Sample records for laboratory rearing technique

  1. Laboratory rearing techniques and adult life table parameters for Anopheles sergentii from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Beier, M S; Beier, J C; Merdan, A A; el Sawaf, B M; Kadder, M A

    1987-06-01

    Techniques are presented for maintaining colonies of Anopheles sergentii, an important malaria vector in Egypt. Larval development time and survival rates were determined for 3 rearing solutions and 4 temperatures. Under optimal conditions larval survival rates averaged 85%. Mean life expectancy at emergence for mated An. sergentii was 23.3 days under insectary conditions of 27 +/- 2 degrees C, 70-80% R.H. The net reproductive rate, mean generation time and instantaneous rate of increase were respectively, 45.8 females per female per generation, 29.7 days and 0.127. In the context of vector potential for malaria transmission, An. sergentii has a daily survivorship rate of 0.95. PMID:3504913

  2. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

  4. Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets 

    E-print Network

    Mastro, Victory Carl

    1973-01-01

    developed for the pink bollworm, P~b)muy' ll (9 d ) 69 ldk' l. (1969). It was often necessary to modify the diet for the rearing of other species. Shorey and Hale (1965) used a bean-hase artificial diet for rearing nine noctuid species, but the basic...

  5. 1996,52.529-537 Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish,

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    . .fllim. B.-htlV, 1996,52.529-537 @ Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish, Sepiaofficinalis L. No evidenceof Insli- Cuttlefish are neither solitary, .as arc octo- lute, 301 UnivcrsilY Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555

  6. Exposing Laboratory-Reared Fleas to Soil and Wild Flea Feces Increases Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan T.; Vetter, Sara M.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis. PMID:23939709

  7. Hand rearing of pet birds--feeds, techniques and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Kamphues, J

    2003-04-01

    The comparison of the contents of nutrients determined in commercial hand rearing diets with the nutrient requirements of growing budgerigars and lovebirds estimated by the factorial method revealed satisfactory protein, lysine and arginine concentrations. Regarding sulphur amino acids, a number of products showed marginal methionine and cystine contents. Mineral contents generally met all requirements and were even excessive in some cases. Ultimately, the results gained in this study demonstrate that nestlings' substantial requirements for sulphur amino acids for plumage development are often underestimated, while their calcium requirements in connection with bone mineralization are frequently overestimated. The primary obstacle to successful hand rearing, however, probably lies not so much in energy and nutrient contents, but rather--as revealed by first results of feeding trials with lovebirds--in the passage of the suspended diet through the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. crop disorders) and/or errors regarding feed quantities and feeding frequency. PMID:14511137

  8. DESCRIPTION OF ZOEAE OF COONSTRIPE SHRIMP, PANDALUS HYPSINOTUS, REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF ZOEAE OF COONSTRIPE SHRIMP, PANDALUS HYPSINOTUS, REARED IN THE LABORATORY EVAN stages ofP. hypsinotus given by other authora. Although pandalid shrimp form a major fishery resource mentioned briefly the growth and distribution ofthe zoeae. 0f14 species of pandalid shrimps known to occur

  9. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  10. Development of Resistance to Minchinia nelsoni (MSX) Mortality in Laboratory-Reared and

    E-print Network

    Development of Resistance to Minchinia nelsoni (MSX) Mortality in Laboratory-Reared and Native, a haplosporidan parasite, was identified and named Minchinia neLsoni (more commonly known as MSX) by Haskin et al University has pursued many lines of investigation into the na- ture of the MSX problem. All attempts

  11. Laboratory Technique Videos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students of organic chemistry will find this website from the University of Alberta to be a most welcome find. Created by a team of educational experts at the University, the videos here demonstrate a variety of techniques that are commonly used in laboratory settings. There are a dozen videos here, and they include "Filtration", "Reflux", "Distillation", and "Using a Separatory Funnel". The films here are available in a number of different formats, including Quick Time and Windows Media. The site also includes an "Interactive Tutorials" section. Here visitors will find tutorials that will introduce them to spectroscopy, separation and isolation, and the rather amusing world of "Detective O-Chem", which asks the user to take on a fictional avian flu outbreak.

  12. Chemistry Laboratory Techniques

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning to navigate the treacherous shoals of the chemistry laboratory is tricky business. Fortunately, interested parties can use this fine online course from MIT's OpenCourseWare to become more familiar with such matters. The course consists of "intensive practical training in basic chemistry lab techniques" and the site includes a host of instructional videos. The manual and materials for this course were prepared by Dr. Katherine J. Franze and Dr. Kevin M. Shea in collaboration with a number of their colleagues. Visitors can make their way through the syllabus, course calendar, labs, and the study materials. In the Study Materials area, visitors will find ten videos, including "Using a Balance," "Melting Point Determination," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Students of chemistry and educators will find this site most useful and will wish to share it widely with others.

  13. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  14. [Occurrence of the mite Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae) in insect rearing in laboratory].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Uemerson S; Silva, Edmilson S; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Vendramim, José D

    2006-01-01

    Pyemotidae mites have been reported as ectoparasites of a large number of arthropods, especially of insects. These mites are frequently found attacking insects in different habitats, including insect rearing. This paper reports the occurrence of Pyemotes sp., ventricosus group, in colonies of Tuta absoluta (Meyerick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the insect rearing laboratory of ESALQ-USP, in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, provoking dematitis in those involved with the rearing. This is the first report of a Pyemotes species parasitizing T. absoluta and S. zeamais. Considering the capacity of Pyemotes to cause dermatitis in human beings, demonstrated by other authors, the direct use of the Pyemotes species found in this work for the control of the reported insect species may not be promising. PMID:17061810

  15. LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF BATHYNECTES SUPERBA (COSTA) REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MORRIS H. ROBERTS

    Larvae of several portunid species have now been described to varying extents by laboratory culture studies, including Portunus puber (egg to juvenile) , P. de purator (egg to Zoea III) , Carcinus maenas (egg to Zoea IV) by Lebour (1928), and Callinectes sapidus (egg to Zoea IV, Hopkins, 1943, 1944 ; egg to juvenile, Costlow and Bookhout, 1959) . The

  16. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, M.; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  17. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  18. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

    2013-12-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility. PMID:24498749

  19. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  20. SIMILARITY IN RESPONSES OF LABORATORY-REARED ANED FIELD-COLLECTED LONE STAR TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE)NYMPHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field testing tick repellents intended for use on human skin can be difficult, particularly when multiple concentrations of multiple repellents must be tested. Therefore, laboratory tests using laboratory reared ticks have been important. To address concerns that test results obtained with laborator...

  1. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  2. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  3. An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity. PMID:20945799

  4. A description of the larval development of Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionísio, Maria; Rodrigues, Armindo; Costa, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first description of the larval development of the commercially exploited barnacle Megabalanus azoricus. It describes the changes in larval size and shape as well as the general morphology and duration of each larval stage. Embryos were obtained from gravid specimens collected at São Miguel Island and reared through six naupliar stages to the cypris stage in laboratory conditions. The planktotrophic nauplii reached the cypris stage after 14 days of hatching in individual cultures at 20 °C under natural illumination and fed with phytoplankton ( Chaetoceros gracilis, Isochrysis sp., and Tetraselmis sp.). The nauplius of M. azoricus has a normal size compared with nauplii of other congeneric species, ranging between the 261 ?m (nauplius I) and 912 ?m (nauplius VI). This work provides the first description of larvae of the genus Megabalanus for the Portuguese oceanic islands and provides comparisons with congeneric species in other parts of the world.

  5. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  6. Patterns of growth and triacylglycerol content in snow crab Chionoecetes opilio (Brachyura: Majidae) zoeal stages reared in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Lovrich; P. Ouellet

    1994-01-01

    Snow carb Chionoecetes opilio zoea I and zoea II larvae, hatched from females in a controlled mating experiment, were reared in the laboratory at 10.1 °C and 28.0‰ salinity, to resolve the patterns of growth (dry weight [DW]) and change in energy reserves (triacylglycerols [TAG]) within a given moult cycle. The patterns of growth and change in TAG reserves were

  7. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  8. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  9. Response of intestinal flora of laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) to cold and fasting.

    PubMed Central

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial flora of the large intestine was examined in 35 laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) subjected to one of the following four treatments: (i) normal feeding at 21 degrees C (10 frogs); (ii) fasting for 2 weeks at 21 degrees C (8 frogs); (iii) chilling for 1 week at 4 degrees C (9 frogs); and (iv) simulated hibernation for 3 weeks at 4 degrees C (8 frogs). Bacteria from the intestinal contents and mucosa were counted microscopically and by colony counting after strictly anaerobic culturing. The predominant bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. Fasting for 2 weeks produced no significant changes in total counts or in the types of bacteria cultured. Chilling, whether rapid or in the course of simulated hibernation, was associated with a decrease in the numbers and variety of bacteria. Thus it appears that the lowering of temperature rather than the absence of food is the important factor in the reduction of bacterial flora seen in hibernating frogs. However, the bacteria showed some adaptation to the low temperature, as the longer the host had been at 4 degrees C, the higher the proportion of bacteria which could grow when cultured at that temperature. PMID:6982026

  10. Effects of temperature on the egg incubation period, survival and developmental period of larvae of the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskål) (Brachyura: Portunidae) reared in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyuki Hamasaki

    2003-01-01

    This study examined effects of temperature on the egg incubation period, survival and developmental period of larvae of the mud crab Scylla serrata reared in the laboratory. Pre-mated females were held in tanks in which temperature varied seasonally; their spawning and hatching were recorded daily. The number of days from spawning to hatching and mean rearing temperature were determined for

  11. Larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards (Decapoda: Grapsidae) reared in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Montfi; K. Anger; C. de Bakker

    1996-01-01

    Larvae of the Chinese mitten crabEriocheir sinensis were reared in the laboratory from the time of hatching and through metamorphosis. Development normally consists of a Prezoea,\\u000a 5 Zoea stages, and a Megalopa. Occasionally, an additional (stage VI) Zoea and, in one case, an additional Megalopa (transitional\\u000a to the first crab stage) were observed. Detailed morphological descriptions of all larval and

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF THE NORTHERN SENNET, Sphyraena borealis DeKAY (PISCES: SPHYRAENIDAE) REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD D. HOUDE

    Eggs and larvae of the northern sennet, Sphyraena borealis DeKay, are described from laboratory­ reared specimens. Fertilized eggs were collected on the edge of the Florida Current near Miami in December 1969. Larvae were 2.6 mm SL (standard length) at hatching and 13.5 mm SL at 21 days after hatching. Head and snout length increased rapidly relative to standard length

  13. Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

  14. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  15. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  16. Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larvae and juveniles of the Laotioan indigenous cyprinid Hypsibarbus malcolmi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuka Ogata; Shinsuke Morioka; Kosuke Sano; Bounsong Vongvichith; Hiroki Eda; Hisashi Kurokura; Thongkhoun Khonglaliane

    2010-01-01

    The morphological development, including the pigmentation, body proportions, fins, and survival rate for 30 days after hatching,\\u000a of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Hypsibarbus malcolmi is described. Body lengths (BL) of larvae and juveniles were 2.0 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) mm at 1 h after hatching (day 0) and 9.2 ± 0.6 mm\\u000a on day 16, reaching 12.1 ± 0.9 mm on day 30. Yolk volume decreased linearly, with the yolk being

  17. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

  18. Microwave techniques for diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S

    1993-01-01

    Microwaves (MWs) were first introduced as a method of fixation just over 20 years ago. In recent years their use has extended far beyond that of a safe, clean and rapid method of fixation of tissue blocks and large specimens, including brains. MWs accelerate the action of cross-linking fixatives and can greatly accelerate the various stages of tissue processing to produce a paraffin block in 30 min. An extensive range of ultrafast MW-stimulated special stains has been developed, and immunohistochemical procedures can be completed in 20 min by employing MWs. Cellular antigens are distinctly better preserved in tissues fixed by MWs than by conventional cross-linking fixatives. Also, the cytomorphology of cryostat sections irradiated in Wolman's solution is clearly improved. MWs can similarly be applied for fixation and staining of preparations for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and they also greatly accelerate polymerisation of resins. In the current climate of cost containment, this wide range of applications makes the MW oven an invaluable addition to the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:8287207

  19. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  20. DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

  1. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  2. The Zoeal Stages of Petrolisthes caribensis Werding, 1983 Reared under Laboratory Conditions (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Kraus; Alexandra Hiller; Norella Cruz

    2004-01-01

    The early larval development of the western Atlantic porcellanid crab Petrolisthes caribensis Werding, 1983 was studied under laboratory conditions. The two zoeal stages are described and illustrated. P. caribensis has bifid lateral spines on the telson of the first zoea. A short serrated seta on the terminal article of the endopodite of the second maxillipeds occurs in both zoeal stages.

  3. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Calcagno; K. Anger; G. A. Lovrich; S. Thatje; A. Kaffenberger

    2004-01-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval

  4. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  5. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  6. Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology 

    E-print Network

    Supharngkasen, Phaisal

    1966-01-01

    '0 ~ The duration of the egg, X~ -sad: pupal ~se were 4-j~ -~ amX . ~ ~? woxixw xg ~ Btuky and . control of insect. -pestsa 1936g Kisc. ? Pubis kg Res. Bura China Ho ~ 5s (Bepo '1935)t2'7-33 ' I' I fletcher and. Ghosh (1())21) noted that Che rice stalk boxer...LABORATORY REARXICG OP THE RXQE STALK BORER~ QHHG PLEJA3X(L~X8 (ZXHGKEM) AND HOTES 05 X'TS BXOLOGY Ayyrcvsd. as to style an@ ccntent bye sn 0 0 88 I F F. ~ F en 81' msy, less F. F The author wishes to thank Hr. E. H. Randolph, for his...

  7. Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology

    E-print Network

    Supharngkasen, Phaisal

    1966-01-01

    '0 ~ The duration of the egg, X~ -sad: pupal ~se were 4-j~ -~ amX . ~ ~? woxixw xg ~ Btuky and . control of insect. -pestsa 1936g Kisc. ? Pubis kg Res. Bura China Ho ~ 5s (Bepo '1935)t2'7-33 ' I' I fletcher and. Ghosh (1())21) noted that Che rice stalk boxer...LABORATORY REARXICG OP THE RXQE STALK BORER~ QHHG PLEJA3X(L~X8 (ZXHGKEM) AND HOTES 05 X'TS BXOLOGY Ayyrcvsd. as to style an@ ccntent bye sn 0 0 88 I F F. ~ F en 81' msy, less F. F The author wishes to thank Hr. E. H. Randolph, for his...

  8. Larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards (Decapoda: Grapsidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montú, M.; Anger, K.; de Bakker, C.

    1996-06-01

    Larvae of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were reared in the laboratory from the time of hatching and through metamorphosis. Development normally consists of a Prezoea, 5 Zoea stages, and a Megalopa. Occasionally, an additional (stage VI) Zoea and, in one case, an additional Megalopa (transitional to the first crab stage) were observed. Detailed morphological descriptions of all larval and the first two juvenile instars are given, and larval morphology is compared with that of two closely related species, Eriocheir japonicus and Eriocheir rectus, descriptions of which have recently become available. The zoeal stages of these species can be distinguished by their different number of aesthetascs and setae on the antennules, and different setation of maxillipeds 1 and 2. The Megalopa shows differences in the shape of the rostrum and again in the morphology of the antennule. These and other morphological differences (mainly in setation and spinulation of the zoeal carapace) between E. sinensis and E. japonicus larvae suggest that they may be very closely related but separate species; this contradicts a recent study of adult morphometrics and molecular genetics (Li et al., 1993), suggesting that they are only varieties of a single species.

  9. SNPfisher: tools for probing genetic variation in laboratory-reared zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Butler, Matthew G; Iben, James R; Marsden, Kurt C; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granato, Michael; Weinstein, Brant M

    2015-04-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the benchmark molecular markers for modern genomics. Until recently, relatively few SNPs were known in the zebrafish genome. The use of next-generation sequencing for the positional cloning of zebrafish mutations has increased the number of known SNP positions dramatically. Still, the identified SNP variants remain under-utilized, owing to scant annotation of strain specificity and allele frequency. To address these limitations, we surveyed SNP variation in three common laboratory zebrafish strains using whole-genome sequencing. This survey identified an average of 5.04 million SNPs per strain compared with the Zv9 reference genome sequence. By comparing the three strains, 2.7 million variants were found to be strain specific, whereas the remaining variants were shared among all (2.3 million) or some of the strains. We also demonstrate the broad usefulness of our identified variants by validating most in independent populations of the same laboratory strains. We have made all of the identified SNPs accessible through 'SNPfisher', a searchable online database (snpfisher.nichd.nih.gov). The SNPfisher website includes the SNPfisher Variant Reporter tool, which provides the genomic position, alternate allele read frequency, strain specificity, restriction enzyme recognition site changes and flanking primers for all SNPs and Indels in a user-defined gene or region of the zebrafish genome. The SNPfisher site also contains links to display our SNP data in the UCSC genome browser. The SNPfisher tools will facilitate the use of SNP variation in zebrafish research as well as vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:25813542

  10. Development of Onchocerca volvulus from cryopreserved microfilariae in three temperate species of laboratory-reared blackflies.

    PubMed

    Ham, P J; Bianco, A E

    1983-06-01

    Three species of British blackflies, Simulium ornatum s.l., S. erythrocephalum and S. lineatum, were infected with the cryopreserved microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus obtained from human skin-snips in the Sudan. Doses of 5 or 10 microfilariae per fly were administered by intrathoracic injection into females, 1-2 days after eclosion from pupae. After 7 days at 27.5 degrees C and 85% relative humidity, microfilariae had completed development to third-stage larvae. Fly survival rates were highest for S. ornatum (96%) and lowest for S. lineatum (56%), and fell only marginally in each species when the larger dose of microfilariae was given. Infection rates ranged from 42% in S. lineatum up to 58% in S. ornatum following the lower dose of microfilariae, and 58% in S. lineatum up to 79% in S. ornatum following the higher dose. The proportion of microfilariae which completed development was relatively constant in each species of fly, ranging from 3.1-4.2% in S. lineatum to 10.5-16.8% in S. erythrocephalum. The greatest number of third-stage larvae recovered came from S. erythrocephalum at the higher dose of microfilariae, with a mean of 2.4 larvae per infected fly. As S. erythrocephalum has been successfully colonized through several generations in the laboratory, it is concluded that this is a promising species for reselection for increased susceptibility to O. volvulus. PMID:6879707

  11. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  12. Validation of a new larval rearing unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mass rearing.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, Fabrizio; Puggioli, Arianna; Gilles, Jérémie R L; Bellini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms. PMID:24647347

  13. Cell death localization in situ in laboratory reared honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) larvae treated with pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ales Gregorc; James D. Ellis

    2011-01-01

    In this study, cell death detected by DNA fragmentation labeling and phosphatidylserine (PS) localization was investigated in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) midgut, salivary glands and ovaries after treating larvae with different pesticides offered via an artificial diet. To do this, honey bee larvae reared in an incubator were exposed to one of nine pesticides: chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, amitraz, fluvalinate,

  14. Rearing Monarchs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Monarch Watch

    2012-06-26

    As a long-term project, you can rear monarch butterflies at home or in a classroom. This article contains practical tips on successfully rearing monarchs, and ways in which you can increase your chances of observing the changes that occur during their metamorphosis. Caretaking details are provided for every stage of the monarch butterfly's life: egg, larva, pupa, adult. This article contains information about many species of milkweed plants - the main food and habitat for monarchs. Also includes information and instructions for building cages for monarch butterflies.

  15. Techniques and Strategies in Clinical Laboratory Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittetoe, Marie; Morris, Frances J.

    A mailed survey sent to faculty from 132 medical technology schools, 64 medical laboratory technician schools, and 58 certified laboratory assistant schools yielded 355 responses concerning most frequently vs. least frequently used teaching techniques and most effective vs. least effective teaching techniques. Information on where and how…

  16. Laboratory Testing of Volcanic Gas Sampling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, V. C.; Green, R.; Ortiz, M.; Delmelle, P.; Fischer, T.

    2003-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed designed to calibrate several commonly used methods for field measurement of volcanic gas composition. H2, CO2, SO2 and CHCl2F gases were mixed through carefully calibrated rotameters to form mixtures representative of the types of volcanic compositions encountered at Kilauea and Showa-Shinzan. Gas mixtures were passed through a horizontal furnace at 700oC to break down CHCl2F and form an equilibrium high-temperature mixture. With the exception of Giggenbach bottle samples, all gas sampling was performed adjacent to the furnace exit in order to roughly simulate the air-contaminated samples encountered in Nature. Giggenbach bottle samples were taken from just beyond the hot-spot 10cm down the furnace tube to minimize atmospheric contamination. Alkali-trap measurements were performed by passing gases over or bubbling gases through 6N KOH, NaOH or LiOH solution for 10 minutes. Results were highly variable with errors in measured S/Cl varying from +1600% to -19%. In general reduced Kilauea compositions showed smaller errors than the more oxidized Showa-Shinzan compositions. Results were not resolvably different in experiments where gas was bubbled through the alkaline solution. In a second set of experiments, 25mm circles of Whatman 42 filter paper were impregnated with NaHCO3or KHCO3 alkaline solutions stabilized with glycerol. Some filters also included Alizarin (5.6-7.2) and neutral red (6.8-8.0) Ph indicator to provide a visual monitor of gas absorption. Filters were mounted in individual holders and used in stacks of 3. Durations were adjusted to maximize reaction in the first filter in the stack and minimize reaction in the final filter. Errors in filter pack measurements were smaller and more systematic than the alkali trap measurements. S/Cl was overestimated in oxidized gas mixtures and underestimated in reduced mixtures. Alkali-trap methods allow extended unattended monitoring of volcanic gasses, but our results suggest that they are poor recorders of gas composition. Filter pack methods are somewhat better, but are more difficult to interpret than previously recognized. We suggest several refinements to the filter-pack technique that can improve accuracy. Giggenbach bottles remain the best method for volcanic gas sampling, despite the inherent difficulty and danger of obtaining samples in active volcanic environments. Relative merits of different alkali solutions and indicators are discussed.

  17. Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

    1992-03-01

    Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of about 43 52% in organic C, 9 10% in N, 6 9% H, 31 49% of AFW in protein, 3 10% in lipid, and <1% in carbohydrates. All these constituents showed, on the average, a decreasing tendency during the first two crab instars, whereas N remained fairly constant. It cannot be explained at present, what other elements and biochemical compounds, respectively, might replace these decreasing components of AFW. Decreasing tendencies during juvenile growth were observed also in the organic C/N and in the lipid/protein weight ratios, both indicating that the proportion of lipid decreased at a higher rate than that of protein. Changes were observed also in the composition of inorganic matter, with significantly lower inorganic C in early postmoult (2 4% of ash) than in later stages of the moult cycle (about 9%). This reflected probably an increase in the degree of calcification, i.e. in the calcium carbonate content of the exoskeleton. As a fraction of total C, inorganic C reached maximum values of 17 and 20% in the crab I and II instars, respectively. The energy content of juvenile spider crabs was estimated independently from organic C and biochemical constituents, with a significant correlation between these values. However, the former estimates of energy were, on the average, significantly lower than the latter (slope of the regression ?1). Since organic C should be a reliable integrator of organic substances, but the sum of protein, lipid, chitin, and carbohydrates amounted to only 60 91% of AFW, it is concluded that the observed discrepancy between these two estimates of energy was caused by energy from biochemical constituents that had not been determined in our analyses. Thus, energy values obtained from these biochemical fractions alone may underestimate the actual amount of organic matter and energy. Respiration per individual in juvenile spider crabs was higher than that in larval stages of the same species (previous studies), but their W-specific values of oxygen consumption (QO2) were lower than in conspecific larvae (0.6 2?g O2·[mg W]-1). QO2 showed a consiste

  18. Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

  19. Clinical Laboratory Techniques and MEMS Learning Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This unit introduces users to the Clinical Laboratory. This module presents information for users to learn about the testing that takes place in a clinical lab, the requirements of the technicians and equipment used to produce accurate and consistent results, and the possibilities of replacing some of these tests with MEMS and bioMEMS. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

  20. Industrial Laboratory Techniques on the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Richard L.

    1972-01-01

    In order to make chemistry teaching interesting and relevant, a special course was planned with an intent to teach industrial laboratory techniques to juniors and seniors in high school. The program was taught through laboratory experiments and utilized individualized instruction. List of topics covered in course are included. (PS)

  1. Design of a Portable Streamside Rearing Facility for Lake Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Marty Holtgren; Stephanie A. Ogren; Aaron J. Paquet; Steve Fajfer

    2007-01-01

    A portable streamside rearing facility was designed and used by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians during efforts to rehabilitate a remnant population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the Big Manistee River, Michigan, beginning in 2004. The streamside rearing facility facilitates rearing of wild-caught lake sturgeon larvae in their natal water. This rearing approach provides a cost-effective technique

  2. INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

  3. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

  4. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  5. RSSC RADIOISOTOPES LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 08/2011 6-1 RADIONUCLIDE LABORATORY TECHNIQUES

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    .......................................................................................6-4 A. Decontamination Procedures ....................................................................................6-5 1. Preparation 2. Decontamination Procedure 3. Follow up 4. Summary Personnel Decontamination Decontamination Chart .............................................................6-12 B. Laboratory Monitoring

  6. Laboratory demonstrations of interferometric and spotlight synthetic aperture ladar techniques.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Barber, Zeb W

    2012-10-22

    A variety of synthetic-aperture ladar (SAL) imaging techniques are investigated on a table-top laboratory setup using an ultra-broad bandwidth (>3 THz) actively linearized chirp laser centered at 1.55 microns. Stripmap and spotlight mode demonstrations of SAL in monstatic and bistatic geometries are presented. Interferometric SAL for 3D topographical relief imaging is demonstrated highlighting the coherent properties of the SAL imaging technique. PMID:23187186

  7. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  8. Serum Clinical Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Ranges of Laboratory-Reared and Wild-Caught Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sabrina; Felt, Stephen; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Howard, Antwain; Behan, Colleen; Moorhead, Roberta; Green, Sherril

    2011-01-01

    The South African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis are fully aquatic amphibians and well-established animal models. Because genetically engineered laboratory Xenopus are now being produced, the establishment of normal reference ranges for serum biochemical and hematologic parameters is essential for phenotyping and as a diagnostic aide. We determined normal reference ranges for hematologic values from 3 populations of X. laevis: wild-caught frogs (n = 43) and frogs from 2 commercial sources (A, n = 166; B, n = 109). For serum biochemistry, we determined normal reference ranges for frogs from source A and wild-caught frogs divided by sex and season. Significant differences across populations were found in WBC and RBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. Among serum biochemical analytes, significant differences were found for albumin:globulin ratio, anion gap, and concentrations of albumin, globulin, total protein, lipase, alanine transaminase, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase; creatine phosphokinase; indirect, direct, and total bilirubin; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein lipase, carbon dioxide, glucose, lactacte dehydrogenase, calcium, chloride, and sodium. We hypothesize that these differences can be attributed to differences in water quality, habitat, ambient temperature, diet, sex, recent transport or shipment, and genetic background. However, testing that hypothesis is beyond the scope of the current study. In addition, clinical chemistry and hematologic reference range values Xenopus laevis are quite distinct from those for other species and are most consistent with the only values published for another fully aquatic amphibian, the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). PMID:22330708

  9. Flight performance of artificially reared honeybees ( Apis mellifera )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Brodschneider; Ulrike Riessberger-Gallé; Karl Crailsheim

    2009-01-01

    Artificially reared larvae are an ideal model for experiments involving brood diseases or testing pesticides. Because conditions\\u000a during larval development can influence the general performance of adult honeybees, we created an evaluation method for the\\u000a viability of artificially reared honeybees. We compared the flight performance of honeybees artificially reared in the laboratory\\u000a with that of their sisters naturally reared in

  10. Dioxin transfer from sediment to the infaunal surface deposit-feeding polychaete Perinereis nuntia in a laboratory-rearing experiment.

    PubMed

    Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Jiro

    2010-07-01

    In the presented study a laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from environmentally contaminated marine sediment to an infaunal surface deposit-feeding polychaete, Perinereis nuntia. Polychaetes were exposed to contaminated sediment for 42 d, and elimination of these compounds was studied for an additional 28 d. The sediment uptake rate coefficients (ks), elimination rate constants (k2), and the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined for PCDDs, PCDFs (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like PCBs. Each of these compounds was transferred from sediment to polychaete except for hepta- and octachlorinated PCDD/Fs. The BSAFs for dioxin-like PCBs (0.13-2.2) were significantly higher than those for PCDD/Fs (0.00022-0.36). The BSAF, ks, and k2 values obtained in the present study indicate that the bioaccumulation characteristics of PCDD/Fs in polychaete are similar to those in fish, and depend on their physical and chemical properties such as hydrophobicity and size of molecules. The ks values for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs declined with an increase in their log KOW values, indicating a decrease in bioavailability. The negative exponential relationships of k2 versus KOW were observed for these compounds. The slope for the log-normalized regression of k2 versus KOW for the PCDD/Fs was smaller than that for the dioxin-like PCBs and that of ks versus KOW for the PCDD/Fs. Therefore, the negative exponential relationship of BSAF versus KOW was observed for PCDD/Fs, but not for dioxin-like PCBs. PMID:20821600

  11. Infrared band strengths: Laboratory techniques and applications to astronomical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, P. A.

    2002-09-01

    Whenever an abundance measurement is derived by way of infrared spectroscopy, it will typically make use of a laboratory-obtained conversion factor between the size of an IR absorption feature and the (column) density of the molecule under study. This factor is usually called the "absolute absorption intensity" by a chemist or the "band strength" by a typical IR astronomer. Band strengths have been studied in chemistry since the 1950s, and the commonly quoted "accuracy to with a factor of ten" historically required of astronomical calculations has not required much new input into this area. Today, however, astronomical measurements require much higher precision, and it is time for IR astronomers to ask more of laboratory measurements and to understand when and why to use IR band strengths in a more appropriate manner. The history, interpretation, measurement, and common astrophysical applications of infrared band strengths will be discussed. The "secrets" of the laboratory techniques involved in their measurement are described, and a compilation of results from the literature is given along with some new results. Typical astrophysical applications and appropriate uses will also be discussed. Common misconceptions are confronted and two challenges are presented: (i) to the laboratory astrophysics community to produce and advertise accurate values with caveats when necessary, and (ii) to the observational community to use the most appropriate results for the environment under study.

  12. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  13. Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. ·Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. ·Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

  14. Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

  15. Effects of different host plants and rearing atmosphere on life cycle of large white cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damitre Lytan; D. M. Firake

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different host plants and rearing atmosphere on life cycle of cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae. Insects were reared in the field (fluctuating weather) as well as in the laboratory (constant rearing conditions) on four host plants, viz. cabbage, cauliflower, knol-khol and broccoli. Significant differences were not found in the incubation and pupal period of butterfly reared

  16. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity model. The integration of electric and electromagnetic data allowed us to overcome the limits of each technique, especially in terms of resolution and depth, in humid/saturated conditions was investigated and the effectiveness of three-dimensional acquisitions was studied to better explore archeological sites and reduce the uncertainties related on the interpretation of geophysical analysis. The complexity of the relationship between archaeological features in the subsoil and their geophysical response requires efforts in the interpretation of resulting data. Reference Campana S. and Piro, S., (2009): Seeing the unseen - Geophysics and landscape archaeology., CRC Press, London, 2. No. of pages: 376. ISBN: 978-0-415-44721-8. Conyers, L. and Goodman, D., (1997): Ground-Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. Davis, J.L. and Annan, A.P. (1989): Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophysical Prospecting, 37, 531-551.

  17. Ice Sample Production Techniques and Indentation Tests for Laboratory Experiments Simulating Ship Collisions with Ice

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Steve

    Engineering, Memorial University of Newfoundland and STePS2 Co-investigator. St. John's, Newfoundland of Newfoundland, Canada. The work investigates laboratory production techniques of cone-shaped ice specimens of Newfoundland (MUN), St. John's, Canada. The work investigates laboratory production techniques of cone

  18. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  19. 5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004

    E-print Network

    Tabacco, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

  20. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  2. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  3. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  4. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  5. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Environmental enrichment and isolation rearing in the rat: effects on locomotor behavior and startle response plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey B. Varty; Martin P. Paulus; David L. Braff; Mark A. Geyer

    2000-01-01

    Background: Laboratory rats exhibit behavioral changes that reflect a continuum of early life experience, from isolation-reared to socially reared to enrichment-reared conditions. In this study, we further characterize the behavioral effects of isolation, social, and enriched rearing on locomotor activity, patterns of movement and exploration, startle reactivity, prepulse inhibition (PPI), and habituation in adult rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups (21

  7. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  8. Application of Digital Control Techniques to a Laboratory Extrusion Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Leffew; M. J. Stiso; De Wilmington; Hermann Langhorst

    1987-01-01

    Extruders are now routinely controlled with digital computer systems and algorithms. In this study, we have installed, debugged, and demonstrated an advanced control algorithm for individual temperature-zone control of a laboratory single screw extruder. The algorithm: ¿ adjusts the parameters of a resident first-order plus deadtime process model with a linear least squares estimator, ¿ adapts the controller parameters to

  9. 9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  10. Spatial repellency of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in a semi-field tunnel cage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vapour phase spatial repellents deter mosquitoes from attacking one or more humans in a protected space. Simulation models indicate that high coverage of spatial repellents can enhance the impact of long - lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) where mosquito vectors commonly bite humans outdoors. Here we report a preliminary evaluation of an effective, user-friendly prototype product for delivering spatial repellents to protect against malaria vector mosquitoes. Findings Protective efficacy of a 4.0 × 0.3 m strip of hessian sacking treated with 10 ml of transfluthrin was evaluated in a 60 m × 2 m ×2.5 m netting tunnel with malaria-free insectary-reared Anopheles arabiensis Patton mosquitoes. Personal protection, in terms of proportional reduction of exposure to bites, was measured by comparing human landing catches of volunteers with treated and untreated strips. A freshly treated hessian strip reduced mosquito attack rate on human volunteers by > 99% and consistently conferred > 90% protective efficacy for a period of 6 months. Over the entire study period, only 22 out of 1400 released mosquitoes bit volunteers using the treated sacking strip while 894 out of 1400 mosquitoes released into cages containing volunteers using an untreated strip fed upon them. Conclusion Locally available natural fibers may be promising absorbent substrates for delivering spatial repellents, such as transfluthrin, to protect against mosquitoes in tropical settings. However, these observations relate to a single prototype specimen of this particular device, therefore, much more detailed, well replicated studies are essential to establish long-term efficacy, effectiveness, practicability and affordability. PMID:22433128

  11. A laboratory technique for screening shale swelling inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, E.A.; Hackett, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    A new technique was developed for quantitatively analyzing the effectiveness of shale swelling inhibitors in retarding fluid adsorption and volume expansion. Details of testing procedures, equipment construction, and design rationale are provided. Comparisons are made to methods commonly used in mud labs today, and examples of test results are given to illustrate the new technique's usefulness and versatility. Relevant concepts of clay hydration theory are discussed to provide background for interpreting the presented experimental results. Differentiation between crystalline swelling, and combined crystalline and osmotic swelling is achieved by applying a mechanical restraining force (preload) to shale samples while being hydrated. Mud additives examined include various salts, ferrochrome lignosulfonate, and several polymers.

  12. A New Laboratory Technique for Creating Water Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Singh; T. N. Singh; J. S. Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    A precise and accurate knowledge of the effects of plant water stress is crucial to framing strategies for improving agricultural productivity in regions of agricultural water (water required for agricultural and allied operations such as field preparation, seeding, irrigation, drainage, livestock production, and dairying) shortage. Success would depend upon the reliability, precision, and accuracy of the techniques used for creating

  13. Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

    This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

  14. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  15. Mode localization results and laboratory demonstration techniques with a multi-pendulum rig 

    E-print Network

    Bollich, Robert Kenneth Gerard

    1992-01-01

    MODE LOCALIZATION RESULTS AND LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUES WITH A MULTI-PENDULUM RIG A Thesis by ROBERT KENNETH GERARD BOLLICH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MODE LOCALIZATION RESULTS AND LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUES WITH A MULTI-PENDULUM RIG A Thesis by ROBERT KENNETH GERARD BOLLICH Approved...

  16. Laboratory Comparison of Aerosol Optical Property Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Ravishankara, A.; Lovejoy, E.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol particles influence the global radiative balance with their optical properties, i.e., the ability of scattering and/or absorbing the incoming solar radiation (aerosol direct effect). Because this ability depends on aerosol characteristics such as composition, size distribution and mixing state, it is critical to link aerosol optical,physical and chemical properties to emissions for better assessing the regional and global impact of different aerosol types. During 2006, NOAA ERSL/CSD performed a series of laboratory based comparison studies to address the performance, uncertainties, and biases of both existing and newly developed instruments to measure aerosol optical properties. These investigations included measurements of extinction using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRD-AES),scattering by a TSI nephelometer, and absorption by a Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) and a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). In this work we compare the optical properties derived for several aerosol types and mixtures by using various combinations of CRD-AES, nephelometer, and PSAP measurements. Our results indicate that such properties significantly depend on composition and mixing state of aerosols. We complete the study with top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing estimates and we compare the newly obtained values with what has been reported in past calculations.

  17. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Selvadurai, Paul A.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within ?7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  18. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  19. Techniques to obtain orbital debris encounter speeds in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-06-01

    Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes in hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences such as orbital-debris impact on a debris shield. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be dominated by phase changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled, repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas guns. In this paper, techniques used to extend the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s are described. It is anticipated that this technology will be useful in testing, evaluating, and design of various debris shields proposed for many different spacecrafts.

  20. Picosecond lidar techniques in laboratory and field diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulard, R.

    1984-12-01

    The availability of picosecond laser systems opens a new potential in the field of diagnostics. It is now possible to observe chemical events over time intervals as short as 10 to the minus 9th power sec (e.g., fluorescence, bond-selective chemistry,...) without overlap with the much shorter 10 to the minus 12th power sec triggering signal. In addition, two specific effects are of special interest to real industrial flame diagnostics. One is the elimination of background noise, since the picosecond time-gating of the detector will collect the whole signal of interest but only a tiny fraction of the time-spread noise background (e.g., soot, walls,...). The other is related to the very short length of these pulses (similar to mm): it is the possibility to use the lidar/radar principle to convert the time history of the measured back scattered signals into a millimeter-resolved space distribution along the beam. In this fashion, Raman and other techniques can yield a detailed map of concentrations and temperatures in three-dimensional space, even in sooty combustors background, with the need of only one single porthole.

  1. THE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL REARING ENVIRONMENT IN THE DOMESTICATION OF THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL (MER\\/ONES UNGUICULATUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MERTICE M. CLARK; BENNETT G. GALEF

    1977-01-01

    Gerbils reared in tunnel systems responded to a visual stimulus by fleeing, foot-thumping and remaining concealed, whereas many gerbils reared in laboratory cages responded in the same situation by approaching the stimulus. The critical factor in tunnel-rearing was the opportunity to flee to shelter during maturation. Neither isolation from illumination nor isolation from stimuli associated with human handlers produced the

  2. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Genetic Sexing Strains in Mediterranean Fruit Fly, an Example for Other Species Amenable to Large-Scale Rearing for the Sterile Insect Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Franz

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species

  5. Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

    1963-01-01

    WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

  6. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' (WALBAUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) that could be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. The work includes both...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, MORONE SAXATILIS (WALBAUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the research undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) which can be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. For ea...

  9. A UK perspective on intensive hatchery rearing methods for Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin J Shields; Brendan Gara; Malcolm J. S Gillespie

    1999-01-01

    A review is presented of UK hatchery rearing techniques for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.), based on research findings and commercial practices. Operations from gamete collection through to weaning are covered, including reference to survival rates at each developmental phase. Areas of recent progress are discussed in relation to the remaining production bottlenecks and research requirements. Rearing techniques have been

  10. DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY stages of P. goniurus given by other authors. Studies on the early life history of pandalid shrimp of describing pandalid shrimp larvae reared in the laboratory from known par- entage. I have reported on larvae

  11. Characterisation of rear incident hypervelocity impact phenomena on hubble space telescope solar arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Herbert

    1999-01-01

    Impact damage on glass faced HST solar cells generated by rear-incident impactors represent over one-third of the total damage on the retrieved solar array. Analysis of such space and laboratory generated morphologies has revealed a means of discriminating between front and rear incident impact sites and enabled characterization through either impactor energy or a simplified indentation fracture model. Morphology is

  12. Confirmation of the absence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the juveniles of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs in the laboratory using HILIC-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Chiba, Chikafumi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-07-01

    The tetrodotoxin (TTX) contents of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs to metamorphosed juveniles with a non-toxic diet for 70 weeks, as well as wild-caught juvenile newts, were investigated using a high-resolution hydrophilic interaction chromatography-LC-MS. TTX was detected in 0- to 22-week-old captive-reared juvenile newts but was not detected (<15 ng/g) in the 36- to 70-week-old newts, while significant levels of TTX (1.3-14 ?g/g) were detected in the wild-caught juveniles. PMID:25986913

  13. STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janus Research Group

    The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research – Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in today’s video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

  14. 3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  16. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. 3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 6. NORTH REAR, WEST PART. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH REAR, WEST PART. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. TEST STAND 1-5 AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 5. NORTH REAR, EAST PART, SHOWING ESCAPE HATCH. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH REAR, EAST PART, SHOWING ESCAPE HATCH. TEST STAND 1-3 AND ITS MACHINE SHOP ARE IN MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Insect thermotolerance comparing host infestation methods: Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared in grapefruit or diet.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J

    2014-08-01

    Research on insect control should be conducted in a manner that mimics as closely as is feasible its commercial application in all of its practicably conceivable forms. When significant deviations from commercial application are used in research, the effect of the deviations on efficacy should be evaluated. Pest control techniques are sometimes based on research that used untested assumptions about variables that might affect efficacy. For example, some phytosanitary treatments are based on research done with diet-reared larvae inserted into holes bored in fruits, although the effect of this manipulation has not been evaluated. This research compares this type of infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), third instars with a more natural infestation technique whereby females were allowed to oviposit on picked grapefruit in laboratory cages and third instars were reared inside the fruit. Although the results did not show statistically significant differences between infestation techniques, tendencies in the data caution against researchers making assumptions about efficacy without testing them when experimental techniques stray from more natural situations for which the research is designed. PMID:25195425

  1. Relevance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Ieven, M; Goossens, H

    1997-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly receiving requests to perform nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of a wide variety of infectious agents. In this paper, the efficiency of nucleic acid amplification techniques for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections is reviewed. In general, these techniques should be applied only for the detection of microorganisms for which available diagnostic techniques are markedly insensitive or nonexistent or when turnaround times for existing tests (e.g., viral culture) are much longer than those expected with amplification. This is the case for rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and hantaviruses causing a pulmonary syndrome, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii. For Legionella spp. and fungi, contamination originating from the environment is a limiting factor in interpretation of results, as is the difficulty in differentiating colonization and infection. Detection of these agents in urine or blood by amplification techniques remains to be evaluated. In the clinical setting, there is no need for molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. At present, amplification methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot replace the classical diagnostic techniques, due to their lack of sensitivity and the absence of specific internal controls for the detection of inhibitors of the reaction. Also, the results of interlaboratory comparisons are unsatisfactory. Furthermore, isolates are needed for susceptibility studies. Additional work remains to be done on sample preparation methods, comparison between different amplification methods, and analysis of results. The techniques can be useful for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis in particular circumstances, as well as the rapid detection of most rifampin-resistant isolates. The introduction of diagnostic amplification techniques into a clinical laboratory implies a level of proficiency for excluding false-positive and false-negative results. PMID:9105753

  2. The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti)

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research. PMID:24754030

  3. [Artificial diet for rearing Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), a predator of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    PubMed

    Pasini, Amarildo; Parra, José R P; Lopes, Janaína M

    2007-01-01

    A new technique involving an artificial diet and an artificial substrate for oviposition for the rearing of the predator Doru luteipes (Scudder) is suggested. Both adults and nymphs were maintained in petri dishes containing a transparent piece of soda straw filled with moistened cotton and the corresponding food for the biossays. The following treatments were tested: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); insect pupae meal (FPI); Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) commercial pollen (PC); FPI + PC, and FPI + cattail pollen [Typha angustifolia L. (Thyphaceae)]. Each treatment had 50 replicates, and food was offered in excess. Treatments consisting of insect pupae meal (FPI), FPI + commercial pollen (PC), and FPI + cattail pollen resulted in nymphal development of 32, 29, and 29 days, with 83, 90 and 100% survival, respectively, and were superior to the PC treatment, with values of 37 days and 67% survival observed for insects reared on commercial pollen. Treatments that included insect pupae flour, either alone or mixed with pollens, were similar to control (S. frugiperda eggs). We conclude that the artificial diets tested and rearing technique are suitable for the artificial rearing of D. luteipes in laboratory conditions. PMID:17607467

  4. Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2013-12-01

    Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

  5. Laboratory technique for the measurement of thermal-emission spectra of greenhouse gases: CFC-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W. F. J.; Puckrin, E.

    1996-03-01

    A new technique has been developed to make possible the laboratory study of the infrared-emission spectra of gases of atmospheric interest. The thermal-emission spectra are in local thermodynamic equilibrium, just as they are in the atmosphere, and are not chemiluminescent. Demonstration results obtained by the use of this new technique are presented for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) at a pressure of 0.5 Torr in a cell with a path length of 5 cm. The measured cell spectra have been compared with simulations with the fascd3p radiation code. The measurements of the emission spectra of radiatively active gases may be important for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming.

  6. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  7. Use of the FSM technique in the laboratory to measure corrosion inhibitor performance in multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, A.M.; Webb, P. [AEA Technology, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Horn, H.

    1998-12-31

    Two-phase flow in pipelines, particularly slug flow, induces high shear stresses at the walls that can interfere with the performance of corrosion inhibitors. Conventional electrochemical techniques are poorly suited to making corrosion measurements under these conditions in the laboratory. The introduction of electrical resistance or other corrosion probes can disturb the flow pattern. The paper describes the adaptation of an electrical resistance mapping technique to evaluate the performance of corrosion inhibitors in defined two-phase flow regimes in thin-walled (1 mm) tubes in the laboratory over periods of the order of 24 h, providing on-line information on pipeline geometries as a function of circumferential position. Two plastic hemicylindrical jackets were designed and manufactured with 24 pairs of spring loaded pins to contact the outside surface of the tubular test specimen and measure metal loss through changes in the voltage between them when a current was passed through the specimen. Tests were carried out in slug flow with and without corrosion inhibitors in deoxygenated 3 wt% NaCl brine under 1 bar CO{sub 2} pressure using specimens manufactured from the wall of an X-65 pipeline steel. A sensitivity of 0.1% of wall thickness was demonstrated (1 {micro}m metal loss with a 1 mm wall). Good agreement was obtained between corrosion rates measured by this method and weight loss and chemical analysis of corrosion products.

  8. A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

  9. Increasing the Usability of Virtual Rear Projection Displays Jay Summet, Mathew Flagg, James M. Rehg, Gregory M. Corso, Gregory D. Abowd

    E-print Network

    Haro, Antonio

    Rear Projection (VRP) techniques have been de- veloped which coordinate the outputs of multiple over which com- pares VRP approaches to traditional rear and front pro- jection. One conclusion from- teractive displays. 1 Introduction Virtual Rear Projection (VRP) is an exciting new technol- ogy for large

  10. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Rommers

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is reached, that occurs around 14 to 16 weeks of age. Under current rearing,

  11. Laboratory demonstration model: Active cleaning technique device. [for removal of contaminants from an optical surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.

  12. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2014-12-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert. PMID:25205526

  13. Visualization of DNA in agarose gels as migrating colored bands: Applications to laboratory techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, S.; Burmeister, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a method to visualize DNA without the use of ethidium bromide and UV radiation. Anionic dyes (colored anion) have long been used in the detection of pharmaceutical amines via ion pairing, here we show that cationic dyes may be used to detect DNA. In gel electrophoresis in which DNA is traveling toward the positive electrode and a cationic dye is traveling toward the negative electrode, we expect ion pairing of the DNA and the dye as they meet in the gel. The dye should bind to the anionic DNA. If the DNA is not completely neutralized by the dye, it should continue to migrate. Ethidium bromide, which is believed to stain DNA primarily by intercalation between bases, exhibits the fluorescence through its cation and also may bind to DNA, to some extent, through ionic pairing. We observed that DNA forms colored bands during electrophoresis in standard agarose gels when a cationic dye is present in the gel and running buffer. DNA in amounts equal to or greater than 80 ng is seen as a discrete migrating colored band in ambient room lighting. Colored bands may be transferred to nitrocellulose by vacuum transfer in room temperature gel dryer, Xeroxed, fixed with NaOH and dye removed with dilute detergent. Also, isolation of DNA bands from preparative gels may be accomplished without the typical use of ethidium bromide and UV radiation which are known to alter DNA and pose hazards to laboratory personnel. We are presently investigating the general utility of using dyes to visualize DNA for various laboratory techniques.

  14. Isolation rearing reveals latent antisnake behavior in California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus becheeyi) searching for predatory threats.

    PubMed

    Tromborg, Chris T; Coss, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    This study of California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) investigated the long-term effects of isolation rearing on alarm-call recognition. Six wild-caught squirrels, trapped as yearlings, and six laboratory-reared squirrels were maintained in solitary cages for approximately 3 years prior to the study. Visual searching and olfactory searching were measured as squirrels emerged from their burrow-like nest box into a laboratory room after hearing repetitive playbacks of alarm calls or control sounds consisting of pulses of white-noise or ambient laboratory sounds. Before exiting completely after hearing alarm calls, both groups exhibited similar levels of visual searching that was reliably higher than after hearing the other sounds. After exiting completely, the laboratory-reared squirrels exhibited a reliably greater amount of olfactory investigation than the wild-caught squirrels. Five laboratory-reared squirrels turned around after exiting and inspected their dark nest-box opening, three of which tail flagged repeatedly and one threw substrate into the opening. Since pups recognize snakes and engage in this behavior, this latent expression of antisnake behavior illustrates its robust organizational properties in the appropriate burrow-like context irrespective of the presumed retardation of neural development known to occur in other species of rodent subjected to similar isolation rearing. PMID:25726178

  15. Integrating Novel Field, Laboratory and Modelling Techniques to Upscale Estimates of Soil Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony; Cooper, James; Long, Edward; Hargrave, Graham; Kitchener, Ben; Hewett, Caspar; Onda, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Obana, Eiichiro; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Erosion is a particle-based phenomenon, yet most of current understanding and modelling of this process is based on bulk measurements rather than the movement of individual particles. Difficulties with measuring particle motions in dynamically changing conditions are being overcome with the application of two new technologies - particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and radio frequency identification (RFID). It is thus possible to evaluate the entrainment, transport and deposition of individual particles and these data can be used to parameterize and to test particle-based modelling of the particle-based process. Both PIV and RFID tagging have been used in laboratory experiments to evaluate the detachment process by raindrops on bare surfaces and in shallow flows using rainfall simulation. The results suggest that the processes are more complex than hitherto thought with multiple detachment and transfer mechanisms. Because both mechanisms affect travel distance, they affect the ways in which estimates of soil erosion can be scaled from plot to hillslope and catchment scales. To evaluate movements at larger scales, we have also used RFID-tagged particles in field settings to look at sediment transfers following the Fukushima accident in Japan, 2011. A marker-in-cell model (MAHLERAN-MiC) has been developed to enable the laboratory results to be upscaled and tested in a field setting. Markers (representing sediment particles), containing sediment-property information, are initially distributed on a cellular grid. A cellular model is used to set up the boundary conditions and determine the hydrology and hydraulics on the hillslope. The markers are then moved through the grid according to these properties. This technique combines the advantages of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods while avoiding the shortcomings of each (computational efficiency vs. accuracy). The model simulates all the processes of detachment and transport; raindrop detachment and transport, interrill erosion, concentrated erosion (bedload transport) and suspended sediment transport. We demonstrate how distributions of travel distances change as spatial and temporal scales of application change, and thereby how the laboratory and field experiments can be best used to develop more robust approaches to the upscaling of estimates of erosion rates.

  16. Residual stress analysis in Co-based laser clad layers by laboratory X-rays and synchrotron diffraction techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. de Oliveira; M. De Hosson

    Thick Co-based coatings were prepared by laser cladding technique on C45 steel substrates with different geometries. Microstructural observations were realized using optical, scanning electron and orientation imaging microscopy. The residual strain state on the surface of a clad layer was determined by the sin2?-technique using laboratory X-rays. The diffraction of synchrotron radiation in ?-2? was used to acquire information from

  17. Studies on Aedes albopictus larval mass-rearing optimization.

    PubMed

    Medici, Anna; Carrieri, Marco; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Maccagnani, Bettina; Dindo, Maria Luisa; Bellini, Romeo

    2011-02-01

    To set up a sterile male technique program to control Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in areas in northern Italy, a pilot mass-rearing facility is under development. For this purpose, experiments were carried out to find the optimal larval density for the optimization of the rearing parameters, i.e., to obtain the fastest larval development, the highest larval and pupal survival rate, and large-sized pupae. Several different larval densities, from 40 to 2874 larvae per liter, were tested. For densities from 40 to 600 larvae per liter significant size differences were found among pupae obtained under different larval densities. The larvae raised at the lowest density tended to be smaller and to develop most slowly, i.e., longer pupation time. Also, increasing water volume and depth seemed to negatively affect the pupation success. Compared with the other larval densities tested, the larvae reared at a density of 2874 larvae per liter developed slightly faster and showed higher survival rates, indicating this density as appropriate for the development of a mass rearing, at least using the current larval diet. PMID:21404867

  18. Euthanasia by decapitation: evidence that this technique produces prompt, painless unconsciousness in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Holson, R R

    1992-01-01

    Rapid euthanasia of laboratory rodents without the use of anesthesia is a necessary research technique whenever there is the likelihood of anesthesia or stress interfering with the chemistry of the tissues under investigation. Decapitation has long been the procedure of choice under such circumstances. Recently, however, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) panel on euthanasia recommended that decapitation be avoided on the grounds that the decapitated head may be conscious and suffering for as much as 15 seconds. The panel further recommended that if decapitation was scientifically necessary, the decapitated head be immediately immersed in liquid nitrogen. These AVMA guidelines now enjoy regulatory status; the recommendation that decapitation be avoided has thus caused considerable difficulty for all research requiring rapid, anesthesia-free collection of tissues. The scientific validity of these recommendations is consequently a matter of great practical as well as theoretical importance. The decision to discourage decapitation appears to have been based on a single literature report claiming that the EEG of the decapitated head revealed conscious suffering for more than 10 seconds (Mikeska and Klemm 1976). This review carefully examines the scientific literature on this subject. It is concluded that the report by Mikeska and Klemm of EEG activation in the decapitated head is correct, but that this phenomenon is also seen when the decapitated head is under deep anesthesia, and in normal brains under ether anesthesia or during REM sleep. Hence these findings do not demonstrate either consciousness or the perception of pain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1522830

  19. Radiation Detection Laboratory The Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Lab is used to explore novel techniques for radiation

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    NERS Radiation Detection Laboratory The Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Lab is used to explore novel techniques for radiation detection and characterization for nuclear nonproliferation); Development of TlBr wide band-gap semiconductor detectors (Radiation Monitoring Devices and DNDO of DHS

  20. Accounting for Model Errors in Ensemble Data Assimilation Laboratory of Typhoon Forecast Technique, Shanghai Typhoon Institute of CMA,

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    Accounting for Model Errors in Ensemble Data Assimilation Hong Li Laboratory of Typhoon Forecast Technique, Shanghai Typhoon Institute of CMA, Shanghai, China Eugenia Kalnay and Takemasa Miyoshi Department author address: Hong Li, Shanghai Typhoon Institute, 166 Puxi Road, Shanghai, China, 200030. E-mail: lih@mail.typhoon

  1. Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

  2. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  3. Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region analysis in a laboratory plasma

    E-print Network

    Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region to assess the effectiveness of several prominent spacecraft data analysis techniques. These include minimum. Yamada (2012), Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection

  4. Comparison of Laser Ion Acceleration from the Front and Rear Surfaces of Thin Foils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fuchs; Y. Sentoku; S. Karsch; J. Cobble; P. Audebert; A. Kemp; A. Nikroo; P. Antici; E. Brambrink; A. Blazevic; E. M. Campbell; J. C. Fernández; J.-C. Gauthier; M. Geissel; M. Hegelich; H. Pépin; H. Popescu; N. Renard-Legalloudec; M. Roth; J. Schreiber; R. Stephens; T. E. Cowan

    2005-01-01

    The comparative efficiency and beam characteristics of high-energy ions generated by high-intensity short-pulse lasers (˜1 6×1019 W\\/cm2) from both the front and rear surfaces of thin metal foils have been measured under identical conditions. Using direct beam measurements and nuclear activation techniques, we find that rear-surface acceleration produces higher energy particles with smaller divergence and a higher efficiency than front-surface

  5. Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region analysis in a laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki

    2012-12-01

    A laboratory plasma is utilized to assess the effectiveness of several prominent spacecraft data analysis techniques. These include minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and various boundary-crossing time analyses (BCTA) such as the constant velocity approach (CVA), constant thickness approach (CTA), and minimum thickness variance (MTV). Magnetic field data from measurement points that resemble the formation of multispacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check MVAB and BCTA to deduce a proper normal vector. Results from each method are compared to the values measured by 2-D magnetic probe arrays. We examine discharges with a two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but ions are not. We conclude that CVA with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector

  6. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings?

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  7. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  8. Supplementary methods Dark-rearing animals

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    ) were raised under normal lighted environment (12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle) until 4 weeks of age. Dark-rearing was initiated at 4 weeks of age for a duration of 1 week, while control (normal-reared) animals were it in a chamber with halothane. The brain was rapidly removed and immersed in ice-cold dissection buffer (212.7 m

  9. Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.

    This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and introduces a…

  10. REAR SEAT OCCUPANT PROTECTION IN FRONTAL CRASHES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shashi Kuppa; James Saunders; Osvaldo Fessahaie

    Though a significant body of literature exists on the safety performance and effectiveness of various types of front seat occupant restraint systems, there is a paucity of data on the performance of rear seat occupant restraint systems. A research program was initiated to better understand rear seat restraint performance. Research included examining real world data using National Automotive Sampling System\\/Crashworthiness

  11. Laboratory instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi-junction solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Multi-junction solar cells are attractive for space applications because they can be designed to convert a larger fraction of AMO into electrical power at a lower cost than single-junction cells. The performance of multi-junction cells is much more sensitive to the spectral irradiance of the illuminating source than single-junction cells. The design of high efficiency multi-junction cells for space applications requires matching the optoelectronic properties of the junctions to AMO spectral irradiance. Unlike single-junction cells, it is not possible to carry out quantum efficiency measurements using only a monochromatic probe beam and determining the cell short-circuit current assuming linearity of the quantum efficiency. Additionally, current-voltage characteristics can not be calculated from measurements under non-AMO light sources using spectral-correction methods. There are reports in the literature on characterizing the performance of multi junction cells by measuring and convoluting the quantum efficiency of each junction with the spectral irradiance; the technique is of limited value for the characterization of cell performance under AMO power-generating conditions. We report the results of research to develop instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi junction solar cells for space . An integrated system is described which consists of a standard lamp, spectral radiometer, dual-source solar simulator, and personal computer based current-voltage and quantum efficiency equipment. The spectral radiometer is calibrated regularly using the tungsten-halogen standard lamp which has a calibration based on NIST scales. The solar simulator produces the light bias beam for current-voltage and cell quantum efficiency measurements. The calibrated spectral radiometer is used to 'fit' the spectral irradiance of the dual-source solar simulator to WRL AMO data. The quantum efficiency apparatus includes a monochromatic probe beam for measuring the absolute cell quantum efficiency at various voltage biases, including the voltage bias corresponding to the maximum-power point under AMO light bias. The details of the procedures to 'fit' the spectral irradiance to AMO will be discussed. An assessment of the role of the accuracy of the 'fit' of the spectral irradiance and probe beam intensity on measured cell characteristics will be presented. quantum efficiencies were measured with both spectral light bias and AMO light bias; the measurements show striking differences. Spectral irradiances were convoluted with cell quantum efficiencies to calculate cell currents as function of voltage. The calculated currents compare with measured currents at the 1% level. Measurements on a variety of multi-junction cells will be presented. The dependence of defects in junctions on cell quantum efficiencies measured under light and voltage bias conditions will be presented. Comments will be made on issues related to standards for calibration, and limitations of the instrumentation and techniques. Expeditious development of multi-junction solar cell technology for space presents challenges for cell characterization in the laboratory.

  12. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Regulations: Interpretation Techniques and Review of Selected Compliance Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine S. Lee; John Y. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) good laboratory practice (GLP) inspections in fiscal year 2003 increased significantly at a level of 71% over the previous year. A review and analysis of recently issued FDA warning letters for nonclinical laboratory studies found that the two major GLP compliance deficiencies were study director responsibility and authority (21 CFR §58.33) and the quality

  13. Teaching Discrete and Programmable Logic Design Techniques Using a Single Laboratory Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debiec, P.; Byczuk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are used at many universities in introductory digital logic laboratories, where kits containing a single high-capacity PLD replace "standard" sets containing breadboards, wires, and small- or medium-scale integration (SSI/MSI) chips. From the pedagogical point of view, two problems arise in these laboratories.…

  14. Child-Rearing Reports of White, Black, and Mexican-American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrett, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study compared the child-rearing orientations and techniques of low-income white, black, and Mexican-American families. The results indicated that the techniques parents said they used to socialize their children were remarkably similar across groups even though their goals were different. (JMB)

  15. "Audibilization" in the Chemistry Laboratory: An Introduction to Correlation Techniques for Data Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovick, James W.; Murphy, Michael; Poler, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development and advantages of various correlation techniques that are used for data extraction and are integral to all modern instrumentation. The "Audibilization" of the electronic signals in such cases is found to be very essential for the technique.

  16. A Framework for Laboratory Pre-Work Based on the Concepts, Tools and Techniques Questioning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntula, J.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Chitaree, R.

    2011-01-01

    Learning in the laboratory is different from learning in other contexts because students have to engage with various aspects of the practice of science. They have to use many skills and knowledge in parallel--not only to understand the concepts of physics but also to use the tools and analyse the data. The question arises, how to best guide…

  17. Noise reduction techniques used on the high power klystron modulators at Argonne National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Russell

    1993-01-01

    The modulators used in the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been redesigned with an emphasis on electrical noise reduction. Since the modulators are 100 MW modulators with <700 ns rise time, electrical noise can be coupled very easily to other electronic equipment in the area. This paper details the efforts made to reduce noise coupled to surrounding

  18. Application of microwave techniques to high-energy physics experiments at Argonne national laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. M. Chang; J. W. Dawson; R. E. Fuja; R. L. Kustom; A. Moretti

    1974-01-01

    High-energy physics research as conducted at Argonne National Laboratory is characterized by transport of beams of highly relativistic charged particles, and detection and analysis of the interaction of these particles with one another. Microwave systems find application in both areas. In beam transport RF separators are frequently used to physically separate particles of different quantum mass. Microwave discharge chambers are

  19. Rearing optimization of two races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda feeding natural host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two ecological races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda were raised under laboratory conditions feeding on natural host plants (corn and bermuda grass). Three rearing containers were used: a plastic container and a vertical cylinder to test fitness when feeding gregariously, and individual ...

  20. Mass rearing of Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), a potential predator of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melally Giddegowda Venkatesha; Anegunda Shankar Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) has been recorded as a potential predator of various species of mealybug crop pests worldwide. We describe the mass rearing of S. epius, as no information on this topic is available. Outdoor nylon tent cages of different dimensions were provided to achieve mating and oviposition as S. epius adults did not mate in the laboratory cages.

  1. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  2. A new, simple method for rearing diploid dronesin the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Polaczek; Peter Neumann; Burkhard Schricker; Robin F. A. Moritz

    2000-01-01

    Seven Apis mellifera carnicaqueens were instrumentally inseminated with the semen of their own sons. Diploid drone offspring of these queens were raised using two established tech- niques including elaborate laboratory manipulations, and a new approach. The new approach, based on routine beekeeping, uses small mating nuclei, which rear diploid drones to the adult stage late in the season. No labour

  3. Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galvão, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; dos Santos Assenção, José Adeildo; dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2011-11-01

    Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground—or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in São José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

  4. Applying risk-based M&S VV&A techniques to test and laboratory facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeremy; Elele, James; Hall, David; Pedriani, Charles

    2011-06-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is exercising a risk-based process for verifying, validating and accrediting models and simulations (M&S) used in system acquisition. Test and laboratory facilities can potentially have even greater potential negative consequences to a program than M&S if there are errors present in the test and analysis results, since test results are usually considered closer to the "truth" than M&S results. This paper will discuss how the risk-based M&S verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) process is being applied to test and laboratory facilities, issues associated with this different application of the process, and thoughts on the broader applicability of risk-based VV&A beyond the current application.

  5. Occurrence of infectious bacteria in captive-reared Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles.

    E-print Network

    Clearwater Marine Science Center in Clearwater, Florida or Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida found in both species. ********** The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Galveston Laboratory has and were reared for turtle excluder device (TED) certification trials and released into the Gulf of Mexico

  6. Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable up-scaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterize biogenic NO release from soil (i.e., net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterization can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e., where a maximum net NO release rate occurs) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterize net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing air-stream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10 values. It could be shown, that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and VOCs). First results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

  7. Laboratory procedures and data reduction techniques to determine rheologic properties of mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, R.R., Jr.; Huizinga, R.J.; Brown, S.M.; Jobson, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Determining the rheologic properties of coarse- grained mass flows is an important step to mathematically simulate potential inundation zones. Using the vertically rotating flume designed and built by the U.S. Geological Survey, laboratory procedures and subsequent data reduction have been developed to estimate shear stresses and strain rates of various flow materials. Although direct measurement of shear stress and strain rate currently (1992) are not possible in the vertically rotating flume, methods were derived to estimate these values from measurements of flow geometry, surface velocity, and flume velocity.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils

    E-print Network

    Adams, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

  9. results of Parigi et al., the laboratory tech-niques they describe could pave the way

    E-print Network

    Keeling, Patrick

    - opment of techniques for "quantum state engineering," that is, the creation of states with specified and momentum are obtained by applying "opera- tors" to a system's wave function. 3. V. Parigi, A. Zavatta, M the origin of Giardia and its relationship to other eukaryotes. The evolution of Giardia has commanded

  10. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular. PMID:24504534

  11. Hand-Rearing Reduces Fear of Humans in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770

  12. Achieving traceable chemical measurements: inter-laboratory evaluation of a simplified technique for isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Part 2. Methodology for high accuracy analysis of organic analytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Sargent; Gerry Newman; Ken Webb

    2004-01-01

    A high accuracy measurement procedure developed and validated at LGC has been transferred to a number of expert UK laboratories, and their experience in applying the technique has been evaluated by inter-laboratory comparisons. It is an “exact matching” calibration procedure for analysis of organic analytes using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). This calibration procedure uses a calibration blend and a

  13. Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2008-07-01

    Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (?XRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

  14. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  15. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING THE REAR LOADING DOCK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  17. Physiological consequences of laboratory rearing of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several aspects of the basic biology of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, are poorly known despite of the economic importance of this species. Among these are the factors regulating the adult diapause. Recent studies questioned the validity of earlier reports of diapause in L...

  18. Original article Interspecific rearing and acceptance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with grafted young worker larvae of Apis cerana and Apis koschevnikovi were simultaneously introduced-24 artificial queen cells (diameter 6 mm) into which we had grafted young (worker cells and the emerged bees were successfully reared by the A cerana worker bees. The A cerana host colonies were

  19. [Rear nasal blockage and other tricks].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Sánchez, María José

    2008-06-01

    From her personal perspective, the author explains diverse "tricks" and skills which can be put into practice when dealing with various emergency situations. In this article the author describes some which apply to rear nasal blockages so that their treatment becomes a safe, sure, easy procedure; she also describes a few tricks for other emergency situations medical professionals have to resolve. PMID:18724512

  20. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  1. A three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in laboratory and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Candice Rockell

    In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. The shielding and exposure of space travelers is controlled by the transport properties of the radiation through the spacecraft, its onboard systems and the bodies of the individuals themselves. Meeting the challenge of future space programs will therefore require accurate and efficient methods for performing radiation transport calculations to analyze and predict shielding requirements. One such method, which is developed in this dissertation, is based on a three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in both laboratory and space.

  2. Laboratory tests and simulations of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for background reduction in germanium gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slassi-Sennou, Said; Boggs, Steven E.; Philhour, Bryon; Campbell, Robert D.; Feffer, Paul T.; Lin, Robert P.; McBride, Steven; Primbsch, Henry J.; Cork, Chris P.; Goulding, Fred S.; Luke, Paul N.; Madden, Norman W.; Malone, Don F.; Pehl, Richard H.

    1996-10-01

    For actively shielded, narrow aperture germanium spectrometers at balloon or spacecraft altitudes, the beta decay of radio-active nuclei is the dominant source of background in the 0.2 to 2 MeV energy range. This component of the background is internal to the germanium detectors (GeDs) and results from the activation of Ge nuclei by cosmic ray secondaries. The sensitivity of GeD spectrometers can be improved by rejecting beta-decay events, which deposit energy at a single site in the detector, while retaining photon events, which are predominantly multiple site at these energies. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques can distinguish between single- and multiple-site events by analyzing the shape of GeDs' current pulses. Here we present results of laboratory tests of PSD with a newly developed narrow-inner-bore (0.6 cm diameter) coaxial GeD and compare them to numerical simulations.

  3. The effect of microwave/laboratory light source postcuring technique and wet-aging on microhardness of composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Sharifi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although composite restorations are really valuable for esthetic zones, they have shown less longevity rather than amalgam restorations. Since it may be related to the method used for curing the composite, postcuring could increase the degree of conversion and result in more long-lasting composite restorations. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of two different postcuring techniques on microhardness of indirect composite resin after wet-aging and comparing them with the direct type. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 99 composite disk-shaped (6.5 × 2.5 mm) specimens of composite (Gradia GC, Japan) were prepared in split mold. The indirect composite specimens were postcured by laboratory light source (Labolite LV-III GC Corp, Japan) or microwave unit (MC 2002 JR, LG, Korea). Then, the aging procedure was done for 24 h, 30 and 180 days in distilled water. The Vicker's Hardness test (VHN) on surface of specmens was measured by Wolpert microhardness tester and the data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests. (P ? 0.05). Results: The statistical analysis revealed that surface microhardness of postcured composite by microwave and laboratory light source was more than that of direct composite (P = 0.0001) and postcuring by microwave was more effective than postcuring by laboratory light source (P = 0.004). The 30 days stored composite demonstrated significant decrease of VHN compared with the 24-h stored samples (P = 0.0001), with a more significant VHN decrease after 180 days of aging (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Postcuring increased the surface microhardness and aging reduced the surface microhardness of indirect composite. PMID:24019807

  4. Effects of training experienced teachers in the use of the one-minute preceptor technique in the gross anatomy laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

    2014-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year, undergraduate-entry, system- and problem-based medical program were divided randomly into two groups of 76 students each. The groups took part in the same gross anatomy laboratory session on different dates, supervised by the same two teachers (both with over 25 years of teaching experience). The teachers attended a workshop on the use of the OMP between the two sessions. Students were given a questionnaire at the end of the two sessions to indicate their agreements to statements regarding their learning experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the two teachers after the second session. Results showed that training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement of student learning perception in the gross anatomy laboratory. The experienced teachers have developed their own approaches with elements similar to those in the OMP: being learner centered and adaptable to individual student's needs, providing feedback, and enhancing teacher immediacy. They do not have an explicit structure such as the OMP, and are thus flexible and adaptive. Confining the teachers' teaching behaviors to the OMP structure could limit their performance. Although there are theoretical advantages for novice teachers in adopting the OMP technique, these advantages still need to be supported by further studies. PMID:23864286

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Multi-spacecraft Data Analysis Techniques in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jongsoo Yoo and Masaaki Yamada

    2012-03-27

    The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)[1] has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and boundary-crossing time analysis (BCTA). The neutral sheet is swept, or jogged, in a controlled manner with respect to the stationary probes by pulsed internal coil currents. Magnetic field data from measurement points resembling data from multi-spacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check both techniques to deduce a proper normal vector. We examine discharges with the two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but not ions. Boundary-crossing time analysis with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector and relative velocity along the normal vector for all of the tested cases. On the other hand, MVAB sometimes fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the X-line magnetic geometry is fundamentally 2-D or 3-D. However, the direction along the reconnecting field determined by MVAB does not deviate much from the real magnetic geometry documented by 2-D magnetic probe arrays and one additional probe at a different toroidal location. Based on these observations, we suggest a procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission when spacecraft passes through a reconnecting current sheet. The distance between measurement points on the order of the ion skin depth (c/{omega}{sub pi}) is pertinent to determination of the magnetic geometry.

  6. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Observational and laboratory studies of optical properties of black and brown carbon particles in the atmosphere using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Light absorption and scattering by aerosols are as an important contributor to radiation balance in the atmosphere. Black carbon (BC) is considered to be the most potent light absorbing material in the visible region of the spectrum, although light absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon or BrC) and mineral dust may also act as sources of significant absorption, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) and shorter visible wavelength regions. The optical properties of such particles depend on wavelength, particle size and shape, morphology, coating, and complex refractive index (or chemical composition), and therefore accurate in situ measurements of the wavelength dependence of the optical properties of particles are needed. Recently, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) have been used for the direct measurements of extinction and absorption coefficients of particles suspended in air. We have applied these techniques to the observational studies of optical properties of BC and BrC in an urban site in Japan and to the laboratory studies of optical properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds and those of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). In the presentation, the basic principles of these techniques and the results obtained in our studies and in the recent literatures will be overviewed. References Guo, X. et al., Measurement of the light absorbing properties of diesel exhaust particles using a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer, Atmos. Environ., 94, 428-437 (2014). Nakayama, T. et al., Measurements of aerosol optical properties in central Tokyo during summertime using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Comparison with conventional techniques, Atmos. Environ., 44, 3034-3042 (2010). Nakayama, T. et al., Laboratory studies on optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated during the photooxidation of toluene and the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24204, doi:10.1029/2010JD014387 (2010). Nakayama, T. et al., Wavelength dependence of refractive index of secondary organic aerosols generated during the ozonolysis and photooxidation of alpha-pinene, SOLA, 8, 119-124 (2012). Nakayama, T. et al., Wavelength and NOx dependent complex refractive index of SOAs generated from the photooxidation of toluene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 531-545 (2013). Nakayama, T. et al., Properties of light-absorbing aerosols in the Nagoya urban area, Japan, in August 2011 and January 2012: Contributions of brown carbon and lensing effect, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 12721-12739 (2014). Nakayama, T. et al., Characterization of a three wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX), J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, (2015, in press).

  8. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

  9. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  10. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  11. Review of sandfish breeding and rearing methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rayner Pitt; Ketut Sugama

    2001-01-01

    Summary Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) are economically important warm-water sea cucumbers. Generally, a few collected an- imals are found to be ripe at most times, with one or two spawning peaks in the year. Spawning is most reliably stim- ulated by temperature changes, but at best only about one-third of large, freshly-collected animals can be induced. Larval rearing to settlement has

  12. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  13. Laboratory techniques and rhythmometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberg, F.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the procedures used for the analysis of rhythms are illustrated, notably as these apply to current medical and biological practice. For a quantitative approach to medical and broader socio-ecologic goals, the chronobiologist gathers numerical objective reference standards for rhythmic biophysical, biochemical, and behavioral variables. These biological reference standards can be derived by specialized computer analyses of largely self-measured (until eventually automatically recorded) time series (autorhythmometry). Objective numerical values for individual and population parameters of reproductive cycles can be obtained concomitantly with characteristics of about-yearly (circannual), about-daily (circadian) and other rhythms.

  14. EFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) are acidic. These secretions primarily from the mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands of young worker adultsEFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY PRODUCED BY CAGED HONEY Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA SUMMARY There were no significant differences in the pH of worker jelly

  15. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  16. Evaluating High-Throughput Ab Initio Gene Finders to Discover Proteins Encoded in Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomes Missed by Laboratory Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Goodswen, Stephen J.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Ellis, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology is advancing genome sequencing at an unprecedented level. By unravelling the code within a pathogen’s genome, every possible protein (prior to post-translational modifications) can theoretically be discovered, irrespective of life cycle stages and environmental stimuli. Now more than ever there is a great need for high-throughput ab initio gene finding. Ab initio gene finders use statistical models to predict genes and their exon-intron structures from the genome sequence alone. This paper evaluates whether existing ab initio gene finders can effectively predict genes to deduce proteins that have presently missed capture by laboratory techniques. An aim here is to identify possible patterns of prediction inaccuracies for gene finders as a whole irrespective of the target pathogen. All currently available ab initio gene finders are considered in the evaluation but only four fulfil high-throughput capability: AUGUSTUS, GeneMark_hmm, GlimmerHMM, and SNAP. These gene finders require training data specific to a target pathogen and consequently the evaluation results are inextricably linked to the availability and quality of the data. The pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, is used to illustrate the evaluation methods. The results support current opinion that predicted exons by ab initio gene finders are inaccurate in the absence of experimental evidence. However, the results reveal some patterns of inaccuracy that are common to all gene finders and these inaccuracies may provide a focus area for future gene finder developers. PMID:23226328

  17. Helminths of pond-reared walleye from Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, Patrick M; Eggold, Bradley T; Fahey, Robert J

    2006-04-01

    One hundred extended growth walleye fingerlings, Sander vitreus (Percidae), collected on 6 October 2004, from 1 rearing pond at the Lake Mills State Fish Hatchery in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, were examined for parasites. Diplostomum sp. (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae), and Proteocephalus sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) were the only parasites found. The first 3 species occurred as larval stages. Diplostomum sp. and Contracaecum sp. had similar prevalences, mean intensities, and mean abundances (72%, 2.2, and 1.6 and 71%, 2.1, 1.5, respectively) in walleye fingerlings. A headlamp technique used by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources personnel generated a prevalence of Diplostomum sp. in the lens that overestimated the prevalence of Diplostomum sp. found in a random subsample of 100 fingerlings examined with a microscope. Proteocephalus sp. and B. cuspidatus infected 14 and 12 fingerlings, respectively. PMID:16729707

  18. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi-variable, method to compare the injury biomechanical data with actual accident cases. PMID:12724904

  19. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 9. Laboratory QPCB Task Sort for Medical Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 9 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in medical laboratory technology. (BT)

  20. Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are capable of successful spawning, and can reproduce with wild-type fish from natural systems. PMID:25133780

  2. Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork. PMID:25276938

  3. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...it is shown that passenger vehicle passenger compartment intrusion...fatalities when a passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer...relative to other passenger vehicle fatalities involved in tractor-trailer...Repair Expenses for the Anti-Lock Brake System and...

  6. Combining impact sensor field and laboratory flume measurements with other techniques for studying fluvial bedload transport in steep mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja

    2014-08-01

    The timing and rate of fluvial bedload transport are of central importance within sediment budget studies and in many applications in river science and engineering. During the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 detailed field measurements with portable impact sensors as a non-invasive technique for indirectly determining fluvial bedload transport intensity were conducted in two instrumented and supply-limited drainage basin systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in the fjord landscape in western Norway. Additional field measurements with portable impact sensors were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in selected transport-limited fluvial systems in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. The collected impact sensor field data were calibrated with laboratory flume experiments. The data from the impact sensor field measurements in western Norway and the flume experiments were combined with field data from continuous discharge monitoring, repeated surveys of channel morphometry and sediment texture, particle tracer measurements, Helley-Smith samplings, underwater video filming and biofilm analyses. The combination of methods and techniques applied provides insights into the temporal variability and intensity of fluvial bedload transport in the selected mountain streams: (i) in the transport-limited systems with generally high bedload transport rates during high discharge and with bedload material moving in clusters over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (based on a 1 s measuring interval) provide the opportunity to detect the start and end of bedload transport, thus to identify discharge thresholds for sediment entrainment, and to roughly estimate the intensity and relative intensity of change of bedload transport during the measuring period; (ii) in the supply-limited systems with low bedload transport rates and bedload components moving separately (as single particles) over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (with a 1 s measuring interval) allow the detection of the start and end of transport of bedload components > 11.3 mm, thus the identification of discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles, the quantification of the number of particles > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period, the rough estimation of grain sizes of the particles moving separately over the impact sensor plates, and the calculation of the total mass of the bedload material > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period; (iii) when combined with other methods and techniques (Helley-Smith sampling, particle tracer measurements, biofilm analyses, underwater video filming) which provide information on the active bedload transport channel width, on discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles of different grain sizes, and on transport rates of bedload material < 11.3 mm, total rates of fluvial bedload transport, covering all given grain sizes of the bedload material, can be calculated for the supply-limited mountain streams with generally low bedload transport. The higher measured annual bedload yield in Bødalen (13.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) compared to Erdalen (2.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) reflects a higher level of slope-channel coupling in Bødalen than in Erdalen.

  7. Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is a challenging profession requiring precise and accurate evaluation techniques and keen problem-solving

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is a challenging profession requiring precise and accurate to the clinical diagnosis of health and disease. Medical laboratory scientists are educated in the theoretical Sciences (BSHS) in MLS, a degree completion program, is a blend of basic sciences and medical sciences

  8. In vitro rearing of Ooencyrtus pityocampae [ Hym., Encyrtidae ], an egg parasitoid of Thaumetopoea pityocampa [ Lep., Thaumetopoeidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Masutti; A. Battisti; N. Milani; M. Zanata; G. Zanazzo

    1993-01-01

    Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet) is a polyphagous egg parasitoid, known mainly as an egg parasitoid of the Pine Processionary Caterpillar,Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), a pest of pines in Southern Europe and in the Mediterranean region. Rearing on artificial medium\\u000a was recently undertaken, and after a large screening of both materials and techniques available for this aim, a PVC film and

  9. Faculty perspectives of the undergraduate laboratory: A survey of faculty goals for the laboratory and comparative analysis of responses using statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Aaron D.

    Qualitative research methods were used in a previous study to discover the goals of faculty members teaching undergraduate laboratories. Assertions about the goals and the unique characteristics of innovative lab programs were developed from categories that emerged from the interviews. The purpose of the present research was to create a survey instrument to measure the prevalence of these themes and faculty goals for undergraduate laboratories with a national sample. This was achieved through a two-stage process that utilized a pilot survey to determine the factor structure and reduce the number of survey items to a manageable size. Once the number of survey questions was reduced, the full survey was given to a national sample of undergraduate laboratory faculty. The 312 responses to the survey were then analyzed using factor analysis. Comparative analyses were conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA). This dissertation focuses on the processes involved in the creation of this survey and the subsequent analyses of the data the survey produced. The results of these analyses and the implications of this research will also be discussed.

  10. The Fundamentals of Flying: Simple and Inexpensive Strategies for Employing Drosophila Genetics in Neuroscience Teaching Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Berni, Jimena

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories. PMID:23493248

  11. Experimental Studies of Surface-Driven Capillary Flow in PMMA Microfluidic Devices Prepared by Direct Bonding Technique and Passive Separation of Microparticles in Microfluidic Laboratory-On Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep; Banerjee, J. P.; Mathur, Ashish; Tweedie, M.; McLaughlin, J. A.; Roy, Susanta Sinha

    2015-05-01

    Proper bonding technique is investigated to achieve leakage-free surface-driven capillary flow in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices. SU-8-based silicon stamp is fabricated by maskless lithography. This stamp is used to produce PMMA microchannel structure by hot embossing lithography. A direct bonding technique is mainly employed for leakage-free sealing inside PMMA microfluidic devices. The effect of surface wettability on surface-driven capillary flow is also investigated in PMMA microfluidic devices. The separation of polystyrene microparticles in PMMA laboratory-on-a-chip systems is investigated with the reduction of separation time by air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma processing of channel surfaces. This study is useful to fabricate the microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip systems and to understand the surface-driven capillary flow.

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE. CONTROL STATION AT LEFT REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE. CONTROL STATION AT LEFT REAR. UPSTREAM LOCK GATE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING WEST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

  13. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. A NUTRITIONAL BIOASSAY OF HONEYBEE BROOD-REARING POTENTIAL

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A NUTRITIONAL BIOASSAY OF HONEYBEE BROOD-REARING POTENTIAL Gerald M. LOPER Richard L. BERDEL U nutritional efficiency of pollens eaten by young honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) rearing brood from eggs small amounts of diets for their relative nutritional value. INTRODUCTION Honeybees (Apis mellifera L

  15. 3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing on north wall, floor, and ceiling, looking north - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

  16. 2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

  17. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  18. Perceived parental rearing practices and styles of coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Guay McIntyre; Jerome B. Dusek

    1995-01-01

    In order to study the relation between parental rearing practices and coping dispositions, 75 females and 65 males completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the COPE, a measure of general coping dispositions. Those who reported their parents had an authoritative rearing style (warmth and nurturance coupled with close monitoring and age-appropriate demandingness) used more social support and

  19. Improving the Speed of Virtual Rear Projection: A GPU-Centric Architecture Matthew Flagg, Jay Summet, and James M. Rehg

    E-print Network

    Haro, Antonio

    projection (VRP). We present a new approach to shadow detection that addresses limitations with previous work presented in this paper enable a speed increase in image processing from 15Hz to 110Hz in our new active VRP to develop Virtual Rear Projection (VRP) techniques for dealing with the problem of occluders when using

  20. Rear wheel suspension and steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, J.G.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a rear wheel support and driving system. The system comprises a rack-type dead axle adapted to support a vehicle body thereupon through suitable spring means, a pair of wheels rotatably supported upon the dead axle, a differential drive mechanism adapted to be supported upon the vehicle body movable with the body relative to the dead axle, the differential mechanism including a power input shaft and power output shafts, a pair of live axles drivingly connecting the output shafts with the wheels. The dead axle being generally rectilinear in shape and having a first pair of longitudinal beams respectively transversely spaced outboard of the differential mechanism, a second pair of cross beams respectively spaced fore and aft of the differential mechanism and secured to the first pair of beams.

  1. Candidiasis in young hand-reared kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Obendorf, D L

    1980-01-01

    Necropsies conducted on four young eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) revealed white encrustations adherent to the mucosa of the lips, gums, tongue and oesophagus. The non-glandular stomach was impacted with similar white curd-like material, much of which was ahderent to the mucosa. Histopathology revealed fungal mycelia and blastospores invading the stratified squamous epithelium resulting in focal erosion, ulceration and venous thrombosis. A predominantly neutrophilic leucocytic infiltration was produced in intra-epithelial and submucosal tissues. Candida albicans was isolated from the upper alimentary tract lesions of all cases. Failure to thrive on milk diets, prolonged episodes of diarrhoea and antibiotic therapy during hand-rearing were considered to be significant predisposing factors to infection. PMID:6990020

  2. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  4. Hand?rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.

    PubMed

    Kenow, Kevin P; Meier, Melissa S; McColl, Laurie E; Hines, Randy K; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range. PMID:24753001

  5. Evaluation and modification of off-host flea collection techniques used in northwest Uganda: laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Jeff N; Eisen, Rebecca J; Holmes, Jennifer L; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Brown, Heidi E; Graham, Christine B; Babi, Nackson; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the abundance of host-seeking fleas is critical for assessing risk of human exposure to flea-borne disease agents, including Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Yet, reliable measures of the efficacy of existing host-seeking flea collection methods are lacking. In this study, we compare the efficacy of passive and active methods for the collection of host-seeking fleas in both the laboratory and human habitations in a plague-endemic region of northwest Uganda. In the laboratory, lighted "Kilonzo" flea traps modified with either blinking lights, the creation of shadows or the generation of carbon dioxide were less efficient at collecting Xenopsylla cheopis Rothchild and Ctenocephalides felis Bouché fleas than an active collection method using white cotton socks or cotton flannel. Passive collection using Kilonzo light traps in the laboratory collected significantly more X. cheopis than C. felis and active collection, using white socks and flannel, collected significantly more C. felis than X. cheopis. In field studies conducted in Uganda, Kilonzo traps using a flashlight were similar in their collection efficacy to Kilonzo traps using kerosene lamps. However, in contrast to laboratory studies, Kilonzo flea traps using flashlights collected a greater number of fleas than swabbing. Within human habitations in Uganda, Kilonzo traps were especially useful for collecting C. felis, the dominant species found in human habitations in this area. PMID:22308790

  6. Control of the straw itch mite (Acari: Pyemotidae) with sulfur in an insect rearing facility.

    PubMed

    Hanks, L M; McCelfresh, J S; Millar, J G; Paine, T D

    1992-06-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Pyemotes tritici (Lagrèze-Fossat & Montané) (Acari: Pyemotidae) caused paralysis and reduced longevity in eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha semipunctata F., under laboratory rearing conditions. Application of dusting sulfur to logs that contained pupating borers greatly reduced densities of mites on emerging adult beetles and increased beetle survivorship. Uniform application to all logs in a glasshouse effectively eradicated the mite infestation. A bioassay showed that sulfur may physically impede the dispersal of immature mites by adhering to the cuticle, but sulfur vapor did not act as a toxin. PMID:1619104

  7. Speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a laboratory source and the scanning technique.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tunhe; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H; Hertz, Hans M; Pfeiffer, Franz; Burvall, Anna

    2015-06-15

    The speckle-based scanning method for x-ray phase-contrast imaging is implemented with a liquid-metal-jet source. Using the two-dimensional scanning technique, the phase shift introduced by the object is retrieved in both transverse orientations, and the limitations on spatial resolution inherent to the speckle-tracking technique are avoided. This method opens up possibilities of new high-resolution multimodal applications for lab-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging. PMID:26076271

  8. Combined characterization techniques to understand the stability of a variety of organic photovoltaic devices: the ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira-Cantu, Monica; Tanenbaum, David M.; Norrman, Kion; Voroshazi, Eszter; Hermenau, Martin; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Teran-Escobar, Gerardo; Galagan, Yulia; Zimmermann, Birger; Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik F.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Gevorgyan, Suren; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Hoppe, Harald; Rösch, Roland; Würfel, Uli; Andriessen, Ronn; Rivaton, Agnès.; Uzuno?lu, Gül?ah Y.; Germack, David; Andreasen, Birgitta; Madsen, Morten V.; Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2012-10-01

    This work is part of the inter-laboratory collaboration to study the stability of seven distinct sets of state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic (OPVs) devices prepared by leading research laboratories. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at the Danish Technical University (DTU, formerly RISO-DTU) up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. In this work we present a summary of the degradation response observed for the NREL sample, an inverted OPV of the type ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag/Al, under full sun stability test. The results reported from the combination of the different characterization techniques results in a proposed degradation mechanism. The final conclusion is that the failure of the photovoltaic response of the device is mainly due to the degradation of the electrodes and not to the active materials of the solar cell.

  9. Locally contacted rear surface passivated solar cells by inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiwpha, N.; Fangsuwannarak, T.; Sopitpan, S.

    2014-06-01

    Inkjet printing of photoresist material may provide a new route for low-cost fabrication of patterned oxide passivation layer of solar cells that require fine patterning and simple process. However, printing by liquid-based, environmentally friendly ink and printing device required development efforts aimed at achieving a fine patterning and long used inkjet nozzles under corrosive influence. This work was demonstrated a concept for grooved silicon oxide patterning for rear localized contact of p-n junction solar cells by chemical etching after photoresist patterning obtained. This article reviews the silicon dioxide fabrication on p-Si substrate from sol-gel technique for oxide passivation layer of solar cells. The aluminium was deposited on the patterned oxide layer and then heated at its Al-Si eutectic temperature. Finally, an aluminium-induced solid-phase epitaxial growth of p+ forming into the openings of the oxide passivation layer was presented. The sheet resistance of n-emitter layer, carrier life-time and surface recombination velocity values are investigated. Photoconductive measurements were performed on the prepared samples after each thermal process to measure the effective lifetime of the minority carriers. Carrier lifetime up to 60 microseconds has been measured on c-Si wafer passivated by the opened SiO2 layer. It was shown that the patterned SiO2 passivation has obtained high passivation quality making by the proposed inkjet printing method.

  10. 3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  12. View of corredera supports and rear (southwest) of house, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of corredera supports and rear (southwest) of house, including attachment of rails to la casa, view towards the east - Finca Thillett, Casa, Highway 139, Kilometer 11.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  13. 9. NORTH (REAR) SIDE, ENTRY AND STAIRHALL DORMER. This dormer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTH (REAR) SIDE, ENTRY AND STAIRHALL DORMER. This dormer not original with house; note Flemish bond brickwork v.s. English bond brickwork of front and side elevations. - Mulberry, Cooper River, West Branch, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC

  14. 2. EQUIPMENT STORAGE SHED, EAST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EQUIPMENT STORAGE SHED, EAST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE LOOKING NORTHWEST - Union Ranger District Compound, Equipment Storage Shed, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

  15. Neighborhood view from Lanakila by Aloha Avenue showing the rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Neighborhood view from Lanakila by Aloha Avenue showing the rear of houses, parking and driveway. View facing north. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  18. 2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  19. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  20. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. 21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Magazine Type 2, Fourth Place, Seventh & Eighth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  7. 3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. 6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  11. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  12. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  15. 2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND EAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND EAST SIDE OF BUILDING T65, FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Technical Materials Assembly Shed, North Road between Astoria & Quincey Avenues, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Rear of REPLACEMENT MODEL single chair from mid station. Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear of REPLACEMENT MODEL single chair from mid station. Tower 13 in background, LOOKing northeast. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  20. CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Observation Bunker Types, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  4. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  7. 5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  8. 7. View looking E at rear wall of western segment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View looking E at rear wall of western segment of Roundhouse. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 8. Detail view of window on rear wall of western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of window on rear wall of western segment of Roundhouse - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. 15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  11. 16. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  12. 7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR TBRACE. Photocopy of photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR T-BRACE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  13. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  14. View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  16. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. 2. WILLIAM ELLIOT CABIN AND OUTBULIDING, CABIN WEST REAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WILLIAM ELLIOT CABIN AND OUTBULIDING, CABIN WEST REAR AND NORTH SIDES, OUTBULIDING WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE - Liberty Historic District, William Elliot Cabin, Route 2, Cle Elum, Liberty, Kittitas County, WA

  18. 2. REAR ELEVATION PRIOR TO RELOCATION AND RESTORATION. (The discrepant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR ELEVATION PRIOR TO RELOCATION AND RESTORATION. (The discrepant section of clapboarding shows where a tower was added in a mid-1880s alteration.) - Quaker Meetinghouse, Downey Street, Wapsinono Creek Vicinity, West Branch, Cedar County, IA

  19. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  1. 28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  2. 3. Building No. 9928. Perspective view of rear side (NW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Building No. 9928. Perspective view of rear side (NW corner) includes back door and east end of corridor Ramp No. 3. - Madigan Hospital, Chapel, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  3. 20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 676 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Applied Instruction Building, Corner of Morton & Moore Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 676 FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Applied Instruction Building, Corner of Morton & Moore Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 3. Panama Mount in rear. Foundation in foreground is base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Panama Mount in rear. Foundation in foreground is base for ammunition depot. Looking 328° NNW. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 8. Steve Dunwell, Photographer, March 1979. REAR VIEW SHOWING CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Steve Dunwell, Photographer, March 1979. REAR VIEW SHOWING CONNECTING ROD, CRANK, BEARING AND FLYWHEEL OF 1910 WM. A. HARRIS ENGINE. - Merchants Cold Storage Warehouse, 160 Kingsley Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  11. DETAILS, EAVES AND WINDOWS OF THE EAST (REAR) FACADE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAILS, EAVES AND WINDOWS OF THE EAST (REAR) FACADE, LOOKING NORTH - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING 792 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  14. 68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SOUTHEAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  17. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. 2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of parking garage. Farther east is 408 8th Street (National Art And Frame Company). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. 98. 181721 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. 1817-21 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ON LEFT, TOWARD SOUTHWEST AND SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. 48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS OF VACUUM-TUBE OSCILLOSCOPE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW TREATMENT. See CA-174-B-22 FOR INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR LAB AT CENTER. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Engineering-Administration Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  6. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  7. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  8. 5. View of southeast (rear) elevation, showing property in setting; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of southeast (rear) elevation, showing property in setting; palms are street trees shown in CA-2211-1; view to northwest. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. High efficiency n-silicon solar cells using rear junction structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. M. Dai; M. A. Green; S. R. Wenham

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports two near junction structures for n-silicon solar cells. They are respectively rear totally- (PERT) and rear locally-diffused (PERL) junction cells. The electrical contacts are deployed on both sides of the cells with n- on the front and p- on the rear, most surface area being passivated by silicon dioxide. A shunt problem in the rear PERL structure,

  11. A Genetic Contribution to Dental Caries, Occlusion, and Morphology as Demonstrated by Twins Reared Apart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Boraas; L. B. Messer; M. J. Till

    1988-01-01

    The heritability of dental characteristics has been systematically studied in animals, human populations, families, and twins, but not in twins reared apart. Under the assumption that environmental factors are no different for monozygotic twins reared apart than for dizygotic twins reared apart, the present study measured the genetic variance of several dental characteristics in twins reared apart. Ninety-seven subjects (44

  12. Comparison of rear seat occupant injuries in AM50 and AF05 in frontal crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Matsui; Y. Tanaka; N. Hosokawa

    2011-01-01

    For rear seat occupants involved in motor vehicle fatal crashes, the number of fatalities of the unbelted rear seat occupants is approximately 3.8 times higher than that of the belted rear seat occupants. In part because of this finding, the National Police Agency decided that wearing a seatbelt would be mandatory for rear seat occupants in Japan from June 2008.

  13. 30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Predation of hatchery-reared scallop spat ( Pecten maximus L.) by the Ballan wrasse ( Labrus bergylta)—consequences for sea ranching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tore Strohmeier; Guri G. Oppegård; Øivind Strand

    2006-01-01

    Fish predation on scallops has received relatively little attention compared to the primary predators sea stars and crabs. Available knowledge of fish predation is mainly based on observations from scallop beds and fish stomach analysis. These are the first controlled experiments conducted to test if fish (Ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta) prey upon on hatchery-reared scallop spat. Under laboratory conditions Ballan

  15. Effect of Feeding Frequency on Feed Cconsumption, Growth, and Feed Efficiency in Aquarium-Reared Norris and NWAC103 Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6 week feeding study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding frequency on growth rate of juvenile Norris and NWAC103 channel catfish reared under laboratory conditions. Four replicate groups of Norris and NWAC103 catfish (average weight of 4.0 +/- 0.2 g/fish) were fed to visual satiety a...

  16. Effects of rearing density, age, sex, and food deprivation on flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of rearing density, adult density and sex ratio in the flight chamber, adult age, sex, presence or absence of food, and duration of food deprivation on rate of and time to flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were studied in the laboratory. Rates of flight...

  17. Predator–prey interaction between hatchery-reared Japanese flounder juvenile, Paralichthys olivaceus, and sandy shore crab, Matuta lunaris: daily rhythms, anti-predator conditioning and starvation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa A. R Hossain; Masaru Tanaka; Reiji Masuda

    2002-01-01

    Predator–prey interaction between sandy shore crab, Matuta lunaris (Forskål, 1775), and juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck et Schlegel), was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Possibility of training and conditioning hatchery-reared flounder to avoid predators was also examined. Crabs took over 75% of their daily ration at night when they were given access to prey 24 h a day. Large

  18. Laboratory tests of pulse shape discrimination techniques for correcting the effects of radiation damage in germanium coaxial detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Hull, E. L.; Lin, R. P.; Madden, N. W.; McBride, S.; Pehl, R. H.; Primbsch, J. H.; Slassi-Sennou, S.

    2000-04-01

    A reverse-electrode closed-end germanium coaxial detector was irradiated with 183-MeV neutrons to evaluate the value of Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) techniques in restoring the energy resolution and line shape of the radiation damaged detector. Two consecutive irradiations were performed for total fluences of 5.0×10 8 and 10.4×10 8 n/ cm2, with PSD tests performed after each irradiation. These irradiations degraded the energy resolution and line shapes; however, PSD corrections significantly restored the performance, even after severe damage. These PSD techniques delay and potentially eliminate, in some experimental situations, the need to anneal germanium detectors in damaging radiation environments.

  19. Socialization of a single hand-reared tiger cub.

    PubMed

    Kelling, Angela S; Bashaw, Meredith J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    Given the drawbacks of hand-rearing nonhuman animals in captivity, the practice is generally avoided, but it is sometimes necessary. A few scientific publications are available to guide managers toward best practices in hand-rearing, but the majority of articles focus on hand-rearing captive primates. Less is known about hand-rearing carnivores, but early socialization appears to be critical for adult social behavior. This article documents the successful hand-rearing and reintroduction of a single female Sumatran tiger cub at Zoo Atlanta. Reintroduction included a systematic procedure that used scent trials and introduction sessions through a barrier to gauge interest and determine whether or not aggression was a problem. Based on signs of interest, reduced stress-related behaviors, and a lack of aggression, animal managers decided to proceed with reintroduction. During the introductions, the animals were not aggressive and did occasionally interact, although typical mother-infant interactions were rare. The cub has since bred naturally and successfully delivered and reared two litters of cubs. These data suggest limited exposure to an adult tiger may be adequate socialization for normal reproduction even if it is provided relatively late in the cub's development. PMID:23282293

  20. Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

    2013-07-01

    A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field. PMID:23926780

  1. Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  2. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml?1 and CFU · g?1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  3. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotype in wild and mass-reared Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguero, M S; Vera, M T; Rial, E; Cayol, J-P; Vilardi, J C

    2002-12-01

    Males with a larger thorax and narrower face were found to be favoured by directional sexual selection in a previous field cage experiment where Ceratitis capitata males from the Seib 6-96 genetic sexing strain competed with wild males from Alto Valle (Patagonia) for the possession of wild females. Targets of sexual selection, however, might differ between wild and laboratory females as a response to adaptation to mass-rearing conditions. To evaluate possible divergences on the targets of sexual selection as a by-product of adaptation to mass-rearing conditions, field cage tests were performed with both wild and laboratory females. To avoid possible bias due to correlation among the measured traits (eye length [EL], face width [FW], head width [HW], and thorax length [TL]), a multivariate analysis was applied. Consistent with the previous experiment, the results indicated that TL and FW are probable targets of directional sexual selection independently of female strain. However, laboratory females were less selective than wild ones. Additionally, correlational sexual selection was detected acting on the multivariate phenotype. The effects of correlational selection overlap with those of directional selection on each single trait. The analysis of mating pair characteristics showed patterns that do not match the expectations for a random mating system. The current analysis indicates that during mating pair formation two processes overlap. On the one hand, sexual selection favours males with larger size (TL) and narrower faces (FW). This effect occurs in both wild and laboratory females. In addition, assortative mating based on both phenotype and origin was also observed. PMID:12466992

  4. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  5. Reproduction and Larval Rearing of Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Browne; Kevin Zippel

    Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in these reproduction technologies have been driven by (1) difficul- ties with achieving reliable reproduction of threatened spe- cies in captive breeding programs, (2) the need for the efficient reproduction of laboratory model species, and (3) the cost

  6. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  7. Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2008-02-01

    Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities. PMID:17928165

  8. Hot flue gas filtration: Laboratory tests and projected cost of a combined sorbent injection/filtration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Shemwell, B.E.; Atal, A.

    2000-07-01

    This manuscript provides an update on the technology of flue gas filtration at high temperatures. In this technology the synergistic effects of sorbent injection and filtration are exploited. Calcium-based (or sodium-based) sorbents are sprayed in the post-flame zone of a furnace. The sorbent reacts with sulfur and chlorine in the furnace effluent to form stable salts of calcium. The partially-reacted sorbent is then collected in the filter, which is placed downstream of the sorbent injection point. The sorbent continues to react in the filter for a prolonged period of time. The primary advantage of this technique is that both the likelihood of contact and the period of contact between the solid sorbent particles and the gaseous pollutants (such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, HCl, etc.) increase, since reaction takes place in the furnace upstream of the filter as well as inside the filter itself. Hence, the sorbent utilization (i.e., the conversion of sorbent CaO to CaSO{sub 4}, CaSO{sub 3}, CaCl{sub 2}, etc.) increases significantly. The filter is cleaned with periodic aerodynamic regeneration (backpulsing). Using this technique, most of the pollutants, such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, HCl and particulate (soot, ash and tar) can be removed from the effluent. Any unburned carbon in the ash may be completely oxidized in the filter. Formation of dioxins in the effluent at lower temperatures should be minimized, since their precursors are captured by the filter. Results show That the sorbent/filter method appears to be less expensive than current technologies, on both capital cost ($/kW) and levelized coat ($/ton pollutant removed) bases, if a limestone/coal mixture is used as the sorbent for the fossil fuel plants. Capital costs for the filter/sorbent combination should be under $63/kW for a new plant, while those for a state of the art compounded wet limestone FGD/SCR/fabric filter at $250--400/kW. Since the existing technologies are designed for removing one pollutant at a time both their cost and space requirement are much higher than those of the technique discussed herein. Moreover, the levelized costs are projected to be as low as $103/ton of combined pollutant SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} and particulates removed.

  9. Jehovah's Witnesses' child-rearing advice and potential psychologists' bias.

    PubMed

    Oddoye, Robinette T; Oyewole, Philemon

    2005-10-01

    This study examined agreement with and potential bias toward child-rearing advice provided in publications of Jehovah's Witnesses. A sample of 750 APA member psychologists with Ph.D.s were randomly selected and assigned to one of three groups: (1) those informed about the source of the child-rearing advice, (2) those partially informed about the source of the advice, and (3) those uninformed about the source of the advice. Each group was provided identical materials except for identifying information about the specific source. Analyses show that psychologists report high agreement with the child-rearing advice provided by Jehovah's Witnesses through their publications, primarily The Watchtower and Awake! magazines. In general, however, psychologists expressed lower agreement with advice pertaining to early dating, premarital sex, and sports participation. Significantly lower participation was found in the group who were fully informed about the source of the advice. Implications of these findings are discussed and directions for research given. PMID:16342575

  10. Power transmission system for rear wheels of a motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, F.; Takashashi, A.

    1987-07-21

    A power transmission system is described for a motor vehicle comprising: a rear drive shaft connected to a propeller shaft of the motor vehicle; final reduction gear means operatively connected to the rear drive shaft; a pair of oil hydraulic clutches for transmitting output of the final reduction gear to rear wheels of the motor vehicle respectively; hydraulic circuit means including passage means for applying pressurized oil to the clutches and control valve means for controlling pressure of the oil applied to each of the clutches; sensing means for sensing driving conditions of the vehicle at cornering and for producing signals representing sensed conditions; control unit responsive to the signals for operating the control valve means whereby controlling transmitting torque capacity of each clutch at cornering.

  11. Closeup of rear of LASRE pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this interaction. The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on one of NASA's SR-71s, which were at that time on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use the information gained from the LASRE and X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator Projects to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin were partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement. The goal of that program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote creation and delivery of new space services and activities to improve the United States's economic competitiveness. In March 2001, however, NASA cancelled the X-33 program.

  12. Multicenter long-term validation of a minicourse in radiation-reducing techniques in the catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Weitmann, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dörr, Marcus; Hummel, Astrid; Riad, Alexander; Busch, Mathias C; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology is considerable. We aimed to investigate, in a multicenter field study, the long-term efficacy of an educational 90-minute workshop in cardiac invasive techniques with reduced irradiation. Before and at a median period of 2.5 months and 2.0 years after the minicourse (periods I, II, and III, respectively) at 5 German cardiac centers, 18 interventionalists documented various radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies. The median patient dose area product (DAP) for periods I, II, and III amounted to 26.6, 12.2, and 9.6 Gy × cm(2), respectively. The short-term and long-term effects were related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 138, and 114 seconds), fewer radiographic frames (745, 553, and 417) because of fewer (11, 11, and 10) and shorter (64, 52, and 44 frames/run) runs, consistent collimation, and restriction to an adequate image quality; both radiographic DAP/frame (27.7, 17.3, and 18.4 mGy × cm(2)) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (26.6, 12.9, and 14.9 mGy × cm(2)) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis over time indicated increasing efficacy of the minicourse itself (-55% and -64%) and minor influence of interventionist experience (-4% and -3% per 1,000 coronary angiographies, performed lifelong until the minicourse and until period III). In conclusion, autonomous self-surveillance of various dose parameters and feedback on individual radiation safety efforts supported the efficacy of a 90-minute course program toward long-lasting and ongoing patient dose reduction. PMID:25579886

  13. Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-11-01

    Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 ?m-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

  14. 7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  16. Field and laboratory comparative evaluation of rapid malaria diagnostic tests versus traditional and molecular techniques in India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Microscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malaria infections in clinical practice and research. However, microscopy is labour intensive, requires significant skills and time, which causes therapeutic delays. The objective of obtaining result quickly from the examination of blood samples from patients with suspected malaria is now made possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic tests (RDTs). Several RDTs are available, which are fast, reliable and simple to use and can detect Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections or both. A study was conducted in tribal areas of central India to measure the overall performance of several RDTs for diagnosis of P. falciparum and non-falciparum infections in comparison with traditional and molecular techniques. Such data will be used to guide procurement decisions of policy makers and programme managers. Methods Five commercially available RDTs were tested simultaneously in field in parallel with peripheral blood smears in outbreak-affected areas. The evaluation is designed to provide comparative data on the performance of each RDT. In addition, molecular method i.e. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also carried out to compare all three methods. Results A total of 372 patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria from Bajag Primary Health Centre (PHC) of district Dindori and Satanwada PHC of district Shivpuri attending the field clinics of Regional Medical Research Centre were included in the study. The analysis revealed that the First Response Malaria Antigen pLDH/HRP2 combo test was 94.7% sensitive (95% CI 89.5-97.7) and 69.9% specific (95% CI 63.6-75.6) for P. falciparum. However, for non-falciparum infections (Plasmodium vivax) the test was 84.2% sensitive (95% CI 72.1-92.5) and 96.5% specific (95% CI 93.8-98.2). The Parascreen represented a good alternative. All other RDTs were relatively less sensitive for both P. falciparum and non-falciparum infections. Conclusions The results in this study show comparative performance between microscopy, various RDTs and PCR. Despite some inherent limitation in the five RDTs tested, First Response clearly has an advantage over other RDTs. The results suggest that RDTs could play and will play an important role in malaria diagnosis. PMID:20602766

  17. Technical Notes: Methods for Culturing Bluegill in the Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Bryan; Joseph E. Morris; Gary J. Atchison

    1994-01-01

    Pond culture of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) does not provide researchers with an adequate means of obtaining eggs or larvae for laboratory studies. Intensive laboratory culture of bluegill larvae through their critical period (when they switch from endogenous to exogenous feeding), however, presents unique problems, requiring different approaches from those used for rearing many other fish species. Consequently, ecological and toxicological

  18. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques—the ISOS-3Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Germack D.; Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Jorgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Hoppe, H.; Krebs, F.C.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {ge} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Risoe DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results - hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  19. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques - The ISOS-3 Inter-Laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D. M.; Jrgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M. T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H. F.; Gevorgyan, S. A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {>=} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Riso DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results -- hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  20. Enduring effects of post-weaning rearing condition on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and motor activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Belal; Babri, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2015-04-01

    Environmental manipulation at early critical periods could have long-lasting effects. In spite of the great interest in the biological effects of the environmental condition so far, its long-lasting effects are less documented. This study looks at the enduring effects of rearing condition on tasks that measure affective responses and exploratory behavior in male Wistar rats. The animals were reared from weaning to adulthood in an enriched environment, standard laboratory condition, or isolated condition. Then, all rats were housed in standard laboratory cages to provide a common environment, and successively exposed to different tests between 0 and 11 weeks post-manipulation. The open field test indicated a more efficient exploratory behavior in the enriched group, and an enhanced spontaneous motor activity in both standard and isolated groups. In addition, rats reared in standard condition showed heightened motor activity in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze. Forced swimming test showed an antidepressive-like effect in the enriched environment group by increased climbing behavior. In respect to the anxiety behavior, environmental enrichment improved threat detection ability. It is concluded that rearing condition from weaning to adulthood has important and long-lasting effects on depressive- and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors as well as motor activity. PMID:25666307

  1. X-38 - Rear View in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photo shows a rear view of the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle in a hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center shortly after its first successful free flight at the Center. The X-38 was dropped from a B-52 mothership and then glided to a landing under a large, steerable parafoil. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. In March 2000 Vehicle 132 completed its third and final free flight in the highest, fastest, and longest X-38 flight to date. It was released a

  2. Selection of Rear Projection Screens for Learning Carrels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edgar A.

    The selection of a rear projection screen for a learning carrel should take into account the viewing angle involved. In some carrels, the viewer can be seated in front of the screen (i.e., on the normal axis) since the screen is used primarily to present information. In these cases, where the screen will be viewed only from a restricted range, a…

  3. East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the left, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the right. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  4. Original article Rearing density effect on the production performance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be improved further (particularly in terms of the percentage of adult animals obtained). Helix aspersa zootechniques d'escargots Petit-Gris (Helix aspersa Müller) en élevage hors sol. L'effet de six densités dOriginal article Rearing density effect on the production performance of the edible snail Helix

  5. Optimizing nutrition of Orius insidiosus for rearing and distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditions encountered by insect predators during rearing and shipment are likely to affect their behaviors and efficacy following release. Their age, developmental stage, reproductive status, nutritional and hunger states, sex ratio, etc. will all affect their performance in greenhouse or field. ...

  6. Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

    In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

  7. 7. REAR SIDE OF HOUSE, WITH OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSONAIKEN SERVICE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REAR SIDE OF HOUSE, WITH OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSON-AIKEN SERVICE BUILDING AND STABLE (SC-275) ON RIGHT, AND ROBINSON-AIKEN SLAVE BUILDING AND KITCHENS (SC-276) ON LEFT. - Robinson-Aiken House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  8. 17. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR COURTYARD, AND OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSONAIKEN SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR COURTYARD, AND OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSON-AIKEN SERVICE BUILDING AND STABLE (SC-275) ON LEFT, AND ROBINSON-AIKEN SLAVE BUILDING AND KITCHENS (SC-276) ON RIGHT. - Robinson-Aiken House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  9. Rearing of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae: Present status, bottlenecks and trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Iglesias; F. J. Sánchez; J. G. F. Bersano; J. F. Carrasco; J. Dhont; L. Fuentes; F. Linares; J. L. Muñoz; S. Okumura; J. Roo; T. van der Meeren; E. A. G. Vidal; R. Villanueva

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high mortality rates and poor growth generally observed in Octopus vulgaris paralarval rearing experiments, it was decided to organize a working group in order to formulate recommendations to tackle this problem. Over a dozen scientists representing the most active current research groups related to this subject attended the meeting in Vigo, Spain, in November 2005. The aim

  10. Object Construction and Imitation under Differing Conditions of Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paraskevopoulos, John; Hunt, J. McV.

    1971-01-01

    Compares the ages at which infants living under different conditions in two orphanges in Athens, Greece achieve levels of object construction and imitation, both verbal and gestural. Home-reared infants of the same age range were also examined using two of the Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Infant Psychological Development. (WY)

  11. 2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from west bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW SOUTHEAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  12. 5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier and sluice gate. Photograph taken from east bank of the sandy beach. VIEW SOUTH - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  13. 39. VIEW LOOKING NORTH INTO THE REAR OF THE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW LOOKING NORTH INTO THE REAR OF THE BUILDING COMPLEX AND SERVICE COURT. (NOTE: HISTORIC JAPANESE FALSE CYPRESS AND HINOKI FALSE CYPRESS IN CENTER; FRAMING FOR BLUEPRINT PRODUCTION EVIDENT ON SECOND STORY OF OFFICE WING TO LEFT). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  14. Contextual oblique view of north side and east rear, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual oblique view of north side and east rear, view to southwest from Franklin Street showing partially cleared freeway right-of-way, and line of mature deodar cedar trees along North Fulton Avenue - Ira H. Brooks House, 350 North Fulton Avenue, Fresno, Fresno County, CA

  15. Genetic Implications of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens ) Reared on a

    E-print Network

    Genetic Implications of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens ) Reared on a Commercially Prepared and recovery program(s) and the lake sturgeon program. #12;Lake Sturgeon Conservation at Genoa NFH Annual production includedWolf River, Wisconsin River and Rainy River Strains. #12;Lake Sturgeon Culture -Tricks

  16. Spawning and Rearing of Shortnose Sturgeon from the Connecticut River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Buckley; Boyd Kynard

    1981-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), an endangered species, was spawned in the field for the first time. One mature female yielded 62 eggs that were fertilized, of which 12 were hatched and 5 were reared to the fry stage. The eggs hatched in 8 days at 17°C. Diameter of the fertilized eggs was 3.5 mm and mean total length of

  17. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO THE ORE YARD FILLED WITH ORE, SHOWING SELF-UNLOADING SHIP BOOM IN ACTION. LOOKING EAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 92. View of east facade of powerhouse, showing rear door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. View of east facade of powerhouse, showing rear door of the building; the steel tanks adjacent to the powerhouse are surge tanks, each penstock has two surge tanks; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. 37. DETAIL OF REAR OF STARBOARD ENGINE. AT LOWER LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF REAR OF STARBOARD ENGINE. AT LOWER LEFT OF ENGINE IS THE CASING FOR THE SHAFT GOING INTO THE ADJACENT AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  1. Rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues in Swedish dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Hultgren; Catarina Svensson; Mats Pehrsson

    2011-01-01

    Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length

  2. Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARKUS OST; EMMA VITIKAINEN; PETER WALDECK; LISELOTTE SUNDSTROM; KAI LINDSTROM; TUULA HOLLMEN; J. CHRISTIAN FRANSON; MIKAEL KILPI

    2005-01-01

    Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often over- looked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks ( Somateria mollissima ) may rear

  3. 26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  5. Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  6. 4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR (NORTH) FACADE OF THE UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  7. 2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR OBSERVATION MIRRORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. VIEW TO THE EAST, TOWARD TUNNEL EXTENSION AND REAR SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE EAST, TOWARD TUNNEL EXTENSION AND REAR SIDE OF EAST PORTAL, FROM THE HILL THROUGH WHICH THE TUNNEL PASSES. 4 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Tunnel No. 2, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Rearing and foraging affects bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Oliver, Anna E; Cuthbertson, Leah; Walkington, Sarah E; Gweon, Hyun S; Heard, Matthew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators of crop and wild plants, especially in temperate systems. Species, such as the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), are reared commercially to pollinate high-value crops. Their highly specific gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity, may affect nutrition and immunity and are likely to be important for fitness and colony health. However, little is known about how environmental factors affect bacterial community structure. We analysed the gut microbiota from three groups of worker bumblebees (B.?terrestris) from distinct colonies that varied in rearing and foraging characteristics: commercially reared with restricted foraging (RR); commercially reared with outside foraging (RF); and wild-caught workers (W). Contrary to previous studies, which indicate that bacterial communities are highly conserved across workers, we found that RF individuals had an intermediate community structure compared with RR and W types. Further, this was shaped by differences in the abundances of common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the diversity of rare OTUs present, which we propose results from an increase in the variety of carbohydrates obtained through foraging. PMID:25994560

  11. 4. View from rear of room of perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View from rear of room of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), showing fuel tanks - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. 5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor doorway) of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. 2. Context view showing rear of Headquarters Building No. 9900 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Context view showing rear of Headquarters Building No. 9900 on left. Main Corridor runs north beginning at white ladder. Camera is pointed west from atop roof of Ramp 1. See also photo WA-202-12-1. - Madigan Hospital, Headquarters, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. CHAPTER TWELVE Resource Selection During Brood-Rearing

    E-print Network

    in association with sagebrush for sage-grouse broods. Key Words: brood-rearing habitat, Centrocercus urophasianus of Greater Sage- Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage grouse) date back >90 years and continue management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha- sianus). Little

  15. 32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ARE ORIGINAL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORTING BRICK PARTITIONS UPSTAIRS. AT CENTER IS BRICK PIER SUPPORTING MODERN SAFE. AT RIGHT IS BRICK PIER AND VAULT SUPPORTING ORIGINAL SAFE - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, FROM NORTHWEST. AT FAR RIGHT IS KID-PHYSICK HOUSE AND ADJACENT TO IT IS KID-CHANDLER HOUSE - Kid-Chandler & Kid-Physick Houses, 323-325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields Air Supply building from launch pad - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Air Supply Building for Building No. 0545, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. The actual threat posed by unrestrained rear seat car passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Broughton

    2004-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the threat posed by unrestrained rear seat car passengers to restrained drivers and front seat passengers was published in 2002. This was based on Japanese accident data from 1995 to 1999, and the conclusions have been checked using corresponding accident data from Great Britain. The law in respect of the use of seat belts and other

  19. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. Mixing Careers and Child Rearing. Background Paper No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Charles S.; Rodgers, Francene S.

    The issue of combining careers and child rearing has come into public consciousness because so many more women with children now work. This means that there are many more families where both parents work. Women are voicing a growing sense of disillusionment regarding earnings, occupational segregation, child care difficulties, and performing two…

  1. VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  2. Updated 6-10 Jim Beebe, Rear Admiral

    E-print Network

    for Commander, Naval Air Forces in March 2009. Mr. Beebe directly supports the Commander, Naval Air Forces who,000 professionals supporting our Naval Air Forces. Prior to reporting to Commander, Naval Air Forces, Mr. BeebeUpdated 6-10 Jim Beebe, Rear Admiral U.S. Navy (Retired) Executive Director Commander, Naval Air

  3. 4. Semioblique view of southeast (rear) elevation; note back yard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Semi-oblique view of southeast (rear) elevation; note back yard has been converted to parking lot; chain-link fence separates property from 208 Palm (HABS-CA-2211); view to north-northwest. - Albert Hayman Cottage, 212 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 23, 25, 25, 27, and 39 from left to right. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  6. View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 41 and 23 from left to right. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-07-01

    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  8. Evidence for Morphometric Differentiation of Wild and Captively Reared Adult Coho Salmon: A Geometric Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Hard; Barry A. Berejikian; Eugene P. Tezak; Steven L. Schroder; Curtis M. Knudsen; L. Ted Parker

    2000-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive genetic evaluation of reproduction in naturally spawning coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, we examined morphometric variation in captively reared and wild adults from Hood Canal, Washington (U.S.A.) for evidence of differentiation between these groups. We collected captively reared fish as parr from two stocks and reared to adulthood at a freshwater hatchery, maturing in 1995 and

  9. Receptivity of the shear layer separating from a rear edge of flat plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Imai; Masahito Asai

    2009-01-01

    Receptivity of the laminar shear layer separating from a 90° rear edge of a boundary-layer plate to acoustic disturbances is examined experimentally. The experiment is focused on the dependency of the receptivity coefficient on the rear-edge curvature as well as the frequency of acoustic disturbance. The receptivity coefficient decreases with increasing disturbance frequency for the rounded rear edge, while it

  10. Predation by Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge on Minnows and Bluegills in Experimental Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Gillen; Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline

    1981-01-01

    Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy x male northern pike, E. lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow (Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in

  11. Seatbelt effectiveness for rear seat occupants in full and offset frontal crash tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Mizuno; Yasuhiro Matsui; Takahiro Ikari; Toshihiro Toritsuka

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, it became mandatory for rear seat occupants to wear seatbelts as of 2008. This paper summarises the results of full car crash tests for rear seat occupants, and compares the kinematics and injury risk to belted and unbelted rear sear occupants in order to show the effectiveness of seatbelts. Full-width rigid barrier and offset frontal impact tests were

  12. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes fish culture and research activities conducted from December 1991 to October 1992 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on the Redfish Lake (Idaho) sockeye salmon captive broodstock study. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded restoration efforts for Redfish Lake sockeye salmon. Snake River sockeye salmon, now represented only by the Redfish Lake population, were formally listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the NMFS in December 1991. Restoration is being coordinated through the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee. Participation by state and federal agencies and private groups involved in sockeye salmon restoration efforts in Idaho. Our efforts since then have focused on rearing of 1991-brood Redfish Lake sockeye salmon at the NMFS/BPA Stock Restoration Laboratory at the NWFSC (Seattle, Washington), and on research to refine captive-broodstock methodology.

  13. Hazard perception of Dutch farmers and veterinarians related to dairy young stock rearing.

    PubMed

    Boersema, J S C; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Lievaart, J J

    2013-08-01

    A group of 110 dairy farmers and 26 bovine veterinarians participated in a web-based questionnaire using the adaptive conjoint analysis technique to rank their perception regarding several hazards during 6 subsequent periods of the process of dairy young stock rearing. The method applied only involved selected respondents with a high consistency in their answering (correlation >30%). For the ranking, answers were first transformed into a utility score (US) for each hazard. The final ranking for each of the 6 periods was based on the US per hazard separately for farmers and veterinarians. Besides the ranking, the absolute values and the US itself were also compared between farmers and veterinarians to determine any statistically significant differences between the levels of the score despite the ranking. The overall conclusion is that, for almost every designated period, the ranking of the hazards differed between farmers and veterinarians. Only 1 period was observed (period IV, Pregnancy period until 4 weeks before calving) where veterinarians and farmers had the same top 3 ranking of the hazards, namely "Mastitis," "Abortion," and "Poor growth rate of the pregnant heifer." Major differences between farmers and veterinarians were seen during period II (feeding milk until weaning) for the hazard "Diarrhea in older calf," which was considered less important by farmers compared to veterinarians, and period number III (weaning until insemination) for "Over-condition," which, again, was seen as the most important hazard by veterinarians, but only ranked as number 5 by farmers. Besides the ranking, significant differences in absolute US values between veterinarians and farmers were seen in "Infection with Johne's disease" (14.5 vs. 7.8), "Diarrhea in newborn calf" (18.2 vs. 12.2), and "Insufficient feed intake" (16.2 vs. 8.4) in period I (colostrum until transition to milk replacer). Lameness represented the most important significant difference in absolute values in period III (weaning until insemination; 6.3 vs. 14.3), which was again significant in period V (4 wks before calving until calving; 7.4 vs. 12.1). The outcome of this study shows that hazard perception of veterinarians and farmers differs for most rearing periods (in ranking and absolute values). The outcome of this study can be used for 2 purposes: first, to improve communication between farmers and their consulting veterinarian about hazards and hazard perception in young stock rearing; and second, the US scores can be used to select top priority hazards which should at least be integrated into management advisory programs to improve dairy young stock rearing. PMID:23726424

  14. Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemming, C.H.; Bunde, R.L.; Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium Kd's at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium Kd's ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium Kd's were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium Kd's may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium Kd's.

  15. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples 25 and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -26 and -18 °C. Only 26 instruments making measurement techniques with wet suspended samples were able to 27 measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -26 28 and -18 °C is discussed. In general, the seventeen immersion freezing measurement 29 techniques deviate, within the range of about 7 °C in terms of temperature, by three orders of 30 magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing 31 efficiency (i.e., ns) of illite NX particles is relatively independent on droplet size, particle 32 mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature-33 2 dependence and weak time- and size-dependence of immersion freezing efficiency of illite-34 rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. 35 We also characterized the ns(T) spectra, and identified a section with a steep slope between -36 20 °C and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion 37 freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 38 °C. A multiple exponential distribution fit is expressed as ns(T) = exp(23.82 × exp(-exp(0.16 × 39 (T + 17.49))) + 1.39) based on the specific surface area and ns(T) = exp(25.75 × exp(-exp(0.13 40 × (T + 17.17))) + 3.34) based on the geometric area (ns and T in m-2 and °C, respectively). 41 These new fits, constrained by using an identical reference samples, will help to compare IN 42 measurement methods that are not included in the present study and, thereby, IN data from 43 future IN instruments.

  16. Handwashing Laboratory Activities: Bowl Technique

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this lab (Activity #2 on page), learners compare bacteria growth on two petri dishes containing nutrient agar. Learners touch the doors, faucets, etc. in bathroom and then immerse their hands in 100 ml sterile water. They place 0.5 ml of this "dirty" water into one petri dish. They repeat this process again but wash their hands before immersing them in 100 ml sterile water. Learners incubate the plates for 24-48 hours and then score the results based on the bacteria growth they observe. Use this activity to emphasize the importance of hand-washing and the effectiveness of soap to disinfect.

  17. Flight characteristics of pen-reared and wild prairie-chickens and an evaluation of a greenhouse to rear prairie-chickens 

    E-print Network

    Hess, Marc Frederick

    2004-09-30

    FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS OF PEN-REARED AND WILD PRAIRIE- CHICKENS AND AN EVALUATION OF A GREENHOUSE TO REAR PRAIRIE-CHICKENS A Thesis by MARC FREDERICK HESS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND AN EVALUATION OF A GREENHOUSE TO REAR PRAIRIE-CHICKENS A Thesis by MARC FREDERICK HESS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by...

  18. Videotapes in Laboratory Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, P.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of video taped demonstrations of basic laboratory techniques at Sussex University to provide students with opportunities to learn individually at their own pace. Included is a list of 12 tapes on elementary organic techniques. (CC)

  19. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature. PMID:25747862

  20. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature. PMID:25747862

  1. FULL-SCALE LABORATORY SIMULATION FACILITY TO TEST PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A THIRD WORLD RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION PROCESS. III. EVALUATIO OF A POTENTIAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM THE INDOOR, OPEN HEARTH COMBUSTION OF COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. NOTE: bnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bi...

  2. Growth and blood chemistry of ducklings reared on acidified wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Haramis, G.; Linder, G.; Chu, D.

    1985-01-01

    Acid deposition is one factor that may be responsible for the decline of some waterfowl populations. Growth and physiological condition were monitored in captive-reared black ducks (Anas rubripes) exposed for 10-day trials (day 11-20 of life) on control (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 5.0) man-made emergent wetlands. Impaired growth (body weight, culmen and tarsus length) and increased mortality (50%) were apparent in broods (hen + 4 ducklings) reared on acidified wetIands. Ducklings exbibiting poor growth had reduced hematocrit, plasma protein and cholesterol levels. This subset of birds had elevated plasma uric acid concentration and creatine kinase activity (perhaps due to enhanced protein and nucleotide catabolism). and elevated pIasma K+ levels. Based upon overt appearance, growth and blood chemistry, ducklings exposed to acidified wetlands were concluded to be in poorer condittion than those exposed on circumneutral pH wetlands.

  3. Laboratory 0: Error Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virtual Labs, Real Data (Cornell University)

    2011-01-19

    The collection of data is an important part of all laboratory work, and interpreting the data is the major part of a laboratory report. Laboratory 0 presents a brief overview of techniques and concepts needed to estimate and analyze the errors inherent in experimental work.

  4. Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Henary; C P Sherwood; J R Crandall; R W Kent; F E Vaca; K B Arbogast; M J Bull

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To compare the injury risk between rear-facing (RFCS) and forward-facing (FFCS) car seats for children less than 2 years of age in the USA.Methods:Data were extracted from a US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle crash database for the years 1988–2003. Children 0–23 months of age restrained in an RFCS or FFCS when riding in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles,

  5. 93. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF REAR OF THE SWITCHBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF REAR OF THE SWITCHBOARD, AUGUST 11, 1914, SHOWING BUS BARS. THE BUS BARS WERE MOVED TO A POINT ABOVE THE SWITCHBOARD PANELS A FEW YEARS LATER. THE PLANT WAS EQUIPPED WITH FOUR SETS OF BUS BARS, TWO FOR THE EAST END, TWO FOR THE WEST END, SO THAT ONLY A QUARTER OF THE PLANT COULD BE SHORTED OUT AT ANY ONE TIME. (914) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  6. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented. PMID:24567208

  7. Maternal child-rearing experience and self-reinforcement effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancyann Norbert

    1970-01-01

    Examined relationships between maternal child-rearing nurturance and control, as rated by late-adolescent offspring, and the influence of the child's self-reinforcement on achievement motivation using 48 male and female undergraduates. The prediction that Ss with high-nurturant mothers would be more effective self-reinforcers than Ss with low-nurturant mothers was confirmed. High-nurturant, low-control Ss were the most effective group. The expectation that low-nurturant,

  8. 16. THREEQUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THREE-QUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ORE UNLOADER AS IT DESCENDS INTO THE HOLD. THE WALKING BEAM AND ITS GRAB BUCKET ARE OPERATED BY MEANS OF ROPES WOUND ON DRUMS, WHICH IN TURN ARE GEARED TO ELECTRIC MOTORS. ROUND TRIP FROM BOAT TO HOPPER CAN BE MADE IN 50 SECONDS. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

    Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

  10. 85. Photocopied August 1978. WATER BUBBLING UP AT THE REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. Photocopied August 1978. WATER BUBBLING UP AT THE REAR OF THE POWER HOUSE IN EITHER 1907 OR 1909. THE BUBBLING IMMEDIATELY IN FRONT OF THE SHEET PILING (DRIVEN IN 1903) WAS CAUSED BY WATER LEAKING UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE FOREBAY, BENEATH THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, AND INTO THE ST. MARY'S RIVER. (525?) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Seat Design Principles to Reduce Neck Injuries in Rear Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Viano

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In the 1990s, research was conducted at General Motors R&D Center on seat safety in rear impacts. It led to the development of high retention seats and an active head restraint to improve occupant safety. This article provides an overview of the design principles found from that research and focuses on seat characteristics that lower whiplash risks.Methods: Sled and

  12. Environmental Rearing Effects on Impulsivity and Reward Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T.; Clarke, Jacob; Cain, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that rearing in an enriched environment may promote self-control in an impulsive choice task. To further assess the effects of rearing environment on impulsivity, 2 experiments examined locomotor activity, impulsive action, impulsive choice, and different aspects of reward sensitivity and discrimination. In Experiment 1, rats reared in isolated or enriched conditions were tested on an impulsive choice procedure with a smaller-sooner versus a larger-later reward, revealing that the isolated rats valued the smaller-sooner reward more than the enriched rats. A subsequent reward challenge was presented in which the delay to the 2 rewards was the same but the magnitude difference remained. The enriched rats did not choose the larger reward as often as the isolated rats, reflecting poorer reward discrimination. Impulsive action was assessed using a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate task, which revealed deficits in the enriched rats. In Experiment 2, rats reared in isolated, standard, or enriched conditions were tested on reward contrast and reward magnitude sensitivity procedures. The rats were presented with 2 levers that delivered different magnitudes of food on variable interval 30-s schedules. Across all tests, the enriched and social rats displayed more generalized responding to the small-reward lever, but a similar response to the large-reward lever, compared with the isolated rats. This confirmed the results of Experiment 1, indicating poorer reward discrimination in the enriched condition compared with the isolated condition. The results suggest that enrichment may moderate reward generalization/discrimination processes through alterations in incentive motivational processes. PMID:24128360

  13. Parental sex-role attitudes and child-rearing values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalind C. Barnett

    1981-01-01

    Parental sex-role attitudes (i.e., sex-role ideology, self-perceptions of masculinity and femininity and stereotyping) were examined in relation to the parental child-rearing values of independence granting and pressure for achievement. The major hypothesis was that nontraditional sex-role attitudes would be related to earlier independence granting and greater emphasis on achievement, particularly among parents of female children. A second objective was to

  14. Dynamic emergy evaluation of a fish farm rearing process.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, P; Beiso, I; Bastianoni, S; Fabiano, M

    2009-06-01

    The environmental sustainability of a fish farm rearing process was examined by means of emergy analysis. Many emergy analyses integrate data for a whole year smoothing short term variations and sometimes losing meaningful information (aliasing). For this reason we developed a model for an instantaneous emergy evaluation in an aquacultural system so that transformities, efficiency and effort spent at each moment during the fish rearing activity could be calculated. By means of the model and dynamic emergy calculations it is possible to recognize step by step the importance of the various emergy contributions and verify where and when to modify the system to move toward optimum production of a sustainable product. By the application of the model we confirmed that the emergy trends in a fish farm installation follow wide oscillations during a year due to variations in both internal and external emergy contributions. Among the fluxes considered, those due to the introduction of fingerlings represented the highest contributions to the total emergy budget. Thus, to improve the sustainability of the analyzed system the amount, frequency and timing of these fluxes must be carefully considered. For this purpose, a comparison between two different fry introduction schedules was performed to evaluate differences in the efficiency of the rearing process. PMID:19344995

  15. Effect of artificial vs. natural rearing on milk yield, kid growth and cost in Payoya autochthonous dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; F. P. Caravaca; J. M. Castel; F. A. Ruiz; P. González-Redondo; M. J. Alcalde

    2009-01-01

    Seventy full lactations of Payoya dairy goats were used to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and rearing cost. Two animal groups were established, one with goats under natural rearing (NS) and the other under artificial rearing (AR). In the NS group, the kids had free access

  16. Scale-up from microtiter plate to laboratory fermenter: evaluation by online monitoring techniques of growth and protein expression in Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the past decade, an enormous number of new bioprocesses have evolved in the biotechnology industry. These bioprocesses have to be developed fast and at a maximum productivity. Up to now, only few microbioreactors were developed to fulfill these demands and to facilitate sample processing. One predominant reaction platform is the shaken microtiter plate (MTP), which provides high-throughput at minimal expenses in time, money and work effort. By taking advantage of this simple and efficient microbioreactor array, a new online monitoring technique for biomass and fluorescence, called BioLector, has been recently developed. The combination of high-throughput and high information content makes the BioLector a very powerful tool in bioprocess development. Nevertheless, the scalabilty of results from the micro-scale to laboratory or even larger scales is very important for short development times. Therefore, engineering parameters regarding the reactor design and its operation conditions play an important role even on a micro-scale. In order to evaluate the scale-up from a microtiter plate scale (200 ?L) to a stirred tank fermenter scale (1.4 L), two standard microbial expression systems, Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha, were fermented in parallel at both scales and compared with regard to the biomass and protein formation. Results Volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) ranging from 100 to 350 1/h were obtained in 96-well microtiter plates. Even with a suboptimal mass transfer condition in the microtiter plate compared to the stirred tank fermenter (kLa = 370-600 1/h), identical growth and protein expression kinetics were attained in bacteria and yeast fermentations. The bioprocess kinetics were evaluated by optical online measurements of biomass and protein concentrations exhibiting the same fermentation times and maximum signal deviations below 10% between the scales. In the experiments, the widely applied green fluorescent protein (GFP) served as an online reporter of protein expression for both strains. Conclusions The successful 7000-fold scale-up from a shaken microtiter plate to a stirred tank fermenter was demonstrated in parallel fermentations for standard microbial expression systems. This confirms that the very economical and time efficient platform of microtiter plates can be very easily scaled up to larger stirred tank fermenters under defined engineering conditions. New online monitoring techniques for microtiter plates, such as the BioLector, provide even more real-time kinetic data from fermentations than ever before and at an affordable price. This paves the way for a better understanding of the bioprocess and a more rational process design. PMID:20028556

  17. Follow-up study of isolation-reared and mother-reared rhesus monkeys paired with preadolescent conspecifics in late infancy: Cross-sex pairings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Erwin; Terry Maple; G. Mitchell; J. Willott

    1974-01-01

    8 rhesus monkeys, 4 of each sex, which had been reared either with their mothers or in social isolation during early infancy, were paired with preadolescent conspecifics during late infancy. Some isolate-reared Ss appeared to have gained from this social experience. At nearly 3 yrs of age, each S was paired (sequentially) with 2 other-sex animals (1 isolate- and 1

  18. Flash Diffusivity Technique Applied to Individual Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Yowell, Leonard; Wang, Hsin

    2007-01-01

    A variant of the flash diffusivity technique has been devised for determining the thermal diffusivities, and thus the thermal conductivities, of individual aligned fibers. The technique is intended especially for application to nanocomposite fibers, made from narrower fibers of polyphenylene benzobisthiazole (PBZT) and carbon nanotubes. These highly aligned nanocomposite fibers could exploit the high thermal conductivities of carbon nanotubes for thermal-management applications. In the flash diffusivity technique as practiced heretofore, one or more heat pulse(s) is (are) applied to the front face of a plate or disk material specimen and the resulting time-varying temperature on the rear face is measured. Usually, the heat pulse is generated by use of a xenon flash lamp, and the variation of temperature on the rear face is measured by use of an infrared detector. The flash energy is made large enough to produce a usefully high temperature rise on the rear face, but not so large as to significantly alter the specimen material. Once the measurement has been completed, the thermal diffusivity of the specimen is computed from the thickness of the specimen and the time dependence of the temperature variation on the rear face. Heretofore, the infrared detector used in the flash diffusivity technique has been a single-point detector, which responds to a spatial average of the thermal radiation from the rear specimen surface. Such a detector cannot distinguish among regions of differing diffusivity within the specimen. Moreover, two basic assumptions of the thermaldiffusivity technique as practiced heretofore are that the specimen is homogeneous and that heat flows one-dimensionally from the front to the rear face. These assumptions are not valid for an inhomogeneous (composite) material.

  19. Isolation rearing effects on probabilistic learning and cognitive flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Young, Jared W; Higa, Kerin; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Powell, Susan B

    2014-03-01

    Isolation rearing is a neurodevelopmental manipulation that produces neurochemical, structural, and behavioral alterations in rodents that in many ways are consistent with schizophrenia. Symptoms induced by isolation rearing that mirror clinically relevant aspects of schizophrenia, such as cognitive deficits, open up the possibility of testing putative therapeutics in isolation-reared animals prior to clinical development. We investigated what effect isolation rearing would have on cognitive flexibility, a cognitive function characteristically disrupted in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we assessed cognitive flexibility using between- and within-session probabilistic reversal-learning tasks based on clinical tests. Isolation-reared rats required more sessions, though not more task trials, to acquire criterion performance in the reversal phase of the task, and were slower to adjust their task strategy after reward contingencies were switched. Isolation-reared rats also completed fewer trials and exhibited lower levels of overall activity in the probabilistic reversal-learning task than did the socially reared rats. This finding contrasted with the elevated levels of unconditioned investigatory activity and reduced levels of locomotor habituation that isolation-reared rats displayed in the behavioral pattern monitor. Finally, isolation-reared rats also exhibited sensorimotor gating deficits, reflected by decreased prepulse inhibition of the startle response, consistent with previous studies. We concluded that isolation rearing constitutes a valuable, noninvasive manipulation for modeling schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and assessing putative therapeutics. PMID:23943516

  20. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards. PMID:19398366

  1. First year growth in the lithodids Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Nettelmann, U.; Anger, K.

    2005-10-01

    The southern king crab, Lithodes santolla Molina, and stone crab, Paralomis granulosa Jacquinot, inhabit the cold-temperate waters of southernmost South America (southern Chile and Argentina), where stocks of both species are endangered by overfishing. Recent investigations have shown that these crabs show life-cycle adaptations to scarcity of food and low temperatures prevailing in subantarctic regions, including complete lecithotrophy of all larval stages and prolonged periods of brooding and longevity. However, growth and development to maturity are slow under conditions of low temperatures, which may explain the particular vulnerability of subpolar lithodids to fisheries. In the present study, juvenile L. santolla and P. granulosa were individually reared in the laboratory at constant temperatures ranging from 3-15 °C, and rates of survival and development through successive instars were monitored throughout a period of about nine months from hatching. When the experiments were terminated, L. santolla had maximally reached juvenile instar IV (at 6 °C), V (9 °C), or VII (15 °C). In P. granulosa the maximum crab instar reached was II (at 3 °C), V (6 °C), V (9 °C), or VII (15 °C). The intermoult period decreased with increasing temperature, while it increased in successively later instars. In consequence, growth rate showed highly significant differences among temperatures (P<0.001). Growth-at-moult was highest at 9 °C. Rates of survival decreased significantly in juvenile P. granulosa with increasing temperature. Only at 15 °C in L. santolla, was a significantly enhanced mortality found compared with lower temperatures. Our results indicate that juvenile stages of L. santolla and P. granulosa are well adapted to 5-10°C, the range of temperatures typically prevailing in subantarctic marine environments. In spite of causing higher mortality rates, higher rearing temperatures (12-15 °C) should accelerate the rates of growth and maturation, which may be favourable for projects aiming at aquaculture or repopulation of overexploited king crab stocks.

  2. Introduction, spat-rearing and experimental culture of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians lamarck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fusui; He, Yichao; Liu, Xiangsheng; Ma, Jianghu; Li, Shuying; Qi, Lingxin

    1991-06-01

    Bay scallops were introduced from the east coast of the U.S. into China to shorten the economic turn-over from 2 to 1 year. Parent scallops were carried to Qingdao on Dec. 20, 1982 and stocked in indoor tanks at controlled temperature and fed with a mixture of Phaeodictylum tricornutum, Pyramimonas sp. and Chlorella sp. They spawned on Jan. 26 of the next year. The larvae were reared at a temperature of 18 21°C and fed with Isochrysis galbana, Pyramimonas sp. and Chorella sp. In 4 weeks’ growing, the spats averaged 827 ?m. They attained a height of 6.9 mm on May 9. In the middle of May, the seed scallops were transferred to Luoyuan Bay in Fujian Province, and Jiaozhou Bay, as well as the area off Taiping Jiao Cape, Qingdao, Shandong Province for experimental culture in plastic netcages suspended on a single line raft. Bay scallops cultured in Luoyuan Bay grew to an averaged shell height of 10.4 mm. In Jiaozhou Bay and the Taiping Jiao Cape culture area, they grew to 50 mm in average shell height (marketable size) and 26 g in average weight by late September; and attained 59 mm in average shell height (R. 39 75 mm) and 46 g in average weight in late December. The ovary and testis could be distinguished by color in August. In early September, eggs and sperms were collected for our laboratory where the second generation of seed scallops was successfully reared to suitable size for growing outdoor and breeding. This species can be harvested within a year after fertilization of the eggs, so we consider it suitable for culture in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. This is the first reported successful introduction of Atlantic mollusks to the China Seas.

  3. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M. [Department for Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Katsoyannos, B. [Laboratory of Applied Zoology and Parasitology, Department of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  4. The effects of three different rear knee angles on kinematics in the sprint start.

    PubMed

    Milanese, C; Bertucco, M; Zancanaro, C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rear knee angle range in the set position that allows sprinters to reach greater propulsion on the rear block during the sprint start. Eleven university-track team sprinters performed the sprint start using three rear knee angle conditions: 90°, 115° and 135°. A motion capture system consisting of 8 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to record kinematic parameters at the starting block phase and the acceleration phase. The following variables were considered: horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (COM), COM height, block time, pushing time on the rear block, percentage of pushing time on the rear block, force impulse, push-off angle and length of the first two strides. The main results show that first, horizontal block velocity is significantly greater at 90° vs 115° and 135° rear knee angle (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively) at block clearance and the first two strides; second, during the pushing phase, the percentage of pushing time of the rear leg is significantly greater at 90° vs 135° rear knee angle (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for block time among the conditions. These results indicate that block velocity is the main kinematic parameter affected by rear knee angle during the starting block phase and acceleration phase. Furthermore, the 90° rear knee angle allows for a better push-off of the rear leg than larger angles at the set position. The findings of this study provide some direction and useful practical advice in defining an efficient rear leg biomechanical configuration at the set position. PMID:25177099

  5. Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Jin Lee; David K. Merwine; Laura B. Mann; Norberto M. Grzywacz

    2005-01-01

    In dark-reared, neonatal turtle retinas, ganglion cell receptive fields and dendritic trees grow faster than normal. As a result, their areas may become, on average, up to twice as large as in control retinas. This raises the question of whether the coverage factor of dark-reared ganglion cells is larger than normal. Alternatively, dark rearing may lead to smaller-than-normal cell densities

  6. THE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT REAR KNEE ANGLES ON KINEMATICS IN THE SPRINT START

    PubMed Central

    Bertucco, M.; Zancanaro, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rear knee angle range in the set position that allows sprinters to reach greater propulsion on the rear block during the sprint start. Eleven university-track team sprinters performed the sprint start using three rear knee angle conditions: 90°, 115° and 135°. A motion capture system consisting of 8 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to record kinematic parameters at the starting block phase and the acceleration phase. The following variables were considered: horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (COM), COM height, block time, pushing time on the rear block, percentage of pushing time on the rear block, force impulse, push-off angle and length of the first two strides. The main results show that first, horizontal block velocity is significantly greater at 90° vs 115° and 135° rear knee angle (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively) at block clearance and the first two strides; second, during the pushing phase, the percentage of pushing time of the rear leg is significantly greater at 90° vs 135° rear knee angle (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for block time among the conditions. These results indicate that block velocity is the main kinematic parameter affected by rear knee angle during the starting block phase and acceleration phase. Furthermore, the 90° rear knee angle allows for a better push-off of the rear leg than larger angles at the set position. The findings of this study provide some direction and useful practical advice in defining an efficient rear leg biomechanical configuration at the set position. PMID:25177099

  7. The effect of legislation on injuries sustained by rear seat car passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I G Kendall; G G Bodiwala

    1994-01-01

    A study of 206 injured rear seat passengers was undertaken over two 4-month periods before and after the introduction of legislation enforcing use of rear seat-belts on 1 July 1991. The proportion of both adults and children using rear seat-belts increased after the law. Those wearing belts were less likely to suffer serious injury. The majority of passengers comply with

  8. 1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The wall of Unit 2 turbine pit is visible in the right foreground. The pipe and valve cluster in the right foreground is part of the blow down valve for Unit 2. This valve allows the water in the draft chest to be lowered (i.e., 'blown down') so that the unit can be motored (i.e., run like an electric motor rather than an electric power generator). - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  9. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended maximum for the rearing conditions encountered In the off-station rearing sites. Costs of rearing fish are dramatically affected by densities. Alternate rearing facilities, including polyethylene and wooden walkway framing, are initially a higher investment, but may prove to be more desirable than the aluminum frames tested during this study.

  10. Structure and Properties of Silk from the African Wild Silkmoth Gonometa postica Reared Indoors

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Addis; Raina, S. K.; Vollrath, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and irreversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed. The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. postica are discussed. PMID:25373183

  11. Evaluation of noise barriers for soundscape perception through laboratory experiments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    noise pollution caused by traffic noise from cars and trains in urban space. However, installationEvaluation of noise barriers for soundscape perception through laboratory experiments J.Y. Honga noise barriers. Field measurements were performed: the SPLs in front and rear of the barriers were

  12. Injury Potential at Center Rear Seating Positions in Rear-Facing Child Restraint Systems in Side Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Hans W.; Humm, John R.; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries occur to occupants of rear-facing child restraint systems in side impacts. This study examined the head injury potential of center-seated occupants using sled tests at change in velocities of 35, 29 and 24 km/h. Other parameters included combinations of with and without a simulated door. A twelve-month-old child dummy was used in combination, convertible and infant rear-facing child restraint systems. Head excursions and head injury criteria (HIC) were obtained. In 35 km/h tests without simulated door, head excursions ranged from 568 to 655 mm, exceeding the simulated door intrusion plane. HIC ranged from 87 to 157, below the 390 limit. At this velocity but with the simulated door, HIC ranged from 804 to 1297. Head excursions ranged from 424 to 480 mm. In 29 and 24 km/h tests, the dummy and child restraint system impacted the simulated door. HIC ranged from 275 to 604 and 141 to 314, and head excursions ranged from 388 to 470 mm and 365 to 460 mm, respectively. Far-side belt loads were 2.4–3.2 kN and 1.7–2.3 kN for the 35 km/h tests without and with the simulated door, and 1.5–2.1 kN and 1.0–1.6 kN for 29 and 24 km/h tests with the simulated door. These findings indicate that occupants in the center seating position in smaller/medium-size vehicles may impact an intruding door and sustain head injuries. A need exists for better protection/attachment methods for center positioned rear-facing child restraint systems to reduce the injury potential in side impacts at velocities greater than 29 km/h. PMID:24406965

  13. Human performance models and rear-end collision avoidance algorithms.

    PubMed

    Brown, T L; Lee, J D; McGehee, D V

    2001-01-01

    Collision warning systems offer a promising approach to mitigate rear-end collisions, but substantial uncertainty exists regarding the joint performance of the driver and the collision warning algorithms. A simple deterministic model of driver performance was used to examine kinematics-based and perceptual-based rear-end collision avoidance algorithms over a range of collision situations, algorithm parameters, and assumptions regarding driver performance. The results show that the assumptions concerning driver reaction times have important consequences for algorithm performance, with underestimates dramatically undermining the safety benefit of the warning. Additionally, under some circumstances, when drivers rely on the warning algorithms, larger headways can result in more severe collisions. This reflects the nonlinear interaction among the collision situation, the algorithm, and driver response that should not be attributed to the complexities of driver behavior but to the kinematics of the situation. Comparisons made with experimental data demonstrate that a simple human performance model can capture important elements of system performance and complement expensive human-in-the-loop experiments. Actual or potential applications of this research include selection of an appropriate algorithm, more accurate specification of algorithm parameters, and guidance for future experiments. PMID:11866201

  14. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    E-print Network

    National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program NVLAP Assessor Training Assessment Techniques #12;National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program Outline · Purpose of the Types of Assessments Accreditation Program Assessment - Definition · Process undertaken by an accreditation body to assess

  15. Analysis of work zone rear-end crash risk for different vehicle-following patterns.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Meng, Qiang; Yan, Xuedong

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates rear-end crash risk associated with work zone operations for four different vehicle-following patterns: car-car, car-truck, truck-car and truck-truck. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is adopted to measure work zone rear-end crash risk. Results show that the car-truck following pattern has the largest rear-end crash risk, followed by truck-truck, truck-car and car-car patterns. This implies that it is more likely for a car which is following a truck to be involved in a rear-end crash accident. The statistical test results further confirm that rear-end crash risk is statistically different between any two of the four patterns. We therefore develop a rear-end crash risk model for each vehicle-following pattern in order to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk and its influencing factors, including lane position, the heavy vehicle percentage, lane traffic flow and work intensity which can be characterized by the number of lane reductions, the number of workers and the amount of equipment at the work zone site. The model results show that, for each pattern, there will be a greater rear-end crash risk in the following situations: (i) heavy work intensity; (ii) the lane adjacent to work zone; (iii) a higher proportion of heavy vehicles and (iv) greater traffic flow. However, the effects of these factors on rear-end crash risk are found to vary according to the vehicle-following patterns. Compared with the car-car pattern, lane position has less effect on rear-end crash risk in the car-truck pattern. The effect of work intensity on rear-end crash risk is also reduced in the truck-car pattern. PMID:25150525

  16. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ADULTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SIXTEEN INSECT REPELLENTS IN AEROSOL SPRAYS AGAINST THREE MOSQUITO SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen commercial insect repellents (six natural and 10 chemical products) in spray formulations were evaluated in the laboratory for adult knockdown (KD) and mortality of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. All tested products produced significa...

  17. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy,

    E-print Network

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), however, have developed a straightforward characterization are the front and rear surfaces, interface, space-charge region, and quasi-neutral region. #12;

  18. Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Colonies of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) including a Nondiapause Colony

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-reared western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, from colonies maintained at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, SD, are used extensively by many researchers in studies of the biology, ecology, behavior, and genetics of this major insect ...

  19. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  20. Effects of hand-rearing on the reproductive success of western lowland gorillas in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadie Ryan; Steven D. Thompson; Amber M. Roth; Kenneth C. Gold

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to assess the potential effects of hand-rearing by evaluating the relationships among rearing type and reproductive success in the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's Species Survival Plans for western lowland gorillas. Our study included data on 697 gorillas: 257 wild-born (WB) and 440 born at zoos or related facilities in North America. We found no significant differences

  1. Life History Parameters of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Reared on Liquid Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid diet for rearing Ceratitis capitata was developed. Several yeasts were evaluated and a combination of whole cell yeast (LBI2240) and hydrolyzed yeast (such as FNILS65 and FNI200) in 1:1 to 3:1 ratio was selected for use in the study. Larvae reared in a liquid diet with LBI2240:LS65 (either ...

  2. Mass rearing the endangered Palos Verdes blue butterfly (Glaucopsyche lygdamus palosverdesensis: Lycaenidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi Mattoni; Travis Longcore; Zdenka Krenova; Alison Lipman

    2003-01-01

    Mass rearing of the endangered lycaenid Glaucopsyche lygdamus palosverdesensis (Palos Verdes blue butterfly) is described. Numerous problems were encountered in our attempts to predictably produce a large stock population both as insurance against extinction and for re-introduction to sites where the species has been extirpated. We describe our approaches to mass rearing with discussion of all aspects of life history,

  3. DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA EVAN HAYNES' ABSTRACT Northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, were reared in situ in Kachemak Bay juvenile stage. Apparently larvae of P. borealis in Alaska waters have at least one less stage than larvae

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection B Henary, C P between rear-facing (RFCS) and forward-facing (FFCS) car seats for children less than 2 years of age riding in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, or light trucks were included in the study. Logistic

  5. Intensive larval rearing trials of red Drum (Sciaenops ocellata) in Martinique (F.W.I)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. SOLETCHNIK; E. THOUARD; E. GOYARD

    The red drum Sciaenops ocellata (Linneaus, 1766) was introduced in Martinique (F.W.I) I) from the United States (Texas and Florida). Thirteen intensive larval rearing attempts, from 7 batches of imported eggs, have been conducted for two years. From newly hatched larvae through metamorphosis, larvae were reared in cylindroconical tanks (300 and 1000 l). Post larvae were weaned and raised up

  6. Unique genetic variation at a species's rear edge is under threat from global

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    Unique genetic variation at a species's rear edge is under threat from global climate change Jim has emerged on how these processes will affect the range-wide genetic diversity of impacted species of genetic variation in rear-edge populations, and that loss of these populations could cause

  7. Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global climate change Jim has emerged on how these processes will affect the range-wide genetic diversity of impacted species of genetic variation in rear-edge populations, and that loss of these populations could cause

  8. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to hemorrhages in muscles: the effect of stock and rearing temperature regimen.

    PubMed

    Kranen, R W; Scheele, C W; Veerkamp, C H; Lambooy, E; van Kuppevelt, T H; Veerkamp, J H

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the effect of genetic constitution (stock) and rearing temperature on the occurrence of hemorrhages in thighs and breasts of water bath stunned broilers was investigated. Particular attention was given to the relation between the susceptibility for hemorrhages, body composition, and adaptations in blood variables induced by low rearing temperatures. A factorial experiment was performed with five parental stocks, differing with respect to growth rate, feed conversion, and body composition, and two temperature regimens (thermoneutral and below the zone of thermoneutrality). Hemorrhage scores in thighs were dependent on rearing temperature, not on stock, and were highest in broilers reared at low temperatures. In all stocks, high scores in the thighs were accompanied by an increased carbon dioxide pressure and bicarbonate and triiodothyronine concentration of the venous blood, and by an increased relative heart weight, hematocrit, and blood loss at slaughter. Hemorrhage scores in breasts were dependent on stock, confounded with day of scoring. An effect of rearing temperature was present only for the leanest, slow-growing stock having the lowest feed conversion ratio at thermoneutral rearing conditions. Scores in breasts were related neither to body composition nor to metabolic and hemodynamic adaptations to low rearing temperatures. It is concluded that high hemorrhage scores in thighs are related to hemodynamic and metabolic adaptations to an increased need for energy and oxygen caused by low rearing temperatures. Hemorrhage scores are not related to stock-dependent differences. PMID:9495502

  9. Impact of Haemophilia on Child-rearing Practices and Parental Co-operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The parents of eight 3-5-year-old hemophilic boys and 3-5-year-old nonhemophilic boys were interviewed to explore (a) extent to which the rearing practices and cooperation between the parents of a hemophilic child differ from the parents of a nonhemophilic child and (b) differences between rearing practices and parental cooperation in families…

  10. Effects of Biparental Rearing on Ultrasonic Vocalization (USV) Responses of Rat Pups (Rattus norvegicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Brunelli; Jenny R. Masmela; Harry N. Shair; Myron A. Hofer

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of social rearing on ultrasonic vocalization (USV) responses of 11- to 12-day-old rat (Rattus norvegicus) pups in isolation to the presence or removal of an anesthetized adult. Pups were reared with the dam or dam plus a virgin female (aunt), their biological sire, or a castrated male. All pups reduced rates of USV in contact

  11. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk yield, kid growth and cost of Florida dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; Y. Mena; J. M. Castel; P. González-Redondo; F. P. Caravaca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and cost in Florida dairy goats. Two groups of animals were created, one with goats under natural suckling and the other under artificial rearing. In the suckling group, the kids were suckled up to

  12. Stressors and Rearing Diseases of Trichoplusia ni: Evidence of Vertical Transmission of NPV and CPV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R Fuxa; J.-Z Sun; E. H Weidner; L. R LaMotte

    1999-01-01

    Inability to consistently rear healthy Trichoplusia ni led to a study of its rearing diseases. Four diseases were designated after preliminary research which included electron microscopy: cytoplasmic polyhedrosis (due to cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, or CPV), nuclear polyhedrosis (due to nucleopolyhedrovirus, or NPV), “neonate death” syndrome (mortality in first or second instars), and “late-instar” syndrome (death in late instars accompanied by

  13. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Parental Involvement and Child-Rearing Beliefs in Asian Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frewen, A. R.; Chew, E.; Carter, M.; Chunn, J.; Jotanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement (PI) and child-rearing beliefs were examined amongst parents whose children attended state-run kindergartens across Singapore. A total of 244 parents completed an online survey consisting of a Child-Rearing Beliefs Scale, a PI Scale, and demographic details. Results indicated respondents were generally low-income earners with…

  14. Parental rearing practices, fearfulness, and problem behaviour in clinically referred children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Muris; Susan Bögels; Cor Meesters; Nicolien van der Kamp; Annemarie van Oosten

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between parental rearing behaviours on the one hand and ‘psychopathology’ (i.e. fearfulness and problem behaviour) on the other hand in a group of clinically referred children. In order to examine this issue, children completed the child version of the EMBU (i.e. an inventory for assessing their parents' rearing practices) and the Fear Survey Schedule

  15. Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

  16. Child-Rearing Inc.: On the Perils of Political Paralysis Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    In his 2007 PESA keynote address, Paul Smeyers discussed the increasing regulation of child-rearing through government intervention and the generation of "experts", citing particular examples from Europe where cases of childhood obesity and parental neglect have stirred public opinion and political debate. In his paper ("Child-Rearing: On…

  17. Effect of seat belts on injuries to front and rear seat passengers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B R Wild; J Kenwright; S Rastogi

    1985-01-01

    Data on 2520 occupants of cars involved in accidents were analysed in relation to injury and the severity of the crash to investigate the effect of rear seat passengers on injury to restrained and unrestrained front seat occupants and vice versa. Unrestrained front seat occupants showed a higher incidence of serious injury when there were rear seat passengers. The presence

  18. KID IN THE MIDDLE: A DISCUSSION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CENTER REAR-SEAT RESTRAINT SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeya Padmanaban; Leila Mortazavi

    This paper examines effectiveness of rear seat restraint systems in reducing injury in frontal and side impacts. Results indicate effectiveness varies by crash configuration and occupant age, with age being the most important factor influencing odds of fatality\\/serious injury to belted, rear seated occupants in frontal and side crashes. There is no significant difference between center lap and outboard lap\\/shoulder

  19. A multi-body head and neck model for low speed rear impact analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Himmetoglu; M. Acar; A. J. Taylor; K. Bouazza-Marouf

    In this study, a 50th percentile male head and neck model has been developed using multi-body dynamics to analyse low speed rear impacts and the resulting whiplash injury effects. The model has been validated by using data from JARI (Japanese Automobile Research Institute) rear impact sled tests conducted with 7 volunteers in normal driving posture on a rigid seat without

  20. Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida

    E-print Network

    Motta, Philip J.

    Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida largemouth in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Ecology change during skull development, and if this change results in a functional difference in the feeding

  1. Seed production and juvenile rearing of the tropical abalone Haliotis varia Linnaeus 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M Najmudeen; A. C. C Victor

    2004-01-01

    Spawning, larval and juvenile rearing of the tropical abalone Haliotis varia L. were studied. Brood stock abalone were induced to spawn by exposure to air for 2 h at 27 °C. Female abalone spawned a mean of 76,530 eggs. Fertilised eggs measured 180 ?m in diameter. Seventy percent survival was obtained during larval rearing. Larvae passed trochophore, veliger, gliding and

  2. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  3. The effect of an experimental infection of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum on hand-reared grey partridges Perdix perdix.

    PubMed

    Sage, R B; Woodburn, M I A; Davis, C; Aebischer, N J

    2002-05-01

    We compared 26 hand-reared grey partridges given an experimental infection of the caecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum with 26 uninfected ones. Under laboratory conditions after 91 days, there were no measurable clinical effects of the infection. We found no effect of treatment on the amount of food eaten or on caecal dropping production. However, treated birds, in particular females, developed slightly lower body mass (around 2%) compared to the controls. At post-mortem examination, we found a positive relationship between breast muscle mass and the number of worms collected from the caeca of treated birds. Treated birds with no worms when examined had smaller breast muscle mass (4.6%) compared to the uninfected control birds. These results are largely different to those found in a similar study that documented significant negative impacts on most of these factors in 8 infected birds compared to 6 controls. Its findings were used in a published model to support a hypothesis that H. gallinarum maintained in the environment by common pheasants, the primary host for this worm, could negatively affect wild grey partridge productivity and survival. In the same model our data would not support this hypothesis. Possible explanations for the different results from the 2 experiments are discussed. Together they suggest that only in certain, as yet unidentified circumstances, could experimental H. gallinarum infections have deleterious effects on hand-reared grey partridges. PMID:12049415

  4. MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN LABORATORY REARINGS OF GYPSY MOTH PARASITOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male-biased sex ratios in populations of parasitic wasps used in biological control are undesirable, because a low ratio of females can prevent the establishment of introduced species or hinder commercial production of species used for augmentative control. This problem has arisen in the culture of...

  5. Laboratory rearing of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): a predator of pecan pest insects

    E-print Network

    Elkarmi, Lina Ali

    1986-01-01

    . carnea Stephens also has been effective in the control of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphoribiae (Thomas), and buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii (Kaltenbach) (Shands and Simpson 1972, Shands et al. 1972). C...

  6. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Marti; R. E. Myers; J. E. Carpenter; E. L. Styer

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to

  7. Laboratory rearing of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): a predator of pecan pest insects 

    E-print Network

    Elkarmi, Lina Ali

    1986-01-01

    and 14-10 photophase-scotophase I h1TRODUCT I QN The pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) K. Koch, is the sost important horticultural crop that is native to the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Pecan prcduction has increased...

  8. The effect of dark-rearing, strobe-rearing and acute visual cortex removal on the visual responses in the superficial superior colliculus of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S K; Withington, D J; McCrossan, D; Ingham, N J

    1996-08-01

    Extracellular multi-unit responses to visual stimuli were recorded in the cells of the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC) in four groups of adult guinea-pigs: a control group, a strobe-reared group, a dark-reared group and a group with the ipsilateral visual cortex removed acutely. Single unit visual responses were also recorded in a control and a dark-reared group. When guinea-pigs were either strobe or dark-reared from birth, the number of directionally selective responses in the superficial SC decreased significantly. Acute removal of the visual cortex had no affect on the number of directionally selective cells recorded in the SC. The correlation between azimuthal visual receptive field and rostrocaudal position of the recording electrode in the SC was not significantly different from the control group following strobe, dark-rearing or acute visual cortex removal. These data imply that, during early development, visual information is necessary for directional selectivity of the visual responses in the superficial SC. However, the map of visual azimuthal space is essentially unperturbed by visual restriction (in the form of dark or strobe-rearing) or acute visual cortex removal. PMID:8873153

  9. Knowledge to Go Places Equine Reproduction Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Knowledge to Go Places Equine Reproduction Laboratory College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Reproduction Laboratory has a long history of incorporating stateoftheart reproduction techniques into clinical Laboratory 3101 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523 or email application materials to pmccue

  10. 14 CFR 27.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights...1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... Angle above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0°...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights...1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... Angle above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, I 0° 1.00 0°...

  12. Rearing of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, embryos in distilled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.

    1969-01-01

    Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.

  13. Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

    2001-01-01

    Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves. PMID:15455067

  14. Annulus formation on scales of four species of coregonids reared under artificial conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogman, Walter J.

    1968-01-01

    Scales from known-age coregonids reared in the laboratory were examined to determine when annuli formed and to learn possible factors of their formation. Scales were taken monthly from marked fish for periods up to 21 months. Scales were also examined from fish that died and from preserved specimens of young-of-the-year for each species. Two marks formed on almost all scales each calender year. The stronger formed during March-April and the weaker in October-November. Both marks had all the usual characteristics of an annulus but the spring mark was considered the annulus and the fall mark an accessory check. The annulus formed during a period of constant temperatures and of little change in growth or increasing growth. The accessory check formed during a period of declining temperatures (1-5 degrees F, or 0.6-2.8 degrees C, per month) and of little change in growth or declining growth. Most fish grew throughout the winter; the only exceptions were one bloater (Coregonus hoyi) and several of the largest lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis). Fish were always given all the food they would eat to eliminate availability of food as a factor of mark formation. The temperature of the water during the winter (50 ±. 0.3 F; 10.0 ±. 0.2 C) did not arrest metabolic activity. The growth rate was related more closely to day length than to other variables examined.

  15. Larry Allard Distinguished Research Staff Member Oak Ridge National Laboratory Title: "A Comparison of Techniques for In Situ Gas Reaction Studies in Electron Microscopy"

    E-print Network

    Garmestani, Hamid

    after-treatment, and instrumental developments involving in situ electron microscopy Comparison of Techniques for In Situ Gas Reaction Studies in Electron Microscopy," the first definitive textbook on electron holography, published by Kluwer

  16. Potential Use of In Vitro-Reared Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Biological Control of the Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. MORALES-RAMOS; M. G. ROJAS; R. J. COLEMAN; E. G. KING

    The biological characteristics of the ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandis (Burks) were evaluated after 1, 2, 5, and 10 generations of in vitro-rearing and compared with parasitoids reared on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, larvae. Pupal weight of females was not significantly affected after 10 generations of in vitro-reared wasps. Fecundity of C. grandis was not significantly reduced after 5 generations

  17. Biological Performance of Red Porgy ( Pagrus pagrus ) Larvae under Intensive Rearing Conditions with the use of an Automated Feeding System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Papandroulakis; Maroudio Kentouri; Pascal Divanach

    2004-01-01

    Pagrus pagrus is one of the promising species for the industry in the Mediterranean but its rearing is still far from satisfactory. In the present work, the conditions and results of larval rearing with the use of an automatic feeding system are presented. Eight populations were reared for 20 days with the ‘pseudo green water’ methodology in two successive trials.

  18. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    1998-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  19. 18.5% efficient AlOx/SiNy rear passivated industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Qi; Lu, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Xi, Xi; Chen, Rulong; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jingbing; Shi, Zhengrong; Chu, Junhao

    2014-06-01

    Due to the trend toward thinner and higher efficient crystalline silicon solar cells, excellent rear surface passivation and internal optical reflectance have become more and more important. Aluminum oxide (AlOx) capped with silicon nitride (SiNy), which is considered as one of the most promising candidates to achieve superior rear passivation and internal reflectance, has to date been mostly used for the rear side of p-type monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. In this paper, we have optimized rear AlOx/SiNy stacks deposited by industrial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC). Sufficient passivation activation effect from industrial fast-firing process and SiNy deposition process have been demonstrated, so the samples were not subjected to additional thermal treatment process in the cell fabrication flow. For rear AlOx/SiNy stack, it is shown that when PECVD AlOx is thicker than 40 nm, apparent blisters in fired AlOx deteriorate the cell performance, and the appropriate SiNy capping is N-rich SiNy with thickness of at least 180 nm. After process optimization with the least additional process steps, independently confirmed efficiency of 18.5% for Pluto-PERC with PECVD AlOx/SiNy rear passivation on standard 156 mm × 156 mm p-type mc-Si wafers has been achieved.

  20. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  1. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction. PMID:19198919

  2. Virtual Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-27

    The website for the Virtual Laboratory contains a bold and direct statement: "Conventional teaching all too often accepts memorization and pattern recognition as true learning" After reading this statement, it makes sense that the goal of this site is "to help students to recognize, confront, correct, and expand their understanding of subject or a technique." The site contains five different sets of course materials that use interactive materials, short quizzes, and embedded demonstrations to assist students and teachers alike. One set of materials that should not be missed is in the Teaching & Learning Biology area. Here visitors will find links, fact sheets, and pedagogical suggestions for teaching a college-level biology course. Moving on, the Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything section contains a new perspective on how to reform the garden-variety general chemistry course.

  3. Effect of rearing and laying house environments on performance of incross egg production type pullets 

    E-print Network

    Shupe, William Dale

    1960-01-01

    any d1fference 1n the performance oi range snd confinement reared pullets with respect to egg production, growth, and. mortality. Experiments conducted in recent years are also 1n d1s agreement. Kinder and Yoes (1956) reported better production... no signi. ficant d1fference in egg production between range and confinement reared pullets. Kinder and Yoes (1956) and Bailey, et al. (1959'b) found con- finement reared pullets to be heav1er at hous1ng t1me and they also reached sexual maturity earlier...

  4. Hand-rearing wild caribou calves for studies of nutritional ecology.

    PubMed

    Parker, Katherine L; Barboza, Perry S

    2013-03-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are considered difficult to hand-rear in captivity because they are sensitive to the composition and volume of formulated milks. We used a strict feeding schedule and a commercial milk formula designed specifically for caribou to bottle-feed neonates captured from five wild caribou herds in Alaska. Under a feeding protocol adjusted for age and mass, the growth rates and body mass of 26 hand-reared caribou calves to weaning were similar to those of three maternally nursed caribou. This protocol allows caretakers to hand-rear caribou that are as representative as possible of maternally raised neonates. PMID:22968786

  5. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  6. Design and manufacture of a rear driveline package including limited slip differential for Formula SAE applications

    E-print Network

    Yazicioglu, Tolga T

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the design and manufacture of a lightweight rear driveline package for a Formula SAE race car. The design focuses on all components needed to transfer power from the chain driven Honda CBR600 F4i ...

  7. A rare injury to a rear seat passenger: bilateral fracture dislocation of the shoulders.

    PubMed

    Madi, Sandesh; Pandey, Vivek; Acharya, Kiran; Peruvaje Ramakrishna, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Injury prevention measures in automobiles are mainly focused on the front seat passengers and driver. In the event of a head-on collision, rear seat passengers usually escape with minimal injuries. Most commonly observed injuries to rear passengers are to the head, chest wall or lower extremities. We report a case of bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders with asymmetrical fractures of the greater tuberosities in a 42-year-old man who was apparently injured in a head-on collision while travelling in a car as an unstrapped rear seat passenger. This kind of injury pattern in an unrestrained rear seat passenger is very unusual and has not been previously described. PMID:26065552

  8. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 2 to this subpart.) (a) Corner...

  9. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 2 to this subpart.) (a) Corner...

  10. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 2 to this subpart.) (a) Corner...

  11. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 2 to this subpart.) (a) Corner...

  12. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 2 to this subpart.) (a) Corner...

  13. Rearing in a distorted magnetic field disrupts the ‘map sense’ of juvenile steelhead trout

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Meinke, Amanda M.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    We used simulated magnetic displacements to test orientation preferences of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to magnetic fields existing at the northernmost and southernmost boundaries of their oceanic range. Fish reared in natural magnetic conditions distinguished between these two fields by orienting in opposite directions, with headings that would lead fish towards marine foraging grounds. However, fish reared in a spatially distorted magnetic field failed to distinguish between the experimental fields and were randomly oriented. The non-uniform field in which fish were reared is probably typical of fields that many hatchery fish encounter due to magnetic distortions associated with the infrastructure of aquaculture. Given that the reduced navigational abilities we observed could negatively influence marine survival, homing ability and hatchery efficiency, we recommend further study on the implications of rearing salmonids in unnatural magnetic fields. PMID:24899681

  14. E SERIES MAGAZINES, OVERVIEW OF REAR OF MAGAZINES FROM 11TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E SERIES MAGAZINES, OVERVIEW OF REAR OF MAGAZINES FROM 11TH ST. E 106 IN THE FOREGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, & Seventeenth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. H SERIES MAGAZINE. H110 REAR AND NORTH SIDE. MAGAZINE H109 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    H SERIES MAGAZINE. H110 REAR AND NORTH SIDE. MAGAZINE H109 AND 105 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Fourteenth Street near Kwajalein Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts.

    PubMed

    Beer, J M; Horn, J M

    2000-08-01

    There is an extensive literature on the relationship between birth order and psychological traits, but no previous study has investigated the influence of ordinal position on personality development within adoptive siblings. Such a design is important because it effectively separates the effects of biological birth order and rearing order. Here we report data from two adoption cohorts in which subjects were biological first-borns reared in various ordinal positions. Data were analyzed with reference to Sulloway's (1996) evolutionarily based sibling rivalry theory of birth order effects. Between- and within-family analyses indicated that rearing order's influence on personality was very weak. The only clear difference was for conscientiousness, on which first-reared siblings scored higher. We draw possible implications for Sulloway's theory and speculate upon an alternative, prenatal biological process that may produce birth order differences. PMID:10934690

  17. 2. REAR AND NORTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. MQ39 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR AND NORTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. MQ39 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ammunitions Explosive Maintenance Building, West Loch,Third Street near D Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 8. CLOSEUP OF REAR VIEW OF EMITTER/ANTENNA (TYPICAL DEVICE PHOTOGRAPH). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CLOSE-UP OF REAR VIEW OF EMITTER/ANTENNA (TYPICAL DEVICE PHOTOGRAPH). - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. Poverty, Problem Behavior, and Promise: Differential Susceptibility Among Infants Reared in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Measelle, Jeffrey; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    Do infants reared in poverty exhibit certain physiological traits that make them susceptible to the positive and negative features of their caregiving environment? Guided by theories of differential susceptibility and biological sensitivity to context, we evaluated whether high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) operates as a susceptibility factor among infants reared in poverty (N = 73). Baseline RSA at 5 months, the quality of the attachment relationship at 17 months, and the interaction of these two factors were included in our models as predictors of problem behavior at 17 months. Consistent with theory, results showed no significant differences in problem behavior among infants with low baseline RSA; however, infants with high baseline RSA exhibited the lowest levels of problem behavior if reared in an environment that fostered security, and they exhibited the highest levels of problem behavior if reared in an environment that fostered disorganization. These results have important implications for the psychological health of infants living in poverty. PMID:23361232

  20. 3. EXTERIOR, SOUTH REAR VIEW OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY GARTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR, SOUTH REAR VIEW OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY GARTON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY AND NIELSEN, GEHRKE AND HANSEN CLOTHING STORE - East Locust Street Commercial District, 521-529 East Locust Street, Des Moines, Polk County, IA