels has been found.

Borge, M. J. G.

2003-09-01

77

Gaussian Lagrangian stochastic models for multi-particle dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have extended the ``well-mixed'' two-particle stochastic models for 3D Gaussian turbulence to n particles, and have performed calculations for clusters of n <= 6 particles. The particle joint motions are Gaussian and are constrained by pair-wise spatial correlations. This neglects non-Gaussian properties of the two-point velocity distribution and also neglects multi-point correlations. It also takes no account of intermittency. Although the models do not predict the growth of the separation of particles in the cluster satisfactorily, we find that they do give a good representation of the shape statistics for the cluster in comparison with direct numerical simulation results. We conclude that the pair-wise spatial structure of the turbulence accounts for most of the observed characteristics of the shape of multi-particle clusters in turbulence, and that non-Gaussian and multi-point features of the turbulence are of secondary importance.

Sawford, B. L.; Pope, S. B.; Yeung, P. K.

2013-05-01

78

Fluid-solid boundary conditions for multiparticle collision dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of colloidal particles suspended in solvent requires an accurate representation of the interactions between the colloids and the solvent molecules. Using the multiparticle collision dynamics method, we examine several proposals for stick boundary conditions, studying their properties in both plane Poiseuille flow (where fluid interacts with the boundary of a stationary macroscopic solid) and particle-based colloid simulations (where the boundaries are thermally affected and in motion). In addition, our simulations compare various collision rules designed to remove spurious slip near solid surfaces, and the effects of these rules on the thermal motion of colloidal particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that stochastic reflection of the fluid at solid boundaries fails to faithfully represent stick boundary conditions, and conclude that bounce-back conditions should be applied at both mobile and stationary surfaces. Finally, we generalize these ideas to create partial slip boundary conditions at both stationary and mobile surfaces.

Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Luijten, Erik

2010-03-01

79

Fluid-solid boundary conditions for multiparticle collision dynamics.  

PubMed

The simulation of colloidal particles suspended in solvent requires an accurate representation of the interactions between the colloids and the solvent molecules. Using the multiparticle collision dynamics method, we examine several proposals for stick boundary conditions, studying their properties in both plane Poiseuille flow (where fluid interacts with the boundary of a stationary macroscopic solid) and particle-based colloid simulations (where the boundaries are thermally affected and in motion). In addition, our simulations compare various collision rules designed to remove spurious slip near solid surfaces, and the effects of these rules on the thermal motion of colloidal particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that stochastic reflection of the fluid at solid boundaries fails to faithfully represent stick boundary conditions, and conclude that bounce-back conditions should be applied at both mobile and stationary surfaces. Finally, we generalize these ideas to create partial slip boundary conditions at both stationary and mobile surfaces. PMID:21389440

Whitmer, Jonathan K; Luijten, Erik

2010-02-23

80

Multiparticle Solutions in 2+1 Gravity and Time Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle solutions for sources moving at the speed of light and corresponding to superpositions of single-particle plane-wave solutions are constructed in 2+1 gravity. It is shown that the two-particle spacetimes admit closed timelike curves provided the center-of-momentum energy exceeds a certain critical value. This occurs, however, at the cost of unphysical boundary conditions which are analogous to those affecting Gott’s time machine. As the energy exceeds the critical value, the closed timelike curves first occur at spatial infinity, then migrate inward as the energy is further increased. The total mass of the system also becomes imaginary for particle energies greater than the critical value.

Steif, Alan R.

81

The Current Distribution of the Multiparticle Hopping Asymmetric Diffusion Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we treat the multiparticle hopping asymmetric diffusion model (MADM) on ? introduced by Sasamoto and Wadati in 1998. The transition probability of the MADM with N particles is provided by using the Bethe ansatz. The transition probability is expressed as the sum of N-dimensional contour integrals of which contours are circles centered at the origin with restrictions on their radii. By using the transition probability we find ?( x m ( t)= x), the probability that the mth particle from the left is at x at time t. The probability ?( x m ( t)= x) is expressed as the sum of | S|-dimensional contour integrals over all S?{1,…, N} with | S|? m, and is used to give the current distribution of the system. The mapping between the MADM and the pushing asymmetric simple exclusion process (PushASEP) is discussed.

Lee, Eunghyun

2012-10-01

82

Simulating strongly correlated multiparticle systems in a truncated Hilbert space  

SciTech Connect

Representing a strongly interacting multiparticle wave function in a finite product basis leads to errors. Simple rescaling of the contact interaction can preserve the low-lying energy spectrum and long-wavelength structure of wave functions in one-dimensional systems and thus correct for the basis set truncation error. The analytic form of the rescaling is found for a two-particle system where the rescaling is exact. A detailed comparison between finite Hilbert space calculations and exact results for up to five particles show that rescaling can significantly improve the accuracy of numerical calculations in various external potentials. In addition to ground-state energies, the low-lying excitation spectrum, density profile, and correlation functions are studied. The results give a promising outlook for numerical simulations of trapped ultracold atoms.

Ernst, Thomas; Hallwood, David W.; Gulliksen, Jake; Brand, Joachim [New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Meyer, Hans-Dieter [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-08-15

83

Analysis of multiparticle production using split-bin correlation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the study of correlations in multiparticle processes, using split-bin correlation functions (SBCF's). We show how SBCF's can be used to study different production mechanisms, such as production via jetlike or resonancelike sources. We illustrate some possibilities with calculations of various SBCF's in simple models. One of the main advantages of SBCF's is the possibility of using transverse-energy correlations as well as multiplicity correlations in order to differentiate the various mechanisms of particle production. We show that in general the transverse-energy SBCF's and the multiplicity SBCF's are very similar, but also discuss some models for which these classes of SBCF's will be different. Finally, we provide useful formulas for the analysis of SBCF data using simple analytic models, including effects due to curvature of the single-particle distribution.

Seibert, David; Voloshin, Sergei

1991-01-01

84

The Bose-Einstein distribution functions and the multiparticle production at high energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution properties of propagating particles produced at high energies in a randomly distributed environment are studied. The finite size of the phase space of the multiparticle production region as well as the chaoticity can be derived.

G. A. Kozlov

2002-01-01

85

Particle-Particle Drag Term in a Multiparticle Model of Fluidization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multiparticle model being developed at the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center simulates fluidization phenomena such as segregation, elutriation, and solids mixing by describing the different types of solid particles as disti...

M. Syamlal

1987-01-01

86

A verification of the rules of quark statistics in multiparticle processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the probabilities of strange meson production in multiparticle processes are with a rather good accuracy proportional to the statistical factor 2sqq + 1 where sqq is the total quark spin of a meson.

V. V. Anisovich; M. N. Kobrinsky; J. Nyiri

1981-01-01

87

The Bootstrap Multiscale Analysis for the Multi-particle Anderson Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the bootstrap multi-scale analysis developed by Germinet and Klein to the multi-particle Anderson model, obtaining Anderson localization, dynamical localization, and decay of eigenfunction correlations.

Klein, Abel; Nguyen, Son T.

2013-06-01

88

The Bose-Einstein distribution functions and the multiparticle production at high energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution properties of propagating particles produced at high energies in a randomly distributed environment are studied. The finite size of the phase space of the multiparticle production region as well as the chaoticity can be derived.

Kozlov, G. A.

2002-04-01

89

Multiparticle Simulation of Intrabeam Scattering for SuperB  

SciTech Connect

In this communication we present the structure of a multiparticle tracking code to investigate intrabeam scattering effects in low emittance colliders. Simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.and with those of a novel semi-analythical model able to predict IBS effect in terms of emittance growths. Intrabeam scattering (IBS) is associated with multiple small angle scattering events leading to emittance growth. In most electron storage rings, the growth rates arising from IBS are usually much longer than damping times due to synchrotron radiation, and its effect is not observed. However, IBS growth rates increase with bunch charge density, and for machines such as SuperB, that operate with high bunch charges and very low emittances, the IBS growth rates can be large enough to observe significant emittance increase. Several formalisms have been developed for calculating IBS growth rates in storage rings, notably those by Piwinski, Bjorken and Mtingwa, and their high energy approximations. Calculations show that IBS should be manageable in both SuperB rings. However these analytical models, based on Gaussian bunch distributions, cannot investigate some interesting aspects of IBS such as its impact during the damping process and its effect on the beam distribution. We developed a multiparticle tracking code, based on the Zenkevich-Bolshakov algorithm, to investigate these effects. In this communication we present the structure of the code and some simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters. Simulation results are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.

Biagini, M.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; /Frascati; Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.; Pivi, M.T.F.; /SLAC

2012-04-27

90

The Spectrometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2012-01-01

91

The Spectrometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2012-01-01

92

The Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating1), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old technology. In this paper I would like to discuss its ancestors.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2012-03-01

93

Laboratory Evaluation of a Field-Portable Sealed Source X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Determination of Metals in Air Filter Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP XRF) spectrometer technology have made it a potentially valuable screening tool for the industrial hygienist to estimate worker exposures to airborne metals. Although recent studies have shown that FP XRF technology may be better suited for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis of airborne lead in the workplace, these studies have not extensively addressed its

Nicholas J. Lawryk; H. Amy Feng; Bean T. Chen

2009-01-01

94

Transmission Efficiency of an Aerodynamic Focusing Lens System: Comparison of Model Calculations and Laboratory Measurements for the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size-dependent particle transmission efficiency of the aerodynamic lens system used in the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was investigated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental measurements. The CFD calculations revealed that the entire lens system, including the aerodynamic lens itself, the critical orifice which defines the operating lens pressure, and a valve assembly, needs to be considered.

Peter S. K. Liu; Rensheng Deng; Kenneth A. Smith; Leah R. Williams; John T. Jayne; Manjula R. Canagaratna; Kori Moore; Timothy B. Onasch; Douglas R. Worsnop; Terry Deshler

2007-01-01

95

The coupling of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a cosmic simulation chamber: A powerful new tool for laboratory astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of an orthogonal reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) to the NASA Ames cosmic simulation chamber (CSC) experiment is described. The simulation chamber contains the elements that produce the molecular species under astrophysically relevant conditions. A pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) produces ions, neutrals and radicals in a plasma discharge, which are then expanded and supersonically cooled into the chamber.

Claire L. Ricketts; Cesar S. Contreras; Robert L. Walker; Farid Salama

2011-01-01

96

Multiparticle production and thermalization in high-energy QCD  

SciTech Connect

We argue that multiparticle production in high energy hadron and nuclear collisions can be considered as proceeding through the production of gluons in the background classical field. In this approach we derive the gluon spectrum immediately after the collision and find that at high energies it is parametrically enhanced by ln(1/x) with respect to the quasiclassical result (x is the Bjorken variable). We show that the produced gluon spectrum becomes thermal (in three dimensions) with an effective temperature determined by the saturation momentum Q{sub s},T=cQ{sub s}/2{pi} during the time {approx}1/T; we estimate c={radical}(2{pi})/2{approx_equal}1.2. Although this result by itself does not imply that the gluon spectrum will remain thermal at later times, it has an interesting applications to heavy ion collisions. In particular, we discuss the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation of the produced gluon pairs and estimate the viscosity of the produced gluon system.

Kharzeev, Dmitri [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Levin, Eugene [HEP Department, School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Tuchin, Kirill [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Iowa 50011 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

2007-04-15

97

Multiparticle adhesive dynamics. Interactions between stably rolling cells.  

PubMed Central

A novel numerical simulation of adhesive particles (cells) reversibly interacting with an adhesive surface under flow is presented. Particle--particle and particle--wall hydrodynamic interactions in low Reynolds number Couette flow are calculated using a boundary element method that solves an integral representation of the Stokes equation. Molecular bonds between surfaces are modeled as linear springs and stochastically formed and broken according to postulated descriptions of force-dependent kinetics. The resulting simulation, Multiparticle Adhesive Dynamics, is applied to the problem of selectin-mediated rolling of hard spheres coated with leukocyte adhesion molecules (cell-free system). Simulation results are compared to flow chamber experiments performed with carbohydrate-coated spherical beads rolling on P-selectin. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment, with the main observation being a decrease in rolling velocity with increasing concentration of rolling cells or increasing proximity between rolling cells. Pause times are found to increase and deviation motion is found to decrease as pairs of rolling cells become closer together or align with the flow.

King, M R; Hammer, D A

2001-01-01

98

Multiparticle adhesive dynamics: Hydrodynamic recruitment of rolling leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The slow rolling motion of leukocytes along the walls of blood vessels mediated by specific receptor-ligand adhesion is important in inflammation and occurs in postcapillary venules over a wide range of wall shear stresses and vessel diameters. The ability of hydrodynamic collisions between cells to induce capture of free-stream leukocytes to a selectin-bearing surface under shear flow was studied experimentally by using a cell-free assay. It was found that carbohydrate-coated spherical beads, representing model leukocytes, tend to attach to the adhesive wall 4–5 cell diameters up- or downstream of a slowly rolling or stationary adhesive bead. A key feature of such “hydrodynamic recruitment” is that only glancing, indirect collisions occurring close to the plane will result in downstream attachment. A direct numerical simulation of cell capture and rolling that includes multiparticle hydrodynamic interactions is shown to reproduce the observed behavior accurately. The theory predicts that hydrodynamic recruitment will occur in the absence of buoyancy effects and over a range of shear rates, suggesting that the mechanism may be important in vivo. This theory is supported by measurements of leukocyte capture in vivo using the hamster cheek pouch model.

King, Michael R.; Hammer, Daniel A.

2001-01-01

99

Several teleportation schemes of an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state via different quantum channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first provide four new schemes for two-party quantum teleportation of an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state by using three-, four-, and five-particle states as the quantum channel, respectively. The successful probability and fidelity of the four schemes reach 1. In the first two schemes, the receiver can only apply one of the unitary transformations to reconstruct the original state, making it easier for these two schemes to be directly realized. In the third and fourth schemes, the sender can preform Bell-state measurements instead of multipartite entanglement measurements of the existing similar schemes, which makes real experiments more suitable. It is found that the last three schemes may become tripartite controlled teleportation schemes of teleporting an arbitrary multi-particle state after a simple modification. Finally, we present a new scheme for three-party sharing an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state. In this scheme, the sender first shares three three-particle GHZ states with two agents. After setting up the secure quantum channel, an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state can be perfectly teleported if the sender performs three Bell-state measurements, and either of two receivers operates an appropriate unitary transformation to obtain the original state with the help of other receiver's three single-particle measurements. The successful probability and fidelity of this scheme also reach 1. It is demonstrated that this scheme can be generalized easily to the case of sharing an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state among several agents.

Peng, Jia-Yin; Mo, Zhi-Wen

2013-05-01

100

A multi-particle model applicable to social issues—time-evolution of Japanese public opinion on nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of an interacting multi-particle system in natural sciences can form a useful model for the evolution of public attitudes and opinions, provided that each particle corresponds to one individual. A simulation model which uses a multi-particle system to represent society was developed. By using this model, the time evolution of the public attitudes to nuclear energy were investigated.

Teruaki Ohnishi

2002-01-01

101

A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

Gagnon, Michel

2012-01-01

102

Laser Doppler visualisation of the velocity field by excluding the influence of multiparticle scattering  

SciTech Connect

The method of laser Doppler visualisation and measurement of the velocity field in gas and liquid flows by suppressing the influence of multiparticle scattering is discussed. The cross section of the flow under study is illuminated by a laser beam transformed by an anamorphic optical system into a laser sheet. The effect of multiparticle scattering is eliminated by obtaining differential combinations of frequency-demodulated images of the laser sheet in different regions of the angular spectrum of scattered light. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Dubnishchev, Yu N [S S Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Chugui, Yu V [Technological Design Institute of Scientific Instrument Engineering, Siberian Branch RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kompenhans, J [German Aerospace Centre, Gottingen (Germany)

2009-10-31

103

The effect of a computer-based, spectrometer tutorial on chemistry students' learning in a UV/vis spectroscopy laboratory experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is common for fairly sophisticated instruments to be used in undergraduate, general chemistry, laboratory courses. Typically, these instruments are treated as incidental to the experiment: students are given extensive operating instructions, but told little or nothing about how they work, because understanding the instruments themselves is not an objective of the course. The implicit assumption is that chemical principles can be deduced simply from accurate data. However, cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1988, 2005) predicts it would be more difficult for students with limited prior knowledge to make sense of their data if they do not know how measurements made with the instruments are actually derived from their physical sample. Therefore, treating laboratory instruments as incidental may actually make it more difficult for students to learn the chemical concepts that underlie the data they collect. This experimental study was intended to determine whether a multimedia tutorial, designed to help students understand how a UV/vis spectrophotometer works, brings about any changes in performance on a laboratory experiment about food dye solutions. Working in pairs, 750 students were randomly assigned to receive either the tutorial (treatment) or an alternative task (comparison) as an introduction to an experiment that was a regular part of an undergraduate, general chemistry, laboratory course. Students' responses to all laboratory questions were collected and scored. The amount of time students spent on each laboratory task was collected as well. On average, treatment students completed many of the laboratory tasks significantly more quickly than comparison students. Treatment students typically also provided more concise responses to many of the laboratory questions. Unfortunately, no differences were found in scores on laboratory questions. Therefore, while there is evidence the tutorial helped students learn more efficiently, evidence could not be found that they learned more deeply. Potential explanations for these results and their implications are discussed.

Wood, Nathan Brent

104

CAPS-plasma spectrometer for the Cassini spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Physics group at the Department of Physics, University of Oulu together with the Instrument Laboratory of the Technical Research Center of Finland will take part in the science definition, design and fabrication of the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) to be included as one of the three spectrometers to be built in the CAPS plasma spectrometer instrument. CAPS will

P. Tanskanen; K. Mursula; V. Kelha; H. Huomo

1991-01-01

105

CEBAF superconducting spectrometer design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CEBAF Experimental Nuclear Physics Program is based upon three independent facilities each with unique capabilities. Hall A consists of a pair of High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS), Hall B features a Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) and Hall C will have a high acceptance, high energy electron spectrometer and matching special purpose hadron spectrometer. The performance and operational of these devices

P. Brindza; J. Alcorn; R. Carlini; L. Harwood; J. Lerose; B. Mecking; J. Mougey; J. O'Meara

1989-01-01

106

Multifractal structures in multiparticle production in p -p interactions at radical s = 1800 GeV  

SciTech Connect

Fractal structure in multiparticle production of {bar p} {minus} p minimum-bias'' interactions at {radical}s = 1800 GeV has been studied using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Preliminary results are shown and compared with very simple Monte Carlo models.

Rimondi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy))

1990-08-01

107

Four-loop perturbative Konishi from strings and finite size effects for multiparticle states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the perturbative four loop anomalous dimension of the Konishi operator in N=4 SYM theory from the integrable string sigma model by evaluating the finite size effects using Lüscher formulas adapted to multimagnon states at weak coupling. We obtain these multiparticle generalizations of Lüscher formulas by studying certain exactly solvable relativistic integrable quantum field theories. The final result involves

Zoltan Bajnok; Romuald A. Janik

2009-01-01

108

Teleportation of entangled states and dense coding using a multiparticle quantum channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of protocols for teleportation and dense coding tasks with the use of a N particle quantum channel, presented by entangled states of the GHZ class, is introduced, when N>2. Using a found representation for the multiparticle entangled states of the GHZ class, it has shown, that for dense coding schemes enhancement of the classical capacity of the channel

V. N. Gorbachev; A. I. Trubilko; A. I. Zhiliba; E. S. Yakovleva

2000-01-01

109

Improved Scheme for Probabilistic Transformation and Teleportation of MultiParticle Quantum States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most probabilistic teleportation schemes, if the teleportation fails, the unknown quantum state will be completely ruined. In addition, the frequently proposed high-dimensional unitary operations are very difficult to realize experimentally. To maintain the integrity of the unknown quantum state to be teleported, this analysis does not focus attention on the original multi-particle state but seeks to construct a faithful

Min Jiang; Zengke Zhang; Xiangxu Li; Hui Li

2009-01-01

110

Multi-particle Entanglement Generation Using Quantum-Dot Spin and Optical Microcavity System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an efficient multi-particle entanglement generation protocol using a quantum dot and optical microcavity coupled system. Multi-electron spins may become entangled by the interaction between the electrons and the single photons. The entanglement success probability relies on the coupling strength and the cavity leakage, which is also discussed.

Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Wang, Chuan; Cao, Cong; Zhang, Ru

2012-07-01

111

The effect of a computer-based, spectrometer tutorial on chemistry students' learning in a UV\\/vis spectroscopy laboratory experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is common for fairly sophisticated instruments to be used in undergraduate, general chemistry, laboratory courses. Typically, these instruments are treated as incidental to the experiment: students are given extensive operating instructions, but told little or nothing about how they work, because understanding the instruments themselves is not an objective of the course. The implicit assumption is that chemical principles

Nathan Brent Wood

2006-01-01

112

The JPL Field Emission Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Field Emission Spectrometer (FES) was built by Designs and Prototypes based on a set of functional requirements supplied by JPL. The instrument has a spectral resolution of 6 wavenumbers (wn) and can acquire spectra from either the Mid Infrared (3-5 mu m) or the Thermal Infrared (8-12 pm) depending on whether the InSb or HgCdTe

Simon J. Hook; Anne B. Kahle

1995-01-01

113

Commissioning of the HELIOS spectrometer.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the implementation and commissioning of a device based on a new concept for measurements of nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics. The HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer, HELIOS, was commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory by studying the {sup 28}Si(d,p){sup 29}Si reaction in inverse kinematics. This experiment served as a proof of principle for this previously untested concept, and was used to verify the response and performance characteristics of HELIOS.

Lighthall, J. C.; Back, B. B.; Baker, S. I.; Freeman, S. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Kay, B. P.; Marley, S. T.; Rehm, K. E.; Rohrer, J. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shetty, D. V.; Vann, A. W.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Physics; Western Michigan Univ.; Univ. of Manchester

2010-01-01

114

Studies of nuclear rotational bands with the spin spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years increasingly sophisticated gamma-ray spectrometer arrays have been built at a number of laboratories around the world. These instruments, coupled with versatile heavy-ion accelerators, are capable of probing the detailed behaviour of atomic nuclei under extreme conditions of angular momentum and temperature. Characteristics of one such detector array, the Spin Spectrometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory,

L. L. Riedinger; M. P. Carpenter; L. H. Courtney; V. P. Janzen

1987-01-01

115

Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

2012-06-01

116

The high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) has been developed. It is based on 16 HPGe detectors of volume 1200 × 6 mm3 each in the same cryostat. The TGV spectrometer was proposed for the study of ultrarare nuclear processes (e.g. 2???, 0???, 2?EC/EC). Details of the TGV spectrometer construction are described, the principles of background suppression, the results of Monte Carlo simulations and the results of test background measurements (in Dubna and Modane underground laboratory) are provided.

Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Janout, Z.; Koní?ek, J.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Revenko, A. V.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vorobel, V.; Vylov, Ts.

1996-02-01

117

Automated mass spectrometer grows up  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

1984-01-01

118

Faithful teleportation of multi-particle states involving multi spatially remote agents via probabilistic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to faithfully teleport an unknown quantum state of entangled particles in a multi-particle system involving multi spatially remote agents via probabilistic channels. In our scheme, the integrity of an entangled multi-particle state can be maintained even when the construction of a faithful channel fails. Furthermore, in a quantum teleportation network, there are generally multi spatially remote agents which play the role of relay nodes between a sender and a distant receiver. Hence, we propose two schemes for directly and indirectly constructing a faithful channel between the sender and the distant receiver with the assistance of relay agents, respectively. Our results show that the required auxiliary particle resources, local operations and classical communications are considerably reduced for the present purpose.

Jiang, Min; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zeng-ke; Zeng, Jia

2011-02-01

119

Deterministic generation of multiparticle entanglement in a coupled cavity-fiber system.  

PubMed

We develop a one-step scheme for generating multiparticle entangled states between two cold atomic clouds in distant cavities coupled by an optical fiber. We show that, through suitably choosing the intensities and detunings of the fields and precisely tuning the time evolution of the system, multiparticle entanglement between the separated atomic clouds can be engineered deterministically, in which quantum manipulations are insensitive to the states of the cavity and losses of the fiber. The experimental feasibility of this scheme is analyzed based on recent experimental advances in the realization of strong coupling between cold 87Rb clouds and fiber-based cavity. This scheme may open up promising perspectives for implementing quantum communication and networking with coupled cavities connected by optical fibers. PMID:21263662

Li, Peng-Bo; Li, Fu-Li

2011-01-17

120

Sensitivity to the impact parameter of the multiparticle decay at intermediate energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiparticle decay in collisions induced by 44 MeV/nucleon 40Ar and 132Xe projectiles on several targets is studied using MEDEA 4? detection system. The impact parameter dependence of the charged particle multiplicity is determined. The dependence is strong in peripheral and midcentral collisions and becomes weaker in central collisions. The prediction of a molecular dynamics simulation is in agreement with the experiment.

del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Latora, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

1994-12-01

121

Sensitivity to the impact parameter of the multiparticle decay at intermediate energy  

SciTech Connect

The multiparticle decay in collisions induced by 44 MeV/nucleon [sup 40]Ar and [sup 132]Xe projectiles on several targets is studied using MEDEA 4[pi] detection system. The impact parameter dependence of the charged particle multiplicity is determined. The dependence is strong in peripheral and midcentral collisions and becomes weaker in central collisions. The prediction of a molecular dynamics simulation is in agreement with the experiment.

Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Latora, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P. (INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Catania (Italy) Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, Caen (France))

1994-12-01

122

Teleportation of entangled states and dense coding using a multiparticle quantum channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of protocols for teleportation and dense coding tasks with the use of a\\u000aN particle quantum channel, presented by entangled states of the GHZ class, is\\u000aintroduced, when N>2. Using a found representation for the multiparticle\\u000aentangled states of the GHZ class, it has shown, that for dense coding schemes\\u000aenhancement of the classical capacity of the channel

V. N. Gorbachev; A. I. Trubilko; A. I. Zhiliba; E. S. Yakovleva

2000-01-01

123

Faithful teleportation via multi-particle quantum states in a network with many agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient scheme is proposed for faithful teleportation of an arbitrary unknown multi-particle state via multi-particle\\u000a quantum states, in which the teleportation is completely deterministic providing that one can successfully construct a group\\u000a of EPR pairs. Our scheme can effectively avoid possible destruction of the unknown state to be teleported, which however may\\u000a occur in existing probabilistic teleportation schemes. In

Min Jiang; Hui Li; Zeng-ke Zhang; Jia Zeng

124

Applications of the COG multiparticle Monte Carlo transport code to simulated imaging of complex objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

COG is a major multiparticle simulation code in the LLNL Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit. It was designed to solve deep-penetration radiation shielding problems in arbitrarily complex 3D geometries, involving coupled transport of photons, neutrons, and electrons. COG was written to provide as much accuracy as the underlying cross-sections will allow, and has a number of variance-reduction features to speed

Richard M. Buck; James M. Hall

125

Applications of the COG multiparticle Monte Carlo transport code to simulated imaging of complex objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

COG is a major multiparticle simulation code in the LLNL Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit. It was designed to solve deep-penetration radiation shielding problems in arbitrarily complex 3D geometries, involving coupled transport of photons, neutrons, and electrons. COG was written to provide as much accuracy as the underlying cross-sections will allow, and has a number of variance-reduction features to speed

Richard M. Buck; James M. Hall

1999-01-01

126

Multiparticle Biased DLA with surface diffusion: a comprehensive model of electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a complete study of the Multiparticle Biased Diffusion-Limited\\u000aAggregation (MBDLA) model supplemented with surface difussion (SD), focusing on\\u000athe relevance and effects of the latter transport mechanism. By comparing\\u000adifferent algorithms, we show that MBDLA+SD is a very good qualitative model\\u000afor electrodeposition in practically all the range of current intensities {\\\\em\\u000aprovided} one introduces SD in the

Mario Castro; Rodolfo Cuerno; Angel Sanchez; Francisco Dominguez-Adame

2000-01-01

127

Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

Park, Sungkyun [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States)

2010-08-05

128

Investigation of Electromagnetic Properties of Multiparticle Systems in the Optical and Microwave Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to examine the electromagnetic properties of multiple particles ensembles in optical and microwave regions. Electromagnetic scattering problems of multi-particles systems appear in many research areas, including biomedical research problems. When a particle system becomes dense, multiple scattering between the particles need to be included in order to fully describe the response of the system to an EM wave. The generalized multiparticle Mie (GMM) solution is used to rigorously solve the Maxwell's equations for multi-particles systems. The algorithm accounts for multiple scattering effects by transforming the waves scattered by an individual particle to the incident waves of other spheres in the ensemble. In the optical region, light scattering from biological tissues can reveal structural changes in the tissues which can be a mean for disease diagnosis. A new Monte Carlo simulation method is introduced to study the effect of tissue structure on signals from two diagnostic probes, the polarization gating probe and low coherence enhanced back scattering probe (LEBS). In the microwave region, the study of electromagnetic properties with metallic nanoparticles can determine their potential as effective heating agents in microwave hyperthermia therapy. The investigation aims to study the dielectric properties of metallic nanoparticles and quantify the relationship between the characteristics of metallic nanoparticles and the heating effect. The finding should help optimize the design and use of metallic nanoparticles in hyperthermia treatment. In addition, the metallic nanoparticles are studied for their potential to be contrast agents for biological tissue in the microwave region.

Yip, Wendy

129

Proceedings of the Meeting on Multi-Particle Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study meeting was held on September 6 and 7, 1979, at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics for the purposes of discussing multiple production phenomena including the experiments in KEK, FNAL and CERN and those in cosmic ray domain and obta...

F. Ochiai A. Suzuki H. Noda O. Miyamura

1980-01-01

130

Image quality with array spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data on the image quality achieved with the near IR array spectrometer cooled grating spectrometer 4 (CGS4) on the UK IR telescope (UKIRT) on Mauna Kea. A design spot size of 30 micrometers was specified for CGS4, to maintain acceptable image quality with both the 58 by 62 pixel array with which it is currently equipped and the 256 by 256 array which CGS4 was also designed to accommodate. Details are given of the design, construction and alignment method which allow linear tolerances of 50 micrometers and angular tolerances of 25 mrad to be met and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. The instrumental flexure is also discussed. Both laboratory spectra and those taken at the telescope illustrate that design spot sizes of 30 micrometers have been achieved in the near IR. It will be demonstrated that the theoretical resolution of the instrument is attained for resolving powers from approximately 200 to 20,000.

Ramsay Howat, Suzanne K.; Wright, Gillian S.; Mountain, C. Matt; Montgomery, David; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli I.

1994-06-01

131

An active spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new type of correlation spectrometer, dubbed an ``active spectrometer.'' It utilizes an oscillating mirror in a 1\\/4-m-Rowland circle spectrometer configuration to displace the spectrum periodically in the dispersion direction relative to fixed exit slits. The wavelength of the light passing through each slit is modulated sinusoidally at the mechanical oscillation frequency and its intensity is measured

N. H. Brooks; D. F. Finkenthal; T. H. Jensen; N. N. Naumenko; S. N. Tugarinov

1999-01-01

132

An active spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new type of correlation spectrometer, dubbed an “active spectrometer.” It utilizes an oscillating mirror in a 1\\/4-m-Rowland circle spectrometer configuration to displace the spectrum periodically in the dispersion direction relative to fixed exit slits. The wavelength of the light passing through each slit is modulated sinusoidally at the mechanical oscillation frequency and its intensity is measured

N. H. Brooks; D. F. Finkenthal; T. H. Jensen; N. N. Naumenko; S. N. Tugarinov

1999-01-01

133

Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple and the instrument is transportable. We are currently developing a fast neutron spectrometer with 0.1% energy resolution at 1 MeV neutron energy with an efficiency of > 1%. Our fast-neutron spectrometers use boron-based and {sup 6}LiF absorber crystals with Mo/Cu thermistors readout. They have achieved an energy resolution of 5.5 keV FWHM for 2.79 MeV deposited in {sup 10}B by thermal neutron capture (fig. 1), and 46 keV FWHM for fast (MeV) neutrons absorbed in {sup 6}LiF (fig. 2). Since the energy resolution does not depend on the neutron energy, we expect a similar energy resolution for MeV neutron energies. The response function is given simply by the cross section of the capture reaction, offset from zero by the Q-value of the capture reaction. This allows straightforward discrimination against gamma-events, most of which deposit less that Q{sub 6Li} = 4.79 MeV in the {sup 6}LiF absorber, and easy deconvolution of the neutron spectrum, since there is only a single capture reaction in {sup 6}Li and the spectrum is not affected by edge effects or geometric broadening. The current challenge for microcalorimeters is their necessarily small effective pixel area, {approx}1cm{sup 3} for neutron spectrometer pixels, and their slow decay time, {approx}10ms for neutron spectrometers. The pixel size is limited by the requirement for low Cabs for high energy resolution; the decay time is set by the intrinsically weak thermal coupling between materials at low temperatures. Both issues can be addressed by fabricating large detector arrays. This will enable high-precision neutron spectrometry with high statistics, such as simulated for Pu analysis in fig 3.

Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

2006-03-08

134

Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Aerospace Corporation, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have jointly formed the Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR) program to meet two primary objectives: to measure the high-energy proton spectrum by placing the Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) instrument on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) spacecraft to measure the inner Van Allen belt protons with energies from 50 MeV to 2 GeV, and to produce the next generation radiation belt models. Presently, the intensity of trapped protons with energies beyond about 150 MeV is not well known and thought to be underestimated in existing specification models. Such protons are known to pose a number of hazards to astronauts and spacecraft; including total ionizing dose, displacement damage, single event effects, and nuclear activation. The RPS addresses a priority highly ranked by the scientific and technical community and will extend the measurement capability of the RBSP mission to a range beyond that originally planned. The PSBR program will use the RPS data, coupled with other data sets, to upgrade existing radiation belt models, significantly improving the radiation hazards specified by increasing the spectral and spatial coverage, and the time-correlated probability of occurrence statistics, quantifying the model accuracy and uncertainty.

Byers, David

135

Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Aerospace Corporation, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have jointly formed the Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR) program to meet two primary objectives: to measure the high-energy proton spectrum by placing the Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) instrument on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) spacecraft to measure the inner Van Allen belt protons with energies from 50 MeV to 2 GeV, and to produce the next generation radiation belt models. Presently, the intensity of trapped protons with energies beyond about 150 MeV is not well known and thought to be underestimated in existing specification models. Such protons are known to pose a number of hazards to astronauts and spacecraft; including total ionizing dose, displacement damage, single event effects, and nuclear activation. The RPS addresses a priority highly ranked by the scientific and technical community and will extend the measurement capability of the RBSP mission to a range beyond that originally planned. The PSBR program will use the RPS data, coupled with other data sets, to upgrade existing radiation belt models, significantly improving the radiation hazards specified by increasing the spectral and spatial coverage, and the time-correlated probability of occurrence statistics, quantifying the model accuracy and uncertainty.

Dyers, D.; Mazur, J.; O'Brien, P.; Ginet, G.; Reeves, G.

2008-12-01

136

Advanced Mass Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Mass Spectrometer (AMS) is a state-of-the-art ion microprobe with fine primary ion beam focus and a unique mass spectrometer. A variable inhomogeneity magnet system, with 288 detectors, all serviced by computer data handling, provides the hea...

F. Halliday J. D. Stein

1977-01-01

137

Improved multisphere spectrometer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shonka Research Associated undertook a research program to improve the capabilities and ease of use of the Bonner sphere spectrometer system. Two key elements formed the heart of this research: replacement of the lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detector normally used in the spectrometer system with a spherical boron triflouride (BFâ) proportional counter and exploitation of an optimized set of nested polyethylene

J. J. Shonka; S. O. Schwahn; P. E. Rogers; C. J. Misko

1991-01-01

138

Description of Nucleon Induced Fission in Intranuclear Cascade -Multiparticle Preequilibrium - Hauser-Feshbach Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MCFx code system for the description of neutron- and proton-induced fission of heavy nuclei in energy region 20-3000 MeV is presented. The approach integrates the optical model for reaction crosssection calculations, intranuclear cascade for description of fast particle escape, exciton model for multiparticle emission of preequilibrium nucleons and Hauser-Feshbach calculations for statistical description of fission/evaporation competition. New results of systematic calculations of fission cross-sections, multiplicities and double-differential spectra of secondary particles for Pb-Cm targets irradiated by neutrons and protons with energy 20-3000 MeV are discussed.

Yavshits, S.; Grudzevich, O.

2010-03-01

139

Useful multiparticle entanglement and sub-shot-noise sensitivity in experimental phase estimation.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate a general criterion to identify entangled states useful for the estimation of an unknown phase shift with a sensitivity higher than the shot-noise limit. We show how to exploit this entanglement on the examples of a maximum likelihood as well as of a Bayesian phase estimation protocol. Using an entangled four-photon state we achieve a phase sensitivity clearly beyond the shot-noise limit. Our detailed comparison of methods and quantum states for entanglement enhanced metrology reveals the connection between multiparticle entanglement and sub-shot-noise uncertainty, both in a frequentist and in a Bayesian phase estimation setting. PMID:21929154

Krischek, Roland; Schwemmer, Christian; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald; Hyllus, Philipp; Pezzé, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto

2011-08-19

140

Multi-particle weak-strong simulation of RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation.  

SciTech Connect

To compensate the large tune spread generated by the beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton (pp) run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy round Gaussian electron beam or electron lens is proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. Using a weakstrong beam-beam interaction model, we carry out multiparticle simulations to investigate the effects of head-on beam-beam compensation on the proton beam's lifetime and emittance growth. The simplectic 6-D element-by-element tracking code SixTrack is adopted and modified for this study. The code benchmarking and preliminary simulation results are presented.

Luo,Y.; Abreu, N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; FischW; Robert-Demolaize, G.

2008-06-23

141

Deposition behavior of multi-particle impact in cold spraying process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the practical cold-spraying process, a number of particles impact onto a substrate and then form a coating. To study the\\u000a deformation behavior and multi-particle interactions, single-particle, two-particle, and three-particle impacts were simulated\\u000a using the AN-SYS\\/LS-DYNA version 970. A copper coating was prepared and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to\\u000a analyze the microstructures of the powders and the coating.

Xiang-Lin Zhou; Xiang-Kun Wu; Hui-Hua Guo; Jian-Guo Wang; Ji-Shan Zhang

2010-01-01

142

The performance of the YOHKOH Bragg Crystal Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an overview of the Yohkoh Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) along with laboratory results of the detector performance checks and the in-flight instrument performance tests. The BCS parameters are presented, and schematic diagrams of the spectrometer's processing electronics and of the on-board data processing system are included.

Lang, James; Bentley, Robert D.; Brown, Charles M.; Culhane, J. Leonard; Doschek, George A.; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hiei, Eijiro; Deslattes, Richard D.; Fludra, Andrzej; Guttridge, Philip R.; Magraw, John E.; Payne, Jeffrey; Pike, C. David; Trow, Matthew W.

1992-10-01

143

Study of the basic properties of low-p/sub T/ multiparticle systems produced in pp collisions removing leading protons  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study of the basic properties of multiparticle systems produced in pp collisions are presented. The experiment was performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings at root-bar = 62 GeV, using the Split-Field Magnet facility. The key point of the analysis is to remove the leading proton and thus redefine the correct available energy for particle production. Our results show that, taking into account the correct hadronic energy, the multiparticle system produced in pp collisions, at low p/sub T/, have similar properties with respect to the multihadron jets observed in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations.

Basile, M.; Romeo, G.C.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Di Cesare, P.; Esposito, B.; Giusti, P.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Valenti, G.; Zichichi, A.

1981-02-01

144

Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

1995-05-10

145

Performance of the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS) is a new high-resolution, broadband x-ray spectrometer that has recently been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Trap Facility (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The ECS is an entirely new production class spectrometer that replaces the XRS/EBIT spectrometer that has been operating at EBIT since 2000. The ECS utilizes a 32-pixel x-ray calorimeter array from the XRS instrument on the Suzaku x-ray observatory. Eighteen of the pixels are optimized for the 0.1-10 keV band and yield 4.5 eV full width at half maximum energy resolution and 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV. In addition, the ECS includes 14 detector pixels that are optimized for the high-energy band with a bandpass from 0.5 to over 100 keV with 34 eV resolution and 32% quantum efficiency at 60 keV. The ECS detector array is operated at 50 mK using a five stage cryogenic system that is entirely automated. The instrument takes data continuously for over 65 h with a 2.5 h recycle time. The ECS is a nondispersive, broadband, highly efficient spectrometer that is one of the prime instruments at the EBIT facility. The instrument is used for studies of absolute cross sections, charge exchange recombination, and x-ray emission from nonequilibrium plasmas, among other measurements in our laboratory astrophysics program.

Porter, Frederick Scott; Gygax, John; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; King, Jonathan M. [Code 662, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Thorn, Daniel B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kahn, Steven M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2008-10-15

146

Performance of the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer.  

PubMed

The EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS) is a new high-resolution, broadband x-ray spectrometer that has recently been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Trap Facility (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The ECS is an entirely new production class spectrometer that replaces the XRS/EBIT spectrometer that has been operating at EBIT since 2000. The ECS utilizes a 32-pixel x-ray calorimeter array from the XRS instrument on the Suzaku x-ray observatory. Eighteen of the pixels are optimized for the 0.1-10 keV band and yield 4.5 eV full width at half maximum energy resolution and 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV. In addition, the ECS includes 14 detector pixels that are optimized for the high-energy band with a bandpass from 0.5 to over 100 keV with 34 eV resolution and 32% quantum efficiency at 60 keV. The ECS detector array is operated at 50 mK using a five stage cryogenic system that is entirely automated. The instrument takes data continuously for over 65 h with a 2.5 h recycle time. The ECS is a nondispersive, broadband, highly efficient spectrometer that is one of the prime instruments at the EBIT facility. The instrument is used for studies of absolute cross sections, charge exchange recombination, and x-ray emission from nonequilibrium plasmas, among other measurements in our laboratory astrophysics program. PMID:19044469

Porter, Frederick Scott; Gygax, John; Kelley, Richard L; Kilbourne, Caroline A; King, Jonathan M; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V; Thorn, Daniel B; Kahn, Steven M

2008-10-01

147

Upgrade of the PNNL TEPC and Multisphere Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used two types of instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the multisphere spectrometer for characterizing neutron radiation fields in support of neutron dosimetry at the Hanfo...

M. M. Conrady R. I. Scherpelz

2008-01-01

148

A Miniaturized Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer for Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this abstract we present current performance of our miniaturized Laser Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS) to be used for in-situ planetary missions and laboratory elemental and isotopic analyzes.

Riedo, A.; Fernandes, V. A. S. M.; Yakovleva, M.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.

2011-03-01

149

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments...spectrometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

2009-04-01

150

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments...spectrometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

2010-04-01

151

Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.  

PubMed

Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 ?m spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 °C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

2012-03-01

152

Aerosol Mobility Size Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housi...

J. Wang P. Kulkarni

2004-01-01

153

A Simple Raman Spectrometer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

1980-01-01

154

A Simple Raman Spectrometer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)|

Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

1980-01-01

155

Quantitative analysis of multi-particle interactions during particle breakage: A discrete non-linear population balance framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete linear population balance models have been widely used for comminution processes and particle breakage tests that involve a series of breakage events. The fundamental tenet of these models is the independence of particle breakage from the surrounding particle population. On the other hand, ample experimental data have shown that multi-particle interactions among particles of different sizes at the particle

Ecevit Bilgili; Maxx Capece

2011-01-01

156

Measurement of Double Helicity Asymmetry in Multi-Particle Production with Polarized Proton-Proton Collision at PHENIX  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the PHENIX experiment is to obtain the polarized gluon distribution function in the proton. Double helicity asymmetry in multi-particle production at midrapidity reagion with polarized proton-proton collision is measured at midrapidity with RHIC Run 2005 data. This result excludes the maximum positive gluon polarization ('GRSV-max')

Nakano, Kenichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2007-06-13

157

Broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous wave ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer operating in multioctave (0.05–40 GHz) frequency range has been built to investigate the magnetic properties of thin ferromagnetic films in the temperature range of 4–420 K. The spectrometer has two probeheads: one is the X-band microwave reflection cavity used to perform express room temperature measurements and the other is an in-cryostat microstrip line

V. P. Denysenkov; A. M. Grishin

2003-01-01

158

Broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous wave ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer operating in multioctave (0.05-40 GHz) frequency range has been built to investigate the magnetic properties of thin ferromagnetic films in the temperature range of 4-420 K. The spectrometer has two probeheads: one is the X-band microwave reflection cavity used to perform express room temperature measurements and the other is an in-cryostat microstrip line

V. P. Denysenkov; A. M. Grishin

2003-01-01

159

The HERMES Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HERMES experiment is collecting data on inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarised positrons from polarised targets of H, D, and 3He. These data give information on the spin structure of the nucleon. This paper describes the forward angle spectrometer built for this purpose. The spectrometer includes numerous tracking chambers (micro-strip gas chambers, drift and proportional chambers) in

K. Ackerstaff; A. Airapetian; N. Akopov; M. Amarian; V. Andreev; E. C. Aschenauer; R. Avakian; H. Avakian; A. Avetissian; B. Bains; S. Barrow; W. Beckhusen; M. Beckmann; E. Belz; Th. Benisch; S. Bernreuther; N. Bianchi; J. Blouw; H. Böttcher; A. Borissov; J. Brack; B. Braun; B. Bray; S. Brons; W. Brückner; A. Brüll; H. J. Bulten; G. P. Capitani; P. Carter; P. Chumney; E. Cisbani; S. Clark; S. Colilli; H. Coombes; G. R. Court; P. Delheij; E. Devitsin; C. W. de Jager; E. De Sanctis; D. De Schepper; P. Di Nezza; M. Doets; M. Düren; A. Dvoredsky; G. Elbakian; J. Emerson; A. Fantoni; A. Fechtchenko; M. Ferstl; D. Fick; K. Fiedler; B. W. Filippone; H. Fischer; H. T. Fortune; J. Franz; S. Frullani; M.-A. Funk; N. D. Gagunashvili; P. Galumian; H. Gao; Y. Gärber; F. Garibaldi; G. Gavrilov; P. Geiger; V. Gharibyan; V. Giordjian; F. Giuliani; A. Golendoukhin; B. Grabowski; G. Graw; O. Grebeniouk; P. Green; G. Greeniaus; M. Gricia; C. Grosshauser; A. Gute; J. P. Haas; K. Hakelberg; W. Haeberli; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hasch; O. Hausser; R. Henderson; Th. Henkes; R. Hertenberger; Y. Holler; R. J. Holt; H. Ihssen; A. Izotov; M. Iodice; H. E. Jackson; A. Jgoun; C. Jones; R. Kaiser; J. Kelsey; E. Kinney; M. Kirsch; A. Kisselev; P. Kitching; H. Kobayashi; E. Kok; K. Königsmann; M. Kolstein; H. Kolster; W. Korsch; S. Kozlov; V. Kozlov; R. Kowalczyk; L. Kramer; B. Krause; A. Krivchitch; V. G. Krivokhijine; M. Kueckes; P. Kutt; G. Kyle; W. Lachnit; R. Langstaff; W. Lorenzon; M. Lucentini; A. Lung; N. Makins; V. Maleev; S. I. Manaenkov; K. Martens; A. Mateos; K. McIlhany; R. D. McKeown; F. Meißner; F. Menden; D. Mercer; A. Metz; N. Meyners; O. Mikloukho; C. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; R. Milner; V. Mitsyn; G. Modrak; J. Morton; A. Most; R. Mozzetti; V. Muccifora; A. Nagaitsev; Y. Naryshkin; A. M. Nathan; F. Neunreither; M. Niczyporuk; W.-D. Nowak; M. Nupieri; P. Oelwein; H. Ogami; T. G. O’Neill; R. Openshaw; V. Papavassiliou; S. F. Pate; S. Patrichev; M. Pitt; H. J. Plett; H. R. Poolman; S. Potashov; D. Potterveld; B. Povh; V. Prahl; G. Rakness; V. Razmyslovich; R. Redwine; A. R. Reolon; R. Ristinen; K. Rith; H. O. Roloff; G. Röper; P. Rossi; S. Rudnitsky; H. Russo; D. Ryckbosch; Y. Sakemi; F. Santavenere; I. Savin; F. Schmidt; H. Schmitt; G. Schnell; K. P. Schüler; A. Schwind; T.-A. Shibata; T. Shin; B. Siebels; A. Simon; K. Sinram; W. R. Smythe; J. Sowinski; M. Spengos; K. Sperber; E. Steffens; J. Stenger; J. Stewart; F. Stock; U. Stößlein; M. Sutter; H. Tallini; S. Taroian; A. Terkulov; D. Thiessen; B. Tipton; V. Trofimov; A. Trudel; M. Tytgat; G. M. Urciuoli; R. Van de Vyver; G. van der Steenhoven; J. J. van Hunen; D. van Westrum; A. Vassiliev; M. C. Vetterli; M. G. Vincter; E. Volk; W. Wander; T. P. Welch; S. E. Williamson; T. Wise; G. Wöbke; K. Woller; S. Yoneyama; K. Zapfe-Düren; T. Zeuli; H. Zohrabian

1998-01-01

160

Commissioning of the HELIOS Spectrometer at ATLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HELIcal Orbit Spectrometer (HELIOS) at the ATLAS facility of Argonne National Laboratory is designed to study inverse-kinematic nucleon transfer reactions using exotic beams. These reactions are of particular interest for nuclear structure away from stability and for nuclear astrophysics. The spectrometer features a 3 Tesla, 90 cm bore superconducting solenoid. Inside the HELIOS solenoid is a hollow detector array aligned with the magnetic field axis, in line with the target. This unique detector geometry has significant advantages over conventional detectors. To demonstrate its principle of operation, HELIOS will be commissioned by studying the well-known ^2H(^28Si,p)^29Si reaction in inverse kinematics at a bombarding energy of 8 MeV/u. The level density of the residual ^29Si nucleus makes this reaction well suited for demonstrating the resolution and acceptance properties of the spectrometer. Experimental results will be presented.

Lighthall, J. C.

2008-10-01

161

Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 2nd Quarter 2010 Milestone Report Develop the Theory Connecting Pyrometer and Streak Camera Spectrometer Data to the Material Properties of Beam Heated Targets and Compare to the Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects pyrometer and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that...

E. Henestroza F. M. Bieniosek J. J. Barnard P. A. Ni R. M. More S. Lidia

2010-01-01

162

Multiparticle Tunnelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article reviews the properties of single-particle excitations in a superconductor with a view to providing a qualitative description of the one- and two-particle tunnelling processes. One-particle processes, including the Josephson effect, are of firs...

J. W. Wilkins

1968-01-01

163

Applications of the COG multiparticle Monte Carlo transport code to simulated imaging of complex objects  

SciTech Connect

COG is a major multiparticle simulation code in the LLNL Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit. It was designed to solve deep-penetration radiation shielding problems in arbitrarily complex 3D geometries, involving coupled transport of photons, neutrons, and electrons. COG was written to provide as much accuracy as the underlying cross-sections will allow, and has a number of variance-reduction features to speed computations. Recently COG has been applied to the simulation of high- resolution radiographs of complex objects and the evaluation of contraband detection schemes. In this paper we will give a brief description of the capabilities of the COG transport code and show several examples of neutron and gamma-ray imaging simulations. Keywords: Monte Carlo, radiation transport, simulated radiography, nonintrusive inspection, neutron imaging.

Buck, R M; Hall, J M

1999-06-01

164

Transport coefficients of multi-particle collision algorithms with velocity-dependent collision rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed calculations of the transport coefficients of a recently introduced particle-based model for fluid dynamics with a non-ideal equation of state are presented. Excluded volume interactions are modeled by means of biased stochastic multi-particle collisions which depend on the local velocities and densities. Momentum and energy are exactly conserved locally. A general scheme to derive transport coefficients for such biased, velocity-dependent collision rules is developed. Analytic expressions for the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are obtained, and very good agreement is found with numerical results at small and large mean free paths. The viscosity turns out to be proportional to the square root of temperature, as in a real gas. In addition, the theoretical framework is applied to a two-component version of the model, and expressions for the viscosity and the difference in diffusion of the two species are given.

Ihle, Thomas

2008-06-01

165

Transport coefficients of multi-particle collision algorithms with velocity-dependent collision rules.  

PubMed

Detailed calculations of the transport coefficients of a recently introduced particle-based model for fluid dynamics with a non-ideal equation of state are presented. Excluded volume interactions are modeled by means of biased stochastic multi-particle collisions which depend on the local velocities and densities. Momentum and energy are exactly conserved locally. A general scheme to derive transport coefficients for such biased, velocity-dependent collision rules is developed. Analytic expressions for the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are obtained, and very good agreement is found with numerical results at small and large mean free paths. The viscosity turns out to be proportional to the square root of temperature, as in a real gas. In addition, the theoretical framework is applied to a two-component version of the model, and expressions for the viscosity and the difference in diffusion of the two species are given. PMID:21694315

Ihle, Thomas

2008-05-06

166

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of {pi}{sup -} mesons have been studied in dC, HeC, CC, CNe, MgMg, (d, He)Ta, CCu, CTa, and OPb collisions at momentum of 4.2, 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon within the standard transverse momentum analysis method of P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec. The data were obtained by SKM-200-GIBS and Propane Bubble Chamber Collaborations of JINR. The axis has been selected in the phase space and with respect to this axis {pi}{sup -} meson correlations were observed. The values of the coefficient of the correlations linearly depend on the mass numbers of projectile (A{sub P}) and target (A{sub T}) nuclei. The Quark-Gluon String Model satisfactorily describes the experimental results.

Chkhaidze, L. V., E-mail: ichkhaidze@yahoo.com; Djobava, T. D.; Kharkhelauri, L. L. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute (Georgia); Kladnitskaya, E. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-07-15

167

Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms.  

PubMed

Entanglement lies at the heart of quantum mechanics, and in recent years has been identified as an essential resource for quantum information processing and computation. The experimentally challenging production of highly entangled multi-particle states is therefore important for investigating both fundamental physics and practical applications. Here we report the creation of highly entangled states of neutral atoms trapped in the periodic potential of an optical lattice. Controlled collisions between individual neighbouring atoms are used to realize an array of quantum gates, with massively parallel operation. We observe a coherent entangling-disentangling evolution in the many-body system, depending on the phase shift acquired during the collision between neighbouring atoms. Such dynamics are indicative of highly entangled many-body states; moreover, these are formed in a single operational step, independent of the size of the system. PMID:14586463

Mandel, Olaf; Greiner, Markus; Widera, Artur; Rom, Tim; Hänsch, Theodor W; Bloch, Immanuel

2003-10-30

168

Applications of the COG multiparticle Monte Carlo transport code to simulated imaging of complex objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COG is a major multiparticle simulation code in the LLNL Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit. It was designed to solve deep-penetration radiation shielding problems in arbitrarily complex 3D geometries, involving coupled transport of photons, neutrons, and electrons. COG was written to provide as much accuracy as the underlying cross-sections will allow, and has a number of variance-reduction features to speed computations. Recently COG has been applied to the simulation of high- resolution radiographs of complex objects and the evaluation of contraband detection schemes. In this paper we will give a brief description of the capabilities of the COG transport code and show several examples of neutron and gamma-ray imaging simulations.

Buck, Richard M.; Hall, James M.

1999-09-01

169

Function space requirements for the single-electron functions within the multiparticle Schrödinger equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previously described method to approximate the many-electron wavefunction in the multiparticle Schrödinger equation reduces this problem to operations on many single-electron functions. In this work, we analyze these operations to determine which function spaces are appropriate for various intermediate functions in order to bound the output. This knowledge then allows us to choose the function spaces in which to control the error of a numerical method for single-electron functions. We find that an efficient choice is to maintain the single-electron functions in L2 ? L4, the product of these functions in L1 ? L2, the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L4, a function times the Poisson kernel applied to the product in L2, and the nuclear potential times a function in L4/3. Due to the integral operator formulation, we do not require differentiability.

Mohlenkamp, Martin J.

2013-06-01

170

The GRIFFIN spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is an advanced new high-efficiency ?-ray spectrometer being developed for use in decay spectroscopy experiments with low-energy radioactive ion beams provided by TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC-I) radioactive ion beam facility. GRIFFIN will be comprised of sixteen large-volume clover-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) ?-ray detectors coupled to custom digital signal processing electronics and used in conjunction with a suite of auxiliary detection systems. This article provides an overview of the GRIFFIN spectrometer and its expected performance characteristics.

Svensson, C. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.

2013-10-01

171

Broad band waveguide spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

Goldman, Don S. (Folsom, CA)

1995-01-01

172

Hand Held Imaging Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical\\/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications, as

Michele Hinnrichs

2002-01-01

173

Linear wavelength spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, a spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to spread the spectral components of a light incident on the diffraction grating on a one-dimensional detector. The detector is composed of pixels linearly distributed along a line. However, the diffracted light is not spread linearly on the detector which means that the wavelength on pixel 1 is not linearly correlated with the

Simon Thibault

2001-01-01

174

Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators st...

E. F. Erickson M. R. Haas S. W. J. Colgan J. P. Simpson R. H. Rubin

1995-01-01

175

Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

Clark, D.J.

1984-04-01

176

The heavy-ion magnetic spectrometer PRISMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PRISMA is a magnetic spectrometer installed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) and designed for A=100 200, E=5 10 MeV-per-nucleon beams, and for possible use with the proposed radioactive beam facility SPES. The foremost features of the instrument are presented, along with the outline of two data analyses exemplifying the effectiveness of PRISMA-CLARA in studies of reaction dynamics.

Mason, P.; Marginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Beghini, S.; Scarlassara, F.; Farnea, E.; Ur, C. A.; Meroni, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Pokrovskiy, I. V.; Guiot, B.; Gadea, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Della Vedova, F.; Orlandi, R.; Sahin, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Berti, L.; Toniolo, N.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Romoli, M.; La Commara, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Sandoli, M.; Pollarolo, G.; Benzoni, G.

2007-11-01

177

Implementation of Japanese Male and Female Tomographic Phantoms to Multiparticle Monte Carlo Code for Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese male and female tomographic phantoms, which have been developed for radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry, were implemented into multi-particle Monte Carlo transport code to evaluate realistic dose distribution in human body exposed to radiation field. Japanese tomographic phantoms, which were developed from the whole body magnetic resonance images of Japanese average adult male and female, were processed as follows to be

Choonsik LEE; Tomoaki NAGAOKA; Jai-Ki LEE

2006-01-01

178

Infrared Fourier spectrometer for airborne and ground-based astronomy.  

PubMed

A unique high resolving power near-infrared, astronomical Fourier spectrometer has been constructed foruse at both ground-based and airborne telescopes. Its capabilities include a limiting resolution of 0.01 cm(-1) and spectral coverage over the InSb detector sensitivity region (0.8-5.6 microm). The instrument is optimized for operation in environments inaccessible to other high-resolution Fourier spectrometers, namely, the Cassegrain focuses of conventional telescopes and the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory's 91-cm telescope. Details of the spectrometer are discussed, and various astronomical and laboratory spectra are presented. PMID:20309029

Davis, D S; Larson, H P; Williams, M; Michel, G; Connes, P

1980-12-15

179

THE CNESTEN EDXRF SPECTROMETERS - SENSITIVITY, CALIBRATION AND APPLICATION TO GEOCHEMISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratories of the National Center of Energy, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN) in Morocco, has put at the disposal of the Moroccan scientific community very efficient energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometers. In this work, we present results on the calibration of two ED-XRF spectrometers, using different excition systems: 1) Fe- 55, Cd-109 and Am-241 radioactive sources, and 2)

A. Rahmani; M. Bounakhla; F. Benyaïch; A. Saadane

180

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

Ting, Samuel

2012-07-01

181

Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

2008-03-01

182

FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER  

DOEpatents

An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

1959-08-18

183

Electron volt neutron spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ?E?100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements

A. Pietropaolo; R. Senesi

2011-01-01

184

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

Hord, C. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

1992-05-01

185

Cryogenic infrared grating spectrometer.  

PubMed

A liquid-helium-cooled Ebert-Fastie grating spectrometer for use in a sounding rocket is described. Twelve detectors and associated filters separate the 5-70-microm spectral range into twelve intervals, each of which is scanned as the grating is rotated. The instrument was launched into an aurora from Fort Churchill, Canada, but a cryogenic failure occurred early in the flight, and only a small amount of data was obtained. PMID:20154781

McNutt, D P; Shivanandan, K; Daehler, M; Feldman, P D

1975-05-01

186

Cryogenic infrared grating spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid-helium-cooled Ebert-Fastie grating spectrometer for use in a sounding rocket is described. Twelve detectors and associated filters separate the 5-70-micrometer spectral range into twelve intervals, each of which is scanned as the grating is rotated. The instrument was launched into an aurora from Fort Churchill, Canada, but a cryogenic failure occurred early in the flight, and only a small

D. P. McNutt; K. Shivanandan; M. Daehler; P. D. Feldman

1975-01-01

187

An imaging neutron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed, fabricated and tested a prototype imaging neutron spectrometer designed for real-time neutron source location and identification. Real-time detection and identification is important for locating materials. These materials, specifically uranium and transuranics, emit neutrons via spontaneous or induced fission. Unlike other forms of radiation (e.g. gamma rays), penetrating neutron emission is very uncommon. The instrument detects these neutrons,

J. M. Ryan; C. Bancroft; P. Bloser; U. Bravar; C. Frost; M. L. McConnell; J. Legere; J. Wood; R. Woolf; D. Fourguette; L. Larocque; J. Pavlich; G. Ritter; G. Wassick

2010-01-01

188

An active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a new type of correlation spectrometer, dubbed an {open_quotes}active spectrometer.{close_quotes} It utilizes an oscillating mirror in a 1/4-m-Rowland circle spectrometer configuration to displace the spectrum periodically in the dispersion direction relative to fixed exit slits. The wavelength of the light passing through each slit is modulated sinusoidally at the mechanical oscillation frequency and its intensity is measured with a spot detector such as a photomultiplier or photodiode. With a PC-based control/data acquisition system, the signal from each detector is sampled digitally at a frequency constrained to be an integral multiple of the mirror drive frequency. From the resultant phase locking between the signal sampling and the mirror oscillation, it follows that the correlation function between the signal and mirror phase angle is obtained simply by averaging the data from successive mirror scans. Such a scan-averaged spectrum with low noise may then be compared with digitally stored reference spectra obtained through the same instrument. ac coupling of detector and amplifier results in rejection of continuum light and, when photodiodes are used as detectors, the maximization of preamplifier gain. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar College, San Marcos, California 92069 (United States); Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States); Naumenko, N.N. [Institute of Molecular and Atomic Physics, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Tugarinov, S.N. [TRINITI Lab, 142092 Troitsk (Russia)

1999-02-01

189

An active spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a new type of correlation spectrometer, dubbed an ``active spectrometer.'' It utilizes an oscillating mirror in a 1/4-m-Rowland circle spectrometer configuration to displace the spectrum periodically in the dispersion direction relative to fixed exit slits. The wavelength of the light passing through each slit is modulated sinusoidally at the mechanical oscillation frequency and its intensity is measured with a spot detector such as a photomultiplier or photodiode. With a PC-based control/data acquisition system, the signal from each detector is sampled digitally at a frequency constrained to be an integral multiple of the mirror drive frequency. From the resultant phase locking between the signal sampling and the mirror oscillation, it follows that the correlation function between the signal and mirror phase angle is obtained simply by averaging the data from successive mirror scans. Such a scan-averaged spectrum with low noise may then be compared with digitally stored reference spectra obtained through the same instrument. ac coupling of detector and amplifier results in rejection of continuum light and, when photodiodes are used as detectors, the maximization of preamplifier gain.

Brooks, N. H.; Finkenthal, D. F.; Jensen, T. H.; Naumenko, N. N.; Tugarinov, S. N.

1999-02-01

190

No-slip boundary conditions and forced flow in multiparticle collision dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a particle-based fluid simulation technique that is becoming increasingly popular for mesoscale fluid modeling. However, some confusion and conflicting results persist in literature regarding several important methodological details, in particular the enforcement of the no-slip condition and thermostatting in forced flow. These issues persist in simple flows past stationary boundaries, which we exclusively focus on here. We discuss the parametrization of MPCD fluids and its consequences for fluid-solid boundaries in great detail, and show that the method of virtual particles proposed by Lamura and adopted by many others is required only for parameter choices that lead to viscosities dominated by collisional contributions. We test several implementations of the virtual particle method and discuss how to completely eliminate slip at stationary boundaries. We also show that stochastic boundary reflection rules are inherently problematic for forced flow and suggest a possible remedy. Finally, we discuss the most robust way to achieve forced flow and evaluate several thermostatting methods in the process. All discussion is limited to solid objects that do not move as a result of collisions with MPCD particles (i.e., walls). However, the results can be extended to solutes that experience forces and torques due to interactions with MPCD particles (e.g., colloids). The detailed analysis presented for this simple case provides the level of rigor and accuracy to the MPCD method required for the study of more complex systems.

Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Plimpton, Steven J.; Grest, Gary S.

2012-12-01

191

Multiparticle electronic sheet for the setting up of an independently phased resonator linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superconducting linac, named ALPI, composed by 48 independent QWR cavities (74 in final stage), is operating at LNL; the linac is able to accelerate heavy ions with a wide range of mass and charge numbers. A large number of parameters (e.g. phases, voltages, focusing strengths) has to be chosen for each beam, and determines in practice a different linac for every new operating condition. A new tool has been developed to help the setting up of the linac, based on a standard EXCEL electronic sheet. The main beam parameters (e.g. energy, transit time factor, magnetic rigidity) are calculated cavity by cavity based on the actual linac status. A multiparticle simulation in the longitudinal degree of freedom is performed at the same time, with graphic outputs that can be immediately compared with the available linac diagnostics. The same workbook generates the input files for TRACE3D and PARMILA if more detailed simulations are necessary. A comparison with operational experience is shown in this paper.

Pisent, Andrea; Comunian, Michele

1997-05-01

192

Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

1996-06-11

193

Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.  

SciTech Connect

With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

2007-03-01

194

The GRANIT spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

Baessler, Stefan [ORNL; Beau, M [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Kreuz, Michael [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Nesvizhevsky, V. [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Kurlov, V [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Ac. Sci., Chernogolovka, Moscow, Russi; Pignol, G [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Protasov, K. [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Vezzu, Francis [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Voronin, Vladimir [Institute of Metal Physics, Russia

2011-01-01

195

Neutron range spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

Manglos, S.H.

1988-03-10

196

Interface for Mossbauer spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

An interface is described that allows the Elektronika-60M microcomputer to acquire Mossbauer-spectrometer data. The interface uses asynchronous programmable exchange and has four registers with programmable access. Data are accumulated in 1024, 512, 256 and 128 channels. Spectra can be displayed on a video monitor with a variable ordinate-axis scale. An exchange cycle takes 35 microsec. Practical use of the interface has shown that it is reliable, simple to adjust, and convenient to use. Such devices can be useful in data-acquisition systems with low exchange speeds and those that require visual monitoring of data.

Eudokimov, V.A.; Fedorov, A.A.; Kononov, Y.G.; Lobko, A.S.

1985-07-01

197

A far infrared spectrometer.  

PubMed

A moderate resolution vacuum far in spectrometer has been built with a data acquisition system designed for computer processing of the data. The spectral range of the instrument is 20-1600 micro. Sensitive low temperature bolometer detectors have been made of doubly doped silicon. The radiation filtering scheme is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is made of the effect of detector noise and impurity radiation on the accuracy of the results. Sample spectra illustrating the performance of the instrument are presented. PMID:20076250

Silvera, I F; Birnbaum, G

1970-03-01

198

Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

2012-09-01

199

Photoacoustic spectrometer for ozone detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed. The spectrometer was used to analyze the absorption transitions of the ozone in coincidence with the CO2 laser emission and to evaluate its limit of sensitivity. A CO2 laser and a photoacoustic resonant cell, totally built in project, formed the spectrometer. The CO2 laser operates in 80 CW transitions distributed in

Edjar M. Telles; Edson Bezerra; Artemio Scalabrin

2001-01-01

200

An antimatter spectrometer in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a simple magnetic spectrometer to be installed on a satellite or space station. The purpose of this spectrometer is to search for primordial antimatter to the level of antimatter\\/matter ~10-9, improving the existing limits obtained with balloon flights by a factor of 104 to 105. The design of the spectrometer is based on an iron-free, Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet,

S. Ahlen; V. M. Balebanov; R. Battiston; U. Becker; J. Burger; M. Capell; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; N. Chernoplekov; R. Clare; T. S. Dai; A. de Rujula; P. Fisher; Yu. Galaktionov; A. Gougas; Gu Wen-Qi; M. He; V. Koutsenko; A. Lebedev; T. P. Li; Y. S. Lu; D. Luckey; Y. Ma; R. McNeil; R. Orava; A. Prevsner; V. Plyaskine; H. Rubinstein; R. Sagdeev; M. Salamon; H. W. Tang; S. C. C. Ting; I. Vetlitsky; Y. F. Wang; Xia Ping-Chou; Z. Z. Xu; J. P. Wefel; Z. P. Zhang; B. Zhou; A. Zichichi

1994-01-01

201

Resonant ultrasound spectrometer  

DOEpatents

An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Visscher, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Zachary (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01

202

Calibration of a High Resolution Soft X-ray Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing grating for the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The spectrometer has a large radius of curvature, R=44.3 m, is operated at a 2{sup o} grazing angle and can record high signal-to-noise spectra when used with a low-noise, cooled, charge-coupled device detector. The instrument can be operated with a 10-25 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power on laser plasma sources, approaching 2000, or in slitless mode with a small symmetrical emission source. Results will be presented for the spectral response of the spectrometer cross-calibrated at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap facility using the broadband x-ray energy EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS).

Dunn, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Magee, E W

2010-01-26

203

Spatial heterodyne spectrometer for FLEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has significant advantages for high spectral resolution imaging over narrow pre-selected bands compared to traditional solutions. Given comparable optical étendue at R~6500, a field-widened SHS will have a throughput-resolution product ~170 x larger than an air-spaced etalon spectrometer, and ~1000 x larger than a standard grating spectrometer. The monolithic glass Michelson design and lack of moving parts allows maximum stability of spectral calibration over the mission life. For these reasons, SHS offers considerable advantages for the core spectrometer instrument in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission.

Scott, Alan; Zheng, Sheng-Hai; Brown, Stephen; Bell, Andrew

2007-10-01

204

Comparison of a transmission grating spectrometer to a reflective grating spectrometer for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate a new transmission grating spectrometer for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. LIBS spectra collected from standoff distances are often weak, with smaller peaks blending into the background and noise. Scattered light inside the spectrometer can also contribute to poor signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios for smaller emission peaks. Further, collecting standoff spectra can be difficult because most spectrometers are designed for laboratory environments and not for measurements in the field. To address these issues, a custom-designed small, lightweight transmission grating spectrometer with no moving parts was built that is well suited for standoff LIBS field measurements. The performance of the spectrometer was quantified through 10 m standoff LIBS measurements collected from aluminum alloy samples and measurements from spectra of a Hg-Ar lamp. The measurements were compared to those collected using a Czerny-Turner reflective grating spectrometer that covered a similar spectral range and used the same ICCD camera. Measurements using the transmission grating spectrometer had a 363% improved signal-to-noise ratio when measured using the 669 nm aluminum emission peak.

Weisberg, Arel; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2010-05-01

205

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (i) peak-shift experiments and (ii) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239Pu, 187Re, and 238U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multi-detector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions.

Bayne, C.; Donohue, D.; Fiedler, R.

1994-06-01

206

Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses

M. S. Bakeman; J. van Tilborg; T. Sokollik; D. Baum; N. Ybarrolaza; R. Duarte; C. Toth; W. P. Leemans

2010-01-01

207

Hydrodynamic mechanisms of spinodal decomposition in confined colloid-polymer mixtures: a multiparticle collision dynamics study.  

PubMed

A multiscale model for a colloid-polymer mixture is developed. The colloids are described as point particles interacting with each other and with the polymers with strongly repulsive potentials, while polymers interact with each other with a softer potential. The fluid in the suspension is taken into account by the multiparticle collision dynamics method (MPC). Considering a slit geometry where the suspension is confined between parallel repulsive walls, different possibilities for the hydrodynamic boundary conditions (b.c.) at the walls (slip versus stick) are treated. Quenching experiments are considered, where the system volume is suddenly reduced (keeping the density of the solvent fluid constant, while the colloid and polymer particle numbers are kept constant) and thus an initially homogeneous system is quenched deeply into the miscibility gap, where it is unstable. For various relative concentrations of colloids and polymers, the time evolution of the growing colloid-rich and polymer-rich domains are studied by molecular dynamics simulation, taking hydrodynamic effects mediated by the solvent into account via MPC. It is found that the domain size [script-l](d)(t) grows with time t as [script-l](d)(t) [proportionality] t(1/3) for stick and (at late stages) as [script-l](d)(t) [proportionality] t(2/3) for slip b.c., while break-up of percolating structures can cause a transient "arrest" of growth. While these findings apply for films that are 5-10 colloid diameters wide, for ultrathin films (1.5 colloid diameters wide) a regime with [script-l](d)(t) [proportionality] t(1/2) is also identified for rather shallow quenches. PMID:23406143

Winkler, Alexander; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard

2013-02-01

208

Hydrodynamic mechanisms of spinodal decomposition in confined colloid-polymer mixtures: A multiparticle collision dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiscale model for a colloid-polymer mixture is developed. The colloids are described as point particles interacting with each other and with the polymers with strongly repulsive potentials, while polymers interact with each other with a softer potential. The fluid in the suspension is taken into account by the multiparticle collision dynamics method (MPC). Considering a slit geometry where the suspension is confined between parallel repulsive walls, different possibilities for the hydrodynamic boundary conditions (b.c.) at the walls (slip versus stick) are treated. Quenching experiments are considered, where the system volume is suddenly reduced (keeping the density of the solvent fluid constant, while the colloid and polymer particle numbers are kept constant) and thus an initially homogeneous system is quenched deeply into the miscibility gap, where it is unstable. For various relative concentrations of colloids and polymers, the time evolution of the growing colloid-rich and polymer-rich domains are studied by molecular dynamics simulation, taking hydrodynamic effects mediated by the solvent into account via MPC. It is found that the domain size ld(t) grows with time t as ld(t) ~ t1/3 for stick and (at late stages) as ld(t) ~ t2/3 for slip b.c., while break-up of percolating structures can cause a transient ``arrest'' of growth. While these findings apply for films that are 5-10 colloid diameters wide, for ultrathin films (1.5 colloid diameters wide) a regime with ld(t) ~ t1/2 is also identified for rather shallow quenches.

Winkler, Alexander; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt; Winkler, Roland G.; Gompper, Gerhard

2013-02-01

209

Multi-particle and tetrad statistics in numerical simulations of turbulent relative dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution in size and shape of three and four-particle clusters (triangles and tetrads, respectively) in isotropic turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulations at grid resolution up to 40963 and Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers from 140 to 1000. A key issue is the attainment of inertial range behavior at high Reynolds number, while the small- and large-time limits of ballistic and diffusive regimes, respectively, are also considered in some detail. Tetrad size expressed by the volume (V) and (more appropriately) the gyration radius (R) is shown to display inertial range scaling consistent with a Richardson constant close to 0.56 for two-particle relative dispersion. For tetrads of initial size in a suitable range moments of shape parameters, including the ratio V2/3/R2 and normalized eigenvalues of a moment-of-inertia-like dispersion tensor, show a regime of near-constancy which is identified with inertial-range scaling. Sheet-like structures are dominant in this period, while pancakes and needles are more prevalent at later times. For triangles taken from different faces of each tetrad effects of the initial shape (isosceles right-angled or equilateral) are retained only for about one Batchelor time scale. In the inertial range there is a prevalence of nearly isosceles triangles of two long sides and one short side, representing one particle moving away from the other two which are still close together. In general, measures of shape display asymptotic scaling ranges more readily than measures of size. With some caveats, the simulation results are also compared with the limited literature available for multiparticle cluster dispersion in turbulent flow.

Hackl, J. F.; Yeung, P. K.; Sawford, B. L.

2011-06-01

210

Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed analysis. Their insights may guide empirical work. Particularly the recently introduced multiparticle collision dynamics method may be suitable for the study of moving organisms because it is computationally fast, simple to implement, and has a continuous representation of space. As regards the study of hydrodynamics of moving organisms, the method has only been applied at low Reynolds numbers (below 120) for soft, permeable bodies, and static fishlike shapes. In the present paper we use it to study the hydrodynamics of an undulating fish at Reynolds numbers 1100-1500, after confirming its performance for a moving insect wing at Reynolds number 75. We measure (1) drag, thrust, and lift forces, (2) swimming efficiency and spatial structure of the wake, and (3) distribution of forces along the fish body. We confirm the resemblance between the simulated undulating fish and empirical data. In contrast to theoretical predictions, our model shows that for steadily undulating fish, thrust is produced by the rear 2/3 of the body and that the slip ratio U/V (with U the forward swimming speed and V the rearward speed of the body wave) correlates negatively (instead of positively) with the actual Froude efficiency of swimming. Besides, we show that the common practice of modeling individuals while constraining their sideways acceleration causes them to resemble unconstrained fish with a higher tailbeat frequency.

Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Padding, J. T.; Hemelrijk, C. K.

2012-02-01

211

Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model.  

PubMed

The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed analysis. Their insights may guide empirical work. Particularly the recently introduced multiparticle collision dynamics method may be suitable for the study of moving organisms because it is computationally fast, simple to implement, and has a continuous representation of space. As regards the study of hydrodynamics of moving organisms, the method has only been applied at low Reynolds numbers (below 120) for soft, permeable bodies, and static fishlike shapes. In the present paper we use it to study the hydrodynamics of an undulating fish at Reynolds numbers 1100-1500, after confirming its performance for a moving insect wing at Reynolds number 75. We measure (1) drag, thrust, and lift forces, (2) swimming efficiency and spatial structure of the wake, and (3) distribution of forces along the fish body. We confirm the resemblance between the simulated undulating fish and empirical data. In contrast to theoretical predictions, our model shows that for steadily undulating fish, thrust is produced by the rear 2/3 of the body and that the slip ratio U/V (with U the forward swimming speed and V the rearward speed of the body wave) correlates negatively (instead of positively) with the actual Froude efficiency of swimming. Besides, we show that the common practice of modeling individuals while constraining their sideways acceleration causes them to resemble unconstrained fish with a higher tailbeat frequency. PMID:22463238

Reid, Daniel A P; Hildenbrandt, H; Padding, J T; Hemelrijk, C K

2012-02-02

212

Multiparticle-multihole states around {sup 16}O and correlation-energy effect on the shell gap  

SciTech Connect

Multiparticle-multihole states around {sup 16}O such as the famous 0{sub 2}{sup +} state in {sup 16}O are investigated with a shell-model calculation in the full p-sd model space. It is found that the modification of the N=Z=8 shell gap due to correlation energy is unexpectedly large, which plays an essential role in accounting for those states. We point out that correlation energy affects the shell gap in the opposite way between {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Ni, giving its mechanism in terms of the difference of the L-S and j-j closures.

Utsuno, Yutaka; Chiba, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2011-02-15

213

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-12-26

214

Planar waveguide spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

An integrated optic consisting of buried diffraction gratings and a planar waveguide was developed as an internal reflectance element for broad-band spectroscopic analysis of liquids. Polystyrene or tantalum pentoxide waveguides were deposited over a pair of diffraction gratings etched into the surface of a glass slide. Multiwavelength light was focused through the substrate onto the first grating. Component wavelengths were coupled into the waveguide and spatially dispersed by the second grating after propagating through the waveguide. A silicon photodiode array detector was used to collect the spectra data. Our goal is to produce a compact, rapid spectrometer having no moving parts that can take advantage of fiber optics and fast array detectors in the visible and near-infrared regions for industrial process control. The thin planar waveguide provides enhanced sensitivity to analyze weaker absorptions in the near-infrared. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Goldman, D.S.; White, P.L.; Anheier, N.C.

1990-07-01

215

Simple Microwave Resonance Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus for the observation of electron paramagnetic resonance at microwave frequencies is described. The apparatus is designed for the undergraduate laboratory but, with some modification, may be used as a research tool.

E. S. Gravlin; J. A. Cowen

1959-01-01

216

Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the alpha-particle spectrometer concept, and outlines challenges involved in the magnetic field design. Tagged photon interrogation: • We investigated a method for discriminating fissile from benign cargo-material response to an energy-tagged photon beam. The method relies upon coincident detection of the tagged photon and a photoneutron or photofission neutron produced in the target material. The method exploits differences in the shape of the neutron production cross section as a function of incident photon energy in order to discriminate photofission yield from photoneutrons emitted by non-fissile materials. Computational tests of the interrogation method as applied to material composition assay of a simple, multi-layer target suggest that the tagged-photon information facilitates precise (order 1% thickness uncertainty) reconstruction of the constituent thicknesses of fissile (uranium) and high-Z (Pb) constituents of the test targets in a few minutes of photon-beam exposure. We assumed an 18-MeV endpoint tagged photon beam for these simulations. • The report addresses several candidate design and data analysis issues for beamline infrastructure required to produce a tagged photon beam in a notional AI-dedicated facility, including the accelerator and tagging spectrometer.

Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

2012-10-16

217

WFIS: a wide field-of-view imaging spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and initial test results of the laboratory Wide Field-of-View Imaging Spectrometer (WFIS). The WFIS is a patented optical design intended for use in remote sensing of the Earth and the Earth's atmosphere in the hyperspectral imaging mode. It is meant to operate as a pushbroom imager to provide coverage of the Earth from low Earth

Robert E. Haring; Frederick L. Williams; Gary C. Vanstone; Gloria G. Putnam

1999-01-01

218

Apparatus Drawings Project. Report Number 7. Versatile Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely versatile mass spectrometer, suitable for an undergraduate laboratory and simple enough to be constructed by an average departmental shop, is described. The data obtained when using the potassium isotopes K41 and K39 indicate an instrument resolving power of 75. The auxiliary equipment required is conventional and inexpensive. The apparatus structure and construction techniques are described in detail.

Robert G. Marcley

1960-01-01

219

A novel electrospray-based ion mobility spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design for a low-cost ion mobility spectrometer that can be built using the equipment on hand in many electronics-oriented undergraduate laboratories. The construction of this system is based upon the use of printed circuit boards and does not require the specialized drift and sheath gases, vacuum pumps, heater assemblies, high voltage pulsers, or precision pumps that are

Ben Bathgate; Eric C. S. Cheong; Christopher J. Backhouse

2004-01-01

220

PRISMA - a magnetic spectrometer for heavy ions at LNL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heavy-ion magnetic spectrometer PRISMA was recently installed at Laboratori Naz. di Legnaro, in order to exploit the heavy-ion beams of the XTU Tandem-ALPI-PIAVE accelerator complex, with masses up to A~=200 at energies ~=5-10 MeV MeV A.

Latina, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Beghini, S.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.; de Angelis, G.; de Rosa, A.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Gulmini, M.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Maron, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Marginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Scarlassara, F.; Szilner, S.; Toniolo, N.; Trotta, M.; Wu, Y. W.

2004-04-01

221

Time-Resolved Doubly Bent Crystal X-Ray Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectro...

M. P. Hockaday M. D. Wilke R. L. Blake J. Vaninetti N. T. Gray

1988-01-01

222

Night vision imaging spectrometer (NVIS) calibration and configuration: recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS) system has participated in a large variety of hyperspectral data collections for the Department of Defense. A large number of improvements to this system have been undertaken. They include the implementation of a calibration process that utilizes in-flight calibration units (IFCU). Other improvements include the completion and implementation of an updated laboratory wavelength assignments

Christopher G. Simi; Anthony B. Hill; Henry Kling; Christopher LaSota; Jerome A. Zadnik; John Parish; Joe Deaver

2001-01-01

223

Properties of Haldane excitations and multiparticle states in the antiferromagnetic spin-1 chain compound CsNiCl3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report inelastic time-of-flight and triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of the excitation spectrum of the coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain system CsNiCl3. Measurements over a wide range of wave-vector transfers along the chain confirm that above TN CsNiCl3 is in a quantum-disordered phase with an energy gap in the excitation spectrum. The spin correlations fall off exponentially with increasing distance with a correlation length ?=4.0(2) sites at T=6.2K. This is shorter than the correlation length for an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain at this temperature, suggesting that the correlations perpendicular to the chain direction and associated with the interchain coupling lower the single-chain correlation length. A multiparticle continuum is observed in the quantum-disordered phase in the region in reciprocal space where antiferromagnetic fluctuations are strongest, extending in energy up to twice the maximum of the dispersion of the well-defined triplet excitations. We show that the continuum satisfies the Hohenberg-Brinkman sum rule. The dependence of the multiparticle continuum on the chain wave vector resembles that of the two-spinon continuum in antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains. This suggests the presence of spin-1/2 degrees of freedom in CsNiCl3 for T<=12 K, possibly caused by multiply frustrated interchain interactions.

Kenzelmann, M.; Cowley, R. A.; Buyers, W. J.; Tun, Z.; Coldea, R.; Enderle, M.

2002-06-01

224

CRLS-229 solar X-ray spectrometer/spectroheliograph experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRLS-229 Solar X-ray Spectrometer/Spectroheliograph was launched in the solar pointed section of the United States Air Force Space Test Program P78-1 satellite on 24 February 1979. The SOLEX collimated Bragg crystal spectrometer experiment and the MONEX solar X-ray monitor experiment were built by The Aerospace Corporation, and the Naval Research Laboratory supplied the SOLFLEX uncollimated solar flare crystal spectrometer and the MAGMAP magnesium mapping experiment. The SOLEX A spectrometer has a 20 arc sec multigrid collimator, an ADP or RAP crystal, and proportional counter detector with a 25 micrometers thick beryllium window. The SOLEX B spectrometer has a 60 arc sec collimator, an ADP or RAP crystal, and a channel electron multiplier array detector. The SOLEX crystals and detectors can be driven so that either spectrometer exposes RAP to the collimated solar X-rays while the other exposes ADP. The spacecraft pointing system can raster the SOLEX collimator over the whole sum or a 5 x 5 arc minute region to build up a monochromatic image, or it can point the instrument anywhere on the sun so that spectra in the 3-25 angstroms range are obtained.

Landecker, P. B.; Chater, W. T.; Howey, C. K.; McKenzie, D. L.; Rugge, H. R.

1979-10-01

225

VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

2012-01-01

226

Rapid Assessment of High Value Samples: A Miniature AOTF-LDTOF Spectrometer Suite for Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the development of a miniature nearinfrared point spectrometer, operating in the 1.7-4 ?m region, based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. This instrument may be used to screen and corroborate analyses of samples containing organic biomarkers or mineralogical signatures suggestive of extant or extinct organic material collected in situ from planetary surfaces. The AOTF point spectrometer will be paired with a laser desorption time-offlight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer and will prescreen samples for evidence of volatile or refractory organics before the laser desorption and subsequent mass spectrometer measurement. We present laboratory analysis of geological samples of known astrobiological importance, with and without organic biomarkers.

Chanover, N.; Glenar, D. A.; Voelz, D. G.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Boston, P. J.; Getty, S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ten Kate, I.; McAdam, A.

2011-10-01

227

Efficient characterization of imaging spectrometers: application in the LWIR and MWIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) has added a powerful capability to its existing imaging spectrometer alignment and test facilities: Scanning Fabry-Perot source filters. These interferometers provide a means for efficient instrument testing with full characterization from the ultra-violet (UV) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Spectral Response Functions (SRF) and geometric distortions are accurately determined with a common approach. The techniques were demonstrated with a two band cryogenic LWIR spectrometer and with the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) Spaceborne InfraRed Atmospheric Sounder for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (SIRAS-G) laboratory demonstration imaging spectrometer. The spectrometer testing and performance is presented.

Valle, Timothy J.; Kampe, Thomas U.; Wamsley, Paula R.; Chase, Holden; Taudien, Glenn E.; Spuhler, Peter T.; Johnson, Peter B.; Mills, Gary L.

2009-08-01

228

UV-Laser Desorption Ion Source Applied to a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We were focusing on using a new UV laser ion desorption source combined with a SIMS laboratory time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the latter being very similar to the COSIMA flight instrument onboard Rosetta.

Hilchenbach, M.; Lang, T.; Hornung, K.; Thirkell, L.; Briois, C.

2009-03-01

229

Portable fast-neutron spectrometer project. Progress in fiscal year 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Special Projects Division of the Hazards Control Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a continuing project to develop neutron spectrometers for radiation-protection measurements. For the last three years we have received limited su...

J. H. Thorngate

1989-01-01

230

Design and Construction of a Medium Resolving, Power Scanning, Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A scanning Ebert-Fastie spectrometer was designed and built for the Optical Physics and Sensors Laboratory of the Naval Postgraduate School. Optical design was done with two commercially available optical design software packages, OSLO LT by Sinclair Opti...

J. E. Hassett

1999-01-01

231

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

232

Photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1989-08-08

233

The OPERA muon spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA experiment will study ? to ? oscillations through ? appearance on the 732 km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 48 planes of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode. Each plane covers about 70m. A general introduction to the system installation and commissioning will be given. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality test performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20Hz/m. Single and multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with the expectations. Finally, a description of the readout electronics and of the slow control system is given.

Garfagnini, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Cazes, A.; Cecchetti, A.; di Troia, C.; Dulach, B.; Felici, G.; Mengucci, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.

2007-03-01

234

Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick

235

The GRANIT spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.RésuméL'existence d'états quantiques de la matière dans un champ gravitationnel a été démontrée récemment à l'Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, dans une série d'expériences avec des neutrons ultra froids (UCN). Les UCN dans les états quantiques de basse énergie représente une excellente sonde pour la physique fondamentale, en particulier pour contraindre les forces supplémentaires à courte portée, ainsi qu'un outil en optique quantique et en physique des surfaces. Le GRANIT est un projet basé sur d'un spectromètre de deuxième génération avec une ultra-haute résolution en énergie installé en permanence à ILL. Il a été construit dans le cadre d'une subvention de l'ANR, et sera opérationnel en 2011.

Baessler, Stefan; Beau, Mathieu; Kreuz, Michael; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.; Pignol, Guillaume; Protasov, Konstantin V.; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Aleksey Yu.

2011-10-01

236

Cascaded interferometric imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present what we believe to be a novel method for order sorting a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in tandem. We demonstrate how the order sorting is achieved using a model instrument response as an example of an instrument working in the 5-25 ?m band, although the method is generally applicable at all wavelengths. We show that an instrument of this type can be realized with a large bandwidth, a large field of view, and good transmission efficiency. These attributes make this instrument concept a useful technique in applications where true imaging spectroscopy is required, such as mapping large astronomical sources. We compare the performance of the new instrument to grating and standard FTS instruments in circumstances where the measurement is background and detector noise limited. We use a figure of merit based on the field of view and speed of detection and find that the new system has a speed advantage over a FTS with the same field of view in all circumstances. The instrument will be faster than a grating instrument with the same spectral resolution once the field of view is >13 times larger under high background conditions and >50 times larger with detector performances that match the photon noise from Zodiacal light.

Swinyard, Bruce; Ferlet, Marc

2007-09-01

237

Cascaded interferometric imaging spectrometer.  

PubMed

We present what we believe to be a novel method for order sorting a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in tandem. We demonstrate how the order sorting is achieved using a model instrument response as an example of an instrument working in the 5-25 microm band, although the method is generally applicable at all wavelengths. We show that an instrument of this type can be realized with a large bandwidth, a large field of view, and good transmission efficiency. These attributes make this instrument concept a useful technique in applications where true imaging spectroscopy is required, such as mapping large astronomical sources. We compare the performance of the new instrument to grating and standard FTS instruments in circumstances where the measurement is background and detector noise limited. We use a figure of merit based on the field of view and speed of detection and find that the new system has a speed advantage over a FTS with the same field of view in all circumstances. The instrument will be faster than a grating instrument with the same spectral resolution once the field of view is >13 times larger under high background conditions and >50 times larger with detector performances that match the photon noise from Zodiacal light. PMID:17805378

Swinyard, Bruce; Ferlet, Marc

2007-09-01

238

Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument has been developed to detect charged, sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. Two of these instruments were launched in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway as part of the Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) campaign and both detected charged aerosols. These in-situ measurements coincided with measurements by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite and the German/Norwegian Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric dust grains in the middle Atmosphere (ECOMA) rocket campaign. This instrument has a 25 square centimeter entrance slit that admits a continuous flow of air. Venting ports are placed lower on the detector in order to reduce pressure buildup. The air sample flows between three pairs of graphite electrodes biased symmetrically with increasing bias potentials. Electrons, light ions, cluster ions and heavy charged aerosol particles of both polarities are collected mass-selectively on the electrodes that are connected to sensitive electrometers. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes have been used to optimize the supersonic airflow within and around the instrument. The calibration of the MASS instrument as well as preliminary results will be shown. Acknowledgement: This project is supported by NASA.

Knappmiller, S.; Robertson, S.; Horanyi, M.; Kohnert, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.

2007-12-01

239

Using Sohn's law of additive reaction times for modeling a multiparticle reactor. The case of the moving bed furnace converting uranium trioxide into tetrafluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major issues with multiparticle reactors is to handle their multiscale aspect. For modeling, it usually comes to coupling a reactor model (describing the phenomena at the macroscopic scale) with a so-called grain model (simulating the behavior of a single grain or a particle). An interesting approach proposed by H.Y. Sohn (1978) is to use the law of

F. Patisson; B. Dussoubs; D. Ablitzer

2008-01-01

240

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 187}Re, and {sup 238}U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis.

Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R. [IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria). Safeguards Analytical Lab.

1994-06-01

241

Versatile Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pound-Knight-Watkins marginal oscillator has been modified by the addition of a vibrating capacitor in parallel with the tuning capacitor to produce a simple circuit which may be used to observe paramagnetic resonance at low fields, nuclear magnetic resonance, and nuclear quadrupole resonance. Suggestions are made as to the type of information which may be obtained in an undergraduate laboratory

J. A. Cowen; W. H. Tanttila

1958-01-01

242

Degradation-Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for Summer 2010. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS is designed to provide solar irradiance at Lyman-alpha and He II to overlap EUV observations from SOHO/SEM and SDO/EVE. Electronic and mechanical designs for the flight prototype instruments and results of tests performed with the instruments in the laboratory are reported. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA’s Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

Wieman, S. R.; Judge, D. L.; Didkovsky, L. V.

2009-12-01

243

A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements  

SciTech Connect

Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Brown, G.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-08-01

244

Versatile cluster based photoelectron spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A recently constructed cluster based photoelectron spectrometer is described. This instrumentation is unique in that it enables the kinetic energy analysis of electrons ejected from both anions and neutral clusters. This capability permits the investigation of discrete electronic levels in all charge states (anionic, neutral, and cationic). A laser vaporization plasma reactor cluster source affixed with a sublimation cell is employed to produce a variety of metal clusters, and the resulting cluster distributions are analyzed with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The corresponding electronic structure is analyzed with a 'magnetic bottle' photoelectron spectrometer. Examples of instrument performance operating in both anion photodetachment and neutral multiphoton ionization (MPI) modes are provided. In the case of neutral MPI, the corresponding product distribution is collected with a Wiley-McLaren [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26, 1150 (1955)] mass spectrometer mounted perpendicular to the magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer.

Knappenberger, K. L. Jr.; Jones, C. E. Jr.; Sobhy, M. A.; Castleman, A. W. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 and Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2006-12-15

245

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short foc...

R. E. Bell

2004-01-01

246

Photoacoustic spectrometer for ozone detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed. The spectrometer was used to analyze the absorption transitions of the ozone in coincidence with the CO2 laser emission and to evaluate its limit of sensitivity. A CO2 laser and a photoacoustic resonant cell, totally built in project, formed the spectrometer. The CO2 laser operates in 80 CW transitions distributed in the regular bands with power of up to 15W, tuned by a diffraction grating. The cell has frequency resonance of longitudinal mode close to 1600 Hz. The cell is equipped with two small electret microphones and ZnSe windows in Brewster angle. The quality factor of the cell was measured about 30 through the ozone absorption in resonance with the 9P14 line of CO2 laser. The spectrometer sensitivity limit was preliminary evaluated for ozone detection around 100 ppb.

Telles, Edjar M.; Bezerra, Edson; Scalabrin, Artemio

2001-08-01

247

APX Spectrometer for Martian Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Obtaining the chemical composition of any planetary body should be a prime science objective of each planetary mission. The APX spectrometer has been designed to provide a detailed and complete chemical composition of all major (except H) and minor elemen...

T. Economou

1993-01-01

248

Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a multiplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument.

H. Tietze-Jaensch; W. Schmidt; R. Geick

1997-01-01

249

The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: a new, permanent user facility at the LLNL EBIT  

SciTech Connect

The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is currently being completed and will be installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 2007. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory program. The new ECS spectrometer was built to be a low maintenance, high performance implanted silicon microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 {micro}s event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 60 hours at 50 mK. The XRS/EBIT program has been very successful, producing many results on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES instrument.

Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Doriese, W; Gygax, J; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; King, J; Irwin, K; Reintsema, C; Ullom, J

2007-09-07

250

LUVIMS lunar UV and IR mapping spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new imaging spectrometer particularly designed for the lunar mission MORO (Moon ORbiting Observatory) is presented. This spectrometer, named LUVIMS (Lunar UV and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), is characterized by high performances—high spectral, high spatial resolution—being at the same time small, light weight and has a low power consumption. An imaging spectrometer, operating in the visible an infrared, is able to

A. Coradini; M. C. De Sanctis; F. Reininger; R. Bonsignori; G. Racca; A. Chicarro

1996-01-01

251

The time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy ions PISOLO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-of-flight spectrometer with magnetic focusing has been installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The spectrometer's length is 3.6m and allows for high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. Magnetic focusing is accomplished by two quadrupole doublets. The spectrometer is connected to a sliding seal scattering chamber rotating over a large angular range. Micro channel-plate detectors for start/stop signals and an ionization chamber for /?E-/E measurements at the focal plane, are used. The setup provides a maximum effective solid angle ??=2.8msr, and is dedicated to the study of quasi-elastic reactions between heavy ions; in particular, it has already been used to investigate near-barrier multi-nucleon transfer processes.

Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Beghini, S.; Bello, A. D.; Segato, G. F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; He, J. H.; Lin, C. J.

2000-11-01

252

Time-resolved doubly bent crystal x-ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectrometer consisted of a doubly curved Si(111) crystal diffraction element, a WL-1201 (ZnO:Ga) phosphor, a coherent fiber optic array, and two visible streak cameras. The spectrometer design described here has a minimum time resolution of 1.3 ns with 2.8 eV spectral resolution over a 200 eV wide bandpass in the 6-7 keV region of the spectrum. Complete system spectral throughput calibrations were done at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron (CHESS). Details of the design and calibration results are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Hockaday, M.P.; Wilke, M.D.; Blake, R.L.; Vaninetti, J.; Gray, N.T.; Nedrow, P.T.

1988-01-01

253

Time-resolved doubly bent crystal x-ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high-temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high-energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectrometer consisted of a doubly curved Si(111) crystal diffraction element, a WL-1201 (ZnO:Ga) phosphor, a coherent fiber-optic array, and two visible streak cameras. The spectrometer design described here has a minimum time resolution of 1.3 ns with 2.8-eV spectral resolution over a 200-eV-wide bandpass in the 6--7-keV region of the spectrum. Complete system spectral throughput calibrations were done at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron (CHESS). Details of the design and calibration results are presented.

Hockaday, M.P.; Wilke, M.D.; Blake, R.L.; Vaninetti, J.; Gray, N.T.; Nedrow, P.T.

1988-08-01

254

Glow discharge electron impact ionization source for miniature mass spectrometers.  

PubMed

A glow discharge electron impact ionization (GDEI) source was developed for operation using air as the support gas. An alternative to the use of thermoemission from a resistively heated filament electron source for miniature mass spectrometers, the GDEI source is shown to have advantages of long lifetime under high-pressure operation and low power consumption. The GDEI source was characterized using our laboratory's handheld mass spectrometer, the Mini 10. The effects of the discharge voltage and pressure were investigated. Design considerations are illustrated with calculations. Performance is demonstrated in a set of experimental tests. The results show that the low power requirements, mechanical ruggedness, and quality of the data produced using the small glow discharge ion source make it well-suited for use with a portable handheld mass spectrometer. PMID:17441220

Gao, Liang; Song, Qingyu; Noll, Robert J; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

2007-05-01

255

OPENCORE NMR: open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer.  

PubMed

A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments. PMID:18374613

Takeda, Kazuyuki

2008-02-29

256

A high-throughput neutron spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

2010-03-01

257

Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies

B. R. Kendall

1979-01-01

258

The GRAVITY spectrometers: mechanical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operating on 6 interferometric baselines, i.e. using all 4 UTs, the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10?as accuracy at the infrared K-band. Within the international GRAVITY consortium, the Cologne institute is responsible for the development and construction of the two spectrometers: one for the science object, and one for the fringe tracking object. Optically two individual components, both spectrometers are two separate units with their own housing and interfaces inside the vacuum vessel of GRAVITY. The general design of the spectrometers, however, is similar. The optical layout is separated into beam collimator (with integrated optics and metrology laser injection) and camera system (with detector, dispersive element, & Wollaston filter wheel). Mechanically, this transfers to two regions which are separated by a solid baffle wall incorporating the blocking filter for the metrology Laser wavelength. The optical subunits are mounted in individual rigid tubes which pay respect to the individual shape, size and thermal expansion of the lenses. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the GRAVITY vacuum dewar. The integrated optics beam combiner and the metrology laser injection, which are operated at 200/240K, are mounted thermally isolated to the cold housing of the spectrometers. The optical design has shown that the alignment of the detector is crucial to the performance of the spectrometers. Therefore, in addition to four wheel mechanisms, six cryogenic positioning mechanisms are included in the mechanical design of the detector mount.

Fischer, Sebastian; Wiest, Michael; Straubmeier, Christian; Yazici, Senol; Araujo-Hauck, Constanza; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Perraut, Karine; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

2010-07-01

259

Automatic mass spectrometer inlet system  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a mass spectrometer having a gas inlet system for introducing a sample into the ion source of the spectrometer which inlet system includes a cold trap for condensing a sample. The inlet system is provided with means for detecting the pressure therein and means for automatically controlling the operation of the cold trap in dependence on the detected pressure whereby the sample is automatically condensed in the cold trap when it is present in a small quantity. Around the cold trap is conveniently a coolant passage through which coolant from a coolant reservoir is drawn.

Barrie, A.; Freedman, P.A.

1985-01-22

260

Planar waveguide spatial heterodyne spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and simulations of a Fourier-transform planar waveguide spectrometer are presented in the context of space-born observations of water in the near infrared spectral region. Spatial heterodyning of an optical signal is realized by using arrayed waveguide structures which produce spectrally dependent interference fringes. The light spectrum is calculated using discrete spatial Fourier transformation of the fringes. The arrayed waveguides form a multi-aperture input which markedly increases the optical throughput (étendue) of the device compared to single-aperture spectrometers.

Florja?czyk, Miros?aw; Cheben, Pavel; Janz, Siegfried; Scott, Alan; Solheim, Brian; Xu, Dan-Xia

2007-10-01

261

Parabolic telescope and spectrometer combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of a nonfocusing collimating parabolic telescope are studied in detail by a ray-tracing method. The best optical quality with respect to coma and astigmatism is calculated for rays close to the optical axis of the telescope. For rectangular fields of view the borders are not sharp because of the aberration. A combination of a parabolic telescope and an echelle-type spectrometer gives very high spectral resolution. Wadsworth, Ebert-Fastie, and other types of spectrometers are equally well suited to be combined with this telescope. For some cases spot diagrams demonstrate the optical performance. In addition, diffraction by the aperture and its implications are discussed.

Schmidtke, G.; Henneberg, P.; Hager, K.-H.; Busch, F.; Reinhardt, D.

1980-06-01

262

Parabolic telescope and spectrometer combination.  

PubMed

The properties of a nonfocusing collimating parabolic telescope are studied in detail by a ray-tracing method. The best optical quality with respect to coma and astigmatism is calculated for rays close to the optical axis of the telescope. For rectangular fields of view the borders are not sharp because of the aberration. A combination of a parabolic telescope and an echelle-type spectrometer gives very high spectral resolution. Wadsworth, Ebert-Fastie, and other types of spectrometers are equally well suited to be combined with this telescope. For some cases spot diagrams demonstrate the optical performance. In addition, diffraction by the aperture and its implications are discussed. PMID:20221130

Schmidtke, G; Henneberg, P; Hager, K H; Busch, F; Reinhardt, D

1980-06-01

263

Ion mobility spectrometer \\/ mass spectrometer (IMS-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection

Hunka Deborah Elaine; Daniel E. Austin

2005-01-01

264

Wideband spectrometer for HIFI-FIRST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wideband acousto-optical spectrometer (WBS) for HIFI- FIRST is comprised of two array-AOS with 4 times 1 GHz bands each. There are some advantages to this design, the most important one is that relative frequency and amplitude variations between the 4 bands are rather unlikely. This is demonstrated by laboratory tests, which verify also that fairly slow beam-switching at 0.5 Hz may be a sufficient chop speed for HIFI. The performance of array-AOS has also been demonstrated during measurements at ground-based observatories. WBS consists of three independent units, one IF-, one optics-, and one electronics-unit. Some of the details of the WBS design are described, and the present performance estimates are given.

Schieder, Rudolf T.; Siebertz, Oliver; Schloeder, F.; Gal, Csaba; Stutzki, Juergen; Hartogh, Paul; Natale, Vincenzo

2000-07-01

265

Fieldable Fourier transform spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared sensors group at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. To support these vital missions, PNNL is developing frequency-modulation techniques for remote probing over long optical paths by means of differential-absorption light detecting and ranging (LIDAR). This technique can easily monitor large areas, or volumes, that could only be accomplished with a large network of point sensors. Recently, PNNL began development of a rugged frequency-modulation differential-abosrption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system to conduct field experiments. To provide environmentla protection for the system and facilitate field deployments and operations, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and acquired. The trailer was outfitted with a shock-mounted optical bench, an electronics rack, a liquid nitrogen Dewar, and a power generator. A computer-controlled gimbal-mounted mirror was added to allow the telescope beam to be accurately pointed in both the vertical and horizontal plane. This turned out to be the most complicated addition, and is described in detail. This paper provides an overview of the FM-DIAL system and illustrates innovative solutions developed to overcome several alignment and stability issues encountered in the field.

Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

2004-10-01

266

Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An FTIR spectrometer equipped with a long-path gas cell can be used to measure breath alcohol concentrations in an instrumental analysis laboratory course. Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash. They also calculate their blood alcohol levels immediately after chewing bread. The main goal of the experiment is to provide the students with an interesting laboratory exercise that teaches them about infrared spectrometers. While the results are meant to be only semiquantitative, they have compared well with results from other published studies. A reference is included that describes how to fabricate a long-path gas cell.

Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K.

2003-12-01

267

Method of standardizing a spectrometer  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for standardizing a spectrometer generating an optical spectrum from a sample, comprising generating at least one optical spectrum from at least one standardization sample each having a chemical composition resulting in the optical spectrum showing a characteristic pattern in a predetermined frequency range, comparing information relating to the pattern(s) to corresponding information relating to at least one reference pattern previously defined as the desired standard response from the at least one standardization sample, determining, based on the comparison, standardizing parameters describing the transition of the pattern(s) of the generated spectrum or spectra to the reference pattern(s) and storing said standardizing parameters in the spectrometer or a computer connected thereto, so that the spectrometer, when presented to an unknown sample, will, using the standardization parameters, generate an optical spectrum substantially identical to that which would be generated in a corresponding spectrometer standardized with a sample of the same chemical composition using the same previously defined reference pattern(s). The present method relates to standardization of the instrument to a well-defined state into which any number of instruments may be brought. In this state, calibrations may be transferred freely from instrument to instrument.

1999-08-03

268

A simple digital TDPAC spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simplified digital time differential perturbed ? - ? angular correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer that demonstrates that such instruments can be built using primarily commercial components and with relatively modest coding effort. The system handles data rates of 70 kcps/detector with a timing resolution of better than 500 ps, and has been used with both 111In and 181Hf.

Webb, T. A.; Nikkinen, Leo; Gallego, Juan; Ryan, D. H.

2013-05-01

269

Complex of plasma spectrometers BIFRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the solar wind particles play one of the most important roles on the Intershock project. In order to study the shock front dynamics it is necessary to carry out measurements with a high time resolution and in large energy and angular ranges. The design of the BIFRAM plasma spectrometer is aimed at solving the above mentioned tasks. The

A. Bedrikov; A. B. Belikova; A. O. Fedorov; V. I. Fuks; V. Hanzal; V. Kuzmin; A. Leibov; S. G. Namestnik; Z. Nemecek; V. Notkin; M. Richter; J. Safránková; A. Vaisberg; O. Vajsberg; Yu. Yermolayev; Yu. I. Ermolaev; G. N. Zastenker

1985-01-01

270

Alpha Proton X ray Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N,...

R. Rieder H. Waeke T. Economou

1994-01-01

271

IPNS-I chopper spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

1982-01-01

272

ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Gerald T Wright

2012-02-24

273

Alpha proton x ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

274

Inventory Control: Multiport Student Spectrometer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element or compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen. Included is a list of materials, directions for assembly, and procedures for use. (CW)

Bishop, Carl B.

1989-01-01

275

Inventory Control: Multiport Student Spectrometer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element or compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen. Included is a list of materials, directions for assembly, and procedures for use. (CW)|

Bishop, Carl B.

1989-01-01

276

MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress  

SciTech Connect

The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

2007-08-27

277

The role of multiparticle correlations and Cooper pairing in the formation of molecules in an ultracold gas of Fermi atoms with a negative scattering length  

SciTech Connect

The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.

Babichenko, V. S., E-mail: vsbabichenko@hotmail.com; Kagan, Yu. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

278

Noise Considerations in Millimeter-Wave Spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved version of a microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 70 GHz is described. The spectrometer, which incorporates a Fabry-Perot resonator and superheterodyne detection for high sensitivity is designed for the detection of gaseous poll...

W. D. Zoellner W. F. Kolbe B. Leskovar

1978-01-01

279

Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers  

DOEpatents

An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

2008-03-04

280

Lessons learned with the SAGE spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAGE spectrometer combines a high-efficiency ?-ray detection system with an electron spectrometer. Some of the design features have been known to be problematic and surprises have come up during the early implementation of the spectrometer. Tests related to bismuth germanate Compton-suppression shields, electron detection efficiency and an improved cooling system are discussed in the paper.

Sorri, J.; Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R. D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Uusitalo, J.

2012-05-01

281

The SAGE spectrometer: A tool for combined in-beam ?-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAGE spectrometer allows simultaneous in-beam ?-ray and internal conversion electron measurements, by combining a germanium detector array with a highly segmented silicon detector and an electron transport system. SAGE is coupled with the ritu gas-filled recoil separator and the great focal-plane spectrometer for recoil-decay tagging studies. Digital electronics are used both for the ? ray and the electron parts of the spectrometer. SAGE was commissioned in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä in the beginning of 2010.

Papadakis, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Pakarinen, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Sorri, J.; Butler, P. A.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cox, D.; Cresswell, J. R.; Hauschild, K.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Lazarus, I. H.; Letts, S. C.; Parr, E.; Peura, P.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rahkila, P.; Sampson, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Seddon, D. A.; Simpson, J.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.

2011-09-01

282

Quantitative structure refinement from the ARCS chopper spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been successfully used in white-beam mode, with no Fermi chopper, to obtain neutron powder diffraction based atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Obtained PDF patterns of Si, Ni, and Al2O3 were refined using the PDFfit method and the results compared to data collected at the NPDF diffractometer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. High quality resulting fits are presented, demonstrating that reliable powder diffraction data can be obtained from ARCS when operated in this configuration.

Božin, E. S.; Juhás, P.; Zhou, W.; Stone, M. B.; Abernathy, D. L.; Huq, A.; Billinge, S. J. L.

2010-11-01

283

Use of Eutectic Fixed Points to Characterize a Spectrometer for Earth Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small palm-sized, reference spectrometer, mounted on a remote-controlled model helicopter is being developed and tested\\u000a by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in conjunction with City University, London. The developed system will be used as\\u000a a key element for field vicarious calibration of optical earth observation systems in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region.\\u000a The spectrometer is hand held, low weight,

Saber G. R. Salim; Nigel P. Fox; Emma R. Woolliams; Rainer Winkler; Heather M. Pegrum; Tong Sun; Ken T. V. Grattan

2007-01-01

284

Use of Eutectic Fixed Points to Characterize a Spectrometer for Earth Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small palm-sized, reference spectrometer, mounted on a remote-controlled model helicopter is being developed and tested by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in conjunction with City University, London. The developed system will be used as a key element for field vicarious calibration of optical earth observation systems in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region. The spectrometer is hand held, low weight,

Saber G. R. Salim; Nigel P. Fox; Emma R. Woolliams; Rainer Winkler; Heather M. Pegrum; Tong Sun; Ken T. V. Grattan

2007-01-01

285

Comparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO 2 measurements using scattered sunlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), the principal tool for remote measurements of volcanic SO2, is rapidly being replaced by low-cost, miniature, ultraviolet (UV) spectrometers. We compared two of these new systems with\\u000a a COSPEC by measuring SO2 column amounts at K?lauea Volcano, Hawaii. The two systems, one calibrated using in-situ SO2 cells, and the other using a calibrated laboratory reference spectrum,

Tamar Elias; A. Jeff Sutton; Clive Oppenheimer; Keith A. Horton; Harold Garbeil; Vitchko Tsanev; Andrew J. S. McGonigle; Glyn Williams-Jones

2006-01-01

286

The low background spectrometer TGV II for double beta decay measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-background multi-HPGe spectrometer TGV II installed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (France) is described in detail and the results of the background measurements are reported. The spectrometer is focused on the double beta decay measurements with two isotopes—106Cd (2?EC/EC mode) and 48Ca (?? mode). A basic summary of the physics of ?? decay (especially EC/EC mode) is also given.

Beneš, P.; ?ermák, P.; Gusev, K. N.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.

2006-12-01

287

Hadron Spectroscopy at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Recent results on hadron spectroscopy from Jefferson Laboratory's CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) are presented. In particular we present results from the baryon resonance program for both electro- and photo- production. Also, we present very preliminary results on meson spectroscopy in p interactions, and new results on the observation of the exotic baryon, the Theta +.

Dennis P. Weygand

2004-08-01

288

Development of an Automated High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern NMR-spectrometers generally work in the Fourier mode. Digital mini-computers are an integral part of such spectrometers. The automation of the spectrometer functions is described. A frequency coherent spectrometer system with automatic field-freque...

B. L. Hawkins H. Schneiders

1977-01-01

289

Multi-particle Bose-Einstein correlations at 158 GeV A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NA49 is a large acceptance spectrometer which was designed to measure the charged hadrons produced in 158 GeV A Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN-SPS. The ultimate goal of such studies is to determine if the conventional hadronic degrees of freedom which govern nuclear matter are melted away at high matter and energy densities forming a weakly interacting partonic medium-a Quark- Gluon Plasma (QGP). In order to determine whether a phase transition to such a state occurs, it is important to characterize the properties of the source that is formed in nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions. This thesis examines the geometrical and dynamic properties produced in Pb-Pb collisions through the technique of Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) intensity interferometry. In particular, the first measurement of radii parameters in the backward rapidity region will be presented. The technical aspect of how these parameters change with the use of identified particles will also be addressed. The first results from a method utilizing second order

Lasiuk, Brian Walter

1997-11-01

290

Deployment of the MX spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'MX' remotely controlled, multiple-object fiber-optic spectrometer head employs automated fiber positioning in the telescope focal plane. A 'fishermen-around-the-pond' arrangement of 32 stepper-motor-driven probes positions 64 fibers in the 45-arcmin field of the Steward Observatory's 2.3-m telescope; all fibers can be moved from one target pattern to another in less than 90 sec, using software that maps the footprint of each probe in the focal plane to prevent probe collisions. Attention is given both to the construction and operation of the MX spectrometer. The ability to record the spectra of 32 objects, together with additional sky spectra, greatly enhances capabilities for the study of clustered systems of stars or galaxies.

Hill, J. M.; Lesser, M. P.

1986-01-01

291

Temporal Dispersion of a Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The temporal dispersion of an optical spectrometer has been characterized for a variety of conditions related to optical diagnostics to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (e.g., Full-Aperture Backscatter Station, Thomson Scattering). Significant time smear is introduced into these systems by the path length difference through the spectrometer. The temporal resolution can be calculated to depend only on the order of the grating, wavelength, and the number of grooves illuminated. To enhance the temporal dispersion, the spectral gratings can be masked limiting the number of grooves illuminated. Experiments have been conducted to verify these calculations. The size and shape of masks are investigated and correlated to the exact shape of the temporal instrument function, which is required when interpreting temporally resolved data. The experiments used a 300fs laser pulse and a picosecond optical streak camera to determine the temporal dispersion. This was done for multiple spectral orders, gratings, and optical masks.

Visco, A; Drake, R P; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H

2008-05-08

292

A 4? dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4? magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient (??) of the 15.1 MeV M1 transition from a J? = 1+ state to the ground state in 12C. Our experimental value of ?? = (3.3 +/- 0.5) × 10-3 is in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Balanda, A.; van Klinken, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.

1993-11-01

293

New family of reflective spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of spectrometers based on off-axis Schmidt and Schmidt-Cassegrain cameras are presented; they have been used for several instruments studies, mainly for European Space Agency and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Both dispersive prism and grating based configurations have interesting characteristics, such as: simplicity, low cost, high efficiency, small volume and weight, very low sensitivity to polarization and great flexibility also in multichannel (wavebands) configurations. The image quality is high, even with low relative apertures and great fields of view, allowing a very good correction of smile and keystone. The compensation of the slit curvature induced by a prism disperser is also demonstrated. This family of spectrometers was the topic of three patents, belonging to Selex-Galileo, while the intellectual property belongs to A. Romali et al.

Romoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Francesca; Gambicorti, Lisa; Marchi, Alessandro Zuccaro

2011-01-01

294

Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

2010-05-16

295

Beijing Q3D magnetic spectrometer and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beijing Q3D magnetic spectrometer has been used for many experiments in this laboratory. It is found that the locations of the effective field boundaries (EFB) of the dipole magnets with the floating snakes are shifted towards the magnets, comparing with the design. Their effects on the ion-optical performances of the spectrometer were checked by the calculation with the program RAYTRACE and a method to reoptimize the performance with the program is described. The experimental investigation of the spectrometer performances has been carried out by the so-called ``experimental ray-tracing'' method. A method to adjust experimentally the focal plane angle in a finite region is proposed. The focal plane angle of 47.5° has been adjusted successfully to the original designed value, 45°. By the use of this method not only the various features of the spectrometer are well determined, but also the empirical field-setting for every adjustable magnetic element is uniquely set up. Some of the applications are mentioned in this paper.

Zhichang, Li; Yehao, Cheng; Chen, Yan; Jingang, Yang; Qinghua, Zhang; Shuyuan, Li; Kui, Zhao; Xiuqin, Lu; Chenglie, Jiang

1993-11-01

296

Ultraviolet spectrometer observations of Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 2 UV spectrometer was used to scan the Uranus atmosphere at wavelengths from 500-1700 A with a field of view of 0.1 x 0.86 deg. The temperature and composition of the upper atmosphere were determined through occultations of light from gamma Pegasi, nu Geminorum and the sun. The data indicated a substantial gas density (100 million H atoms\\/cu

A. L. Broadfoot; F. Herbert; J. B. Holberg; D. M. Hunten; S. Kumar; B. R. Sandel; D. E. Shemansky; G. R. Smith; R. V. Yelle; D. F. Strobel; H. W. Moos; T. M. Donahue; S. K. Atreya; J. L. Bertaux; J. E. Blamont; J. C. Mcconnell; A. J. Dessler; S. Linick; R. Springer

1986-01-01

297

Complex of plasma spectrometers BIFRAM.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the solar wind particles play one of the most important roles on the Intershock project. In order to study the shock front dynamics it is necessary to carry out measurements with a high time resolution and in large energy and angular ranges. The design of the BIFRAM plasma spectrometer is aimed at solving the above mentioned tasks. The designers utilized the well-known and proven methods of low energy charged particle measurements in space.

Bedrikov, A.; Belikova, A. B.; Fedorov, A. O.; Fuks, V. I.; Hanzal, V.; Kuzmin, V.; Leibov, A.; Namestnik, S. G.; N?me?ek, Z.; Notkin, V.; Richter, M.; Šafránková, J.; Vaisberg, A.; Vajsberg, O.; Yermolayev, Yu.; Ermolaev, Yu. I.; Zastenker, G. N.

298

High resolution hadamard transform spectrometer.  

PubMed

The ir spectrometer described employs alkaline halide lenses, an echelle grating, and a cryogenically cooled doped germanium bolometer as a detector. It is provided for two possible modes of operation: one is a single slit or conventional scan, the other is a multiplex or Hadamard scan. Signal strength, noise characteristics, scanning time, and available computer facilities determine the mode of operation. Sample spectra are presented. PMID:20111540

Hansen, P; Strong, J

1972-03-01

299

Dual band hyperspectral imaging spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temporally and spatially non-scanning imaging spectrometer covering two separate spectral bands in the visible region using computed tomographic imaging techniques is described. The computed tomographic techniques allow for the construction of a three-dimensional hyperspectral data cube (x, y, lambda) from the two-dimensional input in a single frame time. A computer generated holographic dispersive grating is used to disperse the

John Paul Hartke

2005-01-01

300

Non-protected operators in /N=4 SYM and multiparticle states of AdS5 SUGRA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a class of non-protected local composite operators which occur in the /R-symmetry singlet channel of the OPE of two stress-tensor multiplets in /N=4 SYM. At tree level these are quadrilinear scalar dimension four operators, two single-traces and two double-traces. In the presence of interaction, due to a non-trivial mixing under renormalization, they split into linear combinations of conformally covariant operators. We resolve the mixing by computing the one-loop two-point functions of all the operators in an /N=1 setup, then diagonalizing the anomalous dimension matrix and identifying the quasiprimary operators. We find one operator whose anomalous dimension is negative and suppressed by a factor of 1/N2 with respect to the anomalous dimensions of the Konishi-like operators. We reveal the mechanism responsible for this suppression and argue that it works at every order in perturbation theory. In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence such an operator should be dual to a multiparticle supergravity state whose energy is less than the sum of the corresponding individual single-particle states.

Arutyunov, G.; Penati, S.; Petkou, A. C.; Santambrogio, A.; Sokatchev, E.

2002-11-01

301

Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).  

SciTech Connect

The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

2005-07-01

302

A Computer-based Tutorial on Double-Focusing Spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WhistleSoft is developing a set of computer-based, self-paced tutorials on particle accelerators that targets a broad audience, including undergraduate science majors and industrial technicians. (See http://www.whistlesoft.com/s~ilbar/.) We use multimedia techniques to enhance the student's rate of learning and retention of the material. The tutorials feature interactive On-Screen Laboratories and use hypertext, colored graphics, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. Parts of our Dipoles module deal with the double-focusing spectrometer and occur throughout the piece. Radial focusing occurs in the section on uniform magnets, while vertical focusing is in the non-uniform magnets section. The student can even understand the ?2? bend angle on working through the (intermediate-level) discussion on the Kerst-Serber equations. This talk will present our discussion of this spectrometer, direct to you from the computer screen.

Silbar, Richard R.; Browman, Andrew A.; Mead, William C.; Williams, Robert A.

1998-10-01

303

Development of {sup 129}I AMS for the LLNL spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-user Tandem Laboratory at LLNL was designed to be a versatile facility which could be configured to develop new capabilities as determined by the requirements of sponsoring agencies and experimental programs. The initial design made some compromises, driven by both the usual budgetary constraints and uncertainties in program needs and support. We were recently funded by the Office of Arms Control in the US DOE to develop an {sup 129}I AMS capability. The first {sup 129}I measurements were performed this year after upgrades and modifications to the initially installed components were completed. The configuration of the present spectrometer and performance achieved to date will be described. Planned improvements to the injector and high energy spectrometer will be outlined.

Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Roberts, M.L.

1993-09-17

304

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview  

NASA Video Gallery

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The AMS Experiment will use the unique environment of space to advance knowledge of the universe and lead to the understanding of the universe’s origin. The AMS is a high profile space-based particle physics experiment that is led by Nobel laureate Samuel Ting of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Mark Garcia

2011-04-19

305

The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D. [Universita di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, 95125, Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, via S.Sofia 62, 95125, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Universita di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, 95125, Catania (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Catania, via S.Sofia 64, 95125, Catania (Italy)

2010-03-01

306

[Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].  

PubMed

Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

2011-10-01

307

An infrared grating spectrometer for GIRL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grating spectrometer with medium spectral resolution was developed for the GIRL project (Experiment E3), for the determination of the emission of trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere, and for planetary and astronomical measurements. The spectrometer consists of two Ebert-Fastie spectrometers covering the wavelength range between 2.5 and 100 micron. The engineering model of E3 is described, and the design

Peter Knieling; Guenther Lange; Dirk Offermann; Klaus-Ulrich Grossmann

1986-01-01

308

Pupil aberrations in Offner spectrometers.  

PubMed

The light path function (LPF) of an Offner spectrometer is presented. The evaluation of the LPF of this spectrometer enables its imaging properties to be studied for arbitrary object and image positions, while avoiding the more complicated analysis of intermediate images generated by the diffraction grating, which is often involved. A power series expansion of the LPF on the grating coordinates directly determines pupil aberrations of the generated spectrum and facilitates the search for configurations with small low-order aberrations. This analysis not only confirms the possibility of reducing low-order aberrations in Rowland-type mounts, namely astigmatism and coma, as predicted in previous studies, but also proves that all third-order terms in the series expansion of the aberration function can be canceled at the image of the design point and for the corresponding design wavelength, when the design point is located on a plane orthogonal to the optical axis. Furthermore, fourth-order terms are computed and shown to represent the most relevant contribution to image blurring. Third- and fourth-order aberrations are also evaluated for Rowland mounts with the design point located outside the aforementioned plane. The study described in this manuscript is not restricted to small angles of incidence, and, therefore, it goes beyond Seidel and Buchdahl aberrations. PMID:22472819

González-Núñez, Héctor; Prieto-Blanco, Xesús; de la Fuente, Raúl

2012-04-01

309

Progress on the Design and Fabircation of the MICE SpectrometerSolenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) willdemonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic coolingchannel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in theUK. A five-coil, superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet at each endof the cooling channel will provide a 4 T uniform field region for thescintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore tubes. The trackermodules are used to measure the muon beam emittance as it enters andexits the cooling channel. The cold mass for the 400 mm warm bore magnetconsists of two sections: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coilmatching section that matches the uniform field of the solenoid into theMICE cooling channel. The spectrometer solenoid detailed designandanalysis has been completed, and the fabrication of the magnets is wellunder way. The primary features of the spectrometer solenoid magnet andmechanical designs are presented along with a summary of key fabricationissues and photos of the construction.

Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Lia, D.; Sizman, M.S.

2007-06-20

310

Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is an F/4, wide field (30°) design, covering the spectral range 600-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

2011-09-01

311

The APX spectrometer for Martian missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining the chemical composition of any planetary body should be a prime science objective of each planetary mission. The APX spectrometer has been designed to provide a detailed and complete chemical composition of all major (except H) and minor elements with high accuracy, in situ and remotely. From such complete analyses a first-order mineralogy of analyzed samples can be deduced. Laboratory studies in the past have shown that rock types (e.g., dunites, basalts, Philippinate 300 sample) were a uniquely in blind test analyses. Such identification is more accurate than can be obtained from any other remote spectroscopic technique. The APX technique is based on three modes of nuclear and atomic interactions of alpha particles with matter resulting in three different energy spectra containing the compositional information. The instrument uses 50 to 100 mCi of Cm-242 or Cm-244 transuranium radioisotopes to provide a monoenergetic beam of alpha particles (6.01 MeV and 5.80 MeV respectively) and solid-state detectors for acquiring the energy spectra.

Economou, T.

312

Cadmium-zinc-telluride crystal array spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a gamma detector employing an array of eight cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals configured as a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. This detector is part of a more complex instrument that identifies the isotope, displays this information, and records the gamma spectrum. Various alarms and other operator features are incorporated in this battery operated rugged instrument. The CZT detector is the key component of this instrument and will be described in detail in this paper. We have made extensive spectral measurements of the usual laboratory gamma sources, common medical isotopes, and various Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) with this detector. Some of these data will be presented as spectra. We will also present energy resolution and detection efficiency for the basic 8-crystal array. Additional data will also be presented for a 32-crystal array. The basic 8-crystal array development was completed two years ago, and the system electronic design has been improved recently. This has resulted in significantly improved noise performance. We expect to have a much smaller detector package, using 8 crystals, in a few months. This package will use flip-chip packaging to reduce the electronics physical size by a factor of 5.

Quam, William M.; DeVore, Thomas; McHugh, Harold R.; Vogel, Robert D.; Wesolowski, John

2004-01-01

313

Thermal Infrared Investigation on Cassini: A Challenge for Laboratory Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Slides about the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) examine Cassini remote sensing spectral coverage; instrument description; thermal-vacuum testing; mechanical layout; laboratory spectroscopy and Voyager IRIS; composite brightness temperature of Tita...

D. Jennings

2010-01-01

314

Static broadband snapshot imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A static broadband snapshot imaging spectrometer (BSIS) is proposed. This device consists of a telescope, four prisms, a focusing lens, and a detector. The first prism disperses sharply in the visible range along the vertical direction, and it is relatively nondispersive in the mid-wave infrared range. The second prism controls the beam deviation introduced by the first prism. The third prism is substantially more dispersive in the mid-wave infrared range than within the visible range along the horizontal direction. The fourth prism controls the beam deviation caused by the third prism. The BSIS will disperse the spectra of a target to form a V-shaped dispersion pattern (DP). The formulas and numerical simulation of the DP are given. The BSIS can locate multiple targets based only on one frame of data. The BSIS is suitable for detecting and measuring energetic targets in real time.

Yang, Qinghua

2013-05-01

315

Clementine RRELAX SRAM particle spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2-[mu]m rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it (a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, (b) is not affected by electrons, and (c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5-day period.

Buehler, M.G.; Soli, G.A.; Blaes, B.R.; Ratliff, J.M.; Garrett, H.B. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.)

1994-12-01

316

An imaging spectrometer for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging spectrometer is described that can analyze all of the elements of astronomical images by means of a multilens array that isolates contiguous points of the image. The 'integral field' device is based on the use of a Fabry-Perot in cross dispersion with a grating yielding high resolution for a large spectral grating range. The device also employs techniques based on the principle of channeled spectra and the use of an insect-eye lens in conjunction with an interferometer. The spectra are arranged in different inclined rows to optimize coverage, and 400 spectra can be obtained with a 2000 x 2000-pixel receptor during 40-channel screening with a resolution of about 30,000 and a 200 nm range. The device is shown to have the same Doppler shift for each Fabry-Perot scanning step and a high number of channeled elements, which makes the device suitable for measuring radial velocities by means of correlation techniques.

Le Coarer, Etienne; Georgelin, Yvon; Monnet, Guy

1992-07-01

317

A Dust Spectrometer for JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo spacecraft characterised the dust environment in the jovian system. The discoveries included an extended dusty ring system, the nano-metre sized stream particles originating from the moon Io, and the dust exospheres around the Galilean satellites Ganymed, Europa and Callisto. The study of the nanodust-magnetosphere interaction and the compositional analysis of dust particles ejected by the surfaces of Ganymed or Europa offer unique future opportunities. New dust instrumentation is a factor of 10 more sensitive than the former Galileo detector and adds compositional analysis for moon surface studies complementary to neutral gas or ion particle investigations. A dust spectrometer is highly sensitive for organic, salty water ice and mineral particles. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects of this investigation.

Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Krüger, H.; Thissen, R.; Sternosky, Z.; Engrand, C.; Fiege, K.; Hillier, J. K.; Horanyi, M.; Khalisi, E.; Mocker, A.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Grün, E.; Röser, H. P.

2012-09-01

318

A diffractive optic image spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffractive optic imaging spectrometer, DOIS, is a high resolution, compact, economical, rugged, programmable, multi-spectral imager. The design implements a conventional CCD camera and emerging diffractive optical element (DOE) technology in an elegant configuration, adding spectroscopy capabilities to current imaging systems. One limitation of DOEs, also known as zone plate lenses, is abundant chromatic aberration. DOIS exploits this typically unwanted effect, utilizing a DOE to perform the imaging and provide the dispersion necessary to separate a multi-spectral target into separate spectral images. The CCD is stepped or scanned along the optical axis recording a series of these spectral images. This process is referred to as diffractive spectral sectioning. Under this dissertation, three-dimensional spectral/spatial DOE imaging theory was developed to describe and predict the system's performance. The theory was implemented in a software model to simulate DOIS image cubes. A visible spectrum DOIS prototype was designed, fabricated and characterized. The system's incoherent point spread function was theoretically modeled and experimentally determined. To verify the simulations, the prototype's performance was demonstrated with a variety of known targets and compared to simulated image cubes. To reconstruct the three-dimensional object cubes, various deconvolution algorithms, nearest neighbor, inverse filtering and constrained iterative deconvolution, were developed and applied to both computer generated and experimentally measured image cubes. The best results were obtained using an SVD inverse Fourier deconvolution algorithm with regularization for noise suppression. The results demonstrate a resolving power greater than 288 (/lambda //Delta/lambda = 577nm/2nm). Finally, three additional DOIS designs are presented as suggestions for future work, including a configuration with no moving parts which records the entire 3D image cube in one 'snapshot'. DOIS is a practical image spectrometer that can be built to operate at ultraviolet, visible or infrared wavelengths for applications in surveillance, remote sensing, medical imaging, law enforcement, environmental monitoring, and laser counter intelligence.

Blanchard Lyons, Denise Marie

319

Mass spectrometer monitoring of a yeast fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow-through membrane based mass spectrometer is employed for the purpose of monitoring and controlling fermentations. A sample stream in either the gaseous or liquid phase can be continuously passed through the interface, with a fraction of the volatile compounds transferred into the spectrometer. For the monitoring of alcohol fermentation employing bakers' yeast, a water-saturated carrier gas (Nâ) is bubbled

J. C. Weaver; C. R. Perley; C. L. Cooney

1980-01-01

320

System simulation of digital pulse spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benefiting from digitalization techniques, new-generation pulse spectrometers are characterized by better energy resolution, higher throughput, and improved stability and flexibility. MATLAB\\/SIMULINK, a platform for dynamic system simulation, was used to simulate such a digital pulse spectrometer. Each processing unit in the whole signal processing procedure was modeled with the relevant mathematical function and simulated with the abundant tools provided in

Wuyun Xiao; Yixiang Wei; Xianyun Ai; Qi Ao

2005-01-01

321

Data Analysis for Skylab Proton Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data from a proton spectrometer flown aboard Skylab is examined. The instrument is sensitive to protons in the energy range 18 to 400 MeV. A partial failure of the spectrometer restricted spectral analysis to two energy bands, 18 to 27 MeV and 27 to 4...

C. W. Hill

1976-01-01

322

The Electron Spectrometer for the Cassini spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major aims of the Cassini spacecraft is to characterize in detail the interaction of the solar wind with the Saturnian system. The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) addresses this aim by measuring the plasma particles, ions and electrons, with a suite of three complementary state-of-the-art sensors. The Electron Spectrometer (ELS), contributed by the UK with assistance from Norway,

A. J. Coates; C. Alsop; A. J. Coker; D. R. Linder; A. D. Johnstone; R. D. Woodliffe; M. Grande; A. Preece; S. Burge; D. S. Hall

1992-01-01

323

Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer was the first imaging spectrometer to routinely acquire science-grade data from Earth orbit. Instrument performance was validated and carefully monitored through a combination of calibration approaches: solar, lunar, earth (vicarious) and atmospheric observations complemented by onboard calibration lamps and extensive prelaunch calibration. Innovative techniques for spectral calibration of space-based sensors were also tested and validated. Instrument

Jay S. Pearlman; Pamela S. Barry; Carol C. Segal; John Shepanski; Debra Beiso; Stephen L. Carman

2003-01-01

324

Scattered light in a DMD based multi-object spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) has an important future in both ground and space based multi-object spectrometers. A series of laboratory measurements have been performed to determine the scattered light properties of a DMD. The DMD under test had a 17 ?m pitch and 1 ?m gap between adjacent mirrors. Prior characterization of this device has focused on its use in DLP (TI Digital Light Processing) projector applications in which a whole pixel is illuminated by a uniform collimated source. The purpose of performing these measurements is to determine the limiting signal to noise ratio when utilizing the DMD as a slit mask in a spectrometer. The DMD pixel was determined to scatter more around the pixel edge and central via, indicating the importance of matching the telescope point spread function to the DMD. Also, the generation of DMD tested here was determined to have a significant mirror curvature. A maximum contrast ratio was determined at several wavelengths. Further measurements are underway on a newer generation DMD device, which has a smaller mirror pitch and likely different scatter characteristics. A previously constructed instrument, RITMOS (RIT Multi-Object Spectrometer) will be used to validate these scatter models and signal to noise ratio predications through imaging a star field.

Fourspring, Kenneth D.; Ninkov, Zoran; Kerekes, John P.

2010-07-01

325

Properties of Haldane Excitations and Multiparticle States in the Antiferromagnetic Spin-1 Chain Compound CsNiCl3  

SciTech Connect

We report inelastic time-of-flight and triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of the excitation spectrum of the coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain system CsNiCl{sub 3}. Measurements over a wide range of wave-vector transfers along the chain confirm that above T{sub N} CsNiCl{sub 3} is in a quantum-disordered phase with an energy gap in the excitation spectrum. The spin correlations fall off exponentially with increasing distance with a correlation length {zeta} = 4.0(2) sites at T = 6.2K. This is shorter than the correlation length for an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain at this temperature, suggesting that the correlations perpendicular to the chain direction and associated with the interchain coupling lower the single-chain correlation length. A multiparticle continuum is observed in the quantum-disordered phase in the region in reciprocal space where antiferromagnetic fluctuations are strongest, extending in energy up to twice the maximum of the dispersion of the well-defined triplet excitations. We show that the continuum satisfies the Hohenberg-Brinkman sum rule. The dependence of the multiparticle continuum on the chain wave vector resembles that of the two-spinon continuum in antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains. This suggests the presence of spin-1/2 degrees of freedom in CsNiCl{sub 3} for T {approx}< 12 K, possibly caused by multiply frustrated interchain interactions.

Kenzelmann, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, United Kingdom; Cowley, R. A. [Clarendon Laboratory, United Kingdom; Buyers, W. J. L. [National Research Council of Canada; Tun, Z. [National Research Council of Canada; Coldea, Radu [ORNL; Enderle, M. [Universitat des Saarlandes, Germany

2002-01-01

326

Characterization of a New Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest in developing direct measurement methods to determine the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel within a fuel assembly. One technique that may prove successful is lead slowing-down spectroscopy. Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS) has been used for decades to make cross-section measurements on relatively small isotopic samples of well know masses. For spent fuel assembly measurements, LSDS will be applied in reverse; unknown masses will be determined using well-know cross-sections. In the LSDS, a pulse of neutrons (on the order of 10-100 MeV) is injected into a large lead stack (~ 1m3). The neutrons quickly down-scatter but exhibit little spread in energy about the average, continually-decreasing neutron energy making for a strong correlation between the elapsed time from the initial pulse and the average energy of the neutron. By measuring this elapsed time, it is possible to measure interactions of the neutrons with the fuel in the 0.1 to 1,000 eV range. Many of the actinides have strong resonances in this region, making it possible, through careful measurements and analysis, to extract isotopic masses from LSDS measurements. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is actively conducting research on both LSDS measurement and data analysis techniques. This paper will present results of the effort to construct and characterize a new lead slowing down spectrometer. The spectrometer was designed to begin testing both experimental measurement and data analysis techniques for determining the plutonium content of spent fuel. To characterize the spectrometer, a series of (n,?) experiments were conducted to measure the correlation between the time after the neutrons enter the lead and the energy of the interaction. Results from these measurements as well as plans for future development of the spectrometer will be discussed.

Casella, Andrew M.; Warren, Glen A.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Overman, Cory T.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Smith, Leon E.; Stave, Sean C.; Wittman, Richard S.

2011-10-01

327

Laboratory EXAFS by Fluorescence Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that a slight modification of a laboratory EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) spectrometer for fluorescence detection can greatly lower the limit of dilution. It can also extend samples studied to thin films on X-ray opaque substrates. Basically the system consists of a laboratory EXAFS spectrometer eguipped with two NaI scintillation counters combined with filters, and an SSD (solid state detector). Optimum experimental conditions are chosen by monitoring the output of the SSD, and then scintillation counters are used for measurements by making use of the large aperture. The performance of this system was tested by dilute aqueous solutions of Fe(NO3)3, 1000 and 5000 A thick iron film deposited on glass substrates, a 6 mM solution of octaethylporphyrin iron (III) chloride (Fe(OEP)Cl).

Tohji, Kazuyuki; Mizushima, Takanori; Udagawa, Yasuo

1990-10-01

328

Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL

G. V. Brown; M. B. Schneider; H. A. Baldis; P. Beiersdorfer; K. V. Cone; R. L. Kelley; C. A. Kilbourne; E. W. Magee; M. J. May; F. S. Porter

2010-01-01

329

Inflight validation of the calibration of the Airborne Visible\\/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer in 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve the research objectives of the Airborne Visible\\/IR Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the sensor calibration must be valid while AVIRIS is acquiring data from the airborne platform. The operational environment inside the aircraft differs significantly from that in the AVIRIS laboratory environment where the sensor is calibrated prior to and following each flight season. To independently validate the calibration of

Robert O. Green; Mark C. Helmlinger; James E. Conel; Jeannette M. van den Bosch

1994-01-01

330

Design and test of a lens system for a high energy and high resolution electron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and the laboratory test of an electrostatic input lens developed for high energy (>5keV) and high resolution photoelectron spectrometers. The lens is part of a hemispherical electron energy analyzer and is designed to optimize the overall accepted solid angle, taking into account the constraints due to the acceptance of the hemispherical dispersing element. In particular, the

F. Offi; A. Fondacaro; G. Paolicelli; A. De Luisa; G. Stefani

2005-01-01

331

Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) for decay heat studies of fission products  

Microsoft Academic Search

First tests of new Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) will be presented. MTAS is under construction at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The delivery of first modules is expected in July 2010. The detector array consists of 19 NaI (Tl) hexagonal shape blocks, each one 21 inches long and 8 inches maximum diameter.

Marzena Wolinska-Cichocka; Krzysztof Rykaczewski; Robert Grzywacz; Marek Karny; Aleksandra Kuzniak; Bertis Rasco

2010-01-01

332

Calibration of a helium-cooled infrared spatial radiometer and grating spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods used by the Space Dynamics Laboratory of Utah State University (SDL\\/USU) to calibrate infrared sensors are described, using the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spatial radiometer and grating spectrometer as examples. A calibration equation and a radiometric model are given for each sensor to describe their responsivity in terms of individual radiometric parameters. The calibration equation terms include dark

Larry E. Jacobsen; Steve Sargent; Clair L. Wyatt; Allan J. Steed

1990-01-01

333

The hot plasma spectrometers on Freja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot plasma instrumentation F3H on the Swedish-German Freja satellite due for launch in 1992 will consist of electron and ion spectrometers. The spectrometer Magnetic imaging Two dimensional Electron (MATE) will measure the two dimensional electron distribution in the spin plane in the energy range 0.1 to 120 keV. The ion mass spectrometer Three dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer (TICS) measures a full three dimensional distribution in the energy range 0.5 to 15000 eV/q with high mass resolution. The instruments use a particle 'imaging' detector technique based on a large diameter microchannel plate with position sensitive anode. The topics to be studied with the Freja hot plasma spectrometers include auroral particle acceleration, heating and acceleration of ionospheric ions, and the dynamics of auroral arc systems. Of special importance to the scientific objectives is the high data rate from the Freja instrumentation, the MATE and TICS spectrometers will be sampled every 10 ms, corresponding to a spatial resolution better than 70 m at ionospheric heights. The design, simulation, and calibration of the spectrometers are discussed.

Norberg, O.; Eliasson, L.

1991-11-01

334

LEDP - Laboratory Equipment Donation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) grants used energy-related laboratory equipment through its Laboratory Equipment Donation Program (LEDP). Any non-profit, educational institution starting at the middle school level and including high schools, universities, colleges, junior colleges, technical institutes, museums, or hospitals, located in the U.S. and interested in establishing or upgrading energy-oriented educational programs in the life, physical, and environmental sciences and in engineering is eligible to apply. Application reviews and grant awards are performed on a first-received, first-qualified basis. Examples of equipment that may be requested include: * Amp meters, voltmeters, electrometers * Amplifiers * Catalyst test units * Distillation columns * Dosimeters, survey meters, radiometers, and spectroscopes * Gas and liquid chromatographs * Gas tracers and analyzers - solar collectors and heliometers * Ion control gauges * Linear and pulse-height analyzers * Mass spectrometers, infrared spectrometers, and ultraviolet spectrometers * Oscilloscopes * Power supplies * Radiation detectors, monitors, scalers, and counters * Radiation shields and reactor associated components * Recorders * Signal generators * Temperature and pressure recorders Prior to 2012, this program was known as the Energy Related Laboratory Equipment (ERLE) Grant Program.

2011-02-23

335

A balloon-borne grating spectrometer.  

PubMed

A balloon-borne, 0.5-m, Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer has been designed and constructed at the University of Denver and has measured atmospheric transmittance in several spectral regions between 2 micro and 14 micro. These data have been obtained on a series of eleven balloon flights at three geographic locations over a period of thirty months. The solar pointing system, spectrometer optics, electronics and recording system are described. The preflight and flight performance of the spectrometer is discussed and sample data presented. PMID:20057726

Murcray, D G; Murcray, F H; Williams, W J

1967-02-01

336

An infrared grating spectrometer for GIRL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A grating spectrometer with medium spectral resolution was developed for the GIRL project (Experiment E3), for the determination of the emission of trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere, and for planetary and astronomical measurements. The spectrometer consists of two Ebert-Fastie spectrometers covering the wavelength range between 2.5 and 100 micron. The engineering model of E3 is described, and the design data are given. The engineering model was verified during operation in a cryostat at liquid helium temperatures. The spectral channels and respective IR filters were designed. Stray light suppression during limb scan measurements is explained. Absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric trace gases were measured.

Knieling, Peter; Lange, Guenther; Offermann, Dirk; Grossmann, Klaus-Ulrich

1986-08-01

337

Mössbauer Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Mössbauer spectrometer has been built primarily from materials that are already available in the physics department at Weber State University. These materials are either common to undergraduate labs or accessible to a small budget, making reproduction at other establishments very feasible. The spectrometer is designed to illustrate and facilitate understanding of physics principles associated with Mössbauer spectroscopy, such as Doppler broadening, isomer shift, recoilless gamma ray emission, and resonant absorption. Ultimately the spectrometer will be incorporated into a junior-level physics laboratory course for physics majors. In practice, the lab work is based around the 14.4 keV gamma ray emitted by Co-57 common to Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition to serving as an undergraduate teaching laboratory, design improvements in the near future will enable meaningful undergraduate research to be carried out. As a proof of principle, we present a preliminary Mössbauer spectrum and a measurement of the isomer shift in a stainless steel sample.

Decaria, Adam; Hatch, Spencer; Inglefield, Colin

2011-10-01

338

AUTOMATION OF AN ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an overview of the functional description and major features of an automated ultraviolet-visible spectrometer system intended for environmental measurements application. As such, it defines functional specifications and requirements which are divided into the chlor...

339

Combined Hyperspatial and Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a user need for increasing spatial and spectral resolution in Earth Observation (EO) optical instrumentation. Higher spectral resolution will be achieved by the introduction of spaceborne imaging spectrometers. Higher spatial resolutions of 1 - 3...

I. Burke H. Zwick

1995-01-01

340

Theory of a Concave Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apparatus constants for minimum defocussing of a concave grating spectrometer were determined. Equations were obtained relating apparatus constants, which were not obtainable in Seya theory. Numerical solutions were calculated by computer from an equation...

H. Greiner E. Schaeffer

1976-01-01

341

Electron energy-loss spectrometer: progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of a new apparatus for studying electron scattering ; processes in gases has been completed. Technical details concerning the design ; and construction of components of the electron energy-loss spectrometer are ; presented. (auth);

R. H. Huebner; D. Spence; O. J. Steingraber

1973-01-01

342

LCLS Injector Straight-Ahead Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The spectrometer design was modified to allow the measurement of uncorrelated energy spread for the nominal lattice. One bunch from every 120 each second would be sent to the straight ahead spectrometer while the transverse cavity is on. The implementation of this 'stealing mode' will not be available for the LCLS commissioning and the early stage of operation. However, the spectrometer was redesigned to retain that option. The energy feedback relies independently on the beam position of the beam in the dispersive section of dogleg 1 (DL1). The main modification of the spectrometer design is the Pole face rotation of 7.5 degrees on both entrance and exit faces. The location and range of operation of the 3 quadrupoles remains unchanged relative to those of the earlier design.

Limborg-Deprey , C.

2010-12-10

343

Recent Developments in Thick Mercuric Iodide Spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thick (approx. 1 cm) mercuric iodide gamma-ray detectors have been produced which show spectroscopic qualities at moderate detector biases (approx. 5 kV) comparable to those of thin spectrometers. Efficiency measurements indicate that the entire volume of...

K. Hull A. Beyerle B. Lopez J. Markakis C. Ortale

1982-01-01

344

Performance Capabilities of Small Grating Spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the performance capabilities of grating infrared spectrometers, such as spectral resolving power, wave-number accuracy, analytical sensitivity and accuracy, and qualitative specificity, are demonstrated. Primary emphasis is given to resolving powe...

R. E. Kagarise

1966-01-01

345

NEREUS Nemertes: Embedded Mass Spectrometer Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, the author presents Nemertes System, a software suite to control an embedded autonomous mass spectrometer. The author first evaluate previous control systems for the hardware and evaluate a set of software design goals. The NSystem softwar...

A. S. Champy

2004-01-01

346

HPGE Compton-Suppression and Pair Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A HPGe detector incorporated into a Compton suppression and pair spectrometer yields a continuum suppression factor of over 30. Cryostat housing requirements to obtain such suppression are discussed, sample spectra are presented, and several experiments m...

D. C. Camp

1976-01-01

347

Development of Infrared Spectrometers in Recent Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper outlines the technical development of infrared spectrometers, with emphasis on the characteristics and useful values of modern wide-angle prisms, simplified prisms, light filter-grating instruments, and prism-grating instruments. In addition, th...

Cheng I-Shan

1969-01-01

348

The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) can be mounted on a rover or lander and address complex questions of geological evolution by mapping mineral composition. The instrument can be used on Mars, the Moon, comets, or asteroids.

Blaney, D. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Green, R. O.; Rodriquez, J.; Sellar, G.; Van Gorp, B.; Wilson, D.

2012-10-01

349

Determination of Ethanol in Alcohol Samples Using a Modular Raman Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer for use in the undergraduate laboratory. An Ar+ ion laser operating at 105-mW is used as the source. A small, computer-controlled CCD spectrometer is used as the detector. The instrumental design is simple enough that students can readily assemble the components themselves, but they require assistance to align the optics. Because of the samples chosen, no sample preparation is necessary. The analytical performance of the instrument was evaluated by determining the ethanol content in vodka, gin, Everclear, rum, and whiskey .

Sanford, Caryn L.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Jones, Bradley T.

2001-09-01

350

Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer.  

PubMed

The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10-50 A? waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources. PMID:21034013

Magee, E W; Dunn, J; Brown, G V; Cone, K V; Park, J; Porter, F S; Kilbourne, C A; Kelley, R L; Beiersdorfer, P

2010-10-01

351

Fluorescence spectrometer-on-a-fluidic-chip.  

PubMed

A chip-size spectrometer is realized by combining a linear variable band-pass filter with a CMOS camera. The filter converts the spectral information of the incident light into a spatially dependent signal that is analyzed by the camera. A fluidic platform is integrated onto the spectrometer for analyzing the fluorescence from moving objects. The target is continuously excited within an anti-resonant waveguide, and its fluorescence spectrum is recorded as the object traverses the detection area. PMID:17476382

Schmidt, Oliver; Bassler, Michael; Kiesel, Peter; Knollenberg, Clifford; Johnson, Noble

2007-03-27

352

Mosaic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed passive FTIR imaging spectrometer has been developed and tested in airborne flight tests on both fixed wing and helicopter platforms. This sensor was developed and flown from 2000 to 2005 in conjunction with various organizations, and is known as the Turbo FT. The Turbo FT is a laser-less rotary high speed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer capable of

Winthrop Wadsworth; Jens Peter Dybwad; Drew Stone

2005-01-01

353

Design of a transuranic VUV spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Most of our present knowledge about the physics of 5f systems derives from studies of uranium and its compounds. This is particularly true in the case of photoemission measurements where the intense radioactivity has prevented studies at synchrotron sources. The development of a transuranic VUV spectrometer capable of safe operation at a synchrotron source would represent a giant step in 5f research. This paper describes the conceptual design of such a spectrometer.

Arko, A.J.

1987-01-01

354

The Canadian Penning Trap Spectrometer at Argonne  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes.\\u000a It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows\\u000a fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT\\u000a spectrometer and its

G. Savard; R. C. Barber; C. Boudreau; F. Buchinger; J. Caggiano; J. Clark; J. E. Crawford; H. Fukutani; S. Gulick; J. C. Hardy; A. Heinz; J. K. P. Lee; R. B. Moore; K. S. Sharma; J. Schwartz; D. Seweryniak; G. D. Sprouse; J. Vaz

2001-01-01

355

Development of multi-channel electron spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

In order to obtain the angular dependent electron energy distributions, we developed a multichannel electron spectrometer (MCESM) with high energy and angular resolutions. The MCESM consists of seven small electron spectrometers set in every 5 deg. on the basement, each of which detection range is up to 25 MeV. In the experiment, we successfully obtained electron spectra from imploded cone-shell target as well as gold plane target irradiated by ultraintense (300 J/5 ps) laser beam.

Iwawaki, T.; Habara, H.; Nakanii, N.; Shimada, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanimoto, T.; Kondo, K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai, 8-1-7, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan); Yabuuchi, T. [Center for Energy Research, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gillman Drive 0417, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

2010-10-15

356

Laboratory Reagents  

SciTech Connect

Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

CARLSON, D.D.

1999-10-08

357

Qutrits in multiparticle systems  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of complex composite quantum systems which can be reduced to systems with a small dimensionality of the Hilbert space (of the qutrit, ququart type, etc.) is considered. In the case of the interaction of an ensemble of two-level atoms with light, the conditions are found under which a qutrit is produced from the light and atomic states. The properties and possible applications of a qutrit based of the Fock states of light in which two photons are distributed among three modes are discussed. It is shown that this state has the nonclassical photon statistics, is entangled and can be used as a quantum channel for the teleportation, dense coding, and key distribution. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

Gorbachev, V N [North-West Institute of Printing Arts, St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Trubilko, A I [Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-12-31

358

Application of the mass-spectrometer MASHA for mass-spectrometry and laser-spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the present status of the mass-spectrometer MASHA (Mass-Analyzer of Supper Heavy Atoms) designed for determination of the masses of superheavy elements. The mass-spectrometer is connected to the U-400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) JINR, Dubna. The first experiments on mass-measurements for 112 and 114 elements will be performed in the upcoming 2010. For this purpose a hot catcher, based on a graphite stopper, is constructed. The ?-decay of the superheavy nuclides or spontaneous fission products will be detected with a silicon 192 strips detector. The experimental program of future investigations using the technique of a gas catcher is discussed. It should be regarded as an alternative of the classical ISOL technique. The possibilities are considered for using this mass-spectrometer for laser spectroscopy of nuclei far off-stability.

Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.

2010-02-01

359

Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

Bakeman, M. S.; van Tilborg, J.; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

2010-10-01

360

Integrating the MANX 6-D Muon Cooling Experiment with the MICE Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The MANX experiment is to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a short two-period long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being setup at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. This paper shall consider the various approaches to integrate MANX into the RAL hall using the MICE spectrometers. This study shall discuss the matching schemes used to minimize losses and prevent emittance growth between the MICE spectrometers and the MANX HCC. Also the placement of additional detection planes in the matching region and the HCC to improve the resolution will be examined.

Kahn, S.A.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

361

Neutron spectrometer based on a proton telescope with electronic collimation of recoil protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of a neutron spectrometer based on a gas proportional counter with recoil-proton registration is created at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR) in Dubna. The spectrometer is developed to measure the kinetic energy of protons scattered elastically at small angles that are produced by ( n, p) reaction in an environment containing hydrogen. The elaborated prototype consists of two cylindrical proportional counters used as cathodes. They are placed in a gas environment with a common centrally situated anode wire. Studies on the characteristics of the neutron spectrometer were conducted using 252Cf and 239Pu-Be radioisotope neutron sources. Measurements were made with monoenergetic neutrons produced by the 7Li( p, n)7Be reaction when a thin lithium target was bombarded with a proton beam from an EG-5 electrostatic accelerator, as well as with neutrons from the reaction D( d, n) 3He with a gas deuterium target.

Milkov, V. M.; Panteleev, Ts. Ts.; Bogdzel, A.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Kutuzov, S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Sedyshev, P. V.

2012-11-01

362

Reanalysis of Pioneer Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer data OI 1304 intensities and atomic oxygen densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (PVOUVS) measured the OI 1304 A intensity over a range of spacecraft altitudes (150 to 300 km at periapsis). The atomic oxygen density is determined from the dayglow by comparing the data to the intensities predicted in a Monte Carlo model which correctly simulates the partial frequency redistribution of photons in a non-isothermal, absorbing atmosphere. The analysis yields atomic oxygen densities consistent with the in situ determinations of the PV Bus Neutral Mass Spectrometer and PVO Neutral Mass Spectrometer and supports recent laboratory measurements of the electron impact excitation cross section of atomic oxygen. Furthermore, the potential inherent in ultraviolet remote sensing for determining the global distribution of atomic oxygen is demonstrated.

Paxton, L. J.; Meier, R. R.

1986-03-01

363

Degradation-Free Spectrometers For Solar EUV Measurements: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation-Free Spectrometers (DFS) is a new NASA Low Cost Access to Space Project with the goal to build and fly test two new instruments for solar EUV measurements. The first instrument is an Optics Free Spectrometer (OFS) with significant improvements over the version flown previously. The second instrument is a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS) based on two highly stable transmission diffraction gratings.Significant progress in preparation of both instruments for laboratory tests and calibrations as well as in the design of OFS and DGS flight electronics will be presented. Preparation of the required paper work for our upcoming Sounding Rocket flights is near completion. This work was supported by NASA grant NNX08BA12G.

Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, S.; Judge, D.

2009-05-01

364

An AOTF-LDTOF Spectrometer Suite for In Situ Organic Detection and Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On future surface missions to Mars, small bodies, and outer solar system satellites, increasingly robust sample screening and selection may be essential for achieving the maximum scientific benefit within limited payload resources. One approach to defining a sequence of analysis steps for a variety of missions is the identification of key organic functional groups by a spectroscopic prescreening tool, followed by organic compound analysis with mass spectrometric methods. We discuss the development of a miniature near-infrared point spectrometer, operating in the 1.7-4 micron region, based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. This instrument may be used to screen and corroborate analyses of samples containing organic biomarkers or mineralogical signatures suggestive of extant or extinct organic material collected in situ from planetary surfaces. The AOTF point spectrometer will be paired with a laser desorption time-of-flight (LDTOF) mass spectrometer and will prescreen samples for evidence of volatile or refractory organics before the laser desorption step and subsequent mass spectrometer measurement. AOTF systems provide great flexibility, being very compact, electronically programmable, with low power requirements. The LDTOF mass spectrometer provides pulsed-laser desorption and analysis of refractory organic compounds up to > 5,000 Da on a spatial scale of 10-30 mm, determined by the laser spot size at the target. We describe the prototype AOTF point spectrometer instrument and present laboratory analysis of geological samples of known astrobiological importance. An initial mineral and rock sample suite of planetary relevance was used in the laboratory for baseline testing. To this, we added a complement of astrobiologically relevant biosignatures from a variety of well characterized geomicrobial study sites. This work is supported by NASA's ASTID and EPSCoR programs through grant numbers NNX08AY44G and NNX08AV85A, respectively.

Chanover, Nancy J.; Glenar, D.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Boston, P.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Getty, S.

2010-10-01

365

Modeling of the generic spatial heterodyne spectrometer and comparison with conventional spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the modeling of the generic spatial heterodyne spectrometer. This instrument resembles a somewhat modified Michelson interferometer, in which the power spectrum of the input source is determined by performing a one-dimensional Fourier transform on the output intensity profile. Code has been developed to analyze the performance of this type of spectrometer by determining the dependence of both spectral resolution and throughput on parameters such as aperture and field of view. An example of a heterodyne spectrometer is developed to illustrate the techniques employed in the modeling and a comparison undertaken between its performance and that of a conventional spectrometer. Unlike the traditional Fourier transform infrared system, the heterodyne spectrometer has the very desirable feature of having no moving components.

Powell, Ian; Cheben, Pavel

2006-12-01

366

Recent Development of a 36 meter Small-Angle Neutron Scattering BATAN Spectrometer (SMARTer) in Serpong Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 36 meter small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer BATAN (SMARTer) in Serpong, Indonesia has been revitalised for several years. The work on replacing, upgrading and improving the control system and the experimental method were conducted in order to setup the spectrometer back in operation. Two main personal computers, one for handling and controlling the mechanical system and another one for acquiring neutron data were employed at the spectrometer. The standard and established SANS data reduction and analysis programs, such as GRASP and NIST Igor have been implemented to subtract the raw scattered neutron data with the backgrounds and then analyse the corrected data. The scattering data of ferrofluids samples, Fe3O4 and MnZnFe2O4 have been obtained using SANS spectrometers in BATAN Serpong, Indonesia and HANARO-KAERI, Republic of Korea for inter-laboratory comparison and investigation of proposed research interest. The results were comparable from both scattering data analysis.

Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Bharoto; Seong, Baek Seok

2010-10-01

367

The Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS)  

SciTech Connect

The Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a high spectral resolution, cryogenic x-ray spectrometer that will fly on the Japan/U.S. Astro-H observatory in 2014. The SXS is composed of a 36 pixel, imaging, x-ray calorimeter array that will operate at 0.05 K utilizing a 2-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and a redundant pre-cooler design using both a 40 liter liquid helium tank and a 1.7 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Additional redundant Stirling cycle coolers provide pre-cooling for the (JT) and cool the outer thermal shields for the JT and the helium tank. The detector system, while similar to that flown on Suzaku, is composed of larger 0.81x0.81mm pixels, but has significantly better performance, currently predicted to be better than 4 eV FWHM at 6 keV with 95% quantum efficiency. This instrument is the result of a close collaboration between many institutions in the U.S. and Japan over the last 25 years. Here we will present an overview of the SXS instrument, the SXS cooling system, and recent laboratory improvements to the detector system.0.

Porter, F. Scott; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Fujimoto, Ryuichi [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mitsuda, Kazuhiasa [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Ohashi, Takaya [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan) and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States) and Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, JAXA, Tuskuba 305-8505 (Japan); Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Saitama University Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); RIKEN, Waco 351-0198 (Japan); Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); SRON, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2009-12-16

368

Variable filter array spectrometer of VPD PbSe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MWIR spectroscopy shows a large potential in the current IR devices market, due to its multiple applications (gas detection, chemical analysis, industrial monitoring, combustion and flame characterization, food packaging etc) and its outstanding performance (good sensitivity, NDT method, velocity of response, among others), opening this technique to very diverse fields of application, such as industrial monitoring and control, agriculture, medicine and environmental monitoring. However, even though a big interest on MWIR spectroscopy technique has been present in the last years, two major barriers have held it back from its widespread use outside the laboratory: the complexity and delicateness of some popular techniques such as Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR) spectrometers, and the lack of affordable specific key elements such a MWIR light sources and low cost (real uncooled) detectors. Recent developments in electrooptical components are helping to overcome these drawbacks. The need for simpler solutions for analytical measurements has prompted the development of better and more affordable uncooled MWIR detectors, electronics and optics. In this paper a new MWIR spectrometry device is presented. Based on linear arrays of different geometries (64, 128 and 256 elements), NIT has developed a MWIR Variable Filter Array Spectrometer (VFAS). This compact device, with no moving parts, based on a rugged and affordable detector, is suitable to be used in applications which demand high sensitivity, good spectral discrimination, reliability and compactness, and where an alternative to the traditional scanning instrument is desired. Some measurements carried out for several industries will be also presented.

Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez-Álvarez, R.; Fernández-Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano-Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.

2012-05-01

369

CRLS-229 solar X-ray spectrometer/spectroheliograph experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRLS-229 solar X-ray spectrometer/spectroheliograph payload was launched in the solar pointed section of the U.S. Air Force Space Test Program P78-1 satellite on 24 February 1979. The payload consists of two instruments furnished by the Aerospace Corporation, known as SOLEX and MONEX, and two instruments furnished by the Naval Research Laboratory. The SOLEX instrument provides maps of the sun in individual X-ray spectral lines and also obtains spectra in the 3 to 25 A wavelength interval while pointed at a specific solar region. The basic SOLEX hardware consists of two multigrid collimators with 20 arc sec and 60 arc sec spatial resolution, RAP and ADP scanning high resolution Bragg crystals, and a proportional counter and an array of channel electron multipliers as detectors. The MONEX experiment, consisting of two proportional counters, provides full disk solar X-ray intensity with moderate spectral resolution and excellent temporal resolution in the 1 to 140 keV energy interval. Examples of data from the spectrometer/spectroheliograph are presented.

Landecker, P. B.; McKenzie, D. L.; Rugge, H. R.

1979-01-01

370

Cost-Effective Spectroscopic Instrumentation for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching or developing experiments for an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course can be very challenging. Often it is difficult to develop particular experiments because the spectroscopic instrumentation is not readily available within your department or is too expensive to purchase for an undergraduate laboratory experiment. To address these issues, we purchased a series of modular miniature UV vis fiber-optic spectrometers

Gary A. Lorigan; Brian M. Patterson; Andre J. Sommer; Neil D. Danielson

2002-01-01

371

The GRAVITY spectrometers: metrology laser blocking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two stage blocking system is implemented in the GRAVITY science and the fringe tracking spectrometer optical design. The blocking system consists of a dichroic beam splitter and two long wave band-pass filters with the top level requirements of high transmission of the science light in the K-Band (1.95 - 2.45 ?m) region and high blocking power optical density (OD) >= 8 for each filter at the metrology laser wavelength of 1.908 ?m. The laser metrology blocking filters were identified as one critical optical component in the GRAVITY science and fringe tracker spectrometer design. During the Phase-C study of GRAVITY all the filters were procured and individually tested in terms of spectral response at K-band, transmission, blocking (OD) and reflection at the metrology laser wavelength. We present the measurements results of the full metrology blocking system in its final configuration as to be implemented in the GRAVITY spectrometers.

Araujo-Hauck, Constanza; Fischer, Sebastian; Gillessen, Stefan; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Wank, Imke; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Brandner, Wolfgang; Perraut, Karine; Amorim, António; Eckart, Andreas

2012-07-01

372

Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a ? spectrometer and in the ?-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution ? detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge ? detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband.

Rhodes, Edgar; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong; Goldsten, John

2002-10-01

373

Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

2009-02-01

374

Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar Coll. (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Japan); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI (United States)

1998-07-01

375

A neutron spectrometer using nested moderators.  

PubMed

The design, simulation results and measurements of a new neutron energy spectrometer are presented. The device, which may be called NNS, for Nested Neutron Spectrometer, works under the same principles as a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) System, i.e. whereby a thermal neutron detector is surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. However, the moderator is cylindrical in shape. The different thicknesses of moderator are created by inserting one cylinder into another, much like nested Russian dolls. This design results in a much lighter instrument that is also easier to use in the field. Simulations and measurements show that, despite its shape, the device can be made to offer a near angular isotropic response to neutrons and that unfolded neutron spectra are in agreement with those obtained with a more traditional BSS. PMID:21964903

Dubeau, J; Hakmana Witharana, S S; Atanackovic, J; Yonkeu, A; Archambault, J P

2011-09-28

376

140-GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A pulsed microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 140 GHz for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules is described. The spectrometer incorporates a tunable Fabry--Perot cavity and a subharmonically pumped superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. A 70-GHz source supplying a high-efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at 30 MHz produces sidebands of sufficient power at 140 GHz to excite the molecules. The cavity is tuned to one of the modulation sidebands. The operation of the spectrometer is illustrated by the detection of emission signals from the 6(2, 4)--6(1, 5) transition of SO/sub 2/ gas. The generation of the electric dipole analog of nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) ''spin-echo'' signals by a ..pi../2-..pi.. pulse sequence is also described.

Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

1985-01-01

377

Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Partial pressure neutral gas measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an {open_quotes}active spectrometer.{close_quotes} In prior work utilizing band pass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne, and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitation by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8072 (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar College, San Marcos, California 92069 (United States); Naumenko, N. [Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation)

1999-01-01

378

Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

2011-12-01

379

In-flight calibration of mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new device for in-flight calibration of spaceborne mass spectrometers was developed which uses molecular deuterium as a calibration gas. The constant and reproducible amount of molecular deuterium, introduced at a ground station command into the ion source of the mass spectrometer, makes it possible to obtain information on dissociation and adsorption-desorption processes on the spacecraft surface at space conditions. Schematic diagrams of the deuterium source and of the electronic unit for power command are presented together with the characteristics of the calibrator and a graph of calibration results.

Ristoiu, Dumitru; Toderean, Gavrila; Chereji, Iosif; Ursu, Daniel O.; Istomin, Vadim G.

380

The Mass Spectrometer - How It Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a simple description of how a mass spectrometer works. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. Keywords: mass spectrometer, mass spectrometry, mass spectrum, mass spectra, spectrum, spectra, mass, ionisation, acceleration, deflection, detection

Clark, Jim

2012-12-18

381

THIS: a tuneable heterodyne infrared spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the newly developed transportable setup of the Cologne Tuneable Heterodyne Infrared Spectrometer (THIS) designed for astronomical observations aboard the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). With THIS a competitive tuneable heterodyne spectrometer for the mid-infrared is available that will allow measurements in a wide field of astronomical applications. Frequency tuneability over a wide range provided by the use of semiconductor lasers as local oscillators (LO) allows a variety of molecules in the mid infrared to be observed under very high frequency resolution. With the use of newly developed quantum-cascade lasers (QCL) a sensitivity close to the quantum limit will be in reach.

Wirtz, Daniel; Sonnabend, Guido; Schieder, Rudolf T.

2002-02-01

382

What Is Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Arizona State University presents information about the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) that was originally developed for use on the Mars Observer spacecraft. The TES is both an instrument and a technique that measures the thermal infrared energy (heat) emitted from Mars. Using this technique, scientists may be able to determine much about the geology and atmosphere of Mars by examining the spectral responses of specific minerals and gases. This site includes information about thermal infrared energy as well as understandable explanations of both the spectrometer itself and the spectroscopy technique.

Ruff, S. W.; Hamilton, V. E.; University, Arizona S.

383

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04

384

A novel electrospray-based ion mobility spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design for a low-cost ion mobility spectrometer that can be built using the equipment on hand in many electronics-oriented undergraduate laboratories. The construction of this system is based upon the use of printed circuit boards and does not require the specialized drift and sheath gases, vacuum pumps, heater assemblies, high voltage pulsers, or precision pumps that are characteristic of the systems generally reported in the literature. We demonstrate the system in the separation of ions of methanol and water in air. Despite the low cost of this system it has a performance comparable to more complex systems, with a sensitivity of approximately 100 ppm for the protein cytochrome c. This system is suitable for use as an electronics or signal-processing project, or even a biotechnology demonstration.

Bathgate, Ben; Cheong, Eric C. S.; Backhouse, Christopher J.

2004-08-01

385

Development of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the past and current development of the Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) concept for ground telescopes produced in collaboration between ABB Bomem and Université Laval. This instrument intends to produce spectra of variable resolutions up to R = ?/?? = 10 000 from the near UV to the near IR (350 nm to 900 nm). It is designed to fit the f/8 focus of the Mont Mégantic 1.6m optical telescope in Québec. The large number of spatial elements (> 1 million pixels) is the novel aspect of this FTS design along with innovative metrology system. Heritage from Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) IFTS concept, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)- ABB Bomem instrument and commercial ABB Bomem DA series FTS are reviewed. Techniques for accurately servoing the moving mirror alignment to a value smaller than 0.1 arc second and position to sub nanometer value are discussed. Also presented are results from the assembled interferometer sub-system.

Grandmont, Frederic; Drissen, Laurent; Joncas, Gilles

2003-02-01

386

Field transportable beta spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Test Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies. One such capability being addressed by the D and D Focus Area is rapid characterization for facility contaminants. The technology was field demonstrated during the period January 7 through January 9, 1997, and offers several potential benefits, including faster turn-around time, cost reduction, and reduction in secondary waste. This report describes a PC controlled, field-transportable beta counter-spectrometer which uses solid scintillation coincident counting and low-noise photomultiplier tubes to count element-selective filters and other solid media. The dry scintillation counter used in combination with an element-selective technology eliminates the mess and disposal costs of liquid scintillation cocktails. Software in the instrument provides real-time spectral analysis. The instrument can detect and measure Tc-99, Sr-90, and other beta emitters reaching detection limits in the 20 pCi range (with shielding). Full analysis can be achieved in 30 minutes. The potential advantages of a field-portable beta counter-spectrometer include the savings gained from field generated results. The basis for decision-making is provided with a rapid turnaround analysis in the field. This technology would be competitive with the radiometric analysis done in fixed laboratories and the associated chain of custody operations.

NONE

1998-12-01

387

Impact ionization mass spectrometer instrument development for cosmic dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instrument is under development to analyze the chemical composition of dust particles in-situ. The CRIA (Cosmic dust Reflectron for Isotopic Analysis) instrument is a mass spectrometer that analyzes the ions generated upon the hypervelocity impact of cosmic dust particles on a solid surface. The large sensitive area of the instrument (40 cm in diameter) makes the instrument capable of measuring the composition of interstellar dust particles that have a low flux. The laboratory prototype of the instrument has been previously tested in laboratory conditions using laser ablation and the Heidelberg dust acceleration facility. The mass resolution of the instrument is approximately m/dm ~ 200. Here we report on the progress of the technical readiness level (TRL) of the instrument. The development is done as part of a graduate level course offered at the Aerospace Engineering department at the University of Colorado. In the class the students design and fabricate the instrument to specified requirement and perform the environmental tests for the applicable TRL level. The details of the class setup are discussed. This project is funded by the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Aerospace Engineering Department at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The instrument concept development was funded by NASA.

Sternovsky, Z.; Palo, S.; Li, X.; Brower, L.; Chang, L.; Lee, D.; Pilinski, M.; Salehi, M.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Amyx, K.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Knappmiller, S.; Robertson, S.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.

2007-12-01

388

Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of {approx}6-60 A. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

Park, J.; Cone, K. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Brown, G. V.; Schneider, M. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Baldis, H. A. [University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States)

2010-10-15

389

Imaging spectrometer for fugitive gas leak detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under contract to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a very sensitive infrared imaging spectrometer that can perform remote imaging and spectro-radiometry. One of the most exciting applications for this technology is in the remote monitoring of smoke stack emissions and fugitive leaks. To date remote continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems have not been approved

Michele Hinnrichs

1999-01-01

390

Commissioning the UVAQ Direct Reading Optical Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UVAQ Direct Reading Optical Spectrometer installed in the Research Centre has been set up and calibration graphs prepared for the determination of C, Si, Mn, P, S, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al, B, Cu, Nb, Sn, Ti, V, Zr in mild and low alloy steels. The repeatabilit...

J. Reid

1972-01-01

391

Fags - a Fast Astronomical Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast astronomical spectrometer is described using commercially available photographic lenses and a CCD detector. The size and weight of the instrument have been kept to a minimum to allow it to be used on telescopes as small as 0.6 m.

Denby, B.; Dalglish, R.; Meadows, V.; Taylor, K. N. R.

392

Seya'S Theory of the Concave Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was made of those spectrometers (monochromators) which use the concave grating employing single reflection, those which are suitable for wavelengths below 1000 A. A brief resume of Seya's theory is given. This theory provides the basis for the de...

H. Greiner E. Schaeffer

1976-01-01

393

Time of Flight Spectrometer for Fast Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast neutron spectrometer, using the time of flight method, which may also be used to study reactions involving the simultaneous emission of neutrons and gamma rays, is described. One stilbene scintillation counter is placed close to the source, the other a suitable distance away. The two are connected to a new type of coincidence time sorter which converts delay

G. C. Neilson; D. B. James

1955-01-01

394

Mass Spectrometer for the Analyses of Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 6-in-radius, 60 exp 0 magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (designated as the MS-200) has been constructed for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of fixed gases and volatile organics in the concentration range from 1 ppM (by volume) to 100%. A parti...

J. R. Ferguson E. R. Rogers

1980-01-01

395

Temperature Stability of a Stilbene Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stilbene spectrometer will be used to measure neutron and gamma ray spectral distribution and intensity during Project HENRE at the Nevada Test Site. Daily temperature changes of from 30 to 40 degrees are expected. The report presents the results of an ...

J. G. Dante

1966-01-01

396

A neutron spectrometer for avionic environment investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to build an embeddable atmospheric neutron spectrometer to record data during airplane flights. The challenge was to design compact equipment with the largest detection range of neutron energy and the capability to determine the neutron spectrum. In this paper, we present this equipment, its validation and some preliminary flight results. We have validated this

G. Hubert; P. Trochet; O. Riant; P. Heinz; R. Gaillard

2004-01-01

397

Slow-light enhanced spectrometers on chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose using slow light structures to greatly enhance the spectral performance of on-chip spectrometers. We design a calzone photonic crystal line-defect waveguide which can have large group index over a certain wavelength range. An arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) is studied as an example, and the performance of such a slow-light AWG is analyzed numerically.

Shi, Zhimin; Boyd, Robert W.

2011-06-01

398

A transmission grating spectrometer for plasma diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation temperature is an important parameter in characterizing the properties of hot plasmas. In most cases this temperature is time varying caused by the short lived and/or time dependent nature of the plasma. Thus, a measurement of the radiation flux as a function of time is quite valuable. To this end the authors have developed a spectrometer that can acquire spectra with a time resolution of less than 1 ns and covers the spectral energy range from approximately 60 to 1,000 eV. The spectrometer consists of an entrance slit placed relatively near the plasma, a thin gold film transmission grating with aperture, a micro channel plate (MCP) detector with a gold cathode placed at the dispersion plane and an electron lens to focus the electrons from the MCP onto a phosphor coated fiber optic plug. The phosphor (In:CdS) has a response time of (approximately) 500 ps. This detector system, including the fast phosphor is similar to one that has been previously described. The spectrometer is in a vacuum chamber that is turbo pumped to a base pressure of approximately 5 x 10(exp 7) torr. The light from the phosphor is coupled to two streak cameras through 100 m long fiber optic cables. The streak cameras with their CCD readouts provide the time resolution of the spectrum. The spectrometer has a built in alignment system that uses an alignment telescope and retractable prism.

Bartlett, Roger J.; Hockaday, Robert G.; Gallegos, Cenobio H.; Gonzales, Joseph M.; Mitton, Vance

399

Analysis of nonlinear effects in microwave spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At millimeter wavelengths, rotational spectra of trace gases in planetary atmospheres yield essential characteristics such as vertical profiles of abundance, temperature, and winds. The high resolution provided by heterodyne spectroscopy allows to retrieve the chemical composition and thermal structure of the atmosphere with very high accuracy. On several observation campaigns, however, small unexpected differences have been observed in the power spectral density (PSD) response among heterodyne spectrometer backends. In this article, we analyze what the impact of nonlinearity is on these observations. This investigation covers two major topics. The first one seeks to theoretically demonstrate the importance of PSD accuracy for retrieving the correct geophysical parameters under observation. This study is performed by means of radiative transfer and retrieval simulations, which show how deviations in the spectra might produce considerable changes in the vertical profile of trace gases retrieved in the Earth's atmosphere. Once the importance of PSD accuracy has been addressed, the second topic focuses on the detection of nonlinearity in spectrometer backends. On the basis of a differential approach, an improved experiment with more than one order of magnitude higher accuracy than before was conducted in order to detect and study nonlinear behavior in chirp transform spectrometers and, consequently, evaluate possible mechanisms to optimize their response. As a result, it is confirmed that the overall deviations introduced by nonlinearity in spectrometers have been decreased, and thus the performance of the backend instrument has been improved.

Paganini, Lucas; Hartogh, Paul

2009-07-01

400

THIS: a tuneable heterodyne infrared spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Cologne Tuneable Heterodyne Infrared Spectrometer (THIS) we present a newly developed setup of a transportable heterodyne receiver. Competitiveness with regard to sensitivity, was reached for the first time with a semiconductor laser pumped system. Frequency tuneability of the local oscillator (LO) laser over a wide range of wavelengths is thus provided. This allows a variety of molecules, e.g.

Daniel Wirtz; Guido Sonnabend; Rudolf T Schieder

2002-01-01

401

Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

Stejskal, E.O.

1984-05-01

402

Status of the LEP2 Spectrometer Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LEP spectrometer has been conceived to provide a determination of the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10-4 in the LEP2 physics region where insufficient polarisation levels prevent the application of the resonant depolarisation method. The setup consists of a steel bending magnet flanked by a triplet of Beam Position Monitors (BPM) at each side providing a measurement

Bernd Dehning; R W Assmann; Claude Bovet; Williame Coosemans; D. Cornuet; A. Hidalgo; Noël Hilleret; M. Hublin; Willi Kalbreier; P. Leclere; J. Matheson; G. Mugnai; Y. Muttoni; S. Myers; B. Occelli; J. Palacios; R. Perret; Massimo Placidi; J. Prochnow; I. Ruehl; M. Sassowsky; Hermann Schmickler; R Valbuena; P S Wells; J Wenninger; G R Wilkinson; M D Hildreth; F Roncarolo; E Torrence

2000-01-01

403

Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1990-11-27

404

Multinucleon transfer reactions studied with magnetic spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

Multinucleon transfer reactions with 40Ca beams on closed shell nuclei 96Zr and 208Pb at energies close to the Coulomb barrier were studied using magnetic spectrometers. The comparison between data and calculations, based on semiclassical models, allowed to identify the different degrees of freedom that influence the evolution of the reaction, like deformation, single, and pair transfer modes.

Szilner, S.; Soic, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Marginean, N.; Napoli, D. R.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Stefanini, A. M.; Zhong, Q. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Pollarolo, G. [Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.; Lenzi, S. M.; Marginean, R.; Montagnoli, G.; Recchia, F.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A. [Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy)] (and others)

2006-04-26

405

Thermal emission spectrometer experiment - Mars Observer mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the thermal emission spectrometer (TES) designed for the Mars Observer mission. The TES measurements of the surface and the atmosphere of Mars will be used to determine and map the composition of the surface rocks, minerals, and the condensates. Examples of information that will be obtained from TES data include mineral abundance maps, condensate properties and their

Philip R. Christensen; Donald L. Anderson; Stillman C. Chase; Roger N. Clark; Hugh H. Kieffer; Michael C. Malin; John C. Pearl; James Carpenter; Nuno Bandiera; F. G. Brown; Steven Silverman

1992-01-01

406

Compact Catadioptric Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Reflective Grating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An imaging spectrometer apparatus comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a light means for receiving the light and directing the light, a grating that receives the light from the light means and defracts the light back onto the light means which...

S. A. Lerner

2003-01-01

407

Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at

J. Hoffman

1982-01-01

408

OGO-IV Ultraviolet Airgiow Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OGO-IV ultraviolet airglow spectrometer, which measures the earth's spectrum between 1100 and 3400 ??, consists of an Ebert-Fastie monochromator and two photomultipliers with wide-dynamic range electronics. The cesium telluride photomultiplier channel measures the backscattered ultraviolet daylight between 1750 and 3400 ?? over a dynamic range of 10 with a spectral resolution of 20 ??. The cesium iodide photomultiplier channel

Charles Barth; Edward Mackey

1969-01-01

409

Athena MIMOS II Mössbauer spectrometer investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a powerful tool for quantitative mineralogical analysis of Fe-bearing materials. The miniature Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is a component of the Athena science payload launched to Mars in 2003 on both Mars Exploration Rover missions. The instrument has two major components: (1) a rover-based electronics board that contains power supplies, a dedicated central processing unit, memory, and

G. Klingelhöfer; R. V. Morris; B. Bernhardt; D. Rodionov; P. A. de Souza; S. W. Squyres; J. Foh; E. Kankeleit; U. Bonnes; R. Gellert; C. Schröder; S. Linkin; E. Evlanov; B. Zubkov; O. Prilutski

2003-01-01

410

Temperature stabilizer for nitrogen flushed infrared spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared spectrometers are often maintained at an elevated temperature to reduce the fogging of window and prism materials. If a prism monochromator is flushed with dry nitrogen gas to reduce the effect of atmospheric absorption, the wavelength calibration will shift unless the temperature of the gas is the same as the temperature of the prism. A method is described for

A. T. Collins

1976-01-01

411

Bonner sphere spectrometers-a critical review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic characteristics of Bonner sphere spectrometry systems are first described, followed by a review of the different types of system which have been built, and of how their response functions have been determined. Spectrum unfolding and recent developments are covered briefly. The practical considerations for users are emphasised wherever possible, and the advantages, disadvantages, and problems of using this spectrometer are discussed.

Thomas, D. J.; Alevra, A. V.

2002-01-01

412

The CONTOUR remote imager and spectrometer (CRISP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CONTOUR Remote Imager and Spectrometer (CRISP) was a multi-function optical instrument developed for the Comet Nucleus Tour Spacecraft (CONTOUR). CONTOUR was a NASA Discovery class mission launched on July 3, 2002. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of CRISP. Unfortunately, the CONTOUR spacecraft was destroyed on August 15, 2002 during the firing of the solid rocket motor

Jeffery W. Warren; Kevin J. Heffernan; Steven J. Conard; James F. Bell III; Anita L. Cochran; John D. Boldt; Alice F. Bowman; E. H. Darlington; Anthony Deluzio; Daniel Fiore; Dennis E. Fort; David Garcia; Matthew P. Grey; Bruce L. Gotwols; Ann P. Harch; John R. Hayes; Gene A. Heyler; Linda M. Howser; David C. Humm; Noam R. Izenberg; Kris E. Kosakowski; W. J. Lees; D. A. Lohr; Holger M. Luther; Douglas S. Mehoke; Scott L. Murchie; R. Alan Reiter; Brian Rider; G. D. Rogers; Deepak Sampath; Edward D. Schaefer; Thomas S. Spisz; Kim Strohbehn; Scott Svenson; Howard W. Taylor; Patrick L. Thompson; Joseph Veverka; Robert L. Williams; Paul Wilson

2004-01-01

413

A Field Deployable Gas Chromatograph\\/Mass Spectrometer for Industrial Hygiene Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the feasibility and efficacy of field gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometers (GC\\/MS), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted laboratory and field testing of a commercial transportable GC\\/MS. That unit was reengineered and reconstructed by NIOSH as a more portable GC\\/MS (can be moved, set up, and operated by one person), incorporating novel weight and size-reducing vacuum

Harley V. Piltingsrud

1997-01-01

414

Mixing of final state spin components in the high resolution spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The mixing of scattered proton spin components by precession in the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) dipole magnets is discussed in terms of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) experiments. Explicit expressions are derived for calculation of polarization transfer parameters from focal plane polarizations. Also discussed are the effects of out-of-plane scattering at small laboratory angles on FPP measurements as well as analyzing power measurements.

Cornelius, W.

1981-12-01

415

Setup of Mössbauer spectrometers at RCPTM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setup of Mössbauer spectrometers (MS) for structural, phase, and magnetic characterization of iron-or tin-containing samples is presented. This comprehensive line of 57Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer spectrometers covers transmission spectrometers (TMS) for roomtemperature (RT) measurements, temperature dependent measurements and measurements in an external magnetic field. An RT Conversion Electron/Conversion X-ray Mössbauer technique (CEMS/CXMS) is also available. The main concept of the RT MS is a table-top spectrometric bench with a control unit based on special-purpose hardware or standard PC platform. The first way offers a compact design and PC independent spectra collection system. The second setup, a PC-based system, which uses commercial devices and LabVIEW software, offers easy customization and enables advancement in spectrometer construction. The both types of control systems are able to operate special parts (velocity transducers, gamma-ray detectors) of unusual spectrometric benches. The standard velocity axis range is up to +/-20 mm/s with a maximum nonlinearity of 0.1%. Applicable measuring conditions of presented TMSs cover a cryogenic temperature range from 1.5 up to 300 K and high temperature range from RT up to 1000 °C. With in-field low-temperature MS, we are able to analyze samples normally in the external magnetic fields up to 8 T (in temperature interval from 1.5 up to 300 K). In addition, special modes of measurements can be applied including backscattering gamma-ray geometry or measurement in an inert or controlled-humidity atmosphere. Technical details and construction aspects of spectrometers are presented.

Pechoušek, J.; Jan?ík, D.; Frydrych, J.; Nava?ík, J.; Novák, P.

2012-10-01

416

Wave-Vector Selective Light Scattering Magnon Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new type of magnon spectrometer has been developed, based on inelastic light scattering from magnetic excitations. This spectrometer enables one to study magnetic excitations of a specific frequency and wave vector as a function of static field, microwa...

W. D. Wilbur W. Wettling P. Kabos C. E. Patton W. Jantz

1984-01-01

417

Experimental Investigation of the Bennett Type Radio-Frequency Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Authors conducted experiments to study the static characteristics of a Bennett radio-frequency (RF) mass spectrometer. Bennett RF mass spectrometer is used to determine individual constituent contents in gaseous mixtures. The gaseous mixture is ionized by...

C. Zeng-tsu C. Shao-chiang R. Hua-chi Y. Cheng-an

1967-01-01

418

Optimal Design Criteria for Millimeter-Wave Spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optimal design criteria for millimeter-wave cavity-type spectrometers used in the measurement of molecular spectra have been derived. Using an optimally designed spectrometer, the technique of molecular spectroscopy offers a highly sensitive and specific ...

B. Leskovar D. B. Hopkins W. F. Kolbe

1975-01-01

419

Elementary Ion Optics with Applications to Electromagnetic Spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

This lecture, intended for physics graduate students, represents an introduction to ion optics with applications to the electromagnetic spectrometers used in nuclear astrophysics research. A particular radiative capture reaction is chosen to illustrate the requirements of such spectrometers.

Davids, B. [TRIUMF, 004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2010-03-01

420

Evaluation of open-path FTIR spectrometers for monitoring multiple chemicals in air.  

PubMed

There has been mounting interest in the use of open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers for occupational and environmental air monitoring. Although this technology is gaining acceptance in the environmental field, there has not yet been a comprehensive assessment of instrument performance and the analytical limitations of this method have not been thoroughly delineated. Unlike extractive FTIR spectrometers, calibration of OP-FTIR spectrometer systems presents unique problems because the optical beam is exposed to the atmosphere. Therefore, it is difficult to get an adequate clean background and perform evaluation tests used by extractive instruments. One solution to the problem of evaluating an open-path system is to place a sample cell directly in the path of the infrared beam. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a specially designed external calibration cell as a tool for laboratory and field evaluation of the accuracy of OP-FTIR spectrometers and to investigate various commonly used instrument performance parameters such as root mean square (RMS) noise, return intensity, instrument precision, and detector saturation. These performance parameters were measured to see if they could be used to predict whether an instrument is operating correctly. Six instruments from the same manufacturer were evaluated with a prototype calibration cell using NIST traceable sulfur hexafluoride, n-hexane, and cyclohexane. Reference concentrations generated in the calibration cell were compared with OP-FTIR spectrometer measured concentrations measured through the cell. Excellent correlation and slopes were obtained for all three chemicals. The instrument performance measures could not be used to predict accuracy. The external calibration cell shows promise as a method of validating the operation of an OP-FTIR spectrometer for quality assurance and for quality control. PMID:11141603

Farhat, S K; Todd, L A

2000-12-01

421

Large-Scale Calcium Metal Sample Preparation for sup 41 Ca Isotope Pre-Enrichment and AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large quantities of high-purity Ca metal were successfully prepared and used in the Oak Ridge Calutron and subsequent AMS (accelerator mass spectrometer) measurements at Argonne National Laboratory. The high purity could be partly due to the pureness of t...

W. Henning Z. Liu H. F. Lucas G. E. Thomas H. L. Adair

1986-01-01

422

Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) data processing and atmospheric temperature and trace gas retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment aboard the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) was successfully flown in early November 1994 (STS 66) and in August 1997 (STS 85). This paper focuses on the first flight of the instrument, which was part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science 3 (ATLAS 3) mission of NASA. During

M. Riese; R. Spang; P. Preusse; M. Ern; M. Jarisch; D. Offermann; K. U. Grossmann

1999-01-01

423

Calibration of an open-path FTIR spectrometer for methane, ethylene, and carbon monoxide using a fixed 20-m multipass cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calibration experiment was performed by the Fachhochschule Duesseldorf in cooperation with the official calibration laboratory of the Environmental State Agency of Northrhine Westphalia. This was the first calibration of an OP-FTIR spectrometer at an official calibration laboratory in Germany. The calibration measurements were carried out along the standard ISO\\/DIS 9169, 'air quality - determination of performance characteristics of measurement

Torsten Lamp; M. Radmacher; Konradin Weber; A. Gaertner; R. Nitz; G. Broeker

1997-01-01

424

Sequential indicator conditional simulation and indicator kriging applied to discrimination of dolomitization in GER 63-channel imaging spectrometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory reflectance spectra of synthetic mixtures of the carbonate minerals calcite and dolomite were measured in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region (0.4–2.5 m) using a high-spectral resolution laboratory spectrometer. The instrument measured reflectivity with an accuracy of 0.001 m, allowing detailed resolution of the carbonate spectrum. The spectra of calcite and dolomite could be characterized by the presence of

Freek van der Meer

1994-01-01

425

Slab waveguide spatial heterodyne spectrometers for remote sensing from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present miniature spectrometers that offer high resolution, increased optical throughput (étendue), and are compatible with a microsatellite platform. The spectrometers are implemented using arrays of singlemode planar optical waveguides and use a Fourier technique for spectra retrieval. We discuss design, fabrication, and first experimental results for these multiaperture spectrometers implemented in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides.

Florjanczyk, Miroslaw; Cheben, Pavel; Janz, Siegfried; Lamontagne, Boris; Lapointe, Jean; Scott, Alan; Solheim, Brian; Xu, Dan-Xia

2009-05-01

426

Wedge imaging spectrometer: application to drug and pollution law enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wedge Imaging Spectrometer (WIS) represents a novel implementation of an imaging spectrometer sensor that is compact and rugged and, therefore, suitable for use in drug interdiction and pollution monitoring activities. With performance characteristics equal to comparable conventional imaging spectrometers, it would be capable of detecting and identifying primary and secondary indicators of drug activities and pollution events. In the

George T. Elerding; John G. Thunen; Loren M. Woody

1991-01-01

427

Material issues for the super neutrino beam and high-intensity spallation source (measurements using the multi-particle correlation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss the technology related to producing the high-intensity spallation neutron source, and the super neutrino beam for neutrino oscillation studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially material integrity. The pitting problem for solid walled liquid mercury target, has been remedied by the Kolsterized target in some what, further study for required neutron source is needed. For neutrino source study, the

Hiroshi Takahashi

2005-01-01

428

Wide-band, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for the Electron Beam Ion Trap  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed two wide-band, high-resolution vacuum flat crystal spectrometers and implemented them on the Electron Beam Ion Trap located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Working in unison, these spectrometers can measure an x-ray bandwidth {le}9 {Angstrom} in the soft x-ray region below 21 {Angstrom}. In order to achieve this large bandwidth each spectrometer houses either two 125 mm {times} 13 mm {times} 2 mm RAP (rubidium acid phthalate, 2d=26.121 {Angstrom}), two 114 mm {times} 13 mm {times} 2 mm TlAP (thallium acid phthalate, 2d=25.75 {Angstrom}) crystals, or some combination thereof, for dispersion and two position sensitive proportional counters for detection of x rays. The spectrometers are used to measure wavelengths and relative intensities of the L-shell line emission from FethinspXVII{endash}XXIV for comparison with spectra obtained from astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The wide wavelength coverage attainable by these spectrometers makes it possible to measure all the L-shell emission from a given iron ion species simultaneously. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Brown, G.V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1999-01-01

429

Paleomagnetics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the California Institute of Technology's Paleomagnetics Laboratory promotes its research of weakly magnetic geologic and biological materials. Users can learn about the facilities such as the biomagnetics lab and the automatic sampler. The website features the laboratory's recent research on many topics including extraterrestrial magnetism, magnetofossils, and historical geomagnetic field behavior. Visitors can find out more about the many laboratory members' research activities through links to their home pages. Researchers can download a selection of the group's publications. Everyone can enjoy the amazing images from recent geologic field trips across the globe.

430

[The reflection spectrometer and quantitative analysis design].  

PubMed

The reflection spectrometer with optical fibre transmission was designed and used in quantitative analysis. The reflection spectrometry was applied to the determination of reducing sugar in samples based on the reduction reaction of the reducing sugar with Fehling's reagent. The reduction reaction was carried out in a micro-reaction cell, and the reddish colored Cu2O produced was settled at the bottom of the reaction cell. The reflectance R(infinity), which is directly proportional to the amount of Cu2O produced, was measured by the reflection spectrometer. The fundamental principle, effect factors, and experimental conditions of the method were discussed. Linear relationship was obtained in the range of 20-120 microg of reducing sugar. The special features of this method were its simplicity in operation, relatively high sensitivity of determination, and the use of small amount of reagent. Satisfactory results were obtained in its application to the analysis of wine and honey samples. PMID:16883882

Zhang, Ping; Chen, Yong-Heng; Yao, Yan

2006-05-01

431

A photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed for trace gas detection with absorption transitions in coincidence with CO2 laser emission lines (9,2-10,9 ?m: 920-1086 cm-1). The CO2 laser operates in 90 CW lines with power of up to 15 W. A PC-controlled step motor can tune the laser lines. The resonance frequency of first longitudinal mode of the photoacoustic cell is at 1600 Hz. The cell Q-factor and cell constant are measured close to 50 and 28 mVcmW-1, respectively. The spectrometer has been tested in preliminary studies to analyze the absorption transitions of ozone (O_3). The ethylene (C_2H_4) from papaya fruit is also investigated using N2 as carrier gas at a constant flow rate.

Telles, E. M.; Bezerra, E.; Scalabrin, A.

2005-06-01

432

Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid  

SciTech Connect

MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; /Fermilab; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

2011-09-01

433

SOL ACES: Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SOL-ACES experiment is prepared to be flown with the ESA SOLAR payload to the International Space Station as planned for the Shuttle mission E1 (Columbus) in August 2006. Four grazing incidence spectrometers of planar geometry cover the wavelength range from 16 to 220 nm with a spectral resolution from 0.5 to 2.3 nm. These high-efficiency spectrometers will be re-calibrated by two three-signal ionization chambers to be operated with 42 band pass filters on routine during the mission. Re-measuring the filter transmissions with the spectrometers also allows a very accurate determination of the changing second order (optical) efficiencies of the spectrometers as well as the stray light contributions to the spectral recording in different wavelength ranges. In this context the primary requirements for measurements of low radiometric uncertainty are discussed in detail. The absorbing gases in the ionization chambers are neon, xenon and a mixture of 10% nitric oxide and 90% xenon. The laboratory measurements confirm very high count rates such that optical attenuators have to be applied. In addition, possible interfering contributions to the recorded data as generated by secondary effects can be determined to a high degree of accuracy by this method. Hence, very accurate irradiance measurements are expected in terms of relative standard uncertainties (RSU) ranging from 5% to 3% depending on the wavelength range.

Schmidtke, G.; Brunner, R.; Eberhard, D.; Halford, B.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Konz, W.; Riedel, W.-J.; Wolf, H.

434

Development of an ion energy mass spectrometer for application on board three-axis stabilized spacecraft  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an ion energy mass spectrometer for use aboard three-axis stabilized spacecraft. This spectrometer measures the three-dimensional distribution function of mass-discriminated ions with a high sampling rate using electrostatic energy analysis and time-of-flight mass analysis. Three-axis stabilized spacecraft make it difficult to obtain complete coverage of all possible plasma arrival directions. We have added angular scanning deflectors to a cylindrically symmetric analyzer to provide a hemispherical (2{pi} str) field of view. Ion analyzers need suitable sensitivity with respect to surrounding space plasma fluxes, whose intensities vary greatly depending especially on plasma regions such as the solar wind and the planetary magnetospheres. To obtain a wide range of sensitivity, we equipped the analyzer with sensitivity control electrodes. Ions originating from planetary atmosphere and surface include various ion species such as Na{sup +}, Mg{sup +}, Al{sup +}, and Fe{sup +}. The time-of-flight device of our spectrometer applies a peculiar electric field, called a linear electric field, which increases linearly with the penetration length of incident ions to enable mass resolution higher than that of conventional time-of-flight techniques. In this electric field, ions bounce in simple harmonic motion, where the energy and flight path no longer affect the flight time and thus the mass resolution. We have designed and fabricated the ion energy mass spectrometer, and have evaluated its performance through laboratory experiments.

Yokota, Shoichiro; Saito, Yoshifumi; Asamura, Kazushi; Mukai, Toshifumi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

2005-01-01

435

Characterization of the stray light in a space borne atmospheric AOTF spectrometer.  

PubMed

Acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) spectrometers are being criticized for spectral leakage, distant side lobes of their spectral response function (SRF), or the stray light. SPICAM-IR is the AOTF spectrometer in the range of 1000-1700 nm with a resolving power of 1800-2200 operating on the Mars Express interplanetary probe. It is primarily dedicated to measurements of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere. SPICAM H(2)O retrievals are generally lower than simultaneous measurements with other instruments, the stray light suggested as a likely explanation. We report the results of laboratory measurements of water vapor in quantity characteristic for the Mars atmosphere (2-15 precipitable microns) with the Flight Spare model of SPICAM-IR. We simulated the measured spectra with HITRAN-based synthetic model, varying the water abundance, and the level of the stray light, and compared the results to the known amount of water in the cell. The retrieved level of the stray light, assumed uniformly spread over the spectral range, is below 1-1.3·10(-4). The stray may be responsible for the underestimation of water abundance of up to 8%, or 0.6 pr. µm. The account for the stray light removes the bias completely; the overall accuracy to measure water vapor is ~0.2 pr. µm. We demonstrate that the AOTF spectrometer dependably measures the water abundance and can be employed as an atmospheric spectrometer. PMID:23938707

Korablev, Oleg; Fedorova, Anna; Villard, Eric; Joly, Lilian; Kiselev, Alexander; Belyaev, Denis; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

2013-07-29

436

Progress on the Fabrication and Testing of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an international collaboration that will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of a realistic cooling channel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. At each end of the cooling channel a spectrometer solenoid magnet consisting of five superconducting coils will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region. The scintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore will measure the muon beam emittance as it enters and exits the cooling channel. The 400 mm diameter warm bore, 3 meter long magnets incorporate a cold mass consisting of two coil sections wound on a single aluminum mandrel: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil section that matches the solenoid uniform field into the MICE cooling channel. The fabrication of the first of two spectrometer solenoids has been completed, and preliminary testing of the magnet is nearly complete. The key design features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets are presented along with a summary of the progress on the training and testing of the first magnet.

Virostek, Steve; Green, M.A.; Li, Derun; Zisman, Michael

2009-05-19

437

Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

Belov, Mikhail E. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

2009-06-02

438

The wide-angle neutron spin echo spectrometer project WASP  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes design and optimization for the wide angle spin-echo spectrometer (WASP) presently being planned at the ILL. The spectrometer will be a replacement for the high intensity spectrometer IN11 and will enhance its signal by more than one order of magnitude while maintaining the resolution of the present spectrometer. The paper outlines the magnetic field calculations and the considerations about possible limitations. The projected performance has been verified carefully by Monte Carlo raytracing and Biot-Savart magnetic field calculations. The maximum momentum transfer of the new spectrometer is to be extended to 4 angstroms {sup -1}.

Ehlers, Georg [ORNL

2007-01-01

439

HIRIS - The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a JPL facility instrument designed for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos).It will have 10-nm wide spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns at 30 m spatial resolution over a 30 km swath. The spectral resolution allows identification of many minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, spectral changes associated with

Jeff Dozier

1988-01-01

440

A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of 137Cs and 60Co sources a

J. Parus; J. Kierzek; W. Raab; D. Donohue

2003-01-01

441

Dilepton Production Studied with the Hades Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the HADES spectrometer at GSI we have studied dilepton production in various collision systems from elementary N+N, over p+A, up to the medium-heavy Ar+KCl system. We have confirmed the puzzling results of the former DLS collaboration at the Bevalac. While we have traced the origin of the excess pair yield in C+C collisions to elementary p+p and n+p processes,

A. Rustamov; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; D. Belver; A. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Böhmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; J. Díaz; A. Dybczak; E. Epple; L. Fabbietti; O. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzón; A. Gil; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; F. Guber; M. Gumberidze; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; P. Huck; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; T. Karavicheva; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; A. Kopp; G. Korcyl; G. K. Kornakov; R. Kotte; A. Kozuch; A. Krása; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; H. Kuc; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; A. Kurilkin; P. Kurilkin; P. Kählitz; V. Ladygin; J. Lamas-Valverde; S. Lang; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; J. Roskoss; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; J. Siebenson; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; T. Vasiliev; V. Wagner; M. Weber; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. Zanevsky

2011-01-01

442

Los Alamos constant-Q spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A constant-Q spectrometer, which has been installed on the pulsed source of the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, is described. It features a number of innovations that ease sample and analyser alignment and a novel composite crystal analyzer which exploits the mosaic properties of plastically deformed germanium in a new way. Observations of phonon dispersion in aluminium and of incoherent scattering in ZrH/sub 2/ are reported, along with background measurements. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Robinson, R.A.; Pynn, R.; Eckert, J.; Goldstone, J.A.

1985-01-01

443

Time Dispersive Spectrometer Using Digital Switching Means  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

Tarver, III, Edward E. (Livermore, CA); Siems, William F. (Spokane, WA)

2004-09-07

444

The high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer HADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion-induced collisions.\\u000a Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting\\u000a of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger\\u000a array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and

G. Agakichiev; C. Agodi; H. Alvarez-Pol; E. Atkin; E. Badura; A. Balanda; A. Bassi; R. Bassini; G. Bellia; D. Belver; A. V. Belyaev; M. Benovic; D. Bertini; J. Bielcik; M. Böhmer; C. Boiano; H. Bokemeyer; A. Bartolotti; J. L. Boyard; S. Brambilla; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; V. Chepurnov; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; R. Coniglione; L. Cosentino; M. Dahlinger; H. W. Daues; M. Destefanis; J. Díaz; F. Dohrmann; R. Dressler; I. Durán; A. Dybczak; T. Eberl; W. Enghardt; L. Fabbietti; O. V. Fateev; C. Fernández; P. Finocchiaro; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; B. Fuentes; T. Galatyuk; C. Garabatos; J. A. Garzón; B. Genolini; R. Gernhäuser; C. Gilardi; H. Gilg; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; E. Grosse; F. Guber; J. Hehner; K. Heidel; T. Hennino; S. Hlavac; J. Hoffmann; R. Holzmann; J. Homolka; J. Hutsch; A. P. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jaskula; J. C. Jourdain; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; M. Kajetanowicz; K. Kanaki; T. Karavicheva; A. Kastenmüller; L. Kidon; P. Kienle; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; H. J. Körner; B. W. Kolb; U. Kopf; K. Korcyl; R. Kotte; A. Kozuch; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; R. Kulessa; A. Kurepin; T. Kurtukian-Nieto; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; J. Lehnert; U. Leinberger; C. Lichtblau; E. Lins; C. Lippmann; M. Lorenz; D. Magestro; L. Maier; P. Maier-Komor; C. Maiolino; A. Malarz; T. Marek; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; E. Migneco; D. Mishra; E. Morinière; J. Mousa; M. Münch; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; A. Nekhaev; W. Niebur; J. Novotny; R. Novotny; W. Ott; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; T. Pérez Cavalcanti; M. Petri; P. Piattelli; J. Pietraszko; R. Pleskac; M. Ploskon; V. Pospísil; J. Pouthas; W. Prokopowicz; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; J. Ritman; G. Roche; G. Rodriguez-Prieto; K. Rosenkranz; P. Rosier; M. Roy-Stephan; A. Rustamov; J. Sabin-Fernandez; A. Sadovsky; B. Sailer; P. Salabura; C. Salz; M. Sánchez; P. Sapienza; D. Schäfer; R. M. Schicker; A. Schmah; H. Schön; W. Schön; C. Schroeder; S. Schroeder; E. Schwab; P. Senger; K. Shileev; R. S. Simon; M. Skoda; V. Smolyankin; L. Smykov; M. Sobiella; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Stelzer; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; M. Suk; M. Szczybura; A. Taranenko; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; V. Tiflov; A. Tikhonov; P. Tlusty; A. Toia; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; A. Yu. Troyan; H. Tsertos; I. Turzo; A. Ulrich; D. Vassiliev; A. Vázquez; Y. Volkov; V. Wagner; C. Wallner; W. Walus; Y. Wang; M. Weber; J. Wieser; S. Winkler; M. Wisniowski; T. Wojcik; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. V. Zanevsky; K. Zeitelhack; A. Zentek; P. Zhou; D. Zovinec; P. Zumbruch

2009-01-01

445

Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample submicrometer-diameter ring particles and impact ejecta from Saturn's satellites. The CDA measures a mass spectrum of each particle that impacts the chemical analyzer sector of the instrument. Particles impact a Rh target

Thomas J. Ahrens; Satish C. Gupta; G. Jyoti; J. L. Beauchamp

2003-01-01

446

Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time of flight mass spectrometer of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft, is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample the ring material and satellite impact ejecta. Upon impact of an incident dust particle against the target plate at velocities of 5-100 km\\/s, some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of

Thomas J. Ahrens; Satish C. Gupta; Dmitri Kossakovski; J. L. Beauchamp

2003-01-01

447

Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time of flight mass spectrometer of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft, is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample the ring material and satellite impact ejecta. Upon impact of an incident dust particle against the target plate at velocities of 5-100 km\\/s, some 10?8 to 10?5 times the particle mass of

G. Jyoti; Satish C. Gupta; T. J. Ahrens; Dmitri Kossakovski; J. L. Beauchamp

2000-01-01

448

Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time of flight mass spectrometer of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft, is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample the ring material and satellite impact ejecta. Upon impact of an incident dust particle against the target plate at velocities of 5-100 km\\/s, some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of

G. Jyoti; Satish C. Gupta; T. J. Ahrens; Dmitri Kossakovski; J. L. Beauchamp

2000-01-01

449

Design of a portable microfiber optic spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrum examination is widely used in scientific research and production. With the development of scientific research and production, the trend of spectrum examination is from indoor to outdoor in situ examination and on-line monitor. So the spectrometer is required to be more minimal. A new type of portable micro fiber spectrometer, using CCD, blaze grating, and two spherical mirror, a small dispersing system based on crossing Czerny-Turner structure, is designed based on this kind of requirement. By analyzing optical system structure, the relation among parameters of these components has been found out in order to fix basic parameters for miniaturized spectrometer; its working wavelength is 200-910nm. The entire spectrum is detected by a CCD for one time, the selection of CCD is product of Toshiba Corporation, linear charge coupled device (L.CCD) TCD1304AP, then received light signal is converted to an electrical signal. The system's hardware circuit includes CPLD, MCU, the CCD driving timing circuit, signal conditioning circuits, high-speed A/D sampling and transform timing circuit. A new kind of driving and sampling system which is high integrated for multi-channel has been designed by using CPLD (complex programmable logical device) and MCU. In this system, many function modules can be generated by logic cells inside of the CPLD chip, such as the driving pulse of CCD, the driving timing of high-speed A/D sampling converter and storage system and so on. In the end, the A/D results can be transmitted to computer by MCU for storage, processing and analysis. The CPLD is programmed in VHDL and compiled, synthesized, simulated and burned with the helping of the environment of Quartus II. The design of portable micro fiber spectrometer has the feature of wide spectrum range and high resolving power, so the system is especially suitable in the application of portable filed examination.

Tong, Jian-Ping; Yang, Yang; Sui, Cheng-Hua; Xu, Dang-Yang; Wang, Fei

2010-05-01

450

The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) on Ulysses is designed to determine uniquely the elemental and ionic-charge composition, and the temperatures and mean speeds of all major solar-wind ions, from H through Fe, at solar wind speeds ranging from 175 km\\/s (protons) to 1280 km\\/s (Fe(8+)). The instrument, which covers an energy per charge range from 0.16 to 59.6

G. Gloeckler; J. Geiss; H. Balsiger; P. Bedini; J. C. Cain; J. Fisher; L. A. Fisk; A. B. Galvin; F. Gliem; D. C. Hamilton

1992-01-01

451

A portable gamma ray spectrometer/computer  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art portable gamma ray spectrometer has been developed commercially. The instrument is available with NaI or hand-held Germanium detectors and can collect and analyze up to 4K channels of PHA or MCS spectra. An integral LCD provides graphic and character readout. Dual microprocessors are operated in a tightly-coupled multi-programming environment providing unique operator interface capability.

Roberts, H.

1984-02-01

452

Compact, self-contained optical spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

We describe the construction and performance of a self-contained, battery-operated, hand-held optical spectrometer. This unit contains an on-board optical excitation source, miniaturized monochromator, CCD detector, Peltier cooler, LCD display module, and microprocessor control. We demonstrate capabilities for qualitative fluorescence determinations and semiquantitative fluorescence and absorption measurements. Resolution is {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}1200 at 434 nm. {copyright} {ital 1995 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.}

Baird, W.; Nogar, N.S. [Chemical Sciences and Technology, CST-1 MSJ565, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1995-11-01

453

Construction of a large superconducting spectrometer magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sector-type superconducting spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments has been constructed. The central magnetic field is 3 T with a magnet gap of 50 cm and a stored energy estimated to be 11.2 MJ. Three-dimensional magnetic field calculations and a stress analysis have been performed to design the coil and supporting structures. The magnet has a flexible helium transfer

T. Shintomi; K. Aoki; Y. Doi; Y. Makida; O. Hashimoto; T. Kitami; T. Miyaji; T. Nagae; M. Sekimoto

1991-01-01

454

Rethinking Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an inquiry analysis tool and adaptation principles to help teachers evaluate and adapt laboratory instructional materials to be more inquiry-oriented. Based on the National Research Council's (NRC) essential features of inquiry. (NB)

Volkmann, Mark J.; Abell, Sandra K.

2003-01-01

455

Laboratory Methods  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The FDA sets scientific standards for testing foods for various contaminants. Laboratories and food companies worldwide use these standards to make ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

456

A Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Plasma Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) designs will revolutionize interferometric spectroscopy in the VUV. Advantages of interferometric spectrometers include: (1) a very high spectral resolving power with a large etendue, (2) excellent absolute wavenumber accuracy, (3) extremely broad spectral coverage, and (4) high data collection rates. Interferograms from a conventional Fourier transform spectrometer (Michelson interferometer) are recorded as a function of time using a single channel detector while moving a mirror. Interferograms from an SHS are spread in space across a detector array. The lack of moving parts means that an SHS is compatible with low duty cycle, transient sources common in the VUV. Our SHS has a CaF2 beamsplitter and a matched pair of very coarse (23.2 groove/mm) echelle gratings blazed for 63.5 . Key mechanical components have temperature compensated designs and many parts, including the entire optical bread board, are made of Invar for long term phase stability. The 96 mm wide gratings are compatible with a theoretical limit-of-resolution of 0.058 cm-1 (inverse maximum path difference of 2 x 9.6 cm x sin 63.5 ) using a symmetric interferogram. The quality of interferograms recorded with a low resolution test camera indicated that the optics and mountings is satisfactory. First results with the full resolution 4 Mega-pixel VUV compatible CCD camera will be reported.

Lawler, J. E.; Labby, Z.; Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J.

2006-10-01

457

Multislit optimized spectrometer: fabrication and assembly update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA ESTO funded Multi-slit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS) Instrument Incubator Program will advance a spatial multiplexing spectrometer for coastal ocean remote sensing from lab demonstration to flight like environment testing. Vibration testing to meet the GEVS requirements for a geostationary orbit launch will be performed. The multiple slit design reduces the required telescope aperture leading to mass and volume reductions over conventional spectrometers when applied to the GEO-CAPE oceans mission. The MOS program is entering year 3 of the 3-year program where assembly and test activities will demonstrate the performance of the MOS concept. This paper discusses the instrument design, fabrication and assembly. It outlines the test plan to realize a technology readiness level of 6. Testing focuses on characterizing radiometric impacts of the multiple slit images multiplexed onto a common focal plane, and assesses the resulting uncertainties imparted to the ocean color data products. The MOS instrument implementation for GEO-CAPE provides system benefits that can lead to cost savings and risk reduction while meeting the science objectives of understanding the dynamic coastal ocean environment.

Valle, Tim; Hardesty, Chuck; Good, William; Seckar, Chris; Shea, Don; Spuhler, Peter; Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas

2013-09-01

458

Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time of flight mass spectrometer of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft, is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample the ring material and satellite impact ejecta. Upon impact of an incident dust particle against the target plate at velocities of 5-100 km/s, some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of positive valence, single-charged ions is induced. These are analyzed via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Initial experiments employing a pulsed N2 laser (>300 ?J/pulse, 4ns, 337nm) acting on a suite of samples are described. The laser beam is focussed to deliver the light pulses onto a laser power density (1011 W/cm2) to simulate the impact of particles. Laser ionization produced a charge of 4.6 pC per pulse for aluminum alloy. Estimating that each Al+1 ion require energy of 5.98 eV ionization energy/ion implies that 10-5% of the laser energy produced ions and the present system has a 5% efficiency of collecting the laser-irradiation induced ions. Employing a multi-channel plate detector in this mass spectrometer yields for Al-Mg-Cu alloy and kamacite (Fe-Ni mineral) targets well defined peaks at 24 (Mg+1), 27 (Al+1) and 64 (Cu+1), and 56 (Fe+1), 58 (Ni+1) and 60 (Ni+1) dalton, respectively. .

Jyoti, G.; Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, T. J.; Kossakovski, Dmitri; Beauchamp, J. L.

2000-04-01

459

The compact neutron spectrometer at ASDEX Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The first neutron spectrometer of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) was installed in November 2008. It is a compact neutron spectrometer (CNS) based on a BC501A liquid scintillating detector, which can simultaneously measure 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted from deuterium (D) plasmas and {gamma} radiation. The scintillating detector is coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination data acquisition (DPSD) system capable of count rates up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The DPSD system can operate in acquisition and processing mode. With the latter n-{gamma} discrimination is performed off-line based on the two-gate method. The paper describes the tests of the CNS and its installation at AUG. The neutron emission from the D plasma measured during a discharge with high auxiliary heating power was used to validate the CNS performance. The study of the optimal settings for the DPSD data processing to maximize the n-{gamma} discrimination capability of the CNS is reported. The CNS measured both 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted in AUG D plasmas with a maximum count rate of 5.4 x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (>10 times higher than similar spectrometers previously achieved) with an efficiency of 9.3 x 10{sup -10} events per AUG neutron.

Giacomelli, L.; Zimbal, A.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schuhmacher, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Tardini, G.; Neu, R. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

2011-12-15

460

Rethinking Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although research demonstrates the value of inquiry-based science, many curriculum materials are still based on traditional approaches that fail to engage students in inquiry. Using an example of a typical cookbook laboratory--the "rusty nail," this article describes an inquiry analysis tool and adaptation principles that were created to help teachers evaluate and adapt laboratory instructional materials to be more inquiry-oriented.

Volkmann, Mark J.; Abell, Sandra K.

2003-09-01

461

Influence of proton and neutron fluxes on spectrometric characteristics of a high-pressure xenon gamma spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of research of proton and neutron space radiation fluxes influence on spectrometric characteristics of high pressure xenon gamma-spectrometer (HPXGS) which has been working on board the orbital station 'MIR' since 1990 are submitted. It is shown that energy resolution and test gamma- line position in registered spectra have not practically changed for six years of gamma-spectrometer's work. Other type of HPXGS (the cylindrical ionization chamber) was subjected to neutrons irradiation of Pu-Be source in laboratory conditions. The analysis of these measurement results are given.

Ulin, Sergey E.; Vlasik, K. F.; Galper, A. M.; Grachev, V. M.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Liagushin, V. I.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

1997-10-01

462

Two CdZnTe Detector-Equipped Gamma-ray Spectrometers for Attribute Measurements on Irradiated Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Some United States Department of Energy-owned spent fuel elements from foreign research reactors (FRRs) are presently being shipped from the reactor location to the US for storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two cadmium zinc telluride detector-based gamma-ray spectrometers have been developed to confirm the irradiation status of these fuels. One spectrometer is configured to operate underwater in the spent fuel pool of the shipping location, while the other is configured to interrogate elements on receipt in the dry transfer cell at the INEEL’s Interim Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF). Both units have been operationally tested at the INEEL.

Hartwell, John Kelvin; Winston, Philip Lon; Marts, Donna Jeanne; Moore-McAteer, Lisa Dawn; Taylor, Steven Cheney

2003-04-01

463

Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer coupled with the Lohengrin spectrometer for fission study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate knowledge of the fission of actinides is necessary for studies of innovative nuclear reactor concepts. The fission yields have a direct influence on the evaluation of the fuel inventory or the reactor residual power after shutdown. A collaboration between the ILL, LPSC and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at ILL in order to measure the isotopic and isomeric yields. The method is illustrated using the 233U(n,f)98Y reaction. However, the extracted beam from the Lohengrin spectrometer is not isobaric ions which limits the low yield measurements. Presently, the coupling of the Lohengrin spectrometer with a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM) is studied at the ILL in order to define and validate the enhanced purification of the extracted beam. This work will present the results of the spectrometer characterisation, along with a comparison with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation especially developed for this purpose.

Kessedjian, G.; Chebboubi, A.; Faust, H.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Sage, C.; Serot, O.

2013-03-01

464

Characterization and first measurements from space of the ROSINA Mass Spectrometers onboard ROSETTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 2, 2004 the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched the Rosetta spacecraft from Kourou in French-Guyana. Rosetta will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) in November 2014. Onboard this spacecraft is, among others, the ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) instrument package comprising the two mass spectrometers DFMS (Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer) and RTOF (Reflectron-type Time of Flight mass spectrometer), the cometary pressure sensor (COPS) and the data processing unit (DPU). DFMS and RTOF are designed to analyze the volatile material, i.e. the cometary neutral gas and ions in the vicinity of CG, and to measure the elemental, isotopic and molecular composition of this comet during the first encounter and during the conjoint journey towards the Sun and throughout the perihelion passage. DFMS is a compact state of the art high-resolution mass spectrometer with a high dynamic range, a good sensitivity and a mass range from 12-140 amu/q. A mass resolution m/? m > 3000 at 1% peak height allows the separation of e.g. 13C and 12CH. RTOF is characterized by an extended mass range from 1 to > 300 amu/q, a high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range. A full mass spectrum of the entire mass range is recorded within 100 ? s. The mass resolution is up to m/? m > 4500 at the 50% peak height depending on the measurement mode. Combining the results of both ionization gauges of COPS and the known spacecraft orientation relative to the comet nucleus the gas velocity can be calculated. In our presentation we will comment on the calibration results that we obtained with the reference models in our laboratory and we will present the first real spectra recorded in space during the commissioning phase in September/October 2004.

Jäckel, A.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Graf, S.; Kopp, E.; Riesen, T.; Rubin, M.; Wüthrich, S.; Wurz, P.; Berthelier, J. J.; Fuselier, S.; Gliem, F.; Gombosi, T.; Korth, A.; Nevejans, D.; Réme, H.

2004-11-01

465

Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

2010-05-12

466

The Sandwich spectrometer for ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

The technical details and performance of the newly developed Sandwich spectrometer for ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry are presented. The spectrometer, which consists of two HPGe detectors, an active muon shield and a lead/copper shield with a convenient and rapid opening mechanism, is located in an underground laboratory at a depth of 500 m water equivalent. The data is collected in list mode, which enables off-line data analysis to identify muon-induced events and possible Ge detector crosstalk due to Compton scattering. The background count-rate from 40 to 2700 keV normalised to the mass of the Ge crystals is 220 day(-1)kg(-1). PMID:19246202

Wieslander, J S Elisabeth; Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Marissens, Gerd; Misiaszek, Marcin; Preusse, Werner

2009-01-23

467

Low level gamma-ray germanium-spectrometer to measure very low primordial radionuclide concentrations  

PubMed

A new germanium spectrometer especially suited for large sample measurements is described in detail. It is operated in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory under shielding rock of 3300 m water equivalent, which reduces the muon flux by six orders of magnitude. The integral background counting rate in the energy range from 50 to 2750 keV is about 0.15 min(-1). The low peak count rates of mostly less than 1 count per day together with a relative efficiency of 102% and the high sample capacity makes this spectrometer one of the most sensitive worldwide. Some sample measurements for the solar neutrino experiment BOREXINO and the detector efficiency calibration by the Monte Carlo method are discussed as well. PMID:10879860

Neder; Heusser; Laubenstein

2000-07-01

468

HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.  

SciTech Connect

Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

CUI,Y.

2007-05-01

469

A Micro-Opto-Mechanical Photoacoustic Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress achieved in a one-year LDRD feasibility study of a Photo Acoustic Spectrometer (PAS). Specifically, this team sought to create an all-optical and very small PhotoAcoustic Spectrometer Sensing system (PASS system). The PASS system includes all the hardware needed within a gas environment to analyze the presence of a large variety of molecules. The all-optical PASS system requires only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the gas environment. These systems can be at any distance from the PASS system as signal loss through the optical fibers is very small. The PASS system is intended to be placed in a small space where gases need to be measured and thus must be very small. The size and all-optical constraints placed on the PASS system demand a new design. The PASS system design includes a novel acoustic chamber, optical sensor, power fiber coupling and sensing fiber coupling. Our collaborators at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) have proven the capabilities of a complete photoacoustic spectrometer that uses a macro-scale PASS system (first 2 references). It was our goal to miniaturize the PASS system and turn it into an all-optical system to allow for its use in confined spaces that prohibit electrical devices. This goal demanded the study of all the system components, selection of an appropriate optical readout system and the design and integration of the optical sensor to the PASS system. A stretch goal was to fabricate a completed PASS system prototype.

Kotovsky, J

2008-10-17

470

Low Energy X-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d=9.95A?) crystal. To preclude higher order (n>~1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than ~1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surfaced photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminum light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any UV generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral enegy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L?1,2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy X-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable.

Woodruff, Wayne R.

1981-10-01

471

Laboratory Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and t