Science.gov

Sample records for laboratory rearing technique

  1. Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

  2. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  4. Development of laboratory-reared sheepshead,Archosargus

    E-print Network

    descriptions exist for scup (Stenoto- mus chrysops) eggs and larvae (Kuntz and Radcliffe, 1917; Hilde- brand. pigmentation. feeding, and growth for a series of sheeps- head reared from eggs to 67-day- old juveniles

  5. Phenotypic changes in laboratory-reared colonies of the maize herbivore, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American and European maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was used to assess whether environmental conditions of the natal field, subsequent laboratory rearing, or genetic population characteristics affect phenotypic traits of fitness, activity, or...

  6. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  7. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  8. Exposing Laboratory-Reared Fleas to Soil and Wild Flea Feces Increases Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan T.; Vetter, Sara M.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis. PMID:23939709

  9. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  10. EARLY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE BROWN SHRIMP, Penaeus aztecus IVES, REARED IN THE LABORATORY 1

    E-print Network

    HARRY L. COOK' AND M. ALICE MURPHY" ABSTRACT The larval and first postlarval stages of the brown shrimp, Penaeu8 aztecu8 Ives, reared from eggs spawned in the laboratory, as well as the eggs themselves their larvae can only be identified to genus (Cook, 1966). Within genera the larvae are so similar

  11. LIGHT INTENSITY AFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF ATTACKING PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) IN A LABORATORY REARING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution of attacking phorid flies (Pseudacteon curvatus Borgmeier) in a laboratory rearing system was tested for dependence on light intensity under 2 different light regimes. Light intensity (range, approx. 220-340 Lux) influenced fly distribution in light regime 1; in the second light regime...

  12. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains. PMID:26313993

  13. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  14. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  15. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  16. Laboratory rearing of immature Culicoides peregrinus Kieffer, a potential vector of bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Harsha, R; Mazumdar, A

    2015-12-01

    Culicoides peregrinus (Kieffer) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was reared from egg to adult using four different combinations of food and substrate (T1: absorbent cotton, mud broth with 2% yeast; T2: 1% agar, mud broth with 2% yeast; T3: absorbent cotton, nutrient broth; T4: absorbent cotton, 2% yeast). Field-collected engorged females exhibited mean fecundity of 82.45 ± 4.00. The highest rate of emergence and largest adults were obtained in T1, and the lowest rate of emergence was observed in T4. Two-way analyses of variance with post hoc Tukey tests showed significant differences in age at pupation, pupal weight and wing length among the various treatments, although the sex ratio was 1 : 1 in all food/substrate combinations. The successful rearing of immature C. peregrinus is an encouraging step towards the establishment of a laboratory colony of this prevalent species associated with livestock. PMID:26396058

  17. SIMILARITY IN RESPONSES OF LABORATORY-REARED ANED FIELD-COLLECTED LONE STAR TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE)NYMPHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field testing tick repellents intended for use on human skin can be difficult, particularly when multiple concentrations of multiple repellents must be tested. Therefore, laboratory tests using laboratory reared ticks have been important. To address concerns that test results obtained with laborator...

  18. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  19. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  20. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  1. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  2. A description of the larval development of Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionísio, Maria; Rodrigues, Armindo; Costa, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first description of the larval development of the commercially exploited barnacle Megabalanus azoricus. It describes the changes in larval size and shape as well as the general morphology and duration of each larval stage. Embryos were obtained from gravid specimens collected at São Miguel Island and reared through six naupliar stages to the cypris stage in laboratory conditions. The planktotrophic nauplii reached the cypris stage after 14 days of hatching in individual cultures at 20 °C under natural illumination and fed with phytoplankton ( Chaetoceros gracilis, Isochrysis sp., and Tetraselmis sp.). The nauplius of M. azoricus has a normal size compared with nauplii of other congeneric species, ranging between the 261 ?m (nauplius I) and 912 ?m (nauplius VI). This work provides the first description of larvae of the genus Megabalanus for the Portuguese oceanic islands and provides comparisons with congeneric species in other parts of the world.

  3. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  4. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly. PMID:26336242

  5. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  6. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  7. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  8. 2003 THE GREAT LAKES ENTOMOLOGIST 1 VOLTINISM AND LABORATORY REARING OF MICROVELIA HINEI

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Steven J.

    (HETEROPTERA: GERROMORPHA: VELIIDAE) Steven J. Taylor1 and J. E. McPherson2 ABSTRACT Voltinism in Microvelia is at least bivoltine in southern Illinois. This species was reared from egg to adult at 26.7 ± 0.6°C. Illinois records are from southern Illinois and Iroquois County (Taylor 1996). Based on its presence

  9. VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

  10. Microwave techniques for diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S

    1993-01-01

    Microwaves (MWs) were first introduced as a method of fixation just over 20 years ago. In recent years their use has extended far beyond that of a safe, clean and rapid method of fixation of tissue blocks and large specimens, including brains. MWs accelerate the action of cross-linking fixatives and can greatly accelerate the various stages of tissue processing to produce a paraffin block in 30 min. An extensive range of ultrafast MW-stimulated special stains has been developed, and immunohistochemical procedures can be completed in 20 min by employing MWs. Cellular antigens are distinctly better preserved in tissues fixed by MWs than by conventional cross-linking fixatives. Also, the cytomorphology of cryostat sections irradiated in Wolman's solution is clearly improved. MWs can similarly be applied for fixation and staining of preparations for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and they also greatly accelerate polymerisation of resins. In the current climate of cost containment, this wide range of applications makes the MW oven an invaluable addition to the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:8287207

  11. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

  12. A laboratory technique to study the effects of Varroa destructor and viruses on developing worker honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing techniques for in vitro rearing honey bees and Varroa involve brood manipulation. In this laboratory study, we used larvae that were naturally developing in a comb as Varroa- and virus-inoculation hosts. In Trial 1, we used L4 larvae and newly sealed larvae (NSL) as hosts which were inocula...

  13. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  14. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  15. Point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown: Characterisation of a metallisation technique for the rear surface of a solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, Ned J.; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Wenham, Stuart R.; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2015-07-01

    Characterisation results are presented for ohmic contacts to passivated crystalline silicon, formed using the point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown technique. Self aligned contact is made between the metal and heavily doped surface regions through an intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layer. Local doping is provided by a laser using a standard technique identical to that for selective emitter formation. Our results for gate metals of Au, Al, and Ti show that the technique does not rely on reactivity between the dielectric and the metal, excluding metal induced crystallisation from the contacting process. Diffusion of the gate metal into the dielectric is observed in transmission electron microscope images suggesting high temperatures are present locally during the breakdown process. The technique is equally applicable to contacting of n and p-type silicon, making it a potential alternative for ohmic contacting to silicon to passivated rear surfaces.

  16. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  17. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

  18. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  19. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  20. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  1. Additional moults into ‘elongatus’ males in laboratory-reared Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae) – implications for taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    David, Jean-Francois; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The number of stadia during post-embryonic development is supposed to be fixed in most species of the millipede order Polydesmida. For the first time since 1928, additional moults were observed in two males of Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 reared in the laboratory. These ‘elongatus’ males sensu Verhoeff reached stadium IX instead of stadium VIII, with addition of a further podous ring (32 pairs of legs). One male had well-developed gonopods at stadium VIII, which regressed at stadium IX; the other had no gonopods at stadium VIII, which developed at stadium IX. The two cases correspond to the ‘regressionis’ and ‘progressionis’ forms described by Verhoeff in Polydesmus complanatus (Linnaeus, 1761), which confirms entirely his results. Additional moults appear to be associated with small body sizes and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Comparisons between millipede orders indicate that post-embryonic development is less strictly canalized in Polydesmida than in Chordeumatida. This implies that the adult number of body rings is of limited taxonomic value in Polydesmida and should not be viewed as a character of generic importance. PMID:22303094

  2. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  3. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  4. Costly nutritious diets do not necessarily translate into better performance of artificaially reared fruit files (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1 and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique (SIT) program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adu...

  5. Tick rearing and in vitro feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of high quality laboratory-reared ticks is essential to many studies on tick biology, control and interactions with pathogenic agents. Tick rearing is complicated by the requirement of blood feeding multiple times throughout the life cycle and time- intensive rearing procedures (Gregs...

  6. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 ?atm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and ?18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  7. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  8. [The ways of harmonization of clinical laboratory measurement techniques].

    PubMed

    Miller, W G; Myers, G L; Gantzer, M L; Kahn, S E; Schönbrunner, E R; Thienpont, L M; Bunk, D M; Christenson, R H; Eckfeldt, J H; Stanley, G L; Nubling, C M; Sturgeon, C M

    2013-02-01

    The results of implementation of different clinical laboratory techniques are to be equal in clinically significant limits to be optimally applied in diagnostics of diseases and treatment of patients. When the results of laboratory tests are not standardized and harmonized for the very same clinical assay the results can be expressed by unmatched numbers. Unfortunately, in some handbooks the values are presented based on the results of application of specific laboratory techniques without considering possibility or likelihood of differences between various techniques. When this is a case, accumulation of data of diferent clinical research studies and working out of clinical handbooks on this basis will be inconsistent. Inadequate understanding of issue that the results of laboratory tests are not standardized and harmonized can lead to incorrect clinical, financial, managerial or technical decisions. The standardization of clinical laboratory techniques was applied to many measurands related to primary referent techniques (standard specimen of pure substance) or/and developed referent measurement techniques. However, harmonization of clinical laboratory techniques for those measurands which are not related any developed measurement techniques is quite problematic due to inadequate determination of measurand, its inadequate analytical specificity, insufficient attention to commutability of referent materials and poor systematic approach to harmonization. To overcome these issues an infrastructure is to be developed to support systematic approach to identification and prioritization of measurands which are to be harmonized on the basis of clinical importance and technical applicability. The management of technical implementation harmonization process for specific measurands. PMID:23808013

  9. Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

  10. Paternity analyses in wild-caught and laboratory-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Oneal, E; Knowles, L L

    2015-12-01

    Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. sanctaecrucis and contrast our findings with those obtained from females reared in a high-density laboratory environment. We find that female A. sanctaecrucis exercise control by mating multiple times (females mount males), but that male-male post-copulatory interactions may influence paternity success. Moreover, post-copulatory interactions that affect reproductive success of males are not independent of mating environment: clutches of wild-caught females exhibit higher sire diversity and lower paternity skew than clutches of laboratory-reared females. There was no strong evidence for last male precedence in either case. Most attempts at disentangling the contributions of male-male and male-female interactions towards post-copulatory sexual selection have been undertaken in a laboratory setting and may not capture the full context in which they take place - such as the relationship between premating and post-mating interactions. Our results reinforce the importance of designing studies that can capture the multifaceted nature of sexual selection for elucidating the role of post-copulatory sexual selection in driving the evolution of male and female reproductive traits, especially when different components (e.g. precopulatory and post-copulatory interactions) do not exert independent effects on reproductive outcomes. PMID:26348983

  11. Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish - thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  12. Use of PIT tags to assess individual heterogeneity of laboratory-reared juveniles of the endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) in a mark–recapture study

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Dan; Jiao, Yan; Neves, Richard; Jones, Jess

    2015-01-01

    The federally endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) was propagated and reared to taggable size (5–10 mm), and released to the Powell River, Tennessee, to augment a relict population. Methodology using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on these mussels greatly facilitated the detection process. The overall mean detection probability and survival rate of released individuals reached 97.8 to 98.4% and 99.7 to 99.9% (per month), respectively, during nine successive recapture occasions in the 2-year study period, regardless of seasonality. Nonhierarchical models and hierarchical models incorporating individual and seasonal variations through a Bayesian approach were compared and resulted in similar performance of prediction for detection probability and survival rate of mussels. This is the first study to apply the mark–recapture method to laboratory-reared mussels using PIT tags and stochastic models. Quantitative analyses for individual heterogeneity allowed examination of demographic variance and effects of heterogeneity on population dynamics, although the individual and seasonal variations were small in this study. Our results provide useful information in implementing conservation strategies of this faunal group and a framework for other species or similar studies. PMID:25798225

  13. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  14. INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

  15. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NOX REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of work to develop and demonstrate, in the laboratory, NOx reduction techniques that would be suited to petroleum refinery CO boilers. (Note: Most refineries have one or more CO boilers to incinerate off-gases from catalytic cracking. These devices constit...

  16. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  17. A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ? for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ?) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

  18. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  19. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  20. Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. ·Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. ·Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

  1. Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Volume Transfers with Serological Pipettes and Micropipettors

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: •Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. •Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility.• Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. •Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. •Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. •State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. •Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. •Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

  2. Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Navarro-Marí, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection PMID:23248735

  3. A Novel Experimental Technique to Simulate Pillar Burst in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M. C.; Zhao, F.; Cai, M.; Du, S.

    2015-09-01

    Pillar burst is one type of rockburst that occurs in underground mines. Simulating the stress change and obtaining insight into the pillar burst phenomenon under laboratory conditions are essential for studying the rock behavior during pillar burst in situ. To study the failure mechanism, a novel experimental technique was proposed and a series of tests were conducted on some granite specimens using a true-triaxial strainburst test system. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to monitor the rock fracturing process. The damage evolution process was investigated using techniques such as macro and micro fracture characteristics observation, AE energy evolution, and b value analysis and fractal dimension analysis of cracks on fragments. The obtained results indicate that stepped loading and unloading simulated the pillar burst phenomenon well. Four deformation stages are divided as initial stress state, unloading step I, unloading step II, and final burst. It is observed that AE energy has a sharp increase at the initial stress state, accumulates slowly at unloading steps I and II, and increases dramatically at peak stress. Meanwhile, the mean b values fluctuate around 3.50 for the first three deformation stages and then decrease to 2.86 at the final stage, indicating the generation of a large amount of macro fractures. Before the test, the fractal dimension values are discrete and mainly vary between 1.10 and 1.25, whereas after failure the values concentrate around 1.25-1.35.

  4. Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

  5. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity model. The integration of electric and electromagnetic data allowed us to overcome the limits of each technique, especially in terms of resolution and depth, in humid/saturated conditions was investigated and the effectiveness of three-dimensional acquisitions was studied to better explore archeological sites and reduce the uncertainties related on the interpretation of geophysical analysis. The complexity of the relationship between archaeological features in the subsoil and their geophysical response requires efforts in the interpretation of resulting data. Reference Campana S. and Piro, S., (2009): Seeing the unseen - Geophysics and landscape archaeology., CRC Press, London, 2. No. of pages: 376. ISBN: 978-0-415-44721-8. Conyers, L. and Goodman, D., (1997): Ground-Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. Davis, J.L. and Annan, A.P. (1989): Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophysical Prospecting, 37, 531-551.

  6. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  7. Assessing patterns of senescence in Drosophila mojavensis reared on

    E-print Network

    Etges, William J.

    , but not in cactus-reared flies. Models commonly used in Drosophila laboratory studies may be inadequate to accurately assess the shape of natural mortality risk functions. Keywords: ageing, Drosophila, ecology, hostAssessing patterns of senescence in Drosophila mojavensis reared on different host cacti Luciano M

  8. 5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004

    E-print Network

    Tabacco, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

  9. Ice Sample Production Techniques and Indentation Tests for Laboratory Experiments Simulating Ship Collisions with Ice

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Steve

    Ice Sample Production Techniques and Indentation Tests for Laboratory Experiments Simulating Ship Collisions with Ice Stephen E. Bruneau1 , Anna K. Dillenburg2 , and Simon Ritter2 1 Prof. of Civil of Newfoundland, Canada. The work investigates laboratory production techniques of cone-shaped ice specimens

  10. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  11. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  12. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  13. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  14. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  15. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  17. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  20. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  1. Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

  2. A laboratory technique for screening shale swelling inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, E.A.; Hackett, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    A new technique was developed for quantitatively analyzing the effectiveness of shale swelling inhibitors in retarding fluid adsorption and volume expansion. Details of testing procedures, equipment construction, and design rationale are provided. Comparisons are made to methods commonly used in mud labs today, and examples of test results are given to illustrate the new technique's usefulness and versatility. Relevant concepts of clay hydration theory are discussed to provide background for interpreting the presented experimental results. Differentiation between crystalline swelling, and combined crystalline and osmotic swelling is achieved by applying a mechanical restraining force (preload) to shale samples while being hydrated. Mud additives examined include various salts, ferrochrome lignosulfonate, and several polymers.

  3. 43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS LOOKING NORTH TO 19TH CENTURY ADDITION. Arch defines north wall of original house. - George A. Trenholm Mansion, 172 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  4. Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltinski, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)

  5. Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

    This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

  6. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  7. Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

  8. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  9. Effects of rearing density of survival, growth, and development of the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research focuses on developing cost- and space-efficient techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that survival decreases as rearing density increases ...

  10. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Selvadurai, Paul A.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within ?7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  11. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  12. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  13. Assessment of fracture-sampling techniques for laboratory tests on core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, G.R.; Boernge, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the site characterization work to be done at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, a candidate site for the first mined-geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, laboratory tests are proposed to evaluate fluid flow in single fractures. Laboratory and onsite tests were conducted to develop methods for collecting rock-core samples containing single fractures for the subsequent laboratory tests. Techniques for collecting rock cores with axial (parallel to the core axis) and radial (perpendicular to the core axis) fractures are discussed.

  14. Sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA among isolates of the oxyurid nematodes Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera from mice reared in laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J H; Lou, Y; Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Liu, Z X; Duan, H; Guo, D H; Gao, D Z; Yue, D M; Wang, C R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0-0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0-0.7% in ITS1 and 0-1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0-65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3-64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods - Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony - revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes. PMID:26693888

  15. Clinical evaluation of analytical variations in serum creatinine measurements: why laboratories should abandon Jaffe techniques

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-equivalence in serum creatinine (SCr) measurements across Dutch laboratories and the consequences hereof on chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging were examined. Methods National data from the Dutch annual external quality organization of 2009 were used. 144 participating laboratories examined 11 pairs of commutable, value-assigned SCr specimens in the range 52–262 ?mol/L, using Jaffe or enzymatic techniques. Regression equations were created for each participating laboratory (by regressing values as measured by participating laboratories on the target values of the samples sent by the external quality organization); area under the curves were examined and used to rank laboratories. The 10th and 90th percentile regression equation were selected for each technique separately. To evaluate the impact of the variability in SCr measurements and its eventual clinical consequences in a real patient population, we used a cohort of 82424 patients aged 19–106 years. The SCr measurements of these 82424 patients were introduced in the 10th and 90th percentile regression equations. The newly calculated SCr values were used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the 4-variable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Differences in CKD staging were examined, comparing the stratification outcomes for Jaffe and enzymatic SCr techniques. Results Jaffe techniques overestimated SCr: 21%, 12%, 10% for SCr target values 52, 73 and 94 ?mol/L, respectively. For enzymatic assay these values were 0%, -1%, -2%, respectively. eGFR using the MDRD formula and SCr measured by Jaffe techniques, staged patients in a lower CKD category. Downgrading to a lower CKD stage occurred in 1-42%, 2-37% and 12–78.9% of patients for the 10th and 90th percentile laboratories respectively in CKD categories 45–60, 60–90 and >90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Using enzymatic techniques, downgrading occurred only in 2-4% of patients. Conclusions Enzymatic techniques lead to less variability in SCr measurements than Jaffe techniques, and therefore result in more accurate staging of CKD. Therefore the specific enzymatic techniques are preferably used in clinical practice in order to generate more reliable GFR estimates. PMID:23043743

  16. Application of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique by Novice Teachers in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy…

  17. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  18. TECHNIQUES OF TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

    PART ONE OF THIS BULLETIN PROVIDES HELP IN THE TWO CRITICAL AREAS OF MASTER TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION. SUPPLEMENTED BY NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT AND DUPLICATION TECHNIQUES, THE BULLETIN DESCRIBES MASTER PROGRAM DUPLICATION USING LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, A PROFESSIONAL MASS DUPLICATOR, A TAPE RECORDER, A RECORD…

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' (WALBAUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) that could be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. The work includes both...

  20. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  4. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  5. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  6. A thermographic technique to characterize soil surface microrelief: application at the laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Abrantes, João R. C. B.

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of soil surface microrelief with adequate resolution and precision can enhance the understanding of several hydrological processes (e.g. runoff, sediment transport, rill erosion, infiltration, evaporation, heat flux) and may provide detailed information required for their modelling. Despite the high resolution and precision of some of the measurement techniques used to estimate soil surface microrelief (e.g. laser techniques, photographic techniques), the presence of mulch covering the soil surface strongly affects the accuracy of the microrelief measurements. In fact, with high mulching covers, microrelief cannot be estimated by these techniques. The main goal of this study was to develop a thermographic technique that could be used to characterize soil surface microrelief in the presence of mulch cover (i.e. identify preferential flow paths, identify different microrelief elements), allowing to obtain a 3D model of the soil surface with a reasonable accuracy. Laboratory tests were conducted on surfaces with different morphologies and microrelief elements both in bare soil conditions and in the presence of different mulching surface cover densities. Heated water was used to create a temperature gradient on the soil surface that was recorded with a portable hand-held infrared camera. As the heated water flowed along the different studied surfaces, deeper topographic elements (e.g. rills, surface depressions) presented higher temperatures. The presence of higher mulching cover densities affected the performance of the technique. However, below densities of 4 ton/ha it was possible to visualize preferential flow paths and to identify different microrelief elements.

  7. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. 3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  17. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

  20. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

  1. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

  2. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

  3. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

  4. Noise reduction techniques used on the high power klystron modulators at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.J.

    1993-07-01

    The modulators used in the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been redesigned with an emphasis on electrical noise reduction. Since the modulators are 100 MW modulators with <700 ns rise time, electrical noise can be coupled very easily to other electronic equipment in the area. This paper will detail the effort made to reduce noise coupled to surrounding equipment. Shielding and sound grounding techniques accomplished the goal of drastically reducing the noise induced in surrounding equipment. The approach used in grounding and shielding will be discussed, and data will be presented comparing earlier designs to the improved design.

  5. Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2013-12-01

    Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

  6. Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Duran, A; Siguenza, M B; Franquelo, M L; Jimenez de Haro, M C; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

    2010-06-25

    This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR). The use of micro-XRD was necessary due to the poor results obtained with conventional XRD. In some cases, pigment identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques utilised in this study. PMID:20541637

  7. [Artificial diet for rearing Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), a predator of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    PubMed

    Pasini, Amarildo; Parra, José R P; Lopes, Janaína M

    2007-01-01

    A new technique involving an artificial diet and an artificial substrate for oviposition for the rearing of the predator Doru luteipes (Scudder) is suggested. Both adults and nymphs were maintained in petri dishes containing a transparent piece of soda straw filled with moistened cotton and the corresponding food for the biossays. The following treatments were tested: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); insect pupae meal (FPI); Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) commercial pollen (PC); FPI + PC, and FPI + cattail pollen [Typha angustifolia L. (Thyphaceae)]. Each treatment had 50 replicates, and food was offered in excess. Treatments consisting of insect pupae meal (FPI), FPI + commercial pollen (PC), and FPI + cattail pollen resulted in nymphal development of 32, 29, and 29 days, with 83, 90 and 100% survival, respectively, and were superior to the PC treatment, with values of 37 days and 67% survival observed for insects reared on commercial pollen. Treatments that included insect pupae flour, either alone or mixed with pollens, were similar to control (S. frugiperda eggs). We conclude that the artificial diets tested and rearing technique are suitable for the artificial rearing of D. luteipes in laboratory conditions. PMID:17607467

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION Rearing Methods for the Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran vegetable and animal matter (James 1935). This insect is of interest because the dense larval populations

  9. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Dipeptides: A Capstone Project That Employs Key Techniques in an Organic Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Louis; DeBoef, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary approach to the synthesis and purification of several UV-active dipeptides has been developed for the second-year organic laboratory. This experiment exposes students to the important technique of solution-phase peptide synthesis and allows an instructor to highlight the parallel between what they are accomplishing in the laboratory

  10. New developments of X-ray fluorescence imaging techniques in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Matsuno, Tsuyoshi; Takimoto, Yuki; Yamanashi, Masaki; Kometani, Noritsugu; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kato, Shuichi; Yamada, Takashi; Shoji, Takashi; Kawahara, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established analytical technique with a long research history. Many applications have been reported in various fields, such as in the environmental, archeological, biological, and forensic sciences as well as in industry. This is because XRF has a unique advantage of being a nondestructive analytical tool with good precision for quantitative analysis. Recent advances in XRF analysis have been realized by the development of new x-ray optics and x-ray detectors. Advanced x-ray focusing optics enables the making of a micro x-ray beam, leading to micro-XRF analysis and XRF imaging. A confocal micro-XRF technique has been applied for the visualization of elemental distributions inside the samples. This technique was applied for liquid samples and for monitoring chemical reactions such as the metal corrosion of steel samples in the NaCl solutions. In addition, a principal component analysis was applied for reducing the background intensity in XRF spectra obtained during XRF mapping, leading to improved spatial resolution of confocal micro-XRF images. In parallel, the authors have proposed a wavelength dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) imaging spectrometer for a fast elemental imaging. A new two dimensional x-ray detector, the Pilatus detector was applied for WD-XRF imaging. Fast XRF imaging in 1 s or even less was demonstrated for Euro coins and industrial samples. In this review paper, these recent advances in laboratory-based XRF imaging, especially in a laboratory setting, will be introduced.

  11. A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

  12. Speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a laboratory source and the scanning technique

    E-print Network

    Speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a laboratory source and the scanning technique The speckle-based scanning method for x-ray phase- contrast imaging is implemented with a liquid to the speckle-tracking technique are avoided. This method opens up possibilities of new high- resolution

  13. SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

  14. Application of the one-minute preceptor technique by novice teachers in the gross anatomy laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M

    2015-11-12

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement in students' perceptions of their learning, probably because of the fact that the experienced teachers had already developed their own pedagogical approaches. In the current study, we examined the effects of training novice teachers with about four years of gross anatomy teaching experience, in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory, by surveying students to collect their views on their learning experiences, by observing the teachers' teaching behaviors before and after they were trained in OMP, and then by interviewing them. More students reported a better learning experience in the session after the teachers had been trained in the OMP than reported worse, in eight out of the nine items related to their learning experiences. The novice teachers were receptive to the OMP. After the OMP training, the novice teachers were observed to engage more in getting commitments from the students and in reinforcing what the students have done right, two of the five OMP microskills. They considered the OMP to be very useful for their development as anatomy teachers. Anat Sci Educ 8: 539-546. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25573139

  15. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2014-12-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert. PMID:25205526

  16. Laboratory insights into the detection of surface biosignatures by remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Roditi, I.; Frey, J.; Thomas, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the progress of direct imaging techniques, it will be possible in the short or long-term future to retrieve more efficiently the information on the physical properties of the light reflected by rocky exoplanets (Traub et al., 2010). The search for visible-infrared absorption bands of peculiar gases (O2, CH4 etc.) in this light could give clues for the presence of life (Kaltenegger and Selsis, 2007). Even more uplifting would be the direct detection of life itself, on the surface of an exoplanet. Considering this latter possibility, what is the potential of optical remote-sensing methods to detect surface biosignatures? Reflected light from the surface of the Earth exhibits a strong surface biosignature in the form of an abrupt change of reflectance between the visible and infrared range of the spectrum (Seager et al., 2005). This spectral feature called "vegetation red-edge" is possibly the consequence of biological evolution selecting the right chemical structures enabling the plants to absorb the visible energy, while preventing them from overheating by reflecting more efficiently the infrared. Such red-edge is also found in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, that colonized the surface of the Earth ocean and continents billions of years before multicellular plants (Knacke, 2003). If life ever arose on an Earth-like exoplanet, one could hypothesize that some form of its surface-life evolves into similar photo-active organisms, also exhibiting a red-edge. In this paper, we will present our plan and preliminary results of a laboratory study aiming at precising the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in detecting such surface biosignatures. Using equipment that has been developed in our team for surface photometry studies (Pommerol 2011, Jost 2013, Pommerol 2013), we will investigate the reflectance spectra and bidirectional reflectance function of soils containing bacteria such as cyanobacteria, in various environmental conditions. We will also present our plan to incorporate polarization measurements, and particularly circular polarization, because it can be a marker of homochirality, which is supposed to be a universal property of life. Finally, the analyses of both biotic and abiotic materials will help to assess if (or in which peculiar conditions) remote sensing techniques can discriminate between false positive and strong biomarkers. Ultimately, these laboratory data can serve as reference data to guide and interpret future observations, paving the way for the detection of life on distant exoplanets.

  17. Laboratory study of the cross-hole resistivity tomography: The Model Stacking (MOST) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontarakis, Konstantinos; Apostolopoulos, George V.

    2012-05-01

    Model experiments in the laboratory are used to find the optimal measuring and interpretation parameters that affect the quality of the results for the improved application of resistivity tomography between boreholes or between the surface and a tunnel. The experiments have shown that the detection ability of each crosshole electrode array is different and depends on the form of the sensitivity pattern. The bipole-bipole array, with current and potential pairs in different boreholes, has quite low signal and very good resolution of confined bodies in homogeneous half-spaces, but the resolution decreases as the half-space becomes more complex. The bipole-bipole array with the electrodes of each bipole in different boreholes produces a stronger signal, causing the models to be greatly influenced, even by the presence of small targets. However, the resolution quality is poor, mainly in the middle of the area between the boreholes. Pole-bipole array shows good resolution of the targets detection, but it is less accurate when conditions become noisier. The pole-tripole array has the best resolution, even when the environment becomes more complex or noisier, but the produced models have also many artifacts. The combined arrays' data inversion yields the greatest influence of the targets on resistivity models, usually with very good positioning or shape resolution, but with many more intense artifacts, since this method inevitably combines the advantages and disadvantages of each array. A new approach to improve the quality of resistivity models has been developed, based on a stacking technique, through the processing of different arrays' inverted models ("MOST" technique). The improvement of the MOST models' quality has been measured, comparing each final resistivity model with the corresponding real one, highlighting this way the efficiency of this technique, in contrary to the combined arrays' data inversion.

  18. A laboratory comparison of chemical volcanic gas sampling techniques using an artificial fumarole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, L.; Kress, V.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic gases play a critical role in nearly all volcanic processes. A number of chemical and spectroscopic techniques have been developed in recent decades to measure volcanic gas output. Giggenbach bottles, alkaline traps, filter packs, and venturi samplers are examples of chemical gas sampling techniques involving the reaction of acidic gas with an alkaline solution or a solid hydroxide salt on a filter. Aside from Giggenbach bottles all of these methods are disequilibrium techniques relying on the assumption that the kinetics of gas reaction are identical for all species. Given that equilibrium species solubilities differ, there is reason to suspect this assumption. While these chemical sampling methods have been used extensively in the field, we are aware of no direct calibration in a lab setting. To address this problem we have built an artificial fumarole in the laboratory for quantitative comparison and evaluation of gas sampling techniques. The fumarole consists of a metered mixture of H2 CO2 SO2, CO gas combined in a high-temperature mixing chamber with an aqueous solution of HCl and HF. The resulting equilibrium high-temperature gas is sampled at the furnace exit. Several gas mixtures were considered representing a range of compositions encountered at natural fumaroles. Results of analysis are compared with equilibrium gas concentrations calculated from the input gas composition and furnace temperature. We compared Giggenbach bottles, a variety of filter-pack chemistries, and passive alkaline trap samplers. In addition, we tested a venturi sampler of our own design; optimized for ruggedness, ease of field use, reliability and sampling efficiency. Each sample was analyzed by ion chromatography both before and after oxidation with H2O2 for fluoride, chloride, and several sulfur species. While reduced sulfur is not easily analyzed by IC, it can be determined from the difference in concentrations between total S in the oxidized samples and the other sulfur species in the non-oxidized samples. Preliminary results show that the alkaline trap is the least accurate method, while the remaining techniques show varying degrees of success. Our redesigned venturi sampler works particularly well and promises to be a very successful field instrument.

  19. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared salmon. After release, hatchery-reared fish are inefficient foragers and are often found with empty stomachs or stomachs filled with indigestible debris (Miller 1953, Hochachka 1961, Reimers 1963, Sosiak et al. 1979, Myers 1980, O'Grady 1983, Johnsen and Ugedal 1986). Their social behavior also differs, with hatchery-reared fish congregating at higher densities, being more aggressive, and displaying less territory fidelity than wild-reared fish (Fenderson et al. 1968, Bachman 1984, Swain and Riddell 1990). In the natural environment this results in hatchery-reared fish spending more time in high-risk aggressive behavior and less time in beneficial foraging behavior than their wild-reared counterparts. Hatchery-reared fish are also more surface oriented than wild-reared salmonids (Mason et al. 1967, Sosiak 1978). This increases their risk of being attacked by avian predators, such as kingfishers (Ceryle spp.), which search for fish near the surface. Although some of the differences between wild and hatchery-reared fish are innate (Reisenbichler and McIntyre 1977, Swain and Riddell 1990), many are conditioned and can be modified by altering the hatchery rearing environment. NATURES studies are aimed at developing a more natural salmon culture environment to prevent the development of these unnatural attributes in hatchery-reared fish. NATURES fish culture practices are already producing salmon with up to about 50% higher in-stream survival than conventionally-reared fish (Maynard et al. 1996b). When these techniques are incorporated into production releases, they should also translate into increased smolt-to-adult survival. Conservation and supplementation programs can use NATURES-reared salmonids to rebuild stocks currently listed as endangered and threatened into healthy self-sustaining runs more rapidly than traditional programs. Traditional production programs can also use high-survival NATURES-reared fish to reduce their impact on wild populations, while still meeting their adult mitigation goals.

  20. Integrating Novel Field, Laboratory and Modelling Techniques to Upscale Estimates of Soil Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony; Cooper, James; Long, Edward; Hargrave, Graham; Kitchener, Ben; Hewett, Caspar; Onda, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Obana, Eiichiro; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Erosion is a particle-based phenomenon, yet most of current understanding and modelling of this process is based on bulk measurements rather than the movement of individual particles. Difficulties with measuring particle motions in dynamically changing conditions are being overcome with the application of two new technologies - particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and radio frequency identification (RFID). It is thus possible to evaluate the entrainment, transport and deposition of individual particles and these data can be used to parameterize and to test particle-based modelling of the particle-based process. Both PIV and RFID tagging have been used in laboratory experiments to evaluate the detachment process by raindrops on bare surfaces and in shallow flows using rainfall simulation. The results suggest that the processes are more complex than hitherto thought with multiple detachment and transfer mechanisms. Because both mechanisms affect travel distance, they affect the ways in which estimates of soil erosion can be scaled from plot to hillslope and catchment scales. To evaluate movements at larger scales, we have also used RFID-tagged particles in field settings to look at sediment transfers following the Fukushima accident in Japan, 2011. A marker-in-cell model (MAHLERAN-MiC) has been developed to enable the laboratory results to be upscaled and tested in a field setting. Markers (representing sediment particles), containing sediment-property information, are initially distributed on a cellular grid. A cellular model is used to set up the boundary conditions and determine the hydrology and hydraulics on the hillslope. The markers are then moved through the grid according to these properties. This technique combines the advantages of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods while avoiding the shortcomings of each (computational efficiency vs. accuracy). The model simulates all the processes of detachment and transport; raindrop detachment and transport, interrill erosion, concentrated erosion (bedload transport) and suspended sediment transport. We demonstrate how distributions of travel distances change as spatial and temporal scales of application change, and thereby how the laboratory and field experiments can be best used to develop more robust approaches to the upscaling of estimates of erosion rates.

  1. Blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the laboratory mouse using corrosion and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Flesarova, Slavka; Mazensky, David; Teleky, Jana; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Supuka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80 % of cases, as 8 pairs in 15 % of cases and as 9 pairs in 5 % of cases. The paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta were present as 5 pairs in all cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, we observed left-sided branches entering the ventral spinal artery in 64.2 % and right-sided branches in 35.8 % of cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, the branches entering the dorsal spinal arteries were left-sided in 60.8 % of cases and right-sided in 39.2 % of cases. We found some variations in the site of origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz and in the number of dorsal spinal arteries. Documenting the anatomical variations in spinal cord blood supply in the laboratory mouse will aid the planning of future experimental studies and in determining the clinical relevance of such studies. PMID:25636913

  2. Reproduction and larval rearing of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, Robert K; Zippel, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in these reproduction technologies have been driven by (1) difficulties with achieving reliable reproduction of threatened species in captive breeding programs, (2) the need for the efficient reproduction of laboratory model species, and (3) the cost of maintaining increasing numbers of amphibian gene lines for both research and conservation. Many amphibians are particularly well suited to the use of reproduction technologies due to external fertilization and development. However, due to limitations in our knowledge of reproductive mechanisms, it is still necessary to reproduce many species in captivity by the simulation of natural reproductive cues. Recent advances in reproduction technologies for amphibians include improved hormonal induction of oocytes and sperm, storage of sperm and oocytes, artificial fertilization, and high-density rearing of larvae to metamorphosis. The storage of sperm in particular can both increase the security and reduce the cost of maintaining genetic diversity. It is possible to cryopreserve sperm for millennia, or store it unfrozen for weeks in refrigerators. The storage of sperm can enable multiple parentages of individual females' clutches of eggs and reduce the need to transport animals. Cryopreserved sperm can maintain the gene pool indefinitely, reduce the optimum number of males in captive breeding programs, and usher in new generations of Xenopus spp. germ lines for research. Improved in vitro fertilization using genetic diversity from stored sperm means that investigators need the oocytes from only a few females to produce genetically diverse progeny. In both research and captive breeding programs, it is necessary to provide suitable conditions for the rearing of large numbers of a diverse range of species. Compared with traditional systems, the raising of larvae at high densities has the potential to produce these large numbers of larvae in smaller spaces and to reduce costs. PMID:17592185

  3. Isolation rearing reveals latent antisnake behavior in California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus becheeyi) searching for predatory threats.

    PubMed

    Tromborg, Chris T; Coss, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    This study of California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) investigated the long-term effects of isolation rearing on alarm-call recognition. Six wild-caught squirrels, trapped as yearlings, and six laboratory-reared squirrels were maintained in solitary cages for approximately 3 years prior to the study. Visual searching and olfactory searching were measured as squirrels emerged from their burrow-like nest box into a laboratory room after hearing repetitive playbacks of alarm calls or control sounds consisting of pulses of white-noise or ambient laboratory sounds. Before exiting completely after hearing alarm calls, both groups exhibited similar levels of visual searching that was reliably higher than after hearing the other sounds. After exiting completely, the laboratory-reared squirrels exhibited a reliably greater amount of olfactory investigation than the wild-caught squirrels. Five laboratory-reared squirrels turned around after exiting and inspected their dark nest-box opening, three of which tail flagged repeatedly and one threw substrate into the opening. Since pups recognize snakes and engage in this behavior, this latent expression of antisnake behavior illustrates its robust organizational properties in the appropriate burrow-like context irrespective of the presumed retardation of neural development known to occur in other species of rodent subjected to similar isolation rearing. PMID:25726178

  4. Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

  5. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  6. Laboratory investigation of the erosion of cohesive sediments under oscillatory flows using a synchronized imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, I.; Calantoni, J.; Reed, A. H.; Furukawa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A synchronized dual stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is used to examine the erosion process of a cohesive sediment core in the Small Oscillatory Flow Tunnel (S-OFT) in the Sediment Dynamics Laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS. The PIV system uses four cameras and a dual cavity Nd:YAG laser. The system allows for a pair of stereo PIV windows of about 10 cm by 10 cm each to be arbitrarily located within a single light sheet. Image pairs were acquired with all four cameras at 50 Hz for 50 consecutive seconds for each flow condition. The stereo PIV windows were positioned on either side of sediment cores inserted along the centerline of the S-OFT allowing for a total measurement window of about 20 cm long by 10 cm high with sub-millimeter spacing on resolved velocity vectors. The oscillatory flows are generated by two types of driving mechanism (scotch yoke and crank lever) for converting the rotational motion of the flywheel into the linear motion of a piston. The period of oscillation ranged from 2.86 to 6.12 seconds with constant semi-excursion amplitude in the test section of 9 cm. Two kinds of inorganic sediment samples were examined. One was a mixture of 50% kaolinite and 50% 500-micron sand under flows driven by the crank lever mechanism. Another sediment core was a mixture of 50% mud collected in Galveston Bay, TX, and 50% 250-micron sand under flows driven by the scotch-yoke mechanism. During the erosion process, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were observed as the flow accelerated in each direction and eventually were broken down when the flow reversed. An example of the instantaneous velocity field superimposed on the raw image is shown in Figure 1. The relative concentration of suspended sediments under different flow conditions was estimated using the intensity of light scattered from the sediment particles in suspension. By subtracting the initial light scattered from the mud core, the residual light intensity was assumed to be scattered from suspended sediments eroded from the core. Relative comparisons were only made using the same sample mixture since it is difficult, if not impossible, to calibrate the light scattering from different sediments.; Figure 1. An example of the instantaneous time-resolved velocity field superimposed on the raw image.

  7. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  8. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NO(SUB X) REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formatio...

  9. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  10. The Demise of Child-Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winik, Lyric Wallwork

    2000-01-01

    Discusses child rearing and parenting in the US, suggesting that children are becoming more and more unseen and unheard while their parents go off to be entertained. The paper examines root causes and revolutionary changes; Locke's 17th-century child rearing beliefs; Wesley's tough love philosophy; Rousseau's natural goodness beliefs; other…

  11. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  12. Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Temperature is known to induce changes in mosquito physiology, development, ecology, and in some species, vector competence for arboviruses. Since colonized mosquitoes are reared under laboratory conditions that can be significantly different from their field counterparts, laboratory vector competence experiments may not accurately reflect natural vector-virus interactions. Methods We evaluated the effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development parameters and vector competence of two Culex tarsalis strains for West Nile virus (WNV). Results Rearing temperature had a significant effect on mosquito developmental parameters, including shorter time to pupation and emergence and smaller female body size as temperature increased. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days post infectious feeding were not consistently affected. Conclusions These results suggest that varying constant larval rearing temperature does not significantly affect laboratory estimates of vector competence for WNV in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. PMID:22967798

  13. A Framework for Laboratory Pre-Work Based on the Concepts, Tools and Techniques Questioning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntula, J.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Chitaree, R.

    2011-01-01

    Learning in the laboratory is different from learning in other contexts because students have to engage with various aspects of the practice of science. They have to use many skills and knowledge in parallel--not only to understand the concepts of physics but also to use the tools and analyse the data. The question arises, how to best guide…

  14. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF A DYED FOOD MARKING TECHNIQUE FOR CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of marking adult Cx. quinquefasciatus by feeding the larvae commercial hog chow dyed with methylene blue, Giemsa, and crystal violet was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Of 243 mosquitoes fed the dyed food, 230 had visible marks (94.6 %). The dyed food did increase the development tim...

  15. Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant flywheel evaluation laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the more advanced data analysis techniques applied to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high performance composite flywheels are presented. Real time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre and post test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

  16. Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

    1987-06-01

    A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

  17. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en masa. (author)

  18. Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

  19. GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

  20. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  1. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  2. LOFT. Rear of LOFT containment building (TAN650). Borated water tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Rear of LOFT containment building (TAN-650). Borated water tank is at top. Note ladder for access to top of dome. Camera facing southeast. Date: 1973. INEEL negative no. 73-1643 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. and physiology between reared and wild larvae and concluded that results on growth, nutrition,

    E-print Network

    to John Hunter and two anonymous reviewers for critically reviewing the manuscript, Jack Metoyer, and mortality of laboratory-reared larvae should not be related to the field. My study shows that jack mackerel without food. The effect of container size on growth, nutritive condition, and possibly activity in jack

  4. A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

  5. ADAPTING WOODY SPECIES AND PLANTING TECHNIQUES TO LANDFILL CONDITIONS, FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to determine which tree species can best maintain themselves in a landfill environment; to investigate the feasibility of preventing landfill gas from penetrating the root zone of selected species by using gas-barrier techniques; and to identify the (those)...

  6. Laboratory procedures and data reduction techniques to determine rheologic properties of mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, R.R., Jr.; Huizinga, R.J.; Brown, S.M.; Jobson, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Determining the rheologic properties of coarse- grained mass flows is an important step to mathematically simulate potential inundation zones. Using the vertically rotating flume designed and built by the U.S. Geological Survey, laboratory procedures and subsequent data reduction have been developed to estimate shear stresses and strain rates of various flow materials. Although direct measurement of shear stress and strain rate currently (1992) are not possible in the vertically rotating flume, methods were derived to estimate these values from measurements of flow geometry, surface velocity, and flume velocity.

  7. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture.

    PubMed

    Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (? 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible. PMID:26466904

  8. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Eric W.; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (? 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible. PMID:26466904

  9. A laboratory system for the investigation of rain fade compensation techniques for Ka-band satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/20 GHz occurs due to the carrier wavelength approaching the water droplet size. Rain in the downlink path lowers the signal power present at the receiver, resulting in a higher number of bit errors induced in the digital ground terminal. The laboratory simulation performed at NASA Lewis Research Center uses a programmable PIN diode attenuator to simulate 20 GHz satellite downlink geographic rain fade profiles. A computer based network control system monitors the downlink power and informs the network of any power threshold violations, which then prompts the network to issue commands that temporarily increase the gain of the satellite based traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier. After the rain subsides, the network returns the TWT to the normal energy conserving power mode. Bit error rate (BER) data taken at the receiving ground terminal serves as a measure of the severity of rain degradation, and also evaluates the extent to which the network can improve the faded channel.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils

    E-print Network

    Adams, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

  11. Policy on Laboratory animal research At the University of Twente (UT), in addition to experiments based on cell and tissue culture techniques,

    E-print Network

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Policy on Laboratory animal research At the University of Twente (UT), in addition to experiments based on cell and tissue culture techniques, computer simulations and human volunteers, research is also and treatment of diseases. At UT, testing on laboratory animals is done primarily in experiments

  12. GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR REAR LEGS/REAR VIEW IN BROWN SWISS CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for rear legs/rear view (RLRV) and the 15 current linear type traits in Brown Swiss cattle were estimated. Appraisers record linear traits on a 1 to 9 scale. Reported scores were multiplied by 5 to make them compatible with earlier scores that were on a 1 to 50 scale. The Brown Sw...

  13. GENETIC PARAMETERS AND EVALUATION OF REAR LEGS (REAR VIEW) FOR BROWN SWISS AND GUERNSEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for rear legs/rear view (RLRV) and 15 current linear type traits in Brown Swiss (BS) and Guernsey (GU) dairy cattle were estimated. The BS Association began scoring RLRV in 2004 and the American GU Association began in 2002. For BS, 7,522 records were available on 6,896 cows in 37...

  14. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  15. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  16. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  17. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  18. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  19. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  20. Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Multi-spacecraft Data Analysis Techniques in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jongsoo Yoo and Masaaki Yamada

    2012-03-27

    The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)[1] has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and boundary-crossing time analysis (BCTA). The neutral sheet is swept, or jogged, in a controlled manner with respect to the stationary probes by pulsed internal coil currents. Magnetic field data from measurement points resembling data from multi-spacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check both techniques to deduce a proper normal vector. We examine discharges with the two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but not ions. Boundary-crossing time analysis with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector and relative velocity along the normal vector for all of the tested cases. On the other hand, MVAB sometimes fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the X-line magnetic geometry is fundamentally 2-D or 3-D. However, the direction along the reconnecting field determined by MVAB does not deviate much from the real magnetic geometry documented by 2-D magnetic probe arrays and one additional probe at a different toroidal location. Based on these observations, we suggest a procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission when spacecraft passes through a reconnecting current sheet. The distance between measurement points on the order of the ion skin depth (c/{omega}{sub pi}) is pertinent to determination of the magnetic geometry.

  2. Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

  3. Prediction of down-gradient impacts of DNAPL source depletion using tracer techniques: Laboratory and modeling validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawitz, J. W.; Basu, N.; Chen, X.

    2007-05-01

    Interwell application of coupled nonreactive and reactive tracers through aquifer contaminant source zones enables quantitative characterization of aquifer heterogeneity and contaminant architecture. Parameters obtained from tracer tests are presented here in a Lagrangian framework that can be used to predict the dissolution of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants. Nonreactive tracers are commonly used to provide information about travel time distributions in hydrologic systems. Reactive tracers have more recently been introduced as a tool to quantify the amount of NAPL contaminant present within the tracer swept volume. Our group has extended reactive tracer techniques to also characterize NAPL spatial distribution heterogeneity. By conceptualizing the flow field through an aquifer as a collection of streamtubes, the aquifer hydrodynamic heterogeneities may be characterized by a nonreactive tracer travel time distribution, and NAPL spatial distribution heterogeneity may be similarly described using reactive travel time distributions. The combined statistics of these distributions are used to derive a simple analytical solution for contaminant dissolution. This analytical solution, and the tracer techniques used for its parameterization, were validated both numerically and experimentally. Illustrative applications are presented from numerical simulations using the multiphase flow and transport simulator UTCHEM, and laboratory experiments of surfactant-enhanced NAPL remediation in two-dimensional flow chambers.

  4. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  5. EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  6. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND SWITCH RACK AT RIGHT REAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  10. Supplementary methods Dark-rearing animals

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    . In a parallel set of experiments, Long-Evans rats were raised from birth in a light-tight dark room for 5 weeks#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;1 Supplementary methods Dark-rearing animals Long-Evans rats (Charles River) were raised under normal lighted environment (12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle) until 4 weeks of age. Dark

  11. Observational and laboratory studies of optical properties of black and brown carbon particles in the atmosphere using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Light absorption and scattering by aerosols are as an important contributor to radiation balance in the atmosphere. Black carbon (BC) is considered to be the most potent light absorbing material in the visible region of the spectrum, although light absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon or BrC) and mineral dust may also act as sources of significant absorption, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) and shorter visible wavelength regions. The optical properties of such particles depend on wavelength, particle size and shape, morphology, coating, and complex refractive index (or chemical composition), and therefore accurate in situ measurements of the wavelength dependence of the optical properties of particles are needed. Recently, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) have been used for the direct measurements of extinction and absorption coefficients of particles suspended in air. We have applied these techniques to the observational studies of optical properties of BC and BrC in an urban site in Japan and to the laboratory studies of optical properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds and those of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). In the presentation, the basic principles of these techniques and the results obtained in our studies and in the recent literatures will be overviewed. References Guo, X. et al., Measurement of the light absorbing properties of diesel exhaust particles using a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer, Atmos. Environ., 94, 428-437 (2014). Nakayama, T. et al., Measurements of aerosol optical properties in central Tokyo during summertime using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Comparison with conventional techniques, Atmos. Environ., 44, 3034-3042 (2010). Nakayama, T. et al., Laboratory studies on optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated during the photooxidation of toluene and the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24204, doi:10.1029/2010JD014387 (2010). Nakayama, T. et al., Wavelength dependence of refractive index of secondary organic aerosols generated during the ozonolysis and photooxidation of alpha-pinene, SOLA, 8, 119-124 (2012). Nakayama, T. et al., Wavelength and NOx dependent complex refractive index of SOAs generated from the photooxidation of toluene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 531-545 (2013). Nakayama, T. et al., Properties of light-absorbing aerosols in the Nagoya urban area, Japan, in August 2011 and January 2012: Contributions of brown carbon and lensing effect, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 12721-12739 (2014). Nakayama, T. et al., Characterization of a three wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX), J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, (2015, in press).

  12. Physiological consequences of laboratory rearing of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several aspects of the basic biology of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, are poorly known despite of the economic importance of this species. Among these are the factors regulating the adult diapause. Recent studies questioned the validity of earlier reports of diapause in L...

  13. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  15. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  16. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  17. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  18. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  19. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  20. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

  1. Pulsed and monoenergetic beams for neutron cross-section measurements using activation and scattering techniques at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, A.; Angell, C. T.; Becker, J. A.; Boswell, M.; Crowell, A. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Fallin, B.; Fotiades, N.; Howell, C. R.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kiser, M.; Macri, R. A.; Nelson, R. O.; Pedroni, R. S.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Weisel, G. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2007-08-01

    In support of the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances initiative, an experimental program has been developed at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure (n,xn) cross-sections with both in-beam and activation techniques with the goal of improving the partial cross-section database for the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. First experimental efforts include excitation function measurements on 235,238U and 241Am using pulsed and monoenergetic neutron beams with En = 5-15 MeV. Neutron-induced partial cross-sections were measured by detecting prompt ? rays from the residual nuclei using various combinations of clover and planar HPGe detectors in the TUNL shielded neutron source area. Complimentary activation measurements using DC neutron beams have also been performed in open geometry in our second target area. The neutron-induced activities were measured in the TUNL low-background counting area. In this presentation, we include detailed information about the irradiation procedures and facilities and preliminary data on first measurements using this capability.

  2. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in Maine during 1977-80. Eight radio-marked hens moved their broods an average of 1.2 km from the nest to rearing pond, but only 1 hen initiated secondary brood movements. Half of the 85 broods reared in the study area used only 3 wetlands, and most rearing ponds contained active beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies. Brood-rearing hens preferred Emergent ponds over lakes and Evergreen Scrub-Shrub wetlands, and did not occupy Dead Scrub-Shrub, Unconsolidated Bottom, or Aquatic Bed wetlands. Rearing ponds were large and possessed extensive areas of flooded mountain alder (Alnus incana), willow (Salix spp.), and herbaceous vegetation. Wetlands avoided by brood-rearing hens were those with large areas of open water, submergent aquatics, or ericaceous shrub vegetation.

  3. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  4. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  5. Responses of artificially reared cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835) to different mammalian bloods.

    PubMed

    Kernif, T; Stafford, K; Coles, G C; Bitam, I; Papa, K; Chiaroni, J; Raoult, D; Parola, P

    2015-06-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche, 1835) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), which is found worldwide and which parasitizes many species of wild and domestic animal, is a vector and/or reservoir of bacteria, protozoa and helminths. To aid in the study of the physiology and behaviour of fleas and of their transmission of pathogens, it would be of value to improve the laboratory rearing of pathogen-free fleas. The conditions under which artificially reared fleas at the University of Bristol (U.K.) and the Rickettsial Diseases Institute (France) are maintained were studied, with different ratios of male to female fleas per chamber (25 : 50, 50 : 100, 100 : 100, 200 : 200). The fleas were fed with bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine or human blood containing the anticoagulants sodium citrate or EDTA. Egg production was highest when fleas were kept in chambers with a ratio of 25 males to 100 females. In addition, the use of EDTA as an anticoagulant rather than sodium citrate resulted in a large increase in the number of eggs produced per female; however, the low percentage of eggs developing through to adult fleas was lower with EDTA. The modifications described in our rearing methods will improve the rearing of cat fleas for research. PMID:25604709

  6. Isolation rearing-induced facilitation of Pavlovian learning: abolition by postsession intra-amygdala nafadotride.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gavin D; Harmer, Catherine J; Hitchcott, Paul K

    2002-08-01

    It has been shown previously in this laboratory that rats reared in social isolation acquire a Pavlovian-conditioned approach task much more rapidly than their respective controls. This study assessed the involvement specifically of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine pathway in this facilitated learning of isolates. Thus, animals were required to associate arbitrary stimuli with a pulsed light stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US). The US, while without biological significance, was nevertheless capable of eliciting an intrinsic and sustained alerting response. Procedures ensured that the arbitrary stimuli (tone or clicker) did not elicit a response in the first instance, and were presented either paired (CS+) or unpaired (CS-) with the US. Isolates and socially reared controls received intra-amygdala infusions of the D3 dopamine receptor antagonist, L-nafadotride, or vehicle immediately following the end of each training session. The conditioned response increased over sessions in both groups of vehicle-infused rats during presentations of the CS+ stimulus, but not CS-, and isolates acquired this association more rapidly than controls. However, acquisition of this association was abolished by postsession intra-amygdala L-nafadotride. Responding to the US was largely unaffected by drug or rearing conditions. Hence, these data provide strong evidence for the specific involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine projection in the facilitation of associative learning by isolation rearing. PMID:12127008

  7. Occurrence of infectious bacteria in captive-reared Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles.

    E-print Network

    Occurrence of infectious bacteria in captive-reared Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii. From 1978 to 1983, Galveston Laboratory personnel isolated bacteria from sick turtles and necropsied turtles that died in captivity, and the bacteria identified were reported elsewhere (Clary & Leong 1984

  8. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  9. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi-variable, method to compare the injury biomechanical data with actual accident cases. PMID:12724904

  10. Alternative diets for maintaining and rearing cephalopods in captivity.

    PubMed

    DeRusha, R H; Forsythe, J W; DiMarco, F P; Hanlon, R T

    1989-07-01

    The requirement of live marine prey for cephalopod mariculture has restricted its practicality for inland research laboratories, commercial enterprises and home aquarists. We evaluated acceptability and resultant growth on: (a) frozen marine shrimps, (b) live and frozen marine polychaete worms, (c) live and frozen marine crabs, (d) frozen marine fishes, (e) live adult brine shrimp, (f) live freshwater fish and (g) live freshwater crayfish. The diets were presented for periods of 2 to 11 weeks to octopuses, cuttlefishes or squids and in most trials the results were compared to animals fed control diets of live marine shrimps, crabs or fish. Overall, frozen marine shrimp proved to be the best alternative diet tested. Adult Octopus maya on frozen marine shrimp diets grew as well as those on control diets at 2.8% body weight per day (%/d) compared to 2.0%/d on live freshwater crayfish, 1.4%/d on live marine polychaete worms and 0.8%/d on live freshwater fish (Tilapia sp.). Juvenile Octopus maya and Octopus bimaculoides also grew comparably to controls when fed frozen marine shrimps; growth rates ranged from near 3.0%/d at 3 months of age to nearly 2.5%/d at 6 months of age. Thus, these alternatives are acceptable as the octopuses end their exponential growth phase at an age of 3 - 5 months. Attempts to rear O. maya hatchlings and juveniles (up to 1 month of age) on dead foods resulted in high mortality and slow or negative growth. No live or dead alternative diet has been found yet that will promote good growth and survival in hatchling octopuses. Hatchling F3 generation Sepia officinalis (the European cuttlefish) were reared for 6 weeks exclusively on adult brine shrimp (Artemia salina).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2761235

  11. Combining impact sensor field and laboratory flume measurements with other techniques for studying fluvial bedload transport in steep mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja

    2014-08-01

    The timing and rate of fluvial bedload transport are of central importance within sediment budget studies and in many applications in river science and engineering. During the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 detailed field measurements with portable impact sensors as a non-invasive technique for indirectly determining fluvial bedload transport intensity were conducted in two instrumented and supply-limited drainage basin systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in the fjord landscape in western Norway. Additional field measurements with portable impact sensors were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in selected transport-limited fluvial systems in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. The collected impact sensor field data were calibrated with laboratory flume experiments. The data from the impact sensor field measurements in western Norway and the flume experiments were combined with field data from continuous discharge monitoring, repeated surveys of channel morphometry and sediment texture, particle tracer measurements, Helley-Smith samplings, underwater video filming and biofilm analyses. The combination of methods and techniques applied provides insights into the temporal variability and intensity of fluvial bedload transport in the selected mountain streams: (i) in the transport-limited systems with generally high bedload transport rates during high discharge and with bedload material moving in clusters over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (based on a 1 s measuring interval) provide the opportunity to detect the start and end of bedload transport, thus to identify discharge thresholds for sediment entrainment, and to roughly estimate the intensity and relative intensity of change of bedload transport during the measuring period; (ii) in the supply-limited systems with low bedload transport rates and bedload components moving separately (as single particles) over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (with a 1 s measuring interval) allow the detection of the start and end of transport of bedload components > 11.3 mm, thus the identification of discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles, the quantification of the number of particles > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period, the rough estimation of grain sizes of the particles moving separately over the impact sensor plates, and the calculation of the total mass of the bedload material > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period; (iii) when combined with other methods and techniques (Helley-Smith sampling, particle tracer measurements, biofilm analyses, underwater video filming) which provide information on the active bedload transport channel width, on discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles of different grain sizes, and on transport rates of bedload material < 11.3 mm, total rates of fluvial bedload transport, covering all given grain sizes of the bedload material, can be calculated for the supply-limited mountain streams with generally low bedload transport. The higher measured annual bedload yield in Bødalen (13.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) compared to Erdalen (2.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) reflects a higher level of slope-channel coupling in Bødalen than in Erdalen.

  12. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  13. Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  15. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  16. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  17. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... (74 FR 18803). Procedural Matters How can I influence NHTSA's thinking on this subject? NHTSA welcomes... (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies of your...; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy...

  18. INTERIOR OF BUILDING, LOOKING TOWARD REAR. VIEW TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BUILDING, LOOKING TOWARD REAR. VIEW TO NORTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Munitions Maintenance Administration Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are capable of successful spawning, and can reproduce with wild-type fish from natural systems. PMID:25133780

  3. Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork. PMID:25276938

  4. How to set up a microsurgical laboratory on small animal models: organization, techniques, and impact on residency training.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, A; Frati, A; Santoro, A; Lenzi, J; Delfini, R; Pannarale, L; Gaudio, E; D'Andrea, G; Cantore, G P

    2009-01-01

    Microsurgical training is mandatory for the optimal education of modern neurosurgeons. Even though this is a widely acknowledged statement and a lot of institutions around the world practice training in laboratory, the recent literature lacks tip and tricks on how to start a laboratory from scratch, what would be a convenient anesthesia, and what kind of exercises are appropriate. We present our experience in 16 microsurgical training courses settled up at our institutions. Two hundred eleven rodents were dissected. We will describe the organization of the laboratory and of the training courses and we will discuss its practical impact on the residency program. PMID:18787849

  5. A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

    In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consume?s right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianji?s pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

  6. Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Olsen, G.H.; Hereford, Scott G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

  7. The Fundamentals of Flying: Simple and Inexpensive Strategies for Employing Drosophila Genetics in Neuroscience Teaching Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Berni, Jimena

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories. PMID:23493248

  8. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  9. NESTING AND BROOD-REARING SUCCESS AND RESOURCE SELECTION OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    NESTING AND BROOD-REARING SUCCESS AND RESOURCE SELECTION OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE IN NORTHWESTERN to conduct research on sage-grouse, and other upland game species. The past three years have provided me to thank Tony Apa for showing me my first sage-grouse, and the techniques to capture and radio- mark them

  10. Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. 19. WEST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE, SOUTH STORAGE SHED ATTACHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE, SOUTH STORAGE SHED ATTACHED TO REAR OF HANGAR SHED. A SIMILAR NORTH STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  14. Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark Q; Knols, Bart GJ; Bossin, Hervé C; Howell, Paul I; Mialhe, Eric; Caceres, Carlos; Robinson, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs - and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance. PMID:19917074

  15. 49 CFR 571.223 - Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. 571.223 Section 571...571.223 Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for rear impact guards for trailers and...

  16. 49 CFR 571.223 - Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. 571.223 Section 571...571.223 Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for rear impact guards for trailers and...

  17. 49 CFR 571.223 - Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. 571.223 Section 571...571.223 Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for rear impact guards for trailers and...

  18. 49 CFR 571.223 - Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. 571.223 Section 571...571.223 Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for rear impact guards for trailers and...

  19. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  20. A Comparison of Value Preferences and Attitudes toward Collectivism of Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Gutman, Piret

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to shed some light on the effect of socialization context (home vs. orphanage) on gender-specific value acquisition. With this aim value preferences and collectivistic attitudes of institution-reared and home-reared teenagers (14-20 yrs.) were compared. Teenagers from ordinary homes were found to score high on…

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  2. Effects of Training Experienced Teachers in the Use of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

    2014-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year,…

  3. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

  4. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

  5. Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

  6. Speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a laboratory source and the scanning technique.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tunhe; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H; Hertz, Hans M; Pfeiffer, Franz; Burvall, Anna

    2015-06-15

    The speckle-based scanning method for x-ray phase-contrast imaging is implemented with a liquid-metal-jet source. Using the two-dimensional scanning technique, the phase shift introduced by the object is retrieved in both transverse orientations, and the limitations on spatial resolution inherent to the speckle-tracking technique are avoided. This method opens up possibilities of new high-resolution multimodal applications for lab-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging. PMID:26076271

  7. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el campo. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de la domesticacion en el laboratorio fue evaluado. Tres poblaciones naturales, una poblacion semi-natural y una poblacion criada en masa fueron evaluadas: las poblaciones natural de (1) Isla de Madeira (costa norte), (2) Isla de Madeira (costa sur) y (3) Isla de Porto Santo; (4) una poblacion semi-natural despues de 7 a 10 generaciones de domesticacion en el laboratorio (respectivamente, para el primero y segundo experimento); y (5) la raza para separar sexos geneticamente que es usada en el laboratorio de la mosca mediterranea de Madeira (VIENNA 7mix2000). Los experimentos usando jaulas en el campo mostraron que las poblaciones de diferentes origines fueron en su mayor parte compatibles. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad para competir sexualmente entre las poblaciones naturales. Los machos semi-naturales y los machos criados en masa mostraron un desempeno significativamente bajo en ambos experimentos que los machos naturales en el logro de copula con las hembras naturales. Este estudio indica que no hay un aislamiento significativo entre las razas probadas, aunque el desempeno en el apareamiento fue reducido en las moscas criadas en masa y semi-naturales despues de 7 a 10 generaciones en el laboratorio. (author)

  8. Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbal, Andreas; Degering, Detlev; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Zuber, Kai

    2013-08-01

    We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a 228Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed 228Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10-6. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of 3He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

  9. An inter-laboratory comparison demonstrates that [1H]-NMR metabolite fingerprinting is a robust technique for collaborative plant metabolomic data collection

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.; Miller, Sonia J.; Deborde, Catherine; Maucourt, Mickael; Biais, Benoit; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Moco, Sofia; Vervoort, Jacques; Lommen, Arjen; Schäfer, Hartmut; Humpfer, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    In any metabolomics experiment, robustness and reproducibility of data collection is of vital importance. These become more important in collaborative studies where data is to be collected on multiple instruments. With minimisation of variance in sample preparation and instrument performance it is possible to elucidate even subtle differences in metabolite fingerprints due to genotype or biological treatment. In this paper we report on an inter laboratory comparison of plant derived samples by [1H]-NMR spectroscopy across five different sites and within those sites utilising instruments with different probes and magnetic field strengths of 9.4 T (400 MHz), 11.7 T (500 MHz) and 14.1 T (600 MHz). Whilst the focus of the study is on consistent data collection across laboratories, aspects of sample stability and the requirement for sample rotation within the NMR magnet are also discussed. Comparability of the datasets from participating laboratories was exceptionally good and the data were amenable to comparative analysis by multivariate statistics. Field strength differences can be adjusted for in the data pre-processing and multivariate analysis demonstrating that [1H]-NMR fingerprinting is the ideal technique for large scale plant metabolomics data collection requiring the participation of multiple laboratories. PMID:20526352

  10. Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

    1995-01-27

    The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

  11. Fin development in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelis, R.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of development and environment on fin growth, we measured fin lengths of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two hatcheries (August, October and April-May), stream-reared fish (July and October) stocked as fry into two tributaries, and smelts from the main stem of the Connecticut River (May). For stream-reared parr, there was a linear relationship between the dorsal, caudal and anal fins with fork length, while the pectoral, pelvic and adipose fins exhibited a curvilinear relationship with fork length. Parr from a high gradient stream had larger caudal fins than fish from a low gradient stream, but other fins did not differ. Regression lines for the fins of stream-reared smelts were all linear when fin length was regressed against fork length. Stream-reared parr had larger pectoral, pelvic and anal fins than smolts of similar size while dorsal and caudal fin lengths did not differ. Regression equations formulated using the fins of stream-reared parr were used to calculate the percent difference (100 x observed fin length/expected) in fin lengths between stream- and hatchery-reared parr. The pelvic, adipose, caudal and anal fins of hatchery-reared parr showed no signs of degeneration by the first sampling period 7 months after hatching, whereas degeneration in the pectoral (13-20%) and dorsal (15-18%) fins was evident at this time. By the end of the study, degeneration was present in every fin except the adipose, with the pectoral (35-65%) and dorsal (32-58%) fins exhibiting the greatest amount of fin loss. All fins of hatchery-reared parr became shorter with time. There were minor differences in fin degeneration among parr from the two hatcheries, but the overall pattern of decreasing fin size was similar, indicating a common cause of fin degeneration. Comparison of stream- and hatchery-reared fish is a valuable means of determining the impact of captive environments on fin growth.

  12. Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

  13. Comparison of passive soil vapor survey techniques at a Tijeras Arroyo site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.; Wade, W.M.; Tharp, T.; Brinkman, J.

    1996-07-01

    Soil vapor surveys were performed to characterize the approximate location of soil contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The samplers were from two separate companies and a comparison was made between the results of the two techniques. These results will be used to design further investigations at the site.

  14. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  16. 6. West rear and north side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West rear and north side of building. View to southeast.' - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  17. 7. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West rear and south side of building. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  18. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  19. 5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  20. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  1. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND FLOOR, WITH PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  3. Detail of east rear of south end of Pickle Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east rear of south end of Pickle Works Building, adjacent to First Street Viaduct pylon, facing west - James K. Hill & Sons Pickle Works, 1001-1007 East First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  5. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. FLAPS REMAIN DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. FLAPS REMAIN DOWN AND SPOILERS UP. THIS CONFIGURATION IS AUTOMATICALLY ACTIVATED ON ROLLOUT. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. 3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  12. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Conventional Munitions Shop, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Munitions Maintenance Administration Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Munitions Maintenance Administration Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  17. DETAIL OF SLIDING DOORS ON EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SLIDING DOORS ON EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Conventional Munitions Shop, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  18. 5. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, REAR CORNER DETAIL, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, REAR CORNER DETAIL, LOOKING NORTH. - Geraldine Lucas Homestead, Geraldine Lucas Cabin, West bank Cottonwood Creek, 2.5 miles downstream from Jenny Lake, Moose, Teton County, WY

  19. 2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  1. 6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  6. Rear Quonset huts, currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear Quonset huts, currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass company. View northwest from loading dock. - Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company, Factory No. 1, 851 Pennsylvania Avenue, Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  7. 63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SOUTHEAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  10. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  11. 48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS OF VACUUM-TUBE OSCILLOSCOPE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  1. View from underneath umbrella shed at rear of Train Shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from underneath umbrella shed at rear of Train Shed looking W. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  4. East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  5. NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  6. CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  9. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. 4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  11. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  12. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  13. 3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Cottage HI-65, Hunting Island State Park, US Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  14. 21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. 4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  17. 14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  18. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  19. Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the left and building 10 on the right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Entrance Gateway, East Colfax Avenue & Peoria Street, Northeast Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  1. WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Small Arms Range System, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  3. 4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. General view of Buildings No. 56, 61, and 79 (rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Buildings No. 56, 61, and 79 (rear facades and shared garage) from west. - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Quarters, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  5. FACILITY 82. REAR AND SIDE OBLIQUE. VIEW FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 82. REAR AND SIDE OBLIQUE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Shared Carport Type with Storerooms, End of driveways off Hale Alii Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street showing original surviving 6/6 sash window and moldings. - 8-10 East State Street (Commercial Building), 8-10 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF ORIGINAL BAPTISMAL FONT AND PLATFORM TO REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORIGINAL BAPTISMAL FONT AND PLATFORM TO REAR OF CHURCH, LOOKING WEST (NOTE WINDOW) - St. Paul's Church, Northwest side Baden-Naylor Road, intersection with Horsehead Road, Baden, Prince George's County, MD

  9. 2. REAR ELEVATION OF ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR ELEVATION OF ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  10. Research Report Prenatal restraint stress and motherless rearing disrupts

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Research Report Prenatal restraint stress and motherless rearing disrupts expression of plasticity-weaning period. In adulthood, we measured levels of corticosterone (CORT) in response to restraint stress. Also

  11. 2. EQUIPMENT STORAGE SHED, EAST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EQUIPMENT STORAGE SHED, EAST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE LOOKING NORTHWEST - Union Ranger District Compound, Equipment Storage Shed, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

  12. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF THE BUILDING. SHOWING THE PIVOTING METAL LOOP RECESSED INTO THE CONCRETE. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type A, 601 Boquet Boulevard, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 12. EAST REAR OF OFFICE BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. EAST REAR OF OFFICE BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND WAREHOUSE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  19. 4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. 2. ROADLEVEL VIEW OF CROWN POINT VIADUCT AT REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ROAD-LEVEL VIEW OF CROWN POINT VIADUCT AT REAR OF VISTA HOUSE SHOWING SIDEWALK, ROADWAY, AND STAIRCASE IN RETAINING WALL. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Crown Point Viaduct, Encircling Vista House at Crown Point, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF 305 CHURCH STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF 305 CHURCH STREET WITH 313 and 317 CHURCH STREET IN BACKGROUND - Putnam Manufacturing Company Workers' Houses, 305 Church Street (House), Putnam, Windham County, CT

  3. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  5. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  6. 14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  8. 12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. 13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  13. 3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. 6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. Laboratory-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique for material and medical science applications.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Yogesh S; Yadav, P S; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P S; Shukla, M; Sinha, Amar

    2008-08-01

    In-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for the study of materials such as carbon fibers, carbon composite materials, polymers, etc. Similarly this technique is also well suited for the imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumor and normal tissue. These represent the class of materials for which X-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low X-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method. We have set up an experimental facility using a combination of X-ray CCD detector and a microfocus X-ray source. This facility is dedicated to micro-imaging experiments such as microtomography and high-resolution phase-contrast experiments. In this paper, the results of X-ray phase-contrast imaging experiments are described. PMID:18313312

  17. 30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Acquisition of the tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field by the PIV technique in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Wensheng; Chen, Xu; Feng, Shizuo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a new particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based measurement method is proposed to obtain the high-resolution tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field in the laboratory. A long gravity wave was generated to simulate the tide in a narrow tank full of water laden with PIV particles. Consecutive charge-coupled device (CCD) images were recorded with the studied layer illuminated with a laser beam. Two images separated by one tidal period were processed by applying the pattern-matching algorithm to get the horizontal tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field. The results coincide with sporadic results from the traditional surface-float tracing method, but with much higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the direct acquisition of the Lagrangian residual current may reduce the error at least by one order compared with those acquisition methods that require the detailed information of the tidal cycle.

  19. Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangbin; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Shilin

    2010-07-01

    In laboratory conditions, effects of rearing temperature and stocking density were examined on hatching of fertilized egg and growth of auricularia larvae of Apostichopus japonicus respectively. Data series like larval length and density, metamorphic time, and survival rate of the larvae were recorded. Statistics showed that for A. japonicus, survival rate (from fertilized egg to late auricularia) decreased significantly with the increasing rearing temperature ( P<0.05). At different temperatures SGR was statistically significant as well ( P<0.05) from day 1, and maximal SGR was found on day 9 at 24°C (159.26±3.28). This study clearly indicated that at low temperature (<24°C), metamorphic rate was remarkably higher than at higher temperature (>26°C). Hatching rate was significantly different between 0.2-5 ind./ml groups and 20-50 ind./ml groups. Rearing larvae at the higher density had the smaller maximal-length, whereas needed longer time to complete metamorphosis. This study suggested that 21°C and 0.4 ind./ml can be used as the most suitable rearing temperature and stocking density for large -scale artificial breeding of A. japonicus’s larvae.

  20. Effects of rearing density, age, sex, and food deprivation on flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of rearing density, adult density and sex ratio in the flight chamber, adult age, sex, presence or absence of food, and duration of food deprivation on rate of and time to flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were studied in the laboratory. Rates of flight...

  1. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  2. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  3. Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

  4. Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  5. Picking among pen-reared quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  6. Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-11-01

    Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 ?m-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

  7. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

  8. Different rearing systems for fattening rabbits: Performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lazzaroni, Carla; Biagini, Davide; Lussiana, Carola

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of different rearing systems and sex on productive performance and carcass composition and quality, 80 rabbits (40 males and 40 females) of Carmagnola breed were reared from 9 to 16 weeks of age in individual California type cages (0.12m(2)) or in group ground pens (0.25m(2)/head). The animals were kept in standard and uniform environmental conditions and fed the same ad libitum pellet feed. Data on live weight and feed intake were recorded. At the end of the fattening period 10 animals per group were slaughtered and data provided in the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA) standard method were collected, as well as pH and meat colour. Animals reared in ground pens showed lower productive performances, while, as to slaughtering performances, rabbits reared in cages showed the highest slaughtering weight and also the highest weights for most body parts. Gender slightly affected productive and slaughtering performances: females showed higher feed consumption and higher perirenal fat weight than males. Meat colour parameters showed significant differences in Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris due to housing systems and gender effects. In both muscle, rearing system affected pH only 24h after slaughter. PMID:20416760

  9. New laser-based approaches to improve the passivation and rear contact quality in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molpeceres, Carlos; Colina, Mónica; Muñoz-Martin, David; Martín, Isidro; Ortega, Pablo; Sánchez, Isabel; Morales, Miguel B.; Lauzurica, Sara; García-Ballesteros, Juan J.; Voz, Cristóbal; López, Gema; Morales, Ana-Belén.; Alcubilla, Ramón

    2013-09-01

    Laser processing has been the tool of choice last years to develop improved concepts in contact formation for high efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. New concepts based on standard laser fired contacts (LFC) or advanced laser doping (LD) techniques are optimal solutions for both the front and back contacts of a number of structures with growing interest in the c-Si PV industry. Nowadays, substantial efforts are underway to optimize these processes in order to be applied industrially in high efficiency concepts. However a critical issue in these devices is that, most of them, demand a very low thermal input during the fabrication sequence and a minimal damage of the structure during the laser irradiation process. Keeping these two objectives in mind, in this work we discuss the possibility of using laser-based processes to contact the rear side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells in an approach fully compatible with the low temperature processing associated to these devices. First we discuss the possibility of using standard LFC techniques in the fabrication of SHJ cells on p-type substrates, studying in detail the effect of the laser wavelength on the contact quality. Secondly, we present an alternative strategy bearing in mind that a real challenge in the rear contact formation is to reduce the damage induced by the laser irradiation. This new approach is based on local laser doping techniques previously developed by our groups, to contact the rear side of p-type c-Si solar cells by means of laser processing before rear metallization of dielectric stacks containing Al2O3. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using this new approach in SHJ cells with a distinct advantage over other standard LFC techniques.

  10. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques—the ISOS-3Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Germack D.; Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Jorgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Hoppe, H.; Krebs, F.C.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {ge} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Risoe DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results - hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  11. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques - The ISOS-3 Inter-Laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D. M.; Jrgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M. T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H. F.; Gevorgyan, S. A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {>=} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Riso DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results -- hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  12. 7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  14. EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON SURVIVAL OF LABORATORY CULTURED SUMMER FLOUNDER 'PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS' LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies are being conducted to determine standard laboratory culture conditions for rearing summer flounder larvae to be used in toxicological bioassays. Experiments were conducted using the type of container and physical conditions use in the long term chronic toxicological bioa...

  15. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  16. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron capturadas con mayor frecuencia que los machos. La recaptura de moscas silvestres de A. ludens fue de 0.6 a 24.8%, para A. obliqua fue del 1.3 al 16.2%, para moscas de laboratorio fue de 0.5 a 7.1 y 0.5 a 3%, respectivamente. La esperanza de vida correspondio a 4.7 y 4.3 dias para machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. obliqua respectivamente; mientras que 3 y 2 dias fueron para los machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. ludens . La dispersion para A. ludens y A. obliqua fue de 100 a 250 m tanto para individuos silvestres como de laboratorio. Los adultos de A. ludens silvestre se desplazaron del punto central de liberacion al noroeste, los individuos de laboratorio se movieron hacia el oeste del plano Cartesiano. A su vez los adultos de A. obliqua silvestre se movieron hacia el oeste y las de laboratorio hacia el suroeste. Discutimos las implicaciones de nuestros resultados con relacion al espaciamiento y frecuencia de las liberaciones de moscas esteriles para la supresion de poblaciones silvestres. (author)

  17. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-07-01

    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  18. View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 10. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING REAR SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING REAR SIDE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE GUIDEWALL BUILT ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM NAVIGATION LOCK #1. MASONRY RIPRAP ON NORTH SIDE OF CHANNEL IS VISIBLE IN THE CENTER/RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 6. Rear of port complex, with INS residence at left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Rear of port complex, with INS residence at left foreground. USCS residence at center background and main port building at right foreground. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  1. 8. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left and INS residence at right. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  2. 8. Detail of center section of west rear of building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of center section of west rear of building. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  3. 7. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left and INS residence at right. View to southeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  4. 5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier and sluice gate. Photograph taken from east bank of the sandy beach. VIEW SOUTH - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  5. 2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from west bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW SOUTHEAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  6. 9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  7. 3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door and position of kilns on the slope. This placement facilitated access to the upper door. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  9. 2. WEST (REAR) SIDE. The central bay contains the stairhall. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST (REAR) SIDE. The central bay contains the stairhall. The date of the house is 1774. The date of the first floor rooms on either side of the stairhall are uncertain, and they may be filled-in porches original with the house. - Lewisfield, U.S. Route 52 vicinity, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC

  10. SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields Air Supply building from launch pad - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Air Supply Building for Building No. 0545, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, HALL TO CENTER REAR OF HOUSE, CONSTRUCTION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, HALL TO CENTER REAR OF HOUSE, CONSTRUCTION VIEW WITH FLOOR REMOVED (TO ADD I-BEAMS) REVEALS THE TOP OF THE VAULTED BRICK WINE CELLAR IN THE BASEMENT (CRUCIFORM PLAN) - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  13. 2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, FROM NORTHWEST. AT FAR RIGHT IS KID-PHYSICK HOUSE AND ADJACENT TO IT IS KID-CHANDLER HOUSE - Kid-Chandler & Kid-Physick Houses, 323-325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ARE ORIGINAL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORTING BRICK PARTITIONS UPSTAIRS. AT CENTER IS BRICK PIER SUPPORTING MODERN SAFE. AT RIGHT IS BRICK PIER AND VAULT SUPPORTING ORIGINAL SAFE - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula; Franson, J.C.; Kilpi, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

  16. 9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House showing remains of original coal bunker. Area later was the location of an oil tank. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. Rearing screwworms: from fresh meat to artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in development and continuous modification of screwworm larval diet for mass rearing is driven by various factors, including increase in cost of ingredients used, availability and supply of ingredients, amount of labor and time needed to prepare and feed the insects, and developing an envir...

  18. Contextual oblique view of north side and east rear, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual oblique view of north side and east rear, view to southwest from Franklin Street showing partially cleared freeway right-of-way, and line of mature deodar cedar trees along North Fulton Avenue - Ira H. Brooks House, 350 North Fulton Avenue, Fresno, Fresno County, CA

  19. Oblique view of Building 405 showing the rear (south) side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Building 405 showing the rear (south) side to the left, view facing northwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, C.P.O. Club & Married Enlisted Men's Quarters, O'Neal Street between Moffat & Lawrence Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  1. Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  2. 21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMICIRCULAR SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMI-CIRCULAR SIDE DINING ROOM, NOW CALLED THE BEAR PIT WAS ADDED IN 1927. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY-PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  3. View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 41 and 23 from left to right. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  5. 21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, PAIRED NARROW 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT. OPEN DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Evaluation of Artificial Diets for Rearing Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial aphid diets have been previously developed for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The ability to rear aphids on an artificial diet allows for selectively adding or subtracting compounds from an aphid's food source to determine the effect on fec...

  7. 2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN CENTER AND NEWER ADDITIONS TO THIS STILL OPERATIONAL TEXTILE MILL. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  8. 15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  9. 2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR OBSERVATION MIRRORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  15. Front elevation, note threestory addition to rear dating from 1915. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation, note three-story addition to rear dating from 1915. In foreground is original two-story building of English bond brick. Openings on the street front have stone sills below each opening - Pioneer Building, 2679 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Wayne County, MI

  16. 15. View of rear entrance and yard at west end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of rear entrance and yard at west end of Building E-1, facing west towards Luckie Street. Replicates historic view at GA-2309-5. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO THE ORE YARD FILLED WITH ORE, SHOWING SELF-UNLOADING SHIP BOOM IN ACTION. LOOKING EAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  20. 1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GASANDOIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GAS-AND-OIL HOUSE (BUILDING #2500), FACING SOUTHWEST. (NOTE: CANOPY STRUCTURE NEXT TO BUILDING FORMERLY COVERED GAS PUMPS; CANOPY BUILT IN 1930s BUT MOVED TO THIS LOCATION IN ABOUT 1970.) - Medford Service Center, Gas & Oil House, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

  1. 5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND 507. CONDOMINIUM TOWERS CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS OF THE LIVING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE LEFT. NOTE THE TERRACING OF THE YARD WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 7. General oblique view of rear (north) facade of Paper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General oblique view of rear (north) facade of Paper Machine Building, with ruins of brick engine house in foreground; view to southwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  9. FACILITY 87. FRONT OBLIQUE OF OUTBUILDING. CARPORT IN REAR, ACCESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 87. FRONT OBLIQUE OF OUTBUILDING. CARPORT IN REAR, ACCESSED FROM DRIVEWAY ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Shared Outbuilding Type with Carports, Off Eighth Street on either side of Avenue D, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Child-Rearing Practices of Two Generations of Punjabi Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…

  11. Fruit fly parasitoid mass rearing and release: challenges and achievements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mass-rearing and augmentative release of tephritid fruit fly parasitoids has great promise, particularly in conjunction with sterile males and in areas where insecticides cannot be widely applied. However there are challenges associated with its adoption. These include: 1) The choice of the prop...

  12. View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  13. 19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. Genetic Implications of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens ) Reared on a

    E-print Network

    Genetic Implications of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens ) Reared on a Commercially Prepared and recovery program(s) and the lake sturgeon program. #12;Lake Sturgeon Conservation at Genoa NFH Annual production includedWolf River, Wisconsin River and Rainy River Strains. #12;Lake Sturgeon Culture -Tricks

  6. Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

    In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

  7. NORTH END OF PIEDMONT AVENUE. STADIUM AT LEFT REAR. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH END OF PIEDMONT AVENUE. STADIUM AT LEFT REAR. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  8. 3. RIGHT SIDE OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RIGHT SIDE OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE BOILER STACK ON LEFT. THE FULLER E. CALLAWAY MEMORIAL CLOCK TOWER IS THE POINTED STRUCTURE IN THE DISTANCE TO THE RIGHT OF THE TELEPHONE POLE. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  9. Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  11. Social Isolation Rearing: Species Differences in Behavior of Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Gene P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social and nonsocial behaviors of infant rhesus (macaca mulatta) and pigtail (M. nemestrina) monkeys reared in total social isolation were compared with those of socialized controls. Results question the generality of rhesus total isolate behavior as a model for some human problems. (Author/SB)

  12. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  13. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

  14. 70. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING NORTH AT THE REAR OF UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING NORTH AT THE REAR OF UNIT 2, SHOWING STEAM PIPE, QUICK STOP VALVE, GOVERNOR, AND OIL COOLER; ALSO SHOWING UNIT 5 TO RIGHT (SEE DRAWING No. 12 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  15. Positive Adjustment in Parents Rearing Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2000-01-01

    Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…

  16. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples 25 and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -26 and -18 °C. Only 26 instruments making measurement techniques with wet suspended samples were able to 27 measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -26 28 and -18 °C is discussed. In general, the seventeen immersion freezing measurement 29 techniques deviate, within the range of about 7 °C in terms of temperature, by three orders of 30 magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing 31 efficiency (i.e., ns) of illite NX particles is relatively independent on droplet size, particle 32 mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature-33 2 dependence and weak time- and size-dependence of immersion freezing efficiency of illite-34 rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. 35 We also characterized the ns(T) spectra, and identified a section with a steep slope between -36 20 °C and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion 37 freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 38 °C. A multiple exponential distribution fit is expressed as ns(T) = exp(23.82 × exp(-exp(0.16 × 39 (T + 17.49))) + 1.39) based on the specific surface area and ns(T) = exp(25.75 × exp(-exp(0.13 40 × (T + 17.17))) + 3.34) based on the geometric area (ns and T in m-2 and °C, respectively). 41 These new fits, constrained by using an identical reference samples, will help to compare IN 42 measurement methods that are not included in the present study and, thereby, IN data from 43 future IN instruments.

  17. Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemming, C.H.; Bunde, R.L.; Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium Kd's at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium Kd's ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium Kd's were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium Kd's may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium Kd's.

  18. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

    2014-08-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~ -26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -26 and -18 °C. Only instruments making measurement techniques with wet suspended samples were able to measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -26 and -18 °C is discussed. In general, the seventeen immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within the range of about 7 °C in terms of temperature, by three orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency (i.e., ns) of illite NX particles is relatively independent on droplet size, particle mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature-dependence and weak time- and size-dependence of immersion freezing efficiency of illite-rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. We also characterized the ns (T) spectra, and identified a section with a steep slope between -20 and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 °C. A multiple exponential distribution fit is expressed as ns(T) = exp(23.82 × exp(-exp(0.16 × (T + 17.49))) + 1.39) based on the specific surface area and ns(T) = exp(25.75 × exp(-exp(0.13 × (T + 17.17))) + 3.34) based on the geometric area (ns and T in m-2 and °C, respectively). These new fits, constrained by using an identical reference samples, will help to compare IN measurement methods that are not included in the present study and, thereby, IN data from future IN instruments.

  19. Rear seat occupant thorax protection in near side impacts.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Katarina; Rosén, Erik; Sunnevang, Cecilia; Boström, Ola

    2009-10-01

    Thoracic side-airbags (SAB) have proven to protect front seat occupants in side impacts. This benefit has not been evaluated for rear seat occupants who are typically small statured. The objective was to analyze field data from rear seat occupants in near side impacts, and evaluate the effect of a SAB in the rear seat, through full scale vehicle tests. A field study using the NASS-CDS database was performed to review rear seat crash characteristics, occupant injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3+, AIS3+) and injury sources. Full scale tests were performed with the side impact dummy SID-IIs at two different crash severities, with and without SAB in a midsize passenger car. Field data showed that of all AIS3+ injured restrained occupants 13 years and older, 59% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 38% had AIS3+ head injuries. The thoracic injuries were distributed to lungs (60%), skeletal fractures (38%) and injuries to arteries (1,26%) and heart (0,1%). For AIS3+ injured children, age 4-12, 51% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 54% had AIS3+ head injuries. Compared to adults, children sustained less fractures and more lung injuries. The rear side interior was the main injury source regardless of age group. In the full scale tests, the thoracic side-airbag reduced the average rib deflection by 50% and resulted in an AIS3+ injury risk reduction from 36% to 3%. At the higher impact speed, SAB reduced the injury risk from 93% to 24%. The full scale crash tests showed that SAB offer a significant potential for thoracic injury reduction in the crash severities causing the majority of serious injuries in real life crashes. PMID:20184828

  20. Aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes. PMID:19016438

  1. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  2. Optimal conditions for rearing the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca:Triopsidae), a biological control agent against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fry-O'Brien, L L; Mulla, M S

    1996-09-01

    Tadpole shrimp (TPS) were reared at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C in the laboratory. Size of TPS was temperature and age dependent with more rapid development at warmer temperatures. Survivorship was inversely related to rearing temperature. Mean age at death was 24.2, 19.2, 14.3, and 11.8 days at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Rearing temperature (excluding 15 degrees C) did not affect lifetime fecundity, but larger TPS laid more eggs than smaller ones. Tadpole shrimp began ovipositing earlier at higher temperatures, and at a smaller size than their counterparts in lower temperatures. Mean age at reproductive maturity was 18.8, 13.1, and 10.2 days and mean carapace length was 10.8, 11.0, and 10.3 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Embryogenesis required a minimum of 3 days for completion. Hatching rates during the first hydration decreased with increasing egg batch number produced by individuals, ranging from a mean of 74% for the first batch to 31% for the 5th batch. Cumulative hatching rates of eggs after 2 hydrations were consistent across temperatures and egg batches (79 +/- 2%). PMID:8887224

  3. Increased juvenile and adult body weights in BALB/cByJ mice reared in a communal nest.

    PubMed

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Blizard, David A

    2011-07-01

    Both wild and laboratory mice and rats preferentially rear their young in communal nests and indiscriminately nurse any of the young within the nest. In this study, BALBc/ByJ mice reared under communal nesting (CN) conditions (3 dams and their litters sharing a common nest) were compared with BALBc/ByJ mice raised in single (one dam with her litter) nests (SN) in body weight from birth into adulthood; food and water intake and body composition were compared between adult mice. Compared with SN female mice, female CN mice (measured only until weaning) exhibited significantly higher body weights at postnatal days 11 and 25. Male CN mice were significantly heavier than were male SN mice at postnatal day 25 and at 20, 26, and 30 wk of age. There were no differences between adult male mice from CN and SN groups in 48-h food and water intake or body composition (total lean:total fat ratio; measured by quantitative MRI). In conclusion, BALB/cByJ mice reared under communal nesting conditions showed more robust juvenile growth rates than did mice raised with a single dam and litter per cage. In addition, body weights of male CN mice remained higher than male SN mice into adulthood. PMID:21838976

  4. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo que la fecundidad es optima durante las tres primeras semanas de iniciada la oviposicion y que la fertilidad se mantiene constante durante ese periodo. Durante 2003-2004 se implementaron mejoras en el protocolo de cria existente lo que resulto en un incremento de la viabilidad larvaria, del peso de pupas y del porcentaje de emergencia de adultos. La produccion actual semanal es de un millon de huevos. Los mismos son utilizados para mantener la colonia y realizar distintos estudios de calidad de esta cepa. Por ultimo, se sugieren necesidades de investigacion para alcanzar mejores rendimientos. (author)

  5. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

  6. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

    2015-03-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice-nucleating particles. However, an intercomparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nuclei Research Unit), we distributed an illite-rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. A total of 17 measurement methods were involved in the data intercomparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while 10 other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing data set was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density, ns, to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers 9 orders of magnitude in ns. In general, the 17 immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within a range of about 8 °C in terms of temperature, by 3 orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency expressed in ns of illite NX particles is relatively independent of droplet size, particle mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature dependence and weak time and size dependence of the immersion freezing efficiency of illite-rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. We also characterized the ns(T) spectra and identified a section with a steep slope between -20 and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 °C. While the agreement between different instruments was reasonable below ~ -27 °C, there seemed to be a different trend in the temperature-dependent ice nucleation activity from the suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust, in particular at higher temperatures. For instance, the ice nucleation activity expressed in ns was smaller for the average of the wet suspended samples and higher for the average of the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -27 and -18 °C. Only instruments making measurements with wet suspended samples were able to measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -27 and -18 °C is discussed. Multiple exponential distribution fits in both linear and log space for both specific surface area-based ns(T) and geometric surface area-based ns(T) are provided. These new fits, constrained by using identical reference samples, will help to compare IN measurement methods that are not included in the present study and IN data from future IN instruments.

  7. FULL-SCALE LABORATORY SIMULATION FACILITY TO TEST PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A THIRD WORLD RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION PROCESS. III. EVALUATIO OF A POTENTIAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM THE INDOOR, OPEN HEARTH COMBUSTION OF COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. NOTE: bnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bi...

  8. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature. PMID:25747862

  9. Growth and blood chemistry of ducklings reared on acidified wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Haramis, G.; Linder, G.; Chu, D.

    1985-01-01

    Acid deposition is one factor that may be responsible for the decline of some waterfowl populations. Growth and physiological condition were monitored in captive-reared black ducks (Anas rubripes) exposed for 10-day trials (day 11-20 of life) on control (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 5.0) man-made emergent wetlands. Impaired growth (body weight, culmen and tarsus length) and increased mortality (50%) were apparent in broods (hen + 4 ducklings) reared on acidified wetIands. Ducklings exbibiting poor growth had reduced hematocrit, plasma protein and cholesterol levels. This subset of birds had elevated plasma uric acid concentration and creatine kinase activity (perhaps due to enhanced protein and nucleotide catabolism). and elevated pIasma K+ levels. Based upon overt appearance, growth and blood chemistry, ducklings exposed to acidified wetlands were concluded to be in poorer condittion than those exposed on circumneutral pH wetlands.

  10. 4. Main Control Switchboard (south end rear), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Main Control Switchboard (south end rear), view to the north, with item 2 (the load frequency control panel) visible in right foreground, through item 7 (generator Unit 4 control panel) obliquely visible on left side of the photograph. Part of item 1 (the synchronization monitor) is visible behind the phone on right side of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  11. 93. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF REAR OF THE SWITCHBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF REAR OF THE SWITCHBOARD, AUGUST 11, 1914, SHOWING BUS BARS. THE BUS BARS WERE MOVED TO A POINT ABOVE THE SWITCHBOARD PANELS A FEW YEARS LATER. THE PLANT WAS EQUIPPED WITH FOUR SETS OF BUS BARS, TWO FOR THE EAST END, TWO FOR THE WEST END, SO THAT ONLY A QUARTER OF THE PLANT COULD BE SHORTED OUT AT ANY ONE TIME. (914) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. 16. THREEQUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THREE-QUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ORE UNLOADER AS IT DESCENDS INTO THE HOLD. THE WALKING BEAM AND ITS GRAB BUCKET ARE OPERATED BY MEANS OF ROPES WOUND ON DRUMS, WHICH IN TURN ARE GEARED TO ELECTRIC MOTORS. ROUND TRIP FROM BOAT TO HOPPER CAN BE MADE IN 50 SECONDS. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented. PMID:24567208

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE GABLE VENT AND CONCRETE SLAB OF THE CARPORT (TO THE RIGHT OF UNIT B). VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW FROM ALLEY LOOKING WEST AT REAR ELEVATION OF 260 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ALLEY LOOKING WEST AT REAR ELEVATION OF 260 RENNIE ST., UPRIGHT AND WING TYPE MILL WORKER HOUSING, C. 1900. THIS NEW TOWN SECTION OF GRANITEVILLE ON THE HILL EAST OF THE MILL COMPLEX HAD A GRID-PLAN STREET PATTERN WITH ALLEYS RUNNING THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE BLOCKS. NOTE GARAGES ADDED IN THE 1940'S AND IDENTICAL STRUCTURES 262 AND 264 RENNIE ST. TO RIGHT - 260 Rennie Street (House), Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  16. Driving gear for front and rear wheels of automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Sakuma, S.

    1986-10-21

    A driving gear is described for front and rear wheels of an automobile, comprising an engine with a crank shaft disposed in a direction of width of a body of the automobile, a transmission supported on an engine case at one side axially of the crank shaft, and a clutch provided between the engine and the transmission. The driving gear includes a first differential gear of a planetary gear type coupled to the transmission via a reduction gear, a second differential gear of a bevel gear type transmission an output of the first differential gear to left and right front wheels of the automobile, and a third differential gear transmitting an output of the first differential gear to left and right rear wheels of the automobile. The first differential gear is disposed adjacent to the reduction gear and comprises a sun gear, a ring gear and planet gears engaging with the sun and ring gears. The planet gears are pivoted directly on and driven by the reduction gear; the first and second differential gears are provided on opposite sides of a plane perpendicular to the crankshaft and including the clutch. The first and second differential gears also lie along a common axis parallel to the crank shaft. The sun gear and the ring gear are coupled individually to the front and rear wheels respectively.

  17. Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

  18. Comparative sensitivity of field and laboratory populations of Hyalella azteca to the pyrethroid insecticides bifenthrin and cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Clark, Stephen L; Ogle, R Scott; Gantner, Andrew; Hall, Lenwood W; Mitchell, Gary; Giddings, Jeffrey; McCoole, Matthew; Dobbs, Michael; Henry, Kevin; Valenti, Ted

    2015-10-01

    Hyalella azteca are epibenthic invertebrates that are widely used for toxicity studies. They are reported to be more sensitive to pyrethroid insecticides than most other test species, which has prompted considerable use of this species in toxicity testing of ambient surface waters where the presence of pyrethroids is suspected. However, resident H. azteca have been found in some ambient water bodies reported to contain surface water and/or sediment pyrethroid concentrations that are toxic to laboratory reared H. azteca. This observation suggests differences in the sensitivities of laboratory reared and field populations of H. azteca to pyrethroids. The goal of the present study was to determine the sensitivities of laboratory reared and field populations of H. azteca to the pyrethroids bifenthrin and cypermethrin. Specimens of H. azteca were collected from resident populations at field sites that are subject to varied land-use activities as well as from laboratory populations. These organisms were exposed to bifenthrin- or cypermethrin-spiked water in 96-h water-only toxicity tests. The resulting data demonstrated that: 1) field-collected populations in urban and agricultural settings can be >2 orders of magnitude less sensitive to the pyrethroids than laboratory reared organisms; 2) field-collected organisms varied in their sensitivity (possibly based on land-use activities), with organisms collected from undeveloped sites exhibiting sensitivities similar to laboratory reared organisms; and 3) the sensitivity of field-collected "tolerant" organisms increased in subsequent generations reared under laboratory conditions. Potential mechanisms for these differences are discussed. PMID:25929226

  19. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  20. Isolation Rearing Effects on Probabilistic Learning and Cognitive Flexibility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AMITAI, Nurith; YOUNG, Jared W.; HIGA, Kerin; SHARP, Richard F.; GEYER, Mark A.; POWELL, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Isolation rearing is a neurodevelopmental manipulation that produces neurochemical, structural, and behavioral alterations in rodents that have consistencies with schizophrenia. Symptoms induced by isolation rearing that mirror clinically relevant aspects of schizophrenia, such as cognitive deficits, open up the possibility of testing putative therapeutics in isolation-reared animals prior to clinical development. We investigated what effect isolation rearing would have on cognitive flexibility, a cognitive function characteristically disrupted in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we assessed cognitive flexibility using between- and within-session probabilistic reversal-learning tasks based on clinical tests. Isolation-reared rats required more sessions, though not more task trials, to acquire criterion performance in the reversal phase of the task and were slower to adjust their task strategy after reward contingencies were switched. Isolation-reared rats also completed fewer trials and exhibited lower levels of overall activity in the probabilistic reversal-learning task compared to socially reared rats. This finding contrasted with the elevated levels of unconditioned investigatory activity and reduced levels of locomotor habituation that isolation-reared rats displayed in the behavioral pattern monitor. Finally, isolation-reared rats also exhibited sensorimotor gating deficits, reflected by decreased prepulse inhibition of the startle response, consistent with previous studies. We conclude that isolation rearing constitutes a valuable, noninvasive manipulation for modeling schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and assessing putative therapeutics. PMID:23943516

  1. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards. PMID:19398366

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

  3. First year growth in the lithodids Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Nettelmann, U.; Anger, K.

    2005-10-01

    The southern king crab, Lithodes santolla Molina, and stone crab, Paralomis granulosa Jacquinot, inhabit the cold-temperate waters of southernmost South America (southern Chile and Argentina), where stocks of both species are endangered by overfishing. Recent investigations have shown that these crabs show life-cycle adaptations to scarcity of food and low temperatures prevailing in subantarctic regions, including complete lecithotrophy of all larval stages and prolonged periods of brooding and longevity. However, growth and development to maturity are slow under conditions of low temperatures, which may explain the particular vulnerability of subpolar lithodids to fisheries. In the present study, juvenile L. santolla and P. granulosa were individually reared in the laboratory at constant temperatures ranging from 3-15 °C, and rates of survival and development through successive instars were monitored throughout a period of about nine months from hatching. When the experiments were terminated, L. santolla had maximally reached juvenile instar IV (at 6 °C), V (9 °C), or VII (15 °C). In P. granulosa the maximum crab instar reached was II (at 3 °C), V (6 °C), V (9 °C), or VII (15 °C). The intermoult period decreased with increasing temperature, while it increased in successively later instars. In consequence, growth rate showed highly significant differences among temperatures (P<0.001). Growth-at-moult was highest at 9 °C. Rates of survival decreased significantly in juvenile P. granulosa with increasing temperature. Only at 15 °C in L. santolla, was a significantly enhanced mortality found compared with lower temperatures. Our results indicate that juvenile stages of L. santolla and P. granulosa are well adapted to 5-10°C, the range of temperatures typically prevailing in subantarctic marine environments. In spite of causing higher mortality rates, higher rearing temperatures (12-15 °C) should accelerate the rates of growth and maturation, which may be favourable for projects aiming at aquaculture or repopulation of overexploited king crab stocks.

  4. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  5. Lift-off process and rear-side characterization of CuGaSe2 chalcopyrite thin films and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fürtes Marrón, D.; Meeder, A.; Sadewasser, S.; Würz, R.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Glatzel, Th.; Schedel-Niedrig, Th.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.

    2005-05-01

    An alternative approach to the so-called "lift-off" technology is presented, in which a CuGaSe2 solar cell absorber film is detached from a Mo-coated glass substrate. The proposed lift-off takes advantage of an interfacial MoSe2 layer, acting as a sacrificial layer, which forms at the rear contact during the growth of the CuGaSe2 film. No additional processing step is thus required to proceed with the lift-off. The lift-off was carried out in ultrahigh vacuum for quality assessment, and the rear CuGaSe2 and top MoSe2 surfaces were characterized by means of surface-sensitive techniques, namely, Kelvin probe force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The cleanness of the CuGaSe2 rear surface was confirmed by the absence of Mo remnants, thus demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method for further processing of the absorber film onto alternative substrates. In addition, a quantitative analysis of surface photovoltage, doping concentration, and interface charge at grain boundaries on the absorber's rear surface is presented, exploiting the convenience of the procedure for characterization purposes. Preliminary results regarding the device performance and identification of limiting factors are reported.

  6. Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Urrejola, Elias; Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar

    2011-04-11

    We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50{+-}0.06) {mu}m/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

  7. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    PubMed

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. PMID:22476020

  8. 17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear corridor between Units 3 and 4, view to the west. The compressor motor is located just right of center in photograph. The pressure tank on the right side of the photograph is a reserve pressure tank for governor system. The pressure tank on the left side of the photograph is the original instrument air pressure tank. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  9. 1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The wall of Unit 2 turbine pit is visible in the right foreground. The pipe and valve cluster in the right foreground is part of the blow down valve for Unit 2. This valve allows the water in the draft chest to be lowered (i.e., 'blown down') so that the unit can be motored (i.e., run like an electric motor rather than an electric power generator). - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  10. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  11. Effects of Rearing and Sex on Maze Learning and Competitive Exploration in Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Rhawn

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that differential rearing conditions may cause significant reversals in sex-related ability and behavior (maze learning and exploration), and may significantly affect perceptual sensitivity. (RL)

  12. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable values...