Note: This page contains sample records for the topic laboratory rearing technique from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Laboratory reared sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae) and studies on phleboviruses.  

PubMed

Virus-vector relationship of two Pleboviruses, Toscana and Arbia viruses, were studied in laboratory reared sandflies of the species Plebotomus perniciosus which is implicated as natural vector of both viruses. Two techniques of infection were used: intrathoracic inoculation and membrane feeding. This paper reports the growth characteristics and the frequency of transovarial and venereal transmission among P. perniciosus experimentally infected with the two viruses. PMID:1841201

Ciufolini, M G; Maroli, M; Verani, P

1991-12-01

2

Laboratory Hatching and Rearing of Pacific Coast Clams and Oysters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this report was to develop spawning and setting techniques for Pacific Coast molluscs. The following molluscs were successfully spawned and reared to metamorphosis: Razor clams, butter clams, gaper clams, cockle clams, native oysters...

F. D. Phibbs

1970-01-01

3

Effects of Laboratory Rearing on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Jersey Standard Strain (NJSS) accounts for about 90 percent of the laboratory-reared gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), used for research and development in the United States. The history and performance of NJSS since its establishment in the labo...

M. A. Keena T. M. Odell

1994-01-01

4

LABORATORY REARING PROCEDURES FOR TWO LEPIDOPTERAN WEED BIOCONTROL AGENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory rearing methods for Pterolonche inspersa (Lepidoptera: Pterolonchidae) and Agapeta zoegana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were developed. These species have been introduced into North America for the control of the exotic knapweeds, Centaurea spp. We used known diets for the pink bollworm Pec...

5

Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

Powell, A. N.; Cuthbert, F. J.; Wemmer, L. C.; Doolittle, A.

1997-01-01

6

Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Powell, A. N.; Cuthbert, F. J.; Wemmer, L. C.; Doolittle, A. W.; Feirer, S. T.

1997-01-01

7

Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

Nichols, S. Jerrine

1992-01-01

8

Notes on laboratory rearing of juvenile spiny lobsters, jasus edwardsii (hutton) (crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post?puerulus specimens of Jasus edwardsii (Hutton) have been successfully reared in the laboratory from the puerulus stage for periods of up to 12 months. The spiny lobsters were reared in concrete?asbestos tanks measuring 2.4m × 37cm × 23cm. The tanks were supplied with a continuous flow of sea water and provided with constant aeration. Empty shells of paua (Haliotis iris

Craig B. Kensler

1967-01-01

9

Laboratory Technique Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of organic chemistry will find this website from the University of Alberta to be a most welcome find. Created by a team of educational experts at the University, the videos here demonstrate a variety of techniques that are commonly used in laboratory settings. There are a dozen videos here, and they include "Filtration", "Reflux", "Distillation", and "Using a Separatory Funnel". The films here are available in a number of different formats, including Quick Time and Windows Media. The site also includes an "Interactive Tutorials" section. Here visitors will find tutorials that will introduce them to spectroscopy, separation and isolation, and the rather amusing world of "Detective O-Chem", which asks the user to take on a fictional avian flu outbreak.

10

Exposing Laboratory-Reared Fleas to Soil and Wild Flea Feces Increases Transmission of Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Abstract. Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis. PMID:23939709

Jones, Ryan T; Vetter, Sara M; Gage, Kenneth L

2013-08-12

11

Laboratory rearing and life history of an emerging grape pest, Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  

PubMed

Several aspects of the biology of Xylotrechus arvicola (Olivier), an emerging grape pest, were studied under laboratory conditions. Four diets were tested to rear this species in the laboratory. Among them, only one made rearing from larva to adult possible. The highest mortality, in all cases, was recorded during the first days of larval development. Larvae were kept 45 days at 8°C to break diapause in order to reduce the normal field larval developmental time. The species' developmental time was similar between sexes, while pupal developmental time and weight were significantly greater for females than for males. As part of a complementary study, life table parameters of females obtained from the larvae reared on the artificial diet were compared to those of females emerged from field-infested grape root wood. Both laid the majority of eggs in the first two weeks after emergence, and they had a similar pre-laying period. Nevertheless, the females from the diet-reared larvae lived significantly longer, laid eggs over a longer period of time and showed higher fertility than those emerging from infested grape root, suggesting that diet fulfils larval nutritional needs. The species' laboratory-reared population exhibited a low intrinsic growth rate value (rm=0.01) as a result of its long egg-to-adult developmental time and its high larval mortality. PMID:21892981

García-Ruiz, E; Marco, V; Pérez-Moreno, I

2011-09-06

12

Techniques for Hatching and Rearing Cobia, 'Rachycentron canadum', through Larval and Juvenile States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report the possibilities of hatching and rearing cobia fish are assessed. The report evaluates the cobia's potential as a cultured organism by developing techniques of collecting, identifying and maintaining cobia eggs, and it defines the environme...

W. W. Hassler R. P. Rainville

1975-01-01

13

Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

1995-02-01

14

Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, M.; Hereford, S.G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

1992-01-01

15

SOME CHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF LABORATORY-REARED AND FIELD-COLLECTED ADULT DIAPREPES ROOT WEEVIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical and morphological comparisons showed differences between laboratory-reared and field-collected adult Diaprepes root weevils and between field-collected weevils from different host plants in different geographical areas in Florida. Lab-reared weevils were significantly larger in body size an...

16

Molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of the bombycid moth, Trilocha varians.  

PubMed

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day-degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

17

Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory.  

PubMed

Life history of a free-living meiobenthic nematode Daptonema normandicum (DeMan, 1890) was studied in the laboratory. Live specimens were primarily collected from the sewage outlet site near the mouth of the Mandovi estuary, Goa This species was the most dominant (> 67%) among the meiobenthic nematodes. Vertically, nematode abundance was highest at the surface sediment and correlated with the organic carbon and sediment chlorophyll-a. Considering their dominance in the meiofauna, attempts were made to rear D. normandicum in laboratory. Salinity of the culture medium was maintained at 14 to 17 PSU (same as the collection site). All the culture experiments were conducted in semisolid nutrient agar media at 27 +/- 2 degrees C temperature for 12 hr dark: 12 hr light conditions. The food consists primarily of an unidentified bacterium and mixed algae, but diatom and ciliates were also observed in culture. Females produced first batch of eggs at the age of 23 days. Gravid female normally carry 8-10 eggs. Embryonic development is completed in -72 hr and entire life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in 22-24 days. Average size of juveniles at the hatching was 0.189 mm. Young individuals attains a maximum size of 1.23 mm (male) and 1.04 mm (female) in -21-23 days. Growth, in terms of length was augmented upto 23rd day and ceased thereafter. The daily growth increment for the first 5 days was 0.01-0.04 mm which increased upto 0.05-0.08 mm d(-1) during the maturation (10-18 days). Male : female ratio was 1:2. In this laboratory study, we provided information on the embryonic development, the life cycle and ecology Our results demonstrated that D. normandicum can be reared successfully under the controlled conditions, suggesting possible use of this species in toxicological and aquaculture studies. The culture method described is very handy and can be applicable for rearing other meiobenthic species particularly the nematodes with comparable feeding habits. PMID:21882647

Singh, Ravail; Ingole, Baban

2011-03-01

18

Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method. PMID:22617405

Sanders, Erin R

2012-05-11

19

Effect of temperature on survival and developmental period of coconut crab ( Birgus latro) larvae reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the coconut crab, Birgus latro, have been severely depleted on most inhabited islands throughout Indo-Pacific regions because of overharvesting and environmental degradation. To assist in the development of artificial propagation technologies for restocking\\/stock enhancement of this species, this study was designed to elucidate the effect of rearing temperature on survival and developmental period of zoeae through a laboratory

Katsuyuki Hamasaki; Mio Sugizaki; Shigeki Dan; Shuichi Kitada

2009-01-01

20

MASS MATING BEHAVIOR OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) MALES CAPTURED IN PHEROMONE TRAPS MATED WITH LABORATORY-REARED FEMALES: MEASURES OF REPRODUCTION, EGG PRODUCTION AND ADULT MORTALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing the offspring of field-captured bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) moths offers reliable indicators of their natural behavior and susceptibility to insecticides. In this study laboratory-reared females mass mated for one to five days with pheromone trap-captured (wild) or laboratory-reared males wer...

21

Feeding, growth, and survival of Engraulis mordax larvae reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are described for the successful rearing of northern anchovy larvae (Engraulis mordaxGirard) on cultured foods. Larvae were fed successively on the unarmored dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens, the veliger of the gastropod Bulla gouldiana, and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Rearing containers ranging in capacity from 4.5 to 510 l were tested; the smaller ones were found to be

R. LASKEIr; H. M. Feder; G. H. Theilacker; R. C. May

1970-01-01

22

Cold tolerance of field-collected and laboratory reared larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Sesamia nonagrioides Lefébvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn in the Mediterranean region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate some aspects of the cold tolerance of non-diapausing and diapausing laboratory reared larvae of S. nonagrioides, as well as of field-collected larvae, taking into consideration various parameters, such as supercooling ability, mean lethal temperature and accumulation of cryoprotectant substances, in relation to diapause. Our results provide evidence that S. nonagrioides has limited cold tolerance as it displays a low ability of supercooling. This is strongly supported by the fact that mortality of the individuals occurred after extended exposure to subzero temperatures, equivalent or slightly lower to their mean supercooling point. However, lethal temperatures of diapausing larvae were significantly lower in relation to that of non-diapausing larvae, indicating the existence of a direct link between diapause and cold tolerance. Regarding the role of cryoprotectant substances, accumulation of glycerol seems to be closely related to diapause, in contrast to accumulation of trehalose, which is more related to exposure to low temperatures slightly higher than 0 degree C. Finally, non-diapausing larvae of different instars displayed a similar ability of supercooling and tolerance to low temperatures as well as accumulation of cryoprotectant substances. The ecological significance of our findings on cold tolerance of this species is being discussed with particular reference to the microclimate observed in northern Greece. PMID:22020409

Andreadis, S S; Vryzas, Z; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

23

Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

1992-09-01

24

Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

1992-01-01

25

Laboratory Techniques for the Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)|

Tombaugh, Dorothy

1972-01-01

26

[Effect of larval rearing water on Aedes aegypti oviposition in the laboratory].  

PubMed

To evaluate the influence of larval rearing water on Aedes aegypti oviposition, four types of water were provided for gravid females. It was observed that more eggs were laid in the mixed larval rearing water (2,837) than in the Aedes albopictus water (690) or control water (938), but that this number was similar to what was seen in the Aedes aegypti water (2,361). PMID:19009198

Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Monteiro, Simone D'Cara Barbosa; Voltolini, Júlio Cesar

27

Effect of Food Level on the Growth and Survival of Laboratory-Reared Larvae of Bay Anchovy ('Anchoa mitchilli' Valenciennes) and Scaled Sardine ('Harengula pensacolae' Goode and Bean).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of food levels on the growth and survival of laboratory-reared larvae of scaled sardines (Harengula pensacolae Goode and Bean) and bay anchovies (Anchoa mitchilli Valenciennes) was determined. Wild zooplankton, most of which was copepod nauplii...

V. P. Saksena E. D. Houde

1972-01-01

28

Acoustic tomography. Laboratory technique Implementation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From geomechanical tests carried out on rocks it is possible to determine its physico-mechanical properties, which relate the strain and applied stress; even so, conventional tests do not allow to identify how stress is distributed and how it has affected porous media. Today, techniques like acoustic tomography widely used in medicine, geophysics and others sciences, generates images by sections of the interior of a body. Acoustic tomography allows inferring the stress state within porous media; since wave velocities are closely related to media density, if a stress is applied to a rock, it will generate grains compaction and this will be showed by an increase of wave velocity. Implementation was conducted on rock plugs under diverse stress fields, simultaneously recording P-wave velocities (Compressional) on perpendicular planes to sample vertical axis. Transmission and reception of acoustic waves through porous media were done by piezoelectric crystals (PZT) used as sensors. A transmitting crystal excited by a voltage pulse causes a mechanical vibration, which travels across media; this is known as inverse piezoelectric effect. This vibration is recorded by a receiving crystal in which the direct piezoelectric effect appears; which dictates that if a piezoelectric is disturbed mechanically, an electrical signal between its terminals will appear. This electrical signal is used to obtain the wave velocity. Nevertheless, acoustic tomography corresponds to one of those called inverse Problems that arise when from observed data the model parameters must be obtained; in this way, tomography involves iterative reconstruction techniques (ART or SIRT) which are projections of observed data and its later inversion. Obtained results are cross-sectional images of velocity within the rock. In these images it is possible to identify where stress has a greater concentration observing the color map generated; thus, a greater velocity density area corresponding to a greater stress will be colored with a higher tonality within the palette used.

Galvis, Jorge; Carvajal, Jenny

2010-05-01

29

Universal Parenthood Training: A Laboratory Approach to Teaching Child-Rearing Skills to Every Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the need ro a program which would leave the responsibility of child rearing with the parents, but take measures to assure that virtually all parents have the necessary skills and knowledge to do the job well." Appended are 16 references. (Author/AA)|

Hawkins, Robert P.

1971-01-01

30

Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).  

PubMed

Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species. PMID:22312998

Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

2011-12-01

31

Visualization of Ultrasonic Waves Scattered from Rear Defects by Using a Laser-Based Imaging Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a method for visualizing wave propagation in ultrasonic fields. This method generates thermal-excitation ultrasonic waves on a specimen through pulsed laser scanning and detects the propagating signals via a reception transducer mounted on a fixed point. Dynamic images of ultrasonic waves propagated from a fixed point are created using the reciprocity principle of wave propagation. This method has the excellent feature that enables a visible and quick flaw inspection for actual objects. However, since this method visualizes all waves propagating on an object, it is disadvantageous in that defect echoes are often hidden in the forward traveling wave. In this research, we developed a data processing method for image enhancement of defect echoes. In the ultrasonic tests with aluminum plates or pipes with rear defects, we could visualize the defect echoes as they scatter in a radial manner, like water rings, on the surface of the specimen, which proved the validity of this data processing method. These results demonstrated the usefulness of the laser-based ultrasonic visualization technique in flaw inspection.

Takatsubo, J.; Wang, B.; Miyauchi, H.; Tsuda, H.; Toyama, N.; Urabe, K.

2009-03-01

32

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

2011-06-01

33

Laboratory Techniques for Determining Ploidy in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. pollen grains, pollen mother cells, root tip squashes, stomata size, stomata density SUMMARY. Determination of ploidy is an essential plant breeding technique. Laboratory exercises for teaching students how to determine ploidy in plant tissues using various tech- niques are described for geranium and onion. The different methods include root tip squashes, pollen mother cell squashes, pollen grain

Christopher S. Cramer

1999-01-01

34

Intelligent proxy techniques in plasma physics laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plasma physics laboratories, people are making full use of the Web to obtain the latest information. In this paper, we study intelligent proxy techniques for people who have similar interests and use a common division proxy to access the Web. Based on the analysis of web proxy workload characterization, we propose a new replacement algorithm for proxy cache. Trace-driven

Yantai Shu; Gang Zhang; Zheng Zhao; Jie Yang; Song Wang

1999-01-01

35

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

NAJAM, EDWARD W.

36

Identification of factors influencing flight performance of field-collected and laboratory-reared, overwintered, and nonoverwintered cactus moths fed with field-collected host plants.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions during egg and larval development may influence the dispersal ability of insect pests, thus requiring seasonal adjustment of control strategies. We studied the longest single flight, total distance flown, and the number of flights initiated by wild Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to determine whether the flight performance of overwintered cactus moths with a prolonged feeding phase during development differs from nonoverwintered cactus moths. Pupae of field-collected and laboratory-reared moths were transported together from the United States to Switzerland, and flight mills were used to characterize the flight capacity of 24- to 48-h-old adults during their most active period of the diel cycle. The lack of seasonal variation in flight performance of those moths that developed under controlled environment but were fed with field-collected Opuntia cacti showed that seasonal changes in host plant quality did not affect flight. This consistent flight performance in the mass-reared laboratory population throughout the year is beneficial for sterile insect technique programs, which aim to limit the dispersal of this pest. For field-collected C. cactorum, the larger overwintered females performed similarly to nonoverwintered females, indicating that longer feeding time at lower temperature increases body size but does not influence female flight capacity. Young mated females had a similar flight capacity to unmated ones, suggesting that gravid females may play an important role in invading new habitats. For males, overwintering increased the proportion of long-distance flyers, suggesting that they are well-adapted to locate the more sparsely dispersed females in the spring. PMID:19036209

Sarvary, Mark A; Hight, Stephen D; Carpenter, James E; Bloem, Stephanie; Bloem, Kenneth A; Dorn, Silvia

2008-10-01

37

A barrier technique for laboratory pressure pot.  

PubMed

A routine culture of the internal surfaces of a laboratory pressure pot was performed. Candida albicans, Pseudomonas sp., and an unidentified gram-negative rod were isolated. Disposable plastic bags filled with water were used as a barrier to cross contamination during polymerization of repair acrylic resin in a pressure pot. No leakage of plastic bags occurred. The technique is practical and inexpensive. PMID:1791571

Paprocki, G J; Udugama, A

1991-10-01

38

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory-rearing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective ...

39

Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).  

PubMed

The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms. PMID:23644800

Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

2013-02-01

40

INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

41

INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

42

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

43

Dispersal and oviposition of laboratory-reared gravid females of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in an arid urban area of Sonora, Mexico.  

PubMed

Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide. Biological control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, remains a feasible option in light of increasing urbanization and insecticide resistance. We studied the dispersal and oviposition activity of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in a dengue-endemic urban area in SSonora, Mexico, to provide information about the potential of Toxorhynchites as a control agent for Ae. aegypti in arid areas. We released 210 and 100 laboratory-reared gravid females of Tx. moctezuma in 2 city blocks during the summer and fall of 1993. We set 3 1-liter containers and 1 car tire as sentinel traps at each of 10 backyards within each city block. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal and oviposition activity differed between city blocks and between releases. However, a Cox regression analysis showed no significant difference in the per-day probability of Tx. moctezuma oviposition events in sentinel traps between summer and fall releases. Per-day oviposition probability was nearly 5 times greater for sentineltraps that contained larvae of Ae. aegypti, suggesting a high specificity of the predator for its prey. The proportion of sentinel traps positive for Tx. moctezuma eggs did not increase substantially after the 8th day piost-release, reaching 66% and 23% for sentinel traps with and without Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively. PMID:20099587

Macías-Duarte, Alberto; Alvarado-Castro, J Andrés; Dórame-Navarro, María E; Félix-Torres, A Amalia

2009-12-01

44

Additional moults into 'elongatus' males in laboratory-reared Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae) - implications for taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract The number of stadia during post-embryonic development is supposed to be fixed in most species of the millipede order Polydesmida. For the first time since 1928, additional moults were observed in two males of Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 reared in the laboratory. These ‘elongatus’ males sensu Verhoeff reached stadium IX instead of stadium VIII, with addition of a further podous ring (32 pairs of legs). One male had well-developed gonopods at stadium VIII, which regressed at stadium IX; the other had no gonopods at stadium VIII, which developed at stadium IX. The two cases correspond to the ‘regressionis’ and ‘progressionis’ forms described by Verhoeff in Polydesmus complanatus (Linnaeus, 1761), which confirms entirely his results. Additional moults appear to be associated with small body sizes and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Comparisons between millipede orders indicate that post-embryonic development is less strictly canalized in Polydesmida than in Chordeumatida. This implies that the adult number of body rings is of limited taxonomic value in Polydesmida and should not be viewed as a character of generic importance.

David, Jean-Francois; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques

2011-01-01

45

Coherent Rear Projected Viewer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A breadboard model of a rear projection viewer was developed in order to investigate the relative merits of the laser as an illumination source. Non-conventional techniques were employed to manipulate the laser beam to eliminate objectional pictorial nois...

G. I. Geikas J. J. Burch

1970-01-01

46

Graphing Techniques for Materials Laboratory Using Excel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students nei...

N. K. Kundu

1994-01-01

47

Child-Rearing Experience and Attitudes Toward the Use of Influence Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparison of college students and women with children results in two general patterns: greater use by former of active techniques involving direct manipulation of consequences: and decrease by former in use of love-oriented techniques which were negatively cast. Includes note on replication of previous finding (Marwell and Schmitt, 1967) on use…

Marwell, Gerald; Schmitt, David R.

1969-01-01

48

Development of rearing techniques using large enclosed ecosystems in the mass production of marine fish fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of large marine enclosures for early life history studies has revealed important information for cultivation methods of fish larvae. During the 1970s and 1980s extensive and semiintensive methods were developed for cultivation of Atlantic cod, turbot, Atlantic halibut, seabass, and sea bream. In Norway, the lagoon enclosure technique was the predominant method in the late 1980s. The extensive

Terje van der Meeren; Kjell Emil Naas

1997-01-01

49

Cell death localization in situ in laboratory reared honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) larvae treated with pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cell death detected by DNA fragmentation labeling and phosphatidylserine (PS) localization was investigated in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) midgut, salivary glands and ovaries after treating larvae with different pesticides offered via an artificial diet. To do this, honey bee larvae reared in an incubator were exposed to one of nine pesticides: chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, amitraz, fluvalinate,

Ales Gregorc; James D. Ellis

2011-01-01

50

Laboratory Testing of Volcanic Gas Sampling Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laboratory experiments were performed designed to calibrate several commonly used methods for field measurement of volcanic gas composition. H2, CO2, SO2 and CHCl2F gases were mixed through carefully calibrated rotameters to form mixtures representative of the types of volcanic compositions encountered at Kilauea and Showa-Shinzan. Gas mixtures were passed through a horizontal furnace at 700oC to break

V. C. Kress; R. Green; M. Ortiz; P. Delmelle; T. Fischer

2003-01-01

51

Presence of anti-ovalbumin IgE antibody in the sera of laboratory-reared squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fed quail eggs.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined serum anti-ovalbumin (OVA) IgE and IgG antibodies in laboratory-reared squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), that were fed a boiled quail egg everyday. We found that 36 of 95 monkeys (38%) possessed specific IgE and 44% (42/95) had specific IgG against OVA. These antibody titers seemed to increase with age. There was, however, no apparent correlation between the anti-OVA IgE and IgG antibody titers. PMID:9816496

Imaoka, K; Ono, F; Hamano, M; Inouye, S; Yoshikawa, Y

1998-07-01

52

Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects.

Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

2011-01-01

53

Clinical Laboratory Techniques and MEMS Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This unit introduces users to the Clinical Laboratory. This module presents information for users to learn about the testing that takes place in a clinical lab, the requirements of the technicians and equipment used to produce accurate and consistent results, and the possibilities of replacing some of these tests with MEMS and bioMEMS. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

54

Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species  

PubMed Central

The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease.

Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

2007-01-01

55

[The ways of harmonization of clinical laboratory measurement techniques].  

PubMed

The results of implementation of different clinical laboratory techniques are to be equal in clinically significant limits to be optimally applied in diagnostics of diseases and treatment of patients. When the results of laboratory tests are not standardized and harmonized for the very same clinical assay the results can be expressed by unmatched numbers. Unfortunately, in some handbooks the values are presented based on the results of application of specific laboratory techniques without considering possibility or likelihood of differences between various techniques. When this is a case, accumulation of data of diferent clinical research studies and working out of clinical handbooks on this basis will be inconsistent. Inadequate understanding of issue that the results of laboratory tests are not standardized and harmonized can lead to incorrect clinical, financial, managerial or technical decisions. The standardization of clinical laboratory techniques was applied to many measurands related to primary referent techniques (standard specimen of pure substance) or/and developed referent measurement techniques. However, harmonization of clinical laboratory techniques for those measurands which are not related any developed measurement techniques is quite problematic due to inadequate determination of measurand, its inadequate analytical specificity, insufficient attention to commutability of referent materials and poor systematic approach to harmonization. To overcome these issues an infrastructure is to be developed to support systematic approach to identification and prioritization of measurands which are to be harmonized on the basis of clinical importance and technical applicability. The management of technical implementation harmonization process for specific measurands. PMID:23808013

Miller, W G; Myers, G L; Gantzer, M L; Kahn, S E; Schönbrunner, E R; Thienpont, L M; Bunk, D M; Christenson, R H; Eckfeldt, J H; Stanley, G L; Nubling, C M; Sturgeon, C M

2013-02-01

56

Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques  

SciTech Connect

Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

57

Rearing Monarchs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a long-term project, you can rear monarch butterflies at home or in a classroom. This article contains practical tips on successfully rearing monarchs, and ways in which you can increase your chances of observing the changes that occur during their metamorphosis. Caretaking details are provided for every stage of the monarch butterfly's life: egg, larva, pupa, adult. This article contains information about many species of milkweed plants - the main food and habitat for monarchs. Also includes information and instructions for building cages for monarch butterflies.

Watch, Monarch

2012-06-26

58

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

59

Whole-vehicle Susceptibility Correlation With Laboratory Test Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made between Whole-Vehicle Susceptibility (WVS) test results and results from laboratory tests utilizing Bulk Current Injection (BCI) and Transverse Electromagnetic (EM) cell testing techniques. All tests were performed on three electronic systems used in a 11.5 meter (36 ft), 67 passenger touring bus. The measured induced currents for each of the three systems during the WVS test

Daniel L. Williams; M. Idoguchi; W. H. McGinnis

1992-01-01

60

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NOX REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of work to develop and demonstrate, in the laboratory, NOx reduction techniques that would be suited to petroleum refinery CO boilers. (Note: Most refineries have one or more CO boilers to incinerate off-gases from catalytic cracking. These devices constit...

61

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

62

THE LARVAL STAGES OF THE DEEP SEA RED CRAB, GBRYON QUINQUEDENS SMITH, REARED UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS (DECAPODA: BRACHYRHYNCHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prezoeal stage, four zoeal stages, and one megalopa stage WE're obtained from eggs of Geryon quinquedens Smith hatched in the laboratory. Each zoeal stage and the megalopa are discussed and illustrated. The commercial potential and abundance of the deep sea red crab, Geryon quinquedens Smith, are discussed by Schroeder (1959), McRae (1961), and Holmsen (1968). The red crab is

HERBERT C. PERKINS

63

Design of a Portable Streamside Rearing Facility for Lake Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable streamside rearing facility was designed and used by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians during efforts to rehabilitate a remnant population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the Big Manistee River, Michigan, beginning in 2004. The streamside rearing facility facilitates rearing of wild-caught lake sturgeon larvae in their natal water. This rearing approach provides a cost-effective technique

J. Marty Holtgren; Stephanie A. Ogren; Aaron J. Paquet; Steve Fajfer

2007-01-01

64

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in laboratory-reared Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes dammini Spielman, Piesman, Clifford & Corwin from a laboratory colony were fed on two white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) inoculated with either the SH2-82 or JD-1 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Ticks were exposed to one deer 43 and 69 d after inoculation of the spirochete and to a second deer 35 and 61 d after inoculation. Polymerase chain reaction assays amplified the 158 bp OspA DNA target sequence in 11.1% (n = 9) of fed larvae and 3.3% (n = 30) of nymphs from the deer inoculated with the SH2-82 strain, and 22.7% (n = 22) of larvae and 0% (n = 21) of nymphs from a second deer inoculated with the JD-1 strain of B. burgdorferi. One of three females derived from nymphs fed on one of the inoculated deer showed presence of B. burgdorferi DNA, but none of four males was positive. Experimentally inoculated deer can serve as a source of at least two geographic strains of B. burgdorferi to I. dammini larvae and nymphs for at least several weeks. PMID:1460639

Oliver, J H; Stallknecht, D; Chandler, F W; James, A M; McGuire, B S; Howerth, E

1992-11-01

65

Serum Clinical Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Ranges of Laboratory-Reared and Wild-Caught Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

The South African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis are fully aquatic amphibians and well-established animal models. Because genetically engineered laboratory Xenopus are now being produced, the establishment of normal reference ranges for serum biochemical and hematologic parameters is essential for phenotyping and as a diagnostic aide. We determined normal reference ranges for hematologic values from 3 populations of X. laevis: wild-caught frogs (n = 43) and frogs from 2 commercial sources (A, n = 166; B, n = 109). For serum biochemistry, we determined normal reference ranges for frogs from source A and wild-caught frogs divided by sex and season. Significant differences across populations were found in WBC and RBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. Among serum biochemical analytes, significant differences were found for albumin:globulin ratio, anion gap, and concentrations of albumin, globulin, total protein, lipase, alanine transaminase, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase; creatine phosphokinase; indirect, direct, and total bilirubin; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein lipase, carbon dioxide, glucose, lactacte dehydrogenase, calcium, chloride, and sodium. We hypothesize that these differences can be attributed to differences in water quality, habitat, ambient temperature, diet, sex, recent transport or shipment, and genetic background. However, testing that hypothesis is beyond the scope of the current study. In addition, clinical chemistry and hematologic reference range values Xenopus laevis are quite distinct from those for other species and are most consistent with the only values published for another fully aquatic amphibian, the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

Wilson, Sabrina; Felt, Stephen; Torreilles, Stephanie; Howard, Antwain; Behan, Colleen; Moorhead, Roberta; Green, Sherril

2011-01-01

66

Automobile rear body structure  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automobile rear body structure including a rear fender panel extending substantially longitudinally along a side of the body structure; a rear end panel extending substantially transversely along a rear end portion of the body structure; a rear floor panel; and a tire house assembly comprising a tire house outer panel having an arcuately curved portion and a tire house inner panel having an arcuately curved portion which is secured to the arcuately curved portion of the tire house outer panel. The tire house outer panel has a side portion secured to the rear fender panel and provided with a rearwardly extended portion which is secured to the rear end panel, the tire house inner panel having a lower portion secured to the rear floor panel and being provided at a rear portion with a substantially vertical wall which has a rear end secured to the rear end panel. The rear end panel includes a rear end lower extending substantially vertically across the rear floor panel and having an upper edge, and a rear end upper panel which is secured to the rear end lower panel and extends forward from the upper edge of the rear end lower panel.

Harasaki, H.

1987-03-24

67

Infrared band strengths: Laboratory techniques and applications to astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever an abundance measurement is derived by way of infrared spectroscopy, it will typically make use of a laboratory-obtained conversion factor between the size of an IR absorption feature and the (column) density of the molecule under study. This factor is usually called the "absolute absorption intensity" by a chemist or the "band strength" by a typical IR astronomer. Band strengths have been studied in chemistry since the 1950s, and the commonly quoted "accuracy to with a factor of ten" historically required of astronomical calculations has not required much new input into this area. Today, however, astronomical measurements require much higher precision, and it is time for IR astronomers to ask more of laboratory measurements and to understand when and why to use IR band strengths in a more appropriate manner. The history, interpretation, measurement, and common astrophysical applications of infrared band strengths will be discussed. The "secrets" of the laboratory techniques involved in their measurement are described, and a compilation of results from the literature is given along with some new results. Typical astrophysical applications and appropriate uses will also be discussed. Common misconceptions are confronted and two challenges are presented: (i) to the laboratory astrophysics community to produce and advertise accurate values with caveats when necessary, and (ii) to the observational community to use the most appropriate results for the environment under study.

Gerakines, P. A.

2002-09-01

68

Laboratory techniques for investigating recovery in heavy oil reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Although general guidelines have been published in the literature for selecting the most suitable tertiary recovery technique for a given reservoir, the actual design of a commercial enhanced recovery scheme is a time- consuming and expensive process requiring computer simulations, experimental field pilots, and extensive laboratory tests. The objective of this work is to review laboratory testing procedures related to heavy oil recovery and to provide reservoir and production engineers with an insight into such procedures so that they may better appreciate their potentials and limitations. The topics discussed include characterization of stock tank oils, phase behavior measurements of oil/gas systems, measurements of relative permeability, and its temperature dependence and core tests for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ stimulation. 22 references.

Maini, B.; Sayegh, S.

1983-01-01

69

Comparison of sex pheromone composition and pheromone-mediated male behavior of laboratory-reared and wild Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of ovipositor extracts of lab-reared (> 120 generations) and wildHeliothis zea indicated small but significant differences in the percent composition of the four aldehyde components of the sex pheromone. (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (Z11–16:OH) was present in both populations and amounted to only 2.8% of the total pheromone. There was no significant difference in four of the six behavioral categories between lab-reared

A. K. Raina; E. A. Stadelbacher; R. L. Ridgway

1989-01-01

70

Optimizing rearing conditions of hatchling loliginid squid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs laid by the California market squid (Loligo opalescens) were collected from spawning grounds and reared in the laboratory. The eggs were maintained in a rearing tank that was part of a closed, recirculating system. The system included seven 220-l circular tanks with attached filtration. Five experiments were conducted to test hatchling survival. One of them evaluated survival on three

E. Vidal; F. DiMarco; J. Wormuth; P. Lee

2002-01-01

71

EFECTO DEL MEDIO EM-Bokashi EN EL CULTIVO DE LA MICROALGA MARINA Tetraselmis suecica K. EFFECT OF EM-Bokashi MEDIUM ON THE LABORATORY REARING OF THE MARINE MICRO ALGA Tetraselmis suecica K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of EM-Bokashi medium on the marine micro alga Tetraselmis suecica reared in the laboratory was studied. Two nutritive media were used: Yashima medium was used as a control treatment and the other medium had organic components coming from EM-Bokashi which is a fertilizing product. The latter was inoculated in three different doses: 1:1000; 1:1500; 1:2000. The highest population

Luzmila Rodríguez; Juan Juscamaita; Jessie Vargas

72

Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

73

Rearing social class, education, and criminality: A multiple indicator model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists in the criminology literature over whether rearing social class influences the emergence of criminal behavior. Theoretically, some researchers have argued, a lower rearing class status reflects intellectual and emotional deprivation that motivates later illegal activity. Other researchers argue that intelligence, regardless of rearing status, is the chief determinant of criminal behavior. Using maximum-likelihood path-analytic techniques and a split

Bill McGarvey; William F. Gabrielli; P. M. Bentler; Sarnoff A. Mednick

1981-01-01

74

Laboratory techniques to evaluate thermal conductivity for some soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductivity of two soils was investigated through laboratory studies. These laboratory experiments used the single probe and dual probe methods to measure and compare thermal conductivities. The soils used were classified as sand and loam. Thermal conductivity measured using single probe method ranged from 0.95 to 2.11 for sand and from 0.49 to 0.76 W\\/m K for loam.

O. K. Nusier; N. H. Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

75

A new larval tray and rack system for improved mosquito mass rearing.  

PubMed

The requirement for efficient mosquito mass rearing technology has been one of the major obstacles preventing the large scale application of the Sterile Insect Technique against mosquitoes. At the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/ IAEA) Insect Pest Control Laboratories we developed a larval rearing unit based on the use of a stainless steel rack that operates 50 thermoformed ABS plastic trays and is expected to be able to successfully rear 140,000-175,000 Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) adult mosquitoes per rack. The mechanized rearing unit is simple to handle, maintains minimal water temperature variation and negligible water evaporation and allows normal larval development. The mosquito mass-rearing tray was designed to provide a large surface area of shallow water that would closely mimic natural breeding sites. The trays stack into a dedicated rack structure and filling and draining were easily performed. The close stacking of the trays in the rack and the possibility to tightly line up several racks makes this rearing unit a valid solution for maximal use of the space thus reducing construction, heating, and cooling costs. The low amount of labor required to operate the system also reduces labor costs that represent one of the main expenditures in any mass rearing facility operation. Preliminary experiments performed on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) also confirm the possibility of successfully extending the use of this technology to other mosquito species. Our larval rearing unit could enhance any mosquito control strategy in which large-scale releases of mosquitoes are needed to suppress or replace natural populations. PMID:22679867

Balestrino, F; Benedict, M Q; Gilles, J R L

2012-05-01

76

Vehicle rear suspension system  

SciTech Connect

A rear suspension system is described for a vehicle having a rear body section provided with a sub-frame including a pair of longitudinal member extending substantially longitudinally at the opposite sides of the rear body section, and at least one cross-member extending substantially transversely and having opposite ends connected with the longitudinal members. The longitudinal member has a rear end portion located higher than a front end portion, the rear suspension system including swing arm means extending substantially longitudinally and having one end resiliently connected with the longitudinal member at a heightwise position between the front end portion and the rear end portion of the longitudinal member for vertical swinging movement about a center of movement. The system also includes a wheel carrying means for carrying a rear wheel for rotation about a rotation axis, the wheel carrying means being connected rigidly with the swing arm means at the other end of the swing arm means to that a longitudinal force and a rotating force about a transverse axis can be transmitted between the swing arm means and the wheel carrying means.

Sumimoto, T.

1987-03-17

77

Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden  

SciTech Connect

Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

Hettler, W.F.

1981-04-01

78

Recovery of Plutonium From Analytical Laboratory Waste Using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium from analytical laboratory waste was recovered on litres scale using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM) technique using 30% TBP\\/n-dodecane as the carrier. The technique is faster, gives lower radiation exposure to the working personnel and generates lower volume of secondary waste as compared to traditional precipitation \\/ ion-exchange technique. The recovery of plutonium was carried out in two

S. A. Ansari; S. Chaudhury; P. K. Mohapatra; S. K. Aggarwal; V. K. Manchanda

2012-01-01

79

Water balance of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, throughout its development with comparative observations between field-collected and laboratory-reared ticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water balance characteristic data are compiled and determined for each non-fed instar of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, vector of tularaemia and spotted fever rickettsia, comparing wild-caught and laboratory-colonized populations, to establish how habitat influences D. variabilis dehydration resistance. In contrast to ticks from the field, laboratory-colonized ticks show a progression in percentage body water content from a low

Jay A. Yoder; Brian Z. Hedges; Joshua B. Benoit

2012-01-01

80

Techniques to obtain orbital debris encounter speeds in the laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes in hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences such as orbital-debris impact on a debris shield. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be dominated by phase changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled, repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas guns. In this paper, techniques used to extend the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s are described. It is anticipated that this technology will be useful in testing, evaluating, and design of various debris shields proposed for many different spacecrafts.

Chhabildas, L.C.

1996-06-01

81

Spatial repellency of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in a semi-field tunnel cage  

PubMed Central

Background Vapour phase spatial repellents deter mosquitoes from attacking one or more humans in a protected space. Simulation models indicate that high coverage of spatial repellents can enhance the impact of long - lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) where mosquito vectors commonly bite humans outdoors. Here we report a preliminary evaluation of an effective, user-friendly prototype product for delivering spatial repellents to protect against malaria vector mosquitoes. Findings Protective efficacy of a 4.0 × 0.3 m strip of hessian sacking treated with 10 ml of transfluthrin was evaluated in a 60 m × 2 m ×2.5 m netting tunnel with malaria-free insectary-reared Anopheles arabiensis Patton mosquitoes. Personal protection, in terms of proportional reduction of exposure to bites, was measured by comparing human landing catches of volunteers with treated and untreated strips. A freshly treated hessian strip reduced mosquito attack rate on human volunteers by > 99% and consistently conferred > 90% protective efficacy for a period of 6 months. Over the entire study period, only 22 out of 1400 released mosquitoes bit volunteers using the treated sacking strip while 894 out of 1400 mosquitoes released into cages containing volunteers using an untreated strip fed upon them. Conclusion Locally available natural fibers may be promising absorbent substrates for delivering spatial repellents, such as transfluthrin, to protect against mosquitoes in tropical settings. However, these observations relate to a single prototype specimen of this particular device, therefore, much more detailed, well replicated studies are essential to establish long-term efficacy, effectiveness, practicability and affordability.

2012-01-01

82

Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)|

Saltinski, Ronald

1969-01-01

83

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teachi

Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

2010-05-01

84

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

85

Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

86

Routine application of the in situ soil analysis technique by the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a technique developed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for field spectrometry, the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory (YAEL) has routinely performed in situ soil measurements in the vicinity of five nuclear power stations for more than a decade. As a special research endeavor, several locations at the FURNAS Angra 1 site in Brazil having high natural backgrounds were also

J. C. Murray; D. E. McCurdy; E. L. Laurenzo

1989-01-01

87

Laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections.  

PubMed Central

Yolk-sac inoculation of embryonated eggs was superseded 25 years ago by the use of cell cultures (often McCoy) for the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Centrifugation of specimens onto the cell monolayers was shown to increase sensitivity, but little of late has further improved sensitivity which is at least ten-fold greater than that of eggs. However, culture is slow and labour intensive so that non-cultural techniques without these drawbacks have come to dominate. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests are rapid and have sensitivities that range from 70% to 100% for men and 68% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 87% to 99% for men and 82% to 100% for women; if the tests are read by competent observers the values are at the top end of the ranges. The detection rate may be enhanced even further by relatively low-speed centrifugation of specimens before staining. Skilled reading is not a feature of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) which according to the literature have sensitivities that range from 62% to 97% for men and 64% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 92% to 100% for men and 89% to 100% for women. However, comparison against poor reference tests is responsible for most of the higher values and the clinician should not be misled into believing that EIAs have excellent sensitivity; the lower values in the ranges are closer to reality. Furthermore, EIAs that are being designed for use by general practitioners should be regarded with the greatest caution since lack of sensitivity means that chlamydia-positive patients will go undetected. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not bedevilled by insensitivity but it is no more sensitive than the most sensitive cell culture or DFA tests. PCR is unsuitable for routine diagnosis but has a place as a research tool. For men, examination of "first-catch" urine samples by the best of the non-cultural procedures provides an acceptable non-invasive approach to diagnosis; for women, the value of examining urine may be less, but needs to be thoroughly tested. However, there is little doubt that a Cytobrush used to obtain cervical specimens holds no practical advantage over a swab. Serological tests are reliant on the provision of paired sera for making a diagnosis; high antibody titres in single sera may be suggestive of an aetiological association in deep-seated chlamydial infections (epididymitis, arthritis, salpingitis, etc), but unequivocal interpretation is unusual, particularly in an individual case, since the distinction between a current and past infection is problematical.

Taylor-Robinson, D; Thomas, B J

1991-01-01

88

The effect of four fruit species on the parasitization rate of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, Trypetinae) by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Opiinae) under laboratory rearing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the laboratory, the effect of host fruit species Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, Prunus persica, and Psidium guajava on A. fraterculus parasitism by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata was studied. The number of ovipositor-probing events and the probing-time were documented to evaluate the role of fruit chemistry, and epicarp and mesocarp thickness, respectively. The relationship between the parasitization rate and fruit size in

Sergio M. Ovruski; Luis E. Oroño; Pablo Schliserman; Segundo Nuñez-Campero

2007-01-01

89

Population-typical behaviours are retained when eusocial and non-eusocial forms of Evylaeus albipes (F.) (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) are reared simultaneously in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We compare the behaviour of daughters of Evylaeus albipes females from eusocial populations from the West of France with those from a non-eusocial population from the East of the country. When non-eusocial population females are placed in the laboratory under day lengths and temperature conditions similar to those experienced by eusocial foundresses under natural conditions, all five produced a

C. Plateaux-Quénu; L. Plateaux; L. Packer

2000-01-01

90

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

2010-01-01

91

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

92

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

93

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

94

4. View South. North rear elevation of final rear addition ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View South. North rear elevation of final rear addition looking from the railroad tracks and Railroad Street. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

95

Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

96

9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

97

Toward Communal Child Rearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

Sands, Rosalind M.

1973-01-01

98

REARING METHODS FOR SPIDER S  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rearing method is reported which provides spiders with a continual supply of food and water . Using this method, spiders have been reared from egg to adult with low mortality . Other rearin g methods for spiders are reviewed . Rearing and maintaining spiders in captivity is often a rather laborious task, especiall y when large numbers are involved

Robert R. Jackson

99

TECHNIQUES OF TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PART ONE OF THIS BULLETIN PROVIDES HELP IN THE TWO CRITICAL AREAS OF MASTER TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION. SUPPLEMENTED BY NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT AND DUPLICATION TECHNIQUES, THE BULLETIN DESCRIBES MASTER PROGRAM DUPLICATION USING LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, A PROFESSIONAL MASS DUPLICATOR, A TAPE RECORDER, A RECORD…

Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

100

Laboratory Technique for Obtaining Fathead Minnow Eggs for Use in Toxicity Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory technique for collecting freshly fertilized eggs of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been developed for use in toxicity testing of radioactive materials or other environmental pollutants. The fathead minnow egg was selected as a test organism because the period of embryogenesis is relatively short, the number of eggs per spawning is sufficiently large to provide a test

John E. Till

1977-01-01

101

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, MORONE SAXATILIS (WALBAUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the research undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) which can be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. For ea...

102

An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

Duxbury, Mark

2004-01-01

103

Application of Software Engineering Techniques to the Advanced Laboratory of the Cooperative Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical Software Engineering courses are generally dealt with software system development. Students apply the waterfall life cycle to realize their project. The environment which supports the course is rigid and it does not allow to explore variability of software processes and techniques. This work presents one solution utilized in Software Engineering Advanced Laboratory of Computing Engineering Course of Escola Politécnica

Jorge L. Risco; Selma S. Shimizu; J. Eduardo Morello; Beatriz T. Borsoi

2007-01-01

104

Experimental techniques and laboratory apparatus in ancient Greece: drug and perfume preparation.  

PubMed

Ancient greek laboratory experts - phycisians, drogists or perfumers - may be accredited with the evolution of rather sophisticated techniques for the isolat-ion of plant ingredients and the preparation of medicines and fragnances. Mainly based on literary sources, from linear B tablets to Galen or the alchemic corpus, the present paper presents these procedures and describes the apparatus use. PMID:11623494

Varella, E A

1996-01-01

105

Development of inexpensive and globally available larval diet for rearing Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Success of sterile insect technique (SIT) is dependent upon the mass rearing and release of quality insects, the production of which is directly related to the suitability of the diet ingredients used. Commercial diets used for small-scale culture of mosquitoes are expensive and thus not feasible for mass production. Methods A series of low cost globally available diet ingredients including, wheat, rice, corn, chickpeas, and beans along with liver, were provided to 4?h larvae (L1) of Anopheles stephensi (Liston) to see their effect on fitness parameters including larval duration, percent emergence, survival, adult wing size and female fecundity. Different quantities of the candidate diet ingredients were then mixed together to work out a combination diet with a balanced nutritive value that can be used for efficient rearing of the mosquito larvae at relatively lower costs. Results Fastest larval and pupal development and highest survival rates were recorded using a combination diet of bean, corn, wheat, chickpea, rice, and bovine liver at 5?mg/day. The diet is easy to prepare, and much cheaper than the diets reported earlier. The estimated cost of the reported diet is 14.7 US$/ 1.3?kg for rearing one million larvae. Conclusions A combination diet with ingredients from cereals and legumes mixed with liver is a low cost balanced larval diet with the potential for use in both small scale laboratory rearing and mass production of Anopheles in SIT control programs.

2013-01-01

106

Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Since April 1979 the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has applied several advanced data analysis techniques to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high-performance composite flywheels. Some of the more advanced techniques used and examples of these techniques are presented. Real-time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre- and post-test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.

1980-07-14

107

The introduction of Mimorista pulchellalis [ Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae ] into South Africa for the biological control of jointed cactus, Opuntia aurantiaca 1. Biology and mass-rearing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory investigation was conducted on a pyraustid moth imported from South America for jointed cactus control. It was\\u000a found that the moths were crepuscular, with females laying an average of 48±3.5 eggs over a period of 4–8 days. Larvae hatched\\u000a out at night and usually tunnelled into the terminal ends of cactus cladodes at a site where young cactus

E. Nieman

1991-01-01

108

Social interactions of monkeys reared in a nuclear family environment versus monkeys reared with mothers and peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-year-old laboratory-born rhesus monkeys that had been reared in a nuclear family social environment consisting of mothers, fathers, siblings, peers, and other adults of both sexes were permitted to interact in various combinations with equal-aged monkeys that had been reared in an environment consisting of only mothers and peers. It was found that in most interaction sessions nuclear family subjects

Stephen J. Suomi

1974-01-01

109

STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research â Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in todayâs video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

Group, Janus R.

110

Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

1981-01-01

111

Ultimate ceramic veneer: a laboratory-guided preparation technique for minimally invasive laminate veneers.  

PubMed

Clinical success of ceramic laminate veneers depends on material selection, bonding procedures, controlled laboratory steps, and enamel preservation. Enamel preservation is the most critical because excessive tooth preparation can expose dentin reducing bond strength, which is a factor that can cause a decrease in long-term clinical success. The proposed technique based on carefully treatment planning developed between clinician and dental technician helps to maximize enamel preservation, which is an important element for clinical success. PMID:22856034

De Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Hirata, Ronaldo; Celestrino, Marcos; Seto, Marcio; Siqueira, Sérgio; Nahas, Rodrigo

2012-06-01

112

An artificial diet for rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).  

PubMed

Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use secondary screwworms in our laboratory for preliminary experiments as a model for the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), which has been eradicated from the United States. C. macellaria larvae reared on animal tissues produced a putrid odor, an unfavorable condition in the laboratory, and variable pupal size and weight, bringing into question the validity of use as a model for C. hominivorax. Therefore, studies were conducted to develop a less odiferous artificial diet with reduced variability in resulting pupae by comparing three diets: 1) an artificial diet prepared from spray-dried blood, spray-dried poultry egg, dry milk substitute, and solidified with a polyacrylate polymer gel; 2) a fresh blood-based diet prepared similarly, except fresh bovine blood was used in place of spray-dried blood; and 3) a beef liver diet. Data from seven life-history parameters of resulting insects were collected and analyzed. Larval and pupal weights of C. macellaria reared on both the dry and fresh blood-based diets were significantly higher than those reared on the liver diet. Numbers of pupae and percentage of adult emergence were also significantly higher from both dry blood and fresh blood-based diets than those reared on the liver diet. Female flies developing from larvae reared on dry and fresh blood-based diets laid significantly more eggs than females developing from larvae reared on the liver diet. Results show that C. macellaria larvae developed and grew normally in the dry and fresh blood-based diets, indicating that an artificial diet can effectively replace the liver diet commonly used for rearing C. macellaria. PMID:24020312

Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

2013-08-01

113

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

114

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

PubMed Central

We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ, known to exhibit distinct behavioral traits. The group then employs histological techniques to prepare brain sections for observing neuroanatomical variation between strains (for example, 129S1/SvImJ mice are occasionally acallosal). In the final laboratory exercise, they assay the acetylcholinesterase activity in fore- and hindbrains from each strain. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format. The course concludes with pairs of students conducting self-designed independent projects using the acquired behavioral, histological or neurochemical techniques. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience is proving particularly successful as it is relatively straightforward for students to design interesting experiments, gain experience in neuroscience experimentation without excessive use of animals, gather substantial data sets, and develop skills in scientific report writing and presentation at an early stage in their neuroscience curricula. Furthermore, the course has emerged as a centralizing focus for our neuroscience program and is suitable for transfer to and adaptation by other institutions.

Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.

2003-01-01

115

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

116

Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

Kreger, M. D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

2004-01-01

117

Comparison of trypsin treatment method and standard laboratory technique for diagnosis of dermatomycosis.  

PubMed

Dermatomycosis is prevalent worldwide. Discrepancy between microscopic examination and culture findings can create problems in the diagnosis of this common infection. In this study, samples from 60 patients were processed after trypsin treatment and examined by neutral red staining to distinguish viable and non-viable fungal elements. The trypsin treatment method was compared with standard laboratory techniques. A higher number of direct-microscopy-positive, culture-negative samples were obtained without trypsin treatment. Trypsin treatment increased the isolation of fungi from clinical samples, and neutral red staining was able to distinguish viable fungal elements. PMID:15691144

Xess, Immaculata; Mathur, Purva; Sirka, Chandra Shekar; Banerjee, Uma

2004-06-01

118

Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly-? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

2013-09-01

119

Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR). The use of micro-XRD was necessary due to the poor results obtained with conventional XRD. In some cases, pigment identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques utilised in this study. PMID:20541637

Duran, A; Siguenza, M B; Franquelo, M L; Jimenez de Haro, M C; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

2010-05-07

120

A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

2012-01-01

121

A UK perspective on intensive hatchery rearing methods for Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of UK hatchery rearing techniques for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.), based on research findings and commercial practices. Operations from gamete collection through to weaning are covered, including reference to survival rates at each developmental phase. Areas of recent progress are discussed in relation to the remaining production bottlenecks and research requirements. Rearing techniques have been

Robin J Shields; Brendan Gara; Malcolm J. S Gillespie

1999-01-01

122

Implications of host mortality on the economics of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) mass rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fopius (= Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (= Opius oophilus Fullaway) is an egg-pupal parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies. Our breakthrough in the development of a laboratory-adapted strain of F. arisanus facilitated insectary rearing of parasitoids in large numbers. First colonized in captivity in 1989, F. arisanus has been reared routinely on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera (= Dacus) dorsalis (Hendel), its

Ernest J. Harris; Renato C. Bautista

2001-01-01

123

Techniques for phenotyping coronary artery disease in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for applications in translational research.  

PubMed

The catheterization laboratory is an excellent resource for translational research projects requiring phenotypic analysis of coronary artery disease. Coronary angiography, a traditional method of quantifying coronary disease, remains useful for describing the extent and the severity of angiographic coronary disease but is limited by the fact that angiography only depicts the effect of atherosclerosis on the arterial lumen. For this reason, quantitative coronary angiography has been supplemented by intravascular ultrasound and other catheter-based techniques and non-invasive methods for studies involving atherosclerosis progression and regression. Other angiographic based techniques potentially useful in research include the semi-quantification of collateral circulation, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count, and TIMI blush score. The invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve and fractional flow reserve is a valuable adjunctive technique and can be used to precisely quantify the extent of ischemia or the presence of microvascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is currently considered the gold standard for early diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis and for measuring plaque burden. The serial measurements of changes in plaque volume over time are a valuable method of discerning plaque progression and regression. Similarly, radiofrequency backscatter IVUS, a relatively new imaging modality, can be used to describe and track changes in plaque composition. PMID:21445697

Ragosta, Michael

2011-03-29

124

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

125

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

126

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

127

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

128

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

129

2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

130

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

131

ARTIFICIAL FRUIT FLY LARVAL REARING AT 21ST CENTURY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel liquid larval diet and its rearing system was developed in 2004 for laboratory scale of Bactrocera cucurbitae fruit fly production. The diet was composed of brewer's yeast, sugar, antifungal agents (sodium benzoate and nipagen), citric acid, and distilled water. Sponge cloth was used as a ...

132

ELUCIDATION OF THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE WITHIN A LABORATORY-SCALE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS USING MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial community present in a laboratory-scale aerobic and anoxic activated sludge system was investigated using a combination of novel molecular techniques. The parent system was operated for a duration of one year and samples were taken at regular intervals to determine the microbial community structure and profile. The combination of molecular techniques included fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and

P. Padayachee; A. Ismail; F. Bux

133

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, S.G.; Olsen, G. H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

2000-01-01

134

Improved Conspicuity to the Sides and Rear of Motorcycles and Mopeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research utilized accident data analysis, expert opinion, a controlled laboratory simulation study and an observational field study to determine whether practical and feasible vehicle-mounted side and rear conspicuity aids could be developed for moto...

M. Freedman P. S. Davit

1982-01-01

135

The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

Nord, James R.

1987-01-01

136

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

137

Zipper Rear Closure Endurance Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manned endurance test program of 22 two hr. tests was conducted to verify the reliability of the DPE Outergarment Zipper Rear Closure developed under task order nine of this contract. Testing indicates that the closure assembly reliably provides a posit...

C. R. Sandy

1981-01-01

138

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

139

Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

2003-01-01

140

Laboratory Evaluation of NO(sub X) Reduction Techniques for Refinery CO Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational ...

H. B. Lange J. K. Arand M. N. Mansour S. C. Hunter

1985-01-01

141

Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes s...

M. D. Erickson J. S. Alvarado C. S. Lu D. P. Peterson J. Silzer

1996-01-01

142

Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry,

M. D. Erickson; J. S. Alvarado; C.-S. Lu; D. P. Peterson; J. Silzer

1996-01-01

143

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NO(SUB X) REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formatio...

144

Teaching Discrete and Programmable Logic Design Techniques Using a Single Laboratory Board  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are used at many universities in introductory digital logic laboratories, where kits containing a single high-capacity PLD replace "standard" sets containing breadboards, wires, and small- or medium-scale integration (SSI/MSI) chips. From the pedagogical point of view, two problems arise in these laboratories.…

Debiec, P.; Byczuk, M.

2011-01-01

145

Laboratory System for the Investigation of Rain Fade Compensation Techniques for Ka-Band Satellites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/2...

J. S. Svoboda B. A. Kachmar

1993-01-01

146

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared salmon. After release, hatchery-reared fish are inefficient foragers and are often found with empty stomachs or stomachs filled with indigestible debris (Miller 1953, Hochachka 1961, Reimers 1963, Sosiak et al. 1979, Myers 1980, O'Grady 1983, Johnsen and Ugedal 1986). Their social behavior also differs, with hatchery-reared fish congregating at higher densities, being more aggressive, and displaying less territory fidelity than wild-reared fish (Fenderson et al. 1968, Bachman 1984, Swain and Riddell 1990). In the natural environment this results in hatchery-reared fish spending more time in high-risk aggressive behavior and less time in beneficial foraging behavior than their wild-reared counterparts. Hatchery-reared fish are also more surface oriented than wild-reared salmonids (Mason et al. 1967, Sosiak 1978). This increases their risk of being attacked by avian predators, such as kingfishers (Ceryle spp.), which search for fish near the surface. Although some of the differences between wild and hatchery-reared fish are innate (Reisenbichler and McIntyre 1977, Swain and Riddell 1990), many are conditioned and can be modified by altering the hatchery rearing environment. NATURES studies are aimed at developing a more natural salmon culture environment to prevent the development of these unnatural attributes in hatchery-reared fish. NATURES fish culture practices are already producing salmon with up to about 50% higher in-stream survival than conventionally-reared fish (Maynard et al. 1996b). When these techniques are incorporated into production releases, they should also translate into increased smolt-to-adult survival. Conservation and supplementation programs can use NATURES-reared salmonids to rebuild stocks currently listed as endangered and threatened into healthy self-sustaining runs more rapidly than traditional programs. Traditional production programs can also use high-survival NATURES-reared fish to reduce their impact on wild populations, while still meeting their adult mitigation goals.

Maynard, Desmond J.

2003-02-25

147

Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population

Christine Künzl; Sylvia Kaiser; Edda Meier; Norbert Sachser

2003-01-01

148

Performance of marking techniques in the field and laboratory for Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A reliable marking technique was needed for a mark-release-recapture experiment with adults of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar). Four marking techniques, acrylic paint (spattered or brushed on the surface of the insect); and fluorescent pigments (dusted on surfaces or mixed with diet to produce an inges...

149

Traditional and Molecular Techniques for the Study of Emerging Bacterial Diseases: One Laboratory's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving micros- copy, serology, molecular tools, and culture. Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture. The key steps that led to the discovery of emerging bacteria have been reviewed to determine the real contribution

Pierre Houpikian; Didier Raoult

150

Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical…

MacDonald, Gina

2008-01-01

151

Noise reduction techniques used on the high power klystron modulators at Argonne National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulators used in the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been redesigned with an emphasis on electrical noise reduction. Since the modulators are 100 MW modulators with <700 ns rise time, electrical noise can be coupled very easily to other electronic equipment in the area. This paper details the efforts made to reduce noise coupled to surrounding

T. J. Russell

1993-01-01

152

Measurement and laboratory-to-field data correlation techniques for airborne forward-looking infrared systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of modern Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) systems is vital to preserving the lives of military personnel and civilians. Proper test and evaluation processes enhance system integration and provide useful data for system improvements and tactical implementation. Such processes are also necessary to effectively compare modeling and laboratory data with in-situ flight data. In this paper we discuss the test

Mark A. London; Richard Wilder

2004-01-01

153

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01

154

Characterization of pyrocarbon coated materials using laboratory based x-ray phase contrast imaging technique.  

PubMed

In-line x-ray phase contrast is an emerging x-ray imaging technique that promises to improve the contrast in x-ray imaging process. This technique is most suited for x-ray imaging of soft materials, low atomic number elements such as carbon composite fibers, very thin coatings, etc. We have used this new emerging technique for visualization and characterization of the pyrocarbon coated materials using a combination of microfocus x-ray source and x-ray charge coupled device detector. These studies are important for characterization of coating and optimization of various process parameters during deposition. These experiments will help us to exploit the potential of this technique for studies in other areas of material science such as characterization of carbon fibered structures and detection of cracks and flaws in materials. The characterization of the imaging system and optimization of some process parameters for carbon deposition are also described in detail. PMID:17764325

Kashyap, Y S; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P S; Yadav, P S; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar; Dasgupta, K; Sathiyamoorthy, D

2007-08-01

155

Cythogenetic Research Techniques in Humans and Laboratory Animals That Can Be Applied Most Profitably to Livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of various chromosome banding techniques, i.e., (2, C, G, R, Ag-NOR, and SCE, which are currently in use in many clinical cytogenetics labora- tories are discussed. Since C-banding revealed the location of constitutive heterochromatin, it must be applied in conjunction with (2, G, or R-banding techniques. For the longitudinal differen- tiation of mammalian chromosomes one can use either

Sen Pathak

1979-01-01

156

Trace detection of explosive compounds by different laser-based techniques at the ENEA Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ENEA Laser Application Section has participated to the European project ISOTREX (Integrated system for on-line trace explosives detection in solid and vapor state), funded in the frame of the PASR 2006 with the main aim to exploit different laser based techniques. Standard explosive compounds and their precursors have been investigated through an atomic technique (LIBS; Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), an absorption technique (LPAS; Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy) and vibrational techniques (Laser Raman and SERS; Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy). LIBS and SERS reached a sub ng level of detection, supported by a high rank of discrimination of the components via chemometric analysis. This selectivity skill is also quite evident in the LPAS technique. These results assume particular relevance due to the inclusion of interferents, such as dust, fingerprint oil and lubricant oil, into the investigated compounds. The results of the measurements are presented in view of the possible integration of the three techniques in a single device for trace detection, might contribute also to drastically limit the number of false positives.

Botti, S.; Carpanese, M.; Cantarini, L.; Giubileo, G.; Lazic, V.; Jovicevic, S.; Palucci, A.; Puiu, A.

2010-04-01

157

Rearing larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel on media containing banana or rice bran.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials available in Thailand were substituted for some of those in the standard medium currently used in rearing larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of this study is to ...

R. Poramarcom S. Mitchell

1983-01-01

158

Pr´ ecis: Research on Techniques and Tools for Computer Security: The COAST Project and Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the COAST project is to establish a long-term research program exploring new approaches to computer security and computer system management. The principal focus will be on techniques and tools for common, non-trusted (in the DoD TCSEC, \\

Eugene H. Spafford

1998-01-01

159

The effect of blood drawing techniques and equipment on the hemolysis of ED laboratory blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify venipuncture and blood draw factors associated with hemolysis (red blood cell damage) of ED blood samples. Methods: A convenience sample of ED blood samples was studied for degree of hemolysis and phlebotomy technique using data obtained from surveys completed by ED nurses and\\/or ED clinical technicians. The questionnaires were submitted with

Marian Sue Grant

2003-01-01

160

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)|

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

161

Applicability of the PCR technique in the food testing laboratory: Identification of Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Listeria monocytogenes-specific hlyA gene sequences was evaluated as a tool for the identification of presumptive positive colonies isolated on Palcam or Oxford agar during routine analysis of food samples by culture technique. The PCR correctly identified L. monocytogenes isolates from a large number of samples, and provided a significant saving in the time, labour

Burton W. Blais; Lucille M. Phillippe; Mary Burzynski; Joanna Bielecki

1995-01-01

162

Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

163

Serious injury in rear vehicular impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various studies suggest that yielding vehicular seats reduce the potential for injury, in contrast others suggest serious trauma to front and rear seat occupants when front seats collapse rearwards. This study shows that front seat failures cause greater serious injury to front seat occupants with the same change in vehicle speed due to a rear impact

K. Friedman; F. Gaston; J. Bish

1999-01-01

164

The Demise of Child-Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses child rearing and parenting in the US, suggesting that children are becoming more and more unseen and unheard while their parents go off to be entertained. The paper examines root causes and revolutionary changes; Locke's 17th-century child rearing beliefs; Wesley's tough love philosophy; Rousseau's natural goodness beliefs; other…

Winik, Lyric Wallwork

2000-01-01

165

REAR SEAT OCCUPANT PROTECTION IN FRONTAL CRASHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though a significant body of literature exists on the safety performance and effectiveness of various types of front seat occupant restraint systems, there is a paucity of data on the performance of rear seat occupant restraint systems. A research program was initiated to better understand rear seat restraint performance. Research included examining real world data using National Automotive Sampling System\\/Crashworthiness

Shashi Kuppa; James Saunders; Osvaldo Fessahaie

166

Rear-facing car seat (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

167

Measurement and laboratory-to-field data correlation techniques for airborne forward-looking infrared systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of modern Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) systems is vital to preserving the lives of military personnel and civilians. Proper test and evaluation processes enhance system integration and provide useful data for system improvements and tactical implementation. Such processes are also necessary to effectively compare modeling and laboratory data with in-situ flight data. In this paper we discuss the test and evaluation processes typically used for infrared imaging systems and discuss some methods of correlating laboratory and modeling results with flight data. We will present a hypothetical infrared imaging system, demonstrate how it is put through various stages of testing, observe sample hypothetical system data results, and discuss some reasons for selecting specific testing facilities and locations. Additional discussion will focus on preliminary testing considerations such as selection of ground targets for Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference tests and the selection of proper target FLIR test patterns. Finally we will mention future testing challenges such as short-wave infrared systems and the validity of current assumptions used when testing mid-wave infrared systems.

London, Mark A.; Wilder, Richard

2004-08-01

168

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01

169

Rapid slewing of the orbiting spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE) using LQR techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational equations of motion, describing the dynamics of the (rigidized) proposed orbiting Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment during the station-keeping phase, are derived using the Eulerian formulation. When the attitude angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) are assumed small, a stability analysis is conducted for the system. It is seen that the pitch equation decouples from the roll and yaw equations when the interface between the mast on the reflector is not offset or the offset is only along the Shuttle roll axis. When a second offset is introduced along the pitch axis of the system and when the gravity-gradient torques are present in the dynamics, the system assumes a new equilibrium position. The linear regulator theory is used to derive a control law for the linear model of the rigidized SCOLE. This law is applied to the nonlinear model of the same configuration of the system and preliminary single axis slewing maneuvers (20° amplitude) are simulated.

Diarra, Cheick M.; Bainum, Peter M.

170

Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature is known to induce changes in mosquito physiology, development, ecology, and in some species, vector competence for arboviruses. Since colonized mosquitoes are reared under laboratory conditions that can be significantly different from their field counterparts, laboratory vector competence experiments may not accurately reflect natural vector-virus interactions. Methods We evaluated the effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development parameters and vector competence of two Culex tarsalis strains for West Nile virus (WNV). Results Rearing temperature had a significant effect on mosquito developmental parameters, including shorter time to pupation and emergence and smaller female body size as temperature increased. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days post infectious feeding were not consistently affected. Conclusions These results suggest that varying constant larval rearing temperature does not significantly affect laboratory estimates of vector competence for WNV in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes.

2012-01-01

171

Experience with newer techniques for the laboratory detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: Adelaide, 1978-1992.  

PubMed

Efforts to improve laboratory diagnostic methods for infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae have involved the use of a cell-sheet culture method and a modified indirect hemagglutination method for IgM antibody, while direct detection of mycoplasma has employed antigen capture-enzyme immunoassay (Ag-EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of sequences within the P1 and 16S ribosomal RNA genes and quantification of the amplified DNA by dot blot hybridization (DBH). Cell-sheet culture was slightly more sensitive and more rapid than culture with cell-free diphasic medium. Indirect hemagglutination detection of IgM antibody to M. pneumoniae was more sensitive than CF and EIA for detection of IgM antibody to mycoplasma. Ag-EIA gave a rapid and reasonably sensitive indication of infection and correlated well with a serological response of patients indicating a current infection. PCR-DBH was a highly sensitive substitute for culture of mycoplasma. Both Ag-EIA and PCR-DBH require confirmation by assessment of serological response to verify that the infection is current and that positive results of PCR-DBH, in particular, are not the result of continuing carriage of the organism from a previous infection, unrelated to the current episode under investigation. PMID:8399945

Marmion, B P; Williamson, J; Worswick, D A; Kok, T W; Harris, R J

1993-08-01

172

Laboratory Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Evaluation of Two Screening Agar Plates and Two Confirmation Techniques?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance.

Overdevest, I. T. M. A.; Willemsen, I.; Elberts, S.; Verhulst, C.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.

2011-01-01

173

The effects of rearing method on social behaviors of mentored, captive-reared juvenile California condors.  

PubMed

Puppet-reared and parent-reared captive-bred California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) juveniles were studied before their release into the wild. Behavioral data were collected during social interactions within two cohorts of juveniles (N = 11) and their adult mentors (N = 5). The purposes of this study were to (1) document the social behaviors of mentored juvenile California condors, and (2) compare social behaviors for two different rearing methods (puppet-reared versus parent-reared) during two phases of the mentoring process (San Diego Wild Animal Park versus release sites). Of the 17 behaviors examined by 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs), two significant interactions between the rearing method and mentoring phase were found: pulls feathers and feeds alone. For both behaviors, parent-reared condors engaged in these activities more often at the zoo and less often at the release pens than did the puppet-reared condors. The main effect of rearing was also significant for two behaviors: near others, and receives contact aggression from other. Parent-reared birds were more likely to be near another bird and receive contact aggression, regardless of mentoring phase, than puppet-reared birds. The effect size for 16 of the 17 behaviors was greater for the rearing method than for mentoring phase. Rearing method differences may persist long-term, as parent-reared adult mentors were significantly more aggressive than puppet-reared adult mentors. Dominance relations were examined for both cohorts, with the first cohort exhibiting a strong linear relationship (h' = 0.86, P = 0.018), whereas the second cohort exhibited a moderate but non-significant linear hierarchy (h' = 0.63, P = 0.21). The rearing method had no effect on dominance among the juveniles, but adults were probably dominant to juveniles (P = 0.052; the difference was nearly significant). Although social behaviors between the two rearing groups were similar in most respects, this study is the first to document measurable differences between puppet- and parent-reared captive-bred California condor juveniles. Zoo Biol 27:1-18, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360600

Utt, Amy C; Harvey, Nancy C; Hayes, William K; Carter, Ronald L

2008-01-01

174

One technique, two approaches, and results: thoracic duct cannulation in small laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Experimental studies in immunology, pharmacology, or hematology require the sampling of the total thoracic duct lymph in awake and unrestrained rats or mice. Several approaches have been described for cannulation of the thoracic duct, but they are characterized by a modest reproducibility and a low lymph flow rate. An improved technique for obtaining thoracic duct lymph is described here, emphasizing the similarities and differences concerning both rats and mice (average weights of 305 and 15 g, respectively). Rats yielded a mean of 55.6 ml/day thoracic duct lymph, while lymph output in mice reached unexpected volumes of 29.3 ml/day. The use of an operating microscope and silicone cannula, and maintenance of mobility of the animals during lymph collection, offer a reliable method for a high and constant output of thoracic duct lymph. Relevant aspects of the murine thoracic duct anatomy are also identified. PMID:12833325

Ionac, Mihai

2003-01-01

175

Laboratory techniques for determining the effects of pyridostigmine bromide. Interim report, May 1985-May 1986  

SciTech Connect

The USAF Surgeon General approved pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pretreatment for flying personnel as of 21 March 1986. However, specific side effects resulting from taking PB during high sustained + G/sub z/ stress, altitude stress, and periods of potential spatial disorientation had not yet been fully investigated. The USAF school of Aerospace Medicine (UASFSAM), Crew Technology Division, was therefore tasked with this clinical research effort. For effective investigation of these potential problem areas, rapid and accurate methods have had to be established for determining the blood plasma PB levels and the resultant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The basic purpose of this report is to describe in detail the analytical techniques used at USAFSAM to support the clinical research programs involving the physiological and performance aspects of USAF aircrews taking PB.

Parker, F.R.; Barber, J.A.; Forster, E.M.; Whinnery, J.E.

1986-11-01

176

Measurement of salivary cortisol in 2012 - laboratory techniques and clinical indications.  

PubMed

The utility of measuring salivary cortisol has become increasingly appreciated since the early 1980s. Salivary cortisol is a measure of active free cortisol and follows the diurnal rhythm of serum or plasma cortisol. The saliva sample may be collected by drooling or through the use of absorbent swabs which are placed into the mouth until saturated. Salivary cortisol is therefore convenient for patients and research participants to collect noninvasively on an outpatient basis. Several assay techniques have been used to measure salivary cortisol, including radioimmunoassay and more recently liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical sensitivity varies between these assay methods, as does the potential for cross-reactivity with other steroids. The interpretation of salivary cortisol levels relies on rigorous standardization of sampling equipment, sampling protocols and assay technology with establishment of a local reference range. Clinically, the commonest use for salivary cortisol is measuring late-night salivary cortisol as a screening test for Cushing's syndrome. Several studies have shown diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of over 90%, which compares very favourably with other screening tests for Cushing's syndrome such as the 24-h urinary-free cortisol and the 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test. There are emerging roles for the use of salivary cortisol in diagnosing adrenal insufficiency, particularly in conditions associated with low cortisol-binding globulin levels, and in the monitoring of glucocorticoid replacement. Finally, salivary cortisol has been used extensively as a biomarker of stress in a research setting, especially in studies examining psychological stress with repeated measurements. PMID:22812714

Inder, Warrick J; Dimeski, Goce; Russell, Anthony

2012-11-01

177

Experimental Evaluation of Multi-spacecraft Data Analysis Techniques in a Laboratory Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)[1] has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and boundary-crossing time analysis (BCTA). The neutral sheet is swept, or jogged, in a controlled manner with respect to the stationary probes by pulsed internal coil currents. Magnetic field data from measurement points resembling data from multi-spacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check both techniques to deduce a proper normal vector. We examine discharges with the two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but not ions. Boundary-crossing time analysis with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector and relative velocity along the normal vector for all of the tested cases. On the other hand, MVAB sometimes fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the X-line magnetic geometry is fundamentally 2-D or 3-D. However, the direction along the reconnecting field determined by MVAB does not deviate much from the real magnetic geometry documented by 2-D magnetic probe arrays and one additional probe at a different toroidal location. Based on these observations, we suggest a procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission when spacecraft passes through a reconnecting current sheet. The distance between measurement points on the order of the ion skin depth (c/{omega}{sub pi}) is pertinent to determination of the magnetic geometry.

Jongsoo Yoo and Masaaki Yamada

2012-03-27

178

Laboratory studies of peroxy radical reactions using the turbulent flow chemical ionisation mass spectrometer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HO_x (sum of OH and HO_2) plays an important role in the formation of tropospheric O_3 recently Wennberg et al.,^1 pointed out that the formation of tropospheric O_3 is strongly dependent on the level of NO_x as a consequence of its reaction with RO_2 (where R=H or CH_3). It is therefore important to characterise the coupling of NO_x and RO_2 to understand the tropospheric O_3 budget. Model studies have shown in the mid to upper troposphere both HO_2NO_2 and CH_3O_2NO_2 may well constitute a significant fraction of NO_y (˜20%). Despite the importance of these species, there are little or no experimental data available on their formation in this region. At present models do not accurately describe the observed nitrogen partitioning, in particular underpredicting the ratio NO_x/NO_y Recently Brown et al.,^2 have measured key rate coefficients over a wider range of pressure and temperature than performed previously and have shown that the formation of NO_y is much slower than previously estimated from extrapolation of available kinetic data to low temperatures Gao et al.,^3 have observed that these new kinetic data improve the agreement between model and measurements in the lower stratosphere and troposphere respectively, but that discrepancies still exist which must be addressed. The temperatures (180-300 K) encountered in the troposphere pose a significant challenge to laboratory studies. Although much progress has been made in this respect over the years, there still remains considerable uncertainties in the kinetic data base, particularly for conditions of lowest temperature (180 - 250 K) and pressures (70 Torr) that pertain to the UTLS region. A turbulent flow CIMS (as shown in figure 1) has been developed to study the reaction of RO_2 with NO over the pressure range 70-760 Torr and temperatures as low as 170 K. The CIMS is used to detect all trace species in the flow tube. Chemical ionisation takes place through the following reaction scheme. X^- + RO_2 longrightarrow RO_2^- + X 210Po emitting a particles is used to ionise N_2 used as a carrier gas, thus creating secondary electrons. These electrons attach rapidly to the neutral precursor X (e.g. SF6) of the donor to produce X^-. The X^- ion can then react via a charge transfer with the RO_2 species of interest. The resultant RO_2^- is then passed to the mouth of a quadrupole-mass filter via a set of ion optics and detected by an ion multiplier. References (1) Wennberg, P.O., T.F. Hanisco, L. Jaegle, D.J. Jacob, E.J. Hintsa, E.J. Lazendorf, J.G. anderson, R.-S. Gao, E.R. Keim, S.G. Donnelly, L.A. Del Negro, D.W. Fahey, S.A. Mckeen, R.J. Salawitch, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, R.L. Herman, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, E.L. Atlas, S.M. Schauffler, F. Locke, C.T. McElroy and T.P. Bui, Science, 79, 49 (1999). (2) Brown S.S., R.K. Talukdar and A.R. Ravishankara, Chem. Phys. Lett., 99, 277 (1999). (3) Gao, R.S., D.W. Fahey, L.A. Del negro, S.G. Donnelly, E.R. Keim, J.A. Neuman, E. Teverovskaia, P.O. Wennberg, T.F. Hanisco, E.J. Lazendorf, H.M. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, J.C. Wilson, J.W. Elkins, R.M. Stimpfle, R.C. Cohen, C.T. McElroy, T.P. Bui, R.J. Salawitch, S.S. Brown, A.R. Ravishankara, R.W. Portmann, M.K.W. Ko D.K. Weisenstein and P.A. Newman, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 1153 (1999). (4) Seeley, J.V., J.T. Jayne and M.J. Molina, J. Phys. Chem., 00, 4019 (1996).

Bacak, A.; Bardwell, M.; Percival, C.

2003-04-01

179

Laboratory Reagents  

SciTech Connect

Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

CARLSON, D.D.

1999-10-08

180

Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

Sullivan, P.

2003-02-24

181

Analysis and study of an automobile rear seat by FEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to carry out the design of an automobile rear seat and the simulation by finite element method (FEM) on its performance using different standard tests. The design is intended for the rear seats of a four-seat vehicle: two front seats and two rear seats. The rear seat set comprises the right and the left

P. J. García Nieto; J. A. Vilán Vilán; J. J. del Coz Díaz; José M. Matías

2009-01-01

182

The effect of microwave/laboratory light source postcuring technique and wet-aging on microhardness of composite resin  

PubMed Central

Background: Although composite restorations are really valuable for esthetic zones, they have shown less longevity rather than amalgam restorations. Since it may be related to the method used for curing the composite, postcuring could increase the degree of conversion and result in more long-lasting composite restorations. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of two different postcuring techniques on microhardness of indirect composite resin after wet-aging and comparing them with the direct type. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 99 composite disk-shaped (6.5 × 2.5 mm) specimens of composite (Gradia GC, Japan) were prepared in split mold. The indirect composite specimens were postcured by laboratory light source (Labolite LV-III GC Corp, Japan) or microwave unit (MC 2002 JR, LG, Korea). Then, the aging procedure was done for 24 h, 30 and 180 days in distilled water. The Vicker's Hardness test (VHN) on surface of specmens was measured by Wolpert microhardness tester and the data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests. (P ? 0.05). Results: The statistical analysis revealed that surface microhardness of postcured composite by microwave and laboratory light source was more than that of direct composite (P = 0.0001) and postcuring by microwave was more effective than postcuring by laboratory light source (P = 0.004). The 30 days stored composite demonstrated significant decrease of VHN compared with the 24-h stored samples (P = 0.0001), with a more significant VHN decrease after 180 days of aging (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Postcuring increased the surface microhardness and aging reduced the surface microhardness of indirect composite.

Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Sharifi, Elham

2013-01-01

183

Development of the DGT technique for Hg measurement in water: comparison of three different types of samplers in laboratory assays.  

PubMed

The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique is an operationally defined method to determine the dissolved fraction of trace elements in water. The aim of this study was to develop this technique for the measurement of the bioavailable mercury species in natural waters. For that purpose, three types of DGT units (commercial, manufactured with agarose diffusive gel (DG) and manufactured with polyacrylamide DG) were tested under controlled conditions using an Hg(II) solution both with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). An acid digestion method using aqua regia was optimised to efficiently digest the resin gel discs prior to analysis. A good performance was obtained for the three DGT types when deployed in a DOM-free mercury solution in the laboratory, and it was demonstrated that polyacrylamide gel can be used as diffusive layer for mercury sampling. However, when the DGT units were deployed in a mercury solution containing DOM, performance differences were observed. Furthermore, the mass of background mercury (blanks) varied among the different DGT types. In the light of the results, the devices manufactured with polyacrylamide DG seemed to be the best choice for dissolved mercury determination. PMID:21925697

Fernández-Gómez, C; Dimock, B; Hintelmann, H; Díez, S

2011-09-16

184

TV Spots and Supportive Printed Materials on Child-Rearing Practices. Work Unit III. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the 1976-1977 final report of Work Unit III of Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's Early Childhood Program. The Unit was funded to develop media products, mass media delivery strategies, television spot announcements and supportive booklets designed to increase awareness of certain child-rearing skills and practices among low…

Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

185

Growth of Xenopus laevis under different laboratory rearing conditions.  

PubMed

Since the European frogs (Rana spp.) have fallen under the German endangered species regulation, Xenopus laevis (South African Clawed Frog) is being used increasingly in animal research and education. Optimal growth rates and homogeneity of groups have not necessarily been attained as little statistical analysis of growth data has been available. Following metamorphosis, an as yet not understood variability of growth is exhibited by X. laevis. In this study the effect of environmental factors on this variability was determined. Feeding, population density, background colouring, water temperature, the availability of hiding places, water level and water care were each examined separately. Development of body weight and body length were recorded. A definite correlation between the feeding programme, population density, cover and water care on the one hand and growth on the other were seen. Of lesser importance were water temperature, water level and background colouring. The observed variability of growth is assumed to also be of ethological origin. PMID:7603001

Hilken, G; Dimigen, J; Iglauer, F

1995-04-01

186

Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ?  

PubMed Central

The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

Bare, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

2011-01-01

187

GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR REAR LEGS/REAR VIEW IN BROWN SWISS CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters for rear legs/rear view (RLRV) and the 15 current linear type traits in Brown Swiss cattle were estimated. Appraisers record linear traits on a 1 to 9 scale. Reported scores were multiplied by 5 to make them compatible with earlier scores that were on a 1 to 50 scale. The Brown Sw...

188

GENETIC PARAMETERS AND EVALUATION OF REAR LEGS (REAR VIEW) FOR BROWN SWISS AND GUERNSEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters for rear legs/rear view (RLRV) and 15 current linear type traits in Brown Swiss (BS) and Guernsey (GU) dairy cattle were estimated. The BS Association began scoring RLRV in 2004 and the American GU Association began in 2002. For BS, 7,522 records were available on 6,896 cows in 37...

189

Management of scales and other insect debris: occupational health hazard in a lepidopterous rearing facility.  

PubMed

Scales and other body parts of Lepidoptera are known allergens and pose a serious health hazard for workers in rearing programs. Researchers of the Crop Science Research Laboratory (USDA-ARS), located at Mississippi State, MS, have reared lepidopterous insects since the late 1960s. Efforts have been made by them to continuously improve management of the moth scale problem and reduce allergic reactions suffered by workers. We developed strategy that requires a separate facility for housing the moth colonies, oviposition cages that facilitate exit of scales and other debris, an improved air filtration system, and sanitation procedures. The strategy used currently (coined ALERT for Advanced Lepidoptera Environmental Rearing Technology) for scale management efficiently minimizes this serious occupational hazard. PMID:7722080

Davis, F M; Jenkins, J N

1995-04-01

190

Child rearing in poor urban Jamaica.  

PubMed

Child rearing practices and attitudes were investigated using a questionnaire, among 75 families with 31--60-month-old children in poor suburban Kingston. A pattern emerged of many social contacts, outdoor activities and authoritarian discipline. While teaching and preparation for school were highly regarded, there was little conscious effort to foster cognitive and language development through play. Child rearing appears to reflect the influences of an African heritage, Western urbanization and poverty. Items from the questionnaire were used to devise an index of stimulation. Developmental assessments (DQs) were performed on a subgroup of 45 children. The results correlated positively with the index of stimulation. PMID:6850998

Grantham-McGregor, S; Landman, J; Desai, P

191

Experimental techniques for neuroscience research using common marmosets.  

PubMed

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a species of New World monkeys. Because of its ease of maintenance and breeding in laboratories, use of the marmoset is growing rapidly in biomedical research. In neuroscience, the marmosets are attracting more attention, since they have the developed cerebral cortex which plays a key role in higher brain functions. In this review on neuroscience research using the marmoset, experimental techniques developed in our laboratory are summarized. We introduce artificial rearing of neonates, stereotaxic surgery, neuroanatomy including virtual microscopy based on the Internet technology, behavioral study using a large number of marmosets, and primary neuron culture study. PMID:22850638

Tokuno, Hironobu; Moriya-Ito, Keiko; Tanaka, Ikuko

2012-01-01

192

Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.

Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

2011-01-01

193

Artificial Host Egg for Rearing 'Trichogramma'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All existing programs for mass rearing Trichogramma depend upon providing an ample supply of viable host eggs. As a result of the several handling steps and the requirement for fairly elaborate facilities, host egg production accounts for more than 90% of...

J. D. Hoffman

1982-01-01

194

REAR IMPACT TEST METHODOLOGIES: QUASISTATIC AND DYNAMIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a vehicle's seat back in rear impact accidents can significantly affect occupant kinematics and resulting injury potential. The only current United States (U.S.) government regulation addressing seat back strength is outlined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 207, Seating Systems (1). The test method outlined in this regulation is only partially predictive of seat performance in

Brian R. Herbst; Steven E. Meyer; Arin A. Oliver; Stephen M. Forrest

195

Rearing Larvae of Yellowfin Menhaden, Brevoortia Smithi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yellowfin menhaden larvae, 15 mm long, were reared from artificially fertilized eggs in 30 o/oo salinity and 20C. For the first two weeks, larvae were fed sea urchin blastulae, Arbacia, and algae, Platymonas; thereafter, brine shrimp (Artemia) nauplii wer...

W. F. Hettler

1970-01-01

196

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

197

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

198

Identifying Priorities for Improving Rear Seat Occupant Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project helped to identify priorities for improving the safety of rear seat occupants through a literature review and NASS-CDS injury analysis. The literature review covers injury patterns of rear seat occupants, new safety technologies intended for ...

C. A. C. Flannagan K. D. Klinich

2009-01-01

199

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

200

Rearing cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca jascicularis ) on surrogate mothers with bottle feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifty-two cynomolgus monkeys were reared in peer groups on surrogate mothers and fed by bottle during the first months of life. A description of the technique of bottle feeding and the structure of surrogate mothers is presented. Results are shown in a growth curve. Inter- individual differences in body weight were very large. The mean weight was higher in

P. J. A. Timmermans; E. L. Röder; A. M. L. J. Kemps

1988-01-01

201

Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

202

Rearing West Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, juveniles on copepod nauplii and enriched Artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved captive breeding techniques are required for seahorses. Artemia nauplii are generally considered a poor first feeding diet for many seahorse species. This study compared growth and survival of newborn Hippocampus subelongatus reared on cultured copepod nauplii and Artemia nauplii enriched with Super Selco®. Early growth and survival of seahorses were significantly greater when fed copepod nauplii. Copepod nauplii were

M. F Payne; R. J Rippingale

2000-01-01

203

Site characterization of polluted soils and comparison of screening techniques for heavy metals by mobile ICP-MS, GFAAS ICP-AES (fixed laboratory) and EDXRF (fixed laboratory)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disused industrial\\/mining site in the former DDR was chosen to evaluate the performance of a mobile laboratory equipped with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) by comparing the results with fixed-lab based ICP-AESGFAAS and XRF. New rapid digestion methods were used to rapidly recover the metals from complex soil matrices for ICP-MS analysis in less than 6 h which permitted

M. J. Duane; S. Facchetti; G. Pigozzi

1996-01-01

204

Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

205

Comparison of Laser Ion Acceleration from the Front and Rear Surfaces of Thin Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparative efficiency and beam characteristics of high-energy ions generated by high-intensity short-pulse lasers (˜1 6×1019 W/cm2) from both the front and rear surfaces of thin metal foils have been measured under identical conditions. Using direct beam measurements and nuclear activation techniques, we find that rear-surface acceleration produces higher energy particles with smaller divergence and a higher efficiency than front-surface acceleration. Our observations are well reproduced by realistic particle-in-cell simulations, and we predict optimal criteria for future applications.

Fuchs, J.; Sentoku, Y.; Karsch, S.; Cobble, J.; Audebert, P.; Kemp, A.; Nikroo, A.; Antici, P.; Brambrink, E.; Blazevic, A.; Campbell, E. M.; Fernández, J. C.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Geissel, M.; Hegelich, M.; Pépin, H.; Popescu, H.; Renard-Legalloudec, N.; Roth, M.; Schreiber, J.; Stephens, R.; Cowan, T. E.

2005-02-01

206

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and...Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand...

2009-01-01

207

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and...Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand...

2010-01-01

208

24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

209

GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

210

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

211

Mass rearing methods for Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), biological control agents of Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae).  

PubMed

Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L., an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Because conventional control methods have proven ineffective, current emphasis is on the introduction and release of host-specific biological control agents. To increase the availability of control agents for distribution and thus the potential for faster control, mass rearing techniques for 2 leaf beetles, Galerucella calmariensis L. and G. pusilla Duftschmidt, were developed under greenhouse and field conditions. To evaluate the success of various rearing techniques on the number of beetles produced and the effect of these methods on offspring quality, female fecundity, larval development, and adult survival were monitored. Survival of adults maintained at 4 degrees C was approximately 60% and was independent of the type of material used for storage, duration of overwintering, and number of beetles per container. Survival rates increased with increasing numbers of dry stems offered as an overwintering substrate. Females in smaller cages had significantly higher oviposition rates, and with an increase in the number of beetles per cage, female fecundity doubled. Continuous rearing in the greenhouse reduced female fecundity. Allowing beetles to overwinter significantly improved fecundity and rearing efficiency, independent of whether beetles overwintered in a controlled environment or in the field. Field rearings consistently produced 2-5 times more offspring with higher survival than greenhouse rearings. PMID:10333750

Blossey, B; Hunt, T R

1999-04-01

212

Design, Development, Analysis, and Laboratory Test Results of a Kalman Filter System-Level IMU Calibration Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force Avionics Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is presently conducting inhouse advanced aided-inertial navigation software development programs. This report describes the design, development, analysis, and labora...

R. A. Kitzerow

1977-01-01

213

Rear projection screens: a theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

The increasing use of rear projection screens has brought about the need for a better understanding of their performance limits based on an analytical model which relates the physical and optical properties of the screen. A theoretical model is developed based on the Mie theory of light scattering, and a general discussion is given of the optical and viewing properties of rear projection screens, using an operational terminology. Basic light scattering data are used to calculate relations between such optical properties as screen brightness, axial gain, uniformity, efficiency, color fidelity, and ambient light sensitivity from such physical parameters as scattering particle size and number density, and relative refractive index of the scattering particles. Data from experimental investigations of volume scattering materials fabricated by Corning Glass Works are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. PMID:20068680

Herrick, R B

1968-05-01

214

Protocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae).  

PubMed

This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28 degrees C and approximately 80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults. PMID:18979019

Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

2007-07-04

215

Variability among four laboratories of the filter bag technique to determine acid and neutral detergent fiber contents in ruminant feeds from Argentina.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the filter bag technique (FBT) in an ANKOM 200 fiber analyzer to assess its accuracy for the determination of acid and neutral detergent fiber (ADF and NDF, respectively) contents in common ruminant feeds from the temperate region of Argentina. The evaluation was done in a ring test of 4 laboratories. The 3 Argentine laboratories were from the College of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires, the College of Agricultural Sciences of the Catholic University of Argentina, and the Balcarce Agricultural Experiment Station of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA). The fourth laboratory was from the Department of Animal Science of Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. The feeds utilized were soybean meal expeller, whole sunflower seed, corn grain, herbages of alfalfa, ryegrass, tall wheatgrass, weeping lovegrass, guinea and barley grasses, and silages of corn and of a natural grassland. Results indicated that values obtained in the 4 laboratories were consistent regardless of the laboratory where the analyses were performed. It was concluded that the FBT in the ANKOM instrument gave satisfactory results when used for the determination of both ADF and NDF across samples having a wide range of fiber contents, and that the among-laboratories variability of this methodology was low. PMID:19485193

Fay, José P; Guaita, María S; Danelón, José L; Chifflet, Sonia; Wawrzckiewicz, Marisa; Díaz, Carolina; Ross, Deborah A; Fernández, Héctor M

216

Effects of rearing with specific stimuli upon postisolation behavior in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior of isolated and pet-reared dogs was compared using a new artificial language code for observational data (COFOD). The depression of social-and object-oriented behavior seen in isolated dogs was not ameliorated by providing experience with objects or with a companion puppy during isolation. Providing opportunity for visual observation of a laboratory room promoted earlier spontaneous emergence from a cage into

John L. Fuller; Lincoln D. Clark

1966-01-01

217

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

1996-08-01

218

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process

Eyal Ben Ami; Boaz Yuval; Edouard Jurkevitch

2010-01-01

219

LABORATORY STUDIES OF THE DEPOSITION OF ALKALI SULFATE VAPORS FROM COMBUSTION GASES USING A FLASH-EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively simple experimental technique is proposed and demonstrated for making measurements of absolute dewpoints and relative deposition rates from flowing combustion gases containing condensible inorganic vapors (here alkali sulfates). In using this “flash evaporation” technique, one first accumulates an inventory of condensate on a Pt-ribbon target maintained below the dewpoint and then flash-evaporates this condensate inventory into the filament

DANIEL. E. ROSNER; BAISHEN LIANG

1986-01-01

220

THE USE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT TRAINING TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE THE CARE, MANAGEMENT, AND WELFARE OF LABORATORY PRIMATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals in a laboratory setting have unique needs. They are handled frequently and subjected to a wide range of medical procedures that may be particularly invasive. To produce the most reliable research results and to protect and enhance the well-being of the animals, it is desirable to perform these procedures with as little stress for the animals as possible. Positive

Gail E. Laule; Mollie A. Bloomsmith; Steven J. Schapiro

221

Laboratory simulation of LNAPL spills and remediation in unsaturated porous media using the image analysis technique: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaking from underground storage and surface spills of hydrocarbon sources can cause serious nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in subsurface environments. The toxic compounds of chemicals have made field study impracticable and it has been replaced by laboratory and numerical simulations. This paper introduces the methodology for two-dimensional light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) flow behavior and remediation experiments using the

Samira Albati Kamaruddin; Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Rosmawati Othman; Norhan Abd. Rahman

2011-01-01

222

Notes on technique in the laboratory determination of e\\/m for electrons by the magnetron method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concerns a fairly common basic error in the formulation of the laboratory experiment on the determination of e\\/m for electrons by the magnetron method, in that a diode is replaced by a tube with several grids connected to the cathode. It is shown that in that case the experimental value for the specific charge as given by the

O. S. Petrov

1976-01-01

223

Evaluation and modification of off-host flea collection techniques used in northwest Uganda: laboratory and field studies.  

PubMed

Quantifying the abundance of host-seeking fleas is critical for assessing risk of human exposure to flea-borne disease agents, including Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Yet, reliable measures of the efficacy of existing host-seeking flea collection methods are lacking. In this study, we compare the efficacy of passive and active methods for the collection of host-seeking fleas in both the laboratory and human habitations in a plague-endemic region of northwest Uganda. In the laboratory, lighted "Kilonzo" flea traps modified with either blinking lights, the creation of shadows or the generation of carbon dioxide were less efficient at collecting Xenopsylla cheopis Rothchild and Ctenocephalides felis Bouché fleas than an active collection method using white cotton socks or cotton flannel. Passive collection using Kilonzo light traps in the laboratory collected significantly more X. cheopis than C. felis and active collection, using white socks and flannel, collected significantly more C. felis than X. cheopis. In field studies conducted in Uganda, Kilonzo traps using a flashlight were similar in their collection efficacy to Kilonzo traps using kerosene lamps. However, in contrast to laboratory studies, Kilonzo flea traps using flashlights collected a greater number of fleas than swabbing. Within human habitations in Uganda, Kilonzo traps were especially useful for collecting C. felis, the dominant species found in human habitations in this area. PMID:22308790

Borchert, Jeff N; Eisen, Rebecca J; Holmes, Jennifer L; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Brown, Heidi E; Graham, Christine B; Babi, Nackson; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

2012-01-01

224

Improvements in rearing method for Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), considering sex allocation and sex determination theories used for Hymenoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved rearing method for the larval endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator was developed in the laboratory considering the single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) theory as well as other factors affecting sex ratio: (1) use of the preferred host of the parasitoid in nature; (2) appropriate host size (large enough to favor female development); (3) appropriate parasitoid age (experienced in parasitization);

Marcela Inés Schneider; Elisa Viñuela

2007-01-01

225

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

226

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

2007-01-01

227

Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

228

Metamorphosis inhibition: an alternative rearing protocol for the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.  

PubMed

The newt is an indispensable model animal, of particular utility for regeneration studies. Recently, a high-throughput transgenic protocol was established for the Japanese common newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. For studies of regeneration, metamorphosed animals may be favorable; however, for this species, there is no efficient protocol for maintaining juveniles after metamorphosis in the laboratory. In these animals, survival drops drastically after metamorphosis as their foraging behaviour changes to adapt to a terrestrial habitat, making feeding in the laboratory with live or moving foods more difficult. To elevate the efficiency of laboratory rearing of this species, we examined metamorphosis inhibition (Ml) protocols to bypass the period (four months to two years after hatching) in which the animal feeds exclusively on moving foods. We found that approximately 30% of animals survived after 2-year Ml, and that the survivors continuously grew, only with static food while maintaining their larval form and foraging behaviour in 0.02% thiourea (TU) aqueous solution, then metamorphosed when returned to a standard rearing solution even after 2-year-MI. The morphology and foraging behavior (feeding on static foods in water) of these metamorphosed newts resembled that of normally developed adult newts. Furthermore, they were able to fully regenerate amputated limbs, suggesting regenerative capacity is preserved in these animals. Thus, controlling metamorphosis with TU allows newts to be reared with the same static food under aqueous conditions, providing an alternative rearing protocol that offers the advantage of bypassing the critical period and obtaining animals that have grown sufficiently for use in regeneration studies. PMID:22559962

Chiba, Chikafumi; Yamada, Shouta; Tanaka, Hibiki; Inae-Chiba, Maiko; Miura, Tomoya; Casco-Robles, Martin Miguel; Yoshikawa, Taro; Inami, Wataru; Mizuno, Aki; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Han, Wenje; Yasumuro, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Mikiko; Takayanagi, Miyako

2012-05-01

229

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level

R. Whiteside; R. Pawlowicz; L. Whitehead; R. Arnseth

2002-01-01

230

Highly Reproducible Bactericidal Activity Test Results by Using a Modified National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Broth Macrodilution Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bactericidal testing historically has exhibited variable reproducibility, even when prior standardized meth- ods were employed. Several modifications to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth macrodilution method are proposed to improve reproducibility. Recommended changes from the approved NCCLS guidelines (M21-A and M26-A) include omitting serum supplementation of Mueller- Hinton broth, incubating tubes at 35°C for 24 h with

DONNA M. HACEK; DANA C. DRESSEL; LANCE R. PETERSON

1999-01-01

231

Laboratory-based diagnosis of brucellosis--a review of the literature. Part I: Techniques for direct detection and identification of Brucella spp.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a world-wide re-emerging zoonosis and the most frequent laboratory-acquired bacterial infection, causing severe disease in humans with unspecific clinical signs affecting numerous organs. Contact with infected animals, ingestion of contaminated animal products and handling of Brucella isolates in laboratories are risk factors. Various other febrile illnesses, e.g. malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever and tularemia may present with the same symptoms. Therefore, clinical diagnosis is difficult to establish but effective therapy requires an early diagnosis. Vaccines for humans are still not commercially available. Blood culturing of Brucella is time-consuming and not reliable. Thus diagnosis is usually based on indirect serological tests, i.e. serum agglutination test, complement fixation or the Coombs test. However, these 'conventional' serological tests lack sensitivity and specificity. Hence, a combination of various tests is mandatory for a definite diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays can be used for screening and confirmation of brucellosis in one step. Molecular techniques like the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism are needed to differentiate species and strains within the genus Brucella. This review will summarize advantages and disadvantages of the techniques used in clinical laboratories for direct detection and identification of Brucella spp. PMID:14572205

Al Dahouk, Sascha; Tomaso, Herbert; Nöckler, Karsten; Neubauer, Heinrich; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios

2003-01-01

232

Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.  

PubMed Central

The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment.

Miniats, O P; Jol, D

1978-01-01

233

Highly reproducible bactericidal activity test results by using a modified National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth macrodilution technique.  

PubMed

Bactericidal testing historically has exhibited variable reproducibility, even when prior standardized methods were employed. Several modifications to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth macrodilution method are proposed to improve reproducibility. Recommended changes from the approved NCCLS guidelines (M21-A and M26-A) include omitting serum supplementation of Mueller-Hinton broth, incubating tubes at 35 degrees C for 24 h with no agitation until they are sampled, running all tests in duplicate with six dilutions instead of nine, reincubating the test for an additional 24 h to resolve discrepant bactericidal activity test results, using a single 0.1-ml sample from each clear tube for subculture, and adopting an alternate method for calculating endpoint determination. In order to test these recommendations in a clinical laboratory setting, we used the modified methodology on 224 separate tests for bactericidal activity. There were 102 serum bactericidal titer (SBT) and 122 minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays performed. By defining reproducibility as agreement between duplicate tests +/- 1 dilution, we found 207 of 224 tests (92%) were reproducible at the 24-h subculture point (94% for the SBT assay and 91% for the MBC assay). When the 17 assays with discrepant results were incubated an additional 24 h for a second subculture, only 1 of 224 tests (0.4%) remained discrepant. The method used is practical for a clinical laboratory that chooses to perform bactericidal activity testing and assures a high level of reproducibility between duplicate assays. The total cost of a test was approximately $25.00. PMID:10325341

Hacek, D M; Dressel, D C; Peterson, L R

1999-06-01

234

An inter-laboratory comparison demonstrates that [1H]-NMR metabolite fingerprinting is a robust technique for collaborative plant metabolomic data collection  

PubMed Central

In any metabolomics experiment, robustness and reproducibility of data collection is of vital importance. These become more important in collaborative studies where data is to be collected on multiple instruments. With minimisation of variance in sample preparation and instrument performance it is possible to elucidate even subtle differences in metabolite fingerprints due to genotype or biological treatment. In this paper we report on an inter laboratory comparison of plant derived samples by [1H]-NMR spectroscopy across five different sites and within those sites utilising instruments with different probes and magnetic field strengths of 9.4 T (400 MHz), 11.7 T (500 MHz) and 14.1 T (600 MHz). Whilst the focus of the study is on consistent data collection across laboratories, aspects of sample stability and the requirement for sample rotation within the NMR magnet are also discussed. Comparability of the datasets from participating laboratories was exceptionally good and the data were amenable to comparative analysis by multivariate statistics. Field strength differences can be adjusted for in the data pre-processing and multivariate analysis demonstrating that [1H]-NMR fingerprinting is the ideal technique for large scale plant metabolomics data collection requiring the participation of multiple laboratories.

Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.; Miller, Sonia J.; Deborde, Catherine; Maucourt, Mickael; Biais, Benoit; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Moco, Sofia; Vervoort, Jacques; Lommen, Arjen; Schafer, Hartmut; Humpfer, Eberhard

2010-01-01

235

Efficiency of Fine-Needle Aspiration Compared with Other Sampling Techniques for Laboratory Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer Disease ?  

PubMed Central

In accordance with recent WHO recommendations, this study evaluates the sensitivities of PCR and microscopy for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) versus techniques involving swabs and punch biopsy specimens and suggests that FNA can replace punch biopsies for nonulcerative lesions and may serve as an alternative for ulcerative lesions in cases where scarred edges prevent the collection of swabs.

Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Beissner, Marcus; Huber, Kristina; Awua-Boateng, Nana-Yaa; Nitschke, Jorg; Thompson, William; Klutse, Erasmus; Agbenorku, Pius; Assiobo, Awovi; Piten, Ebekalisai; Wiedemann, Franz; Fleischmann, Erna; Helfrich, Kerstin; Adjei, Ohene; Loscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela

2010-01-01

236

An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements.

Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

2011-01-01

237

Precedence-effect-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in socially reared but not isolation-reared rats.  

PubMed

Attention to a prepulse presented shortly before a startling stimulus enhances prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in normal people, but not in schizophrenics. Fear conditioning for the prepulse enhances PPI in socially reared, but not isolation-reared, rats. In humans, selective attention to acoustic signals against masking can be facilitated by precedence-effect-induced perceived spatial separation between the signal and the masker. This study investigated whether perceived spatial separation between a prepulse and a noise masker enhances PPI in socially reared rats and isolation-reared rats. The results show that both PPI and conditioning-induced PPI enhancement were larger in socially reared rats than in isolation-reared rats. More important, in socially reared, but not isolation-reared, rats, a further PPI enhancement was induced by precedence-effect-induced perceived separation between a prepulse and a masker only after the prepulse became fear conditioned. Thus, perceived separation facilitates normal rats' attention to a conditioned prepulse and enhances PPI. Isolation rearing impairs rats' ability to attend to ecologically significant acoustic events. PMID:19246326

Du, Yi; Li, Jingyu; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

2009-03-01

238

The fundamentals of flying: simple and inexpensive strategies for employing Drosophila genetics in neuroscience teaching laboratories.  

PubMed

Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories. PMID:23493248

Pulver, Stefan R; Berni, Jimena

2012-10-15

239

A computer simulation of four-point bending fatigue of a rear axle assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bending fatigue test of a rear axle assembly is simulated by using a FE-integrated fatigue analysis methodology. The presented technique is based on local stress–strain approach in conjunction with two critical plane damage parameters. The stress–strain response at a material point is computed with a cyclic plasticity model coupled with a notch stress–strain approximation scheme. Linear elastic FE stress

Mehmet Firat

2011-01-01

240

Severe mortality in mesocosm-reared sharpsnout sea bream Diplodus puntazzo larvae due to epitheliocystis infection.  

PubMed

This paper describes severe mortalities recorded in sharpsnout sea bream Diplodus puntazzo larvae reared in mesocosms. The mortalities were attributed to epitheliocystis infection. The pathology associated with the disease is described using histological techniques. Microscopical examination showed a massive infection of the skin, fins, and oral cavity, with impaired feeding, respiration, and osmoregulation being the most likely cause of death. This is the first report of epitheliocystis disease in sharpsnout sea bream and in fish at such an early developmental stage. PMID:19062753

Katharios, Pantelis; Papadaki, Maria; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Divanach, Pascal

2008-10-16

241

Laboratory-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique for material and medical science applications.  

PubMed

In-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for the study of materials such as carbon fibers, carbon composite materials, polymers, etc. Similarly this technique is also well suited for the imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumor and normal tissue. These represent the class of materials for which X-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low X-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method. We have set up an experimental facility using a combination of X-ray CCD detector and a microfocus X-ray source. This facility is dedicated to micro-imaging experiments such as microtomography and high-resolution phase-contrast experiments. In this paper, the results of X-ray phase-contrast imaging experiments are described. PMID:18313312

Kashyap, Yogesh S; Yadav, P S; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P S; Shukla, M; Sinha, Amar

2007-12-23

242

Application of Data Mining Techniques in the Estimation of Mechanical Properties of Jet Grouting Laboratory Formulations over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sometimes, the soil foundation is inadequate for constructions purpose (soft-soils). In these cases there is need to improve\\u000a its mechanical and physical properties. For this purpose, there are several geotechnical techniques where Jet Grouting (JG)\\u000a is highlighted. In many geotechnical structures, advance design incorporates the ultimate limit state (ULS) and the serviceability\\u000a limit state (SLS) design criteria, for which uniaxial

Joaquim Tinoco; Antonio Gomes Correia; Paulo Cortez

2011-01-01

243

Acquisition of the tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field by the PIV technique in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based measurement method is proposed to obtain the high-resolution tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field in the laboratory. A long gravity wave was generated to simulate the tide in a narrow tank full of water laden with PIV particles. Consecutive charge-coupled device (CCD) images were recorded with the studied layer illuminated with a laser beam. Two images separated by one tidal period were processed by applying the pattern-matching algorithm to get the horizontal tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field. The results coincide with sporadic results from the traditional surface-float tracing method, but with much higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the direct acquisition of the Lagrangian residual current may reduce the error at least by one order compared with those acquisition methods that require the detailed information of the tidal cycle.

Wang, Tao; Jiang, Wensheng; Chen, Xu; Feng, Shizuo

2013-09-01

244

Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs - and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance.

Benedict, Mark Q; Knols, Bart GJ; Bossin, Herve C; Howell, Paul I; Mialhe, Eric; Caceres, Carlos; Robinson, Alan S

2009-01-01

245

Front-End Analysis of Rear-End Crashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the application of a seven-step crash problem analysis methodology, as described in the preceding paper by Leasure (l), to rear-end crashes.The paper shows how modeling of rear-end crash scenarios and candidate countermeasure action h...

1992-01-01

246

MASS-REARING BENEFICIAL INSECTS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FLIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a summary of an invited talk given at the IOBC workshop on Arthropod Mass rearing and Quality Control in Montpellier, France, in September of 2003. Quality control of mass-reared biocontrol agents for flies begins with the economical production of house flies. Flies can be produced for abo...

247

Failures of rear axle shafts of 575 DI tractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rear axle shafts of 575 DI tractors manufactured by Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd, Tractor Division, Mumbai, failed before completion of warranty period. Most of the shaft failures (nearly 80–85%) occur during puddeling operations. Rear axle shafts fail in the spline portion. Cracks were found at the root of the splines. The causes of failure and remedies have been discussed in

G. K. Nanaware; M. J. Pable

2003-01-01

248

How Things Work: Front and Rear Bicycle Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from How Things Work, by Lou Bloomfield, provides an explanation of why it can be hard to stop a bike with the rear brakes alone. The site contains a description of how friction and torque produce a rotation of the bicycle that makes the rear brakes ineffective.

2006-11-08

249

DOORS AT REAR KITCHEN WALL, LOOKING SOUTH; LEFT DOOR LEADS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DOORS AT REAR KITCHEN WALL, LOOKING SOUTH; LEFT DOOR LEADS TO SMALL PANTRY, EAST DOOR AND DINING ROOM; 2ND LEFT DOOR LEADS TO BASEMENT; 3RD LEFT DOOR LEADS TO 2ND FLOOR VIA REAR STAIRS; RIGHT DOOR LEADS TO PANTRY, DINING ROOM - Fort Leavenworth, Building No. 18, 16-18 Sumner Place, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

250

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

251

Second floor, west rear chamber, detail of marble mantel, moved ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Second floor, west rear chamber, detail of marble mantel, moved during 1972-75 renovation from first floor west rear parlor where it was installed in 1908 (see MS-67-42) - Governor's Mansion, 316 East Capitol Street, Jackson, Hinds County, MS

252

3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing on north wall, floor, and ceiling, looking north - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

253

2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

254

Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls and roofs of rear ells of 515 Eleventh Street, 517 Eleventh Street, 519 Eleventh Street, and Eleventh Street - Square 347 (Commercial Buildings), Tenth, Eleventh, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

255

Research on the intelligent rear underrun protection system for trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In collisions with trucks, there is a high risk for car occupants to sustain severe or fatal injuries. The intelligent rear under-run protection system, as a very important part to prevent under-run accidents and decrease loss, its dynamic deformation and stress distribution mostly lie on the characteristic of energy absorber and keeping directional stability of the rear vehicle during collision.

Liu Hong-fei; Peng Tao; Xu Hong-guo; Tan Li-dong; Su Li-li

2010-01-01

256

A single camera based rear obstacle detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rear obstacle detection system by using a single rear view camera. The system can detect various static and moving obstacles behind the cars. An efficient hierarchical detecting strategy is used to achieve high detection rate and low false positives. The temporal Inverse perspective mapping difference image based coarse detection is used to estimate whether there are

Zhang Yankun; Chuyang Hong; Norman Weyrich

2011-01-01

257

LDRD ER Final Report: Recreating Planetary Cores in the Laboratory: New Techniques to Extremely High Density States  

SciTech Connect

An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, very few materials have their high pressure (>few Mbar) EOS experimentally validated, and even then, only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isotropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the hydrogen phase space composing Jupiter and one particular Brown Dwarf is shown. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e. diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. The ultimate goal of this multi-directorate and multi-institutional proposal was to develop techniques that will enable us to understand material states that previously only existed at the core of giant planets, stars, or speculative theories. Our effort was a complete success, meeting all of the objectives set out in our proposals. First we focused on developing accurate Hugoniot techniques to be used for constraining the equation of state at high pressure/temperature. We mapped out an accurate water EOS and measured that the ionic->electronic conduction transition occurs at lower pressures than models predict. These data and their impact are fully described in the first enclosed paper ''The Equation of State and Optical Properties of Water Compressed by Strong Shock Waves.'' Currently models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus these data, which provide rigid constraints to these models, will have a significant impact on a broad community of planetary and condensed matter scientists, as well as our fundamental understanding of the giant planets. We then developed and tested precompressed and multiple shock techniques on water. Scientists around the world have teamed with us to conduct these complex and seminal high density experiments which allow access to the extreme core states of giant plants. Double shock experiments using a variety of anvils to compress water to densities higher and temperatures lower than accessible by single shock Hugoniot techniques. First a clear determination of the EOS and optical properties of the anvils needed to be measured. These properties for LiF and A1203 are written up in the second attached article, ''Shock-Induced Transformation of Sapphire and Lithium Fluoride into Semiconducting Liquids.'' An example double shock data record for water is shown. This data is being written up for publication.

Collins, G; Celliers, P; Hicks, D; Cauble, R; Bradley, D; MacKinnon, A; Moon, S; Young, D; Chau, R; Eggert, J; Willi, P; Pasley, J; Jeanloz, R; Lee, K; Bennedetti, R; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Loubeyre, P; Hubbard, W

2003-02-07

258

Candidiasis in young hand-reared kangaroos.  

PubMed

Necropsies conducted on four young eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) revealed white encrustations adherent to the mucosa of the lips, gums, tongue and oesophagus. The non-glandular stomach was impacted with similar white curd-like material, much of which was ahderent to the mucosa. Histopathology revealed fungal mycelia and blastospores invading the stratified squamous epithelium resulting in focal erosion, ulceration and venous thrombosis. A predominantly neutrophilic leucocytic infiltration was produced in intra-epithelial and submucosal tissues. Candida albicans was isolated from the upper alimentary tract lesions of all cases. Failure to thrive on milk diets, prolonged episodes of diarrhoea and antibiotic therapy during hand-rearing were considered to be significant predisposing factors to infection. PMID:6990020

Obendorf, D L

1980-01-01

259

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

2002-02-25

260

Proficiency testing for the determination of pesticides in mango pulp: a view of the employed chromatographic techniques and the evaluation of laboratories' performance.  

PubMed

The proficiency testing for determination of pesticides residues in mango pulp was the third work of the partnership established by INMETRO and INCQS/Fiocruz. Three mango pulp samples were sent to each participant laboratory, two being spiked with the pesticides and one exempt of pesticides. The added pesticides were: deltamethrin, ethion, fenitrothion, malathion, and permethrin. The evaluation of the results of the homogeneity and the stability tests, as well as the determination of the assigned value was made in agreement with ISO GUIDE 35 and ISO 13528, assuming the samples were considered homogeneous and stable for the studied period. The assigned values and the standard deviation for proficiency evaluation was calculated using the robust algorithm, according to ISO 13528, and the evaluation of the results was carried through in accordance with ABNT ISO/IEC Guide 43-1. The z-score graphs and confidence ellipse was also used in the evaluation of the results. In the evaluation carried through from the values of the z-scores, 71% of the reported results were considered satisfactory based on the results found for this index. The evaluation of the analytical viability for the determination of each pesticide and of the analytical capacity of the participant laboratories was carried through. A summarized view of the chromatographic techniques and of preparation of sample used by the participant laboratories was also carried through in this work. PMID:19835699

Violante, F G M; Bastos, L H P; Cardoso, M H W M; Rodrigues, J M; Gouvêa, A V; Borges, C N; Santos, P R da F; Santos, D da S; Góes, H C de A; Souza, V; de São José, A; Bandeira, R D C C; Cunha, V; Nóbrega, A

2009-10-01

261

EAS Temperaments During the Last Half of the Life Span: Twins Reared Apart and Twins Reared Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first behavioral genetic study of personality in the last half of the life span, results are reported using the powerful adoption\\/twin design that compares identical and fraternal twins reared apart and identical and fraternal twins reared together. Traits studied were the EAS temperaments (emotionality, activity level, and sociability), traits that show substantial genetic influence in childhood. It was

Robert Plomin; Nancy L. Pedersen; G. E. McClearn; John R. Nesselroade; C. S. Bergeman

1988-01-01

262

Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

Tulviste, Tiia

2011-01-01

263

Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Rearing, Storing, and Efficacy Studies on Arzama densa for Release Programs against Waterhyacinth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was conducted to develop mass rearing and dispersal techniques for large-scale releases of Arzama densa as a biological agent for the management of waterhyacinth. Life history information on A. densa was obtained from field observations of n...

R. G. Baer P. C. Quimby

1984-01-01

264

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

265

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

266

Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands  

SciTech Connect

The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el campo. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de la domesticacion en el laboratorio fue evaluado. Tres poblaciones naturales, una poblacion semi-natural y una poblacion criada en masa fueron evaluadas: las poblaciones natural de (1) Isla de Madeira (costa norte), (2) Isla de Madeira (costa sur) y (3) Isla de Porto Santo; (4) una poblacion semi-natural despues de 7 a 10 generaciones de domesticacion en el laboratorio (respectivamente, para el primero y segundo experimento); y (5) la raza para separar sexos geneticamente que es usada en el laboratorio de la mosca mediterranea de Madeira (VIENNA 7mix2000). Los experimentos usando jaulas en el campo mostraron que las poblaciones de diferentes origines fueron en su mayor parte compatibles. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad para competir sexualmente entre las poblaciones naturales. Los machos semi-naturales y los machos criados en masa mostraron un desempeno significativamente bajo en ambos experimentos que los machos naturales en el logro de copula con las hembras naturales. Este estudio indica que no hay un aislamiento significativo entre las razas probadas, aunque el desempeno en el apareamiento fue reducido en las moscas criadas en masa y semi-naturales despues de 7 a 10 generaciones en el laboratorio. (author)

Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L. [Programa Madeira-Med, Estrada Eng. Abel Vieira 262, 9135-260 Camacha, Madeira (Portugal)

2007-03-15

267

Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.  

PubMed

It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species. PMID:24040381

Cox, Kimberly H; So, Nina L T; Rissman, Emilie F

2013-09-10

268

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening\\/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface

M. S. Anderson; S. D. Braymen

1995-01-01

269

15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

270

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

271

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

272

14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

273

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

274

18. FIRST FLOOR, KITCHEN, SOUTH REAR CENTER ROOM OF HOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. FIRST FLOOR, KITCHEN, SOUTH REAR CENTER ROOM OF HOUSE, LOOKING IN THE DINING ROOM FROM THE WEST - Armco-Ferro-Mayflower House, 251 Lake Front Drive (moved from Chicago, IL), Beverly Shores, Porter County, IN

275

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1966 REAR PORCH SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1966 REAR PORCH SHOWING BALCONY WHICH GIVES ACCESS TO SECOND FLOOR ROOMS. - Andrews-Taylor House, State Route 43, Farm Road 2862 Vicinity, Karnack, Harrison County, TX

276

Rearing Pacific Salmon in Saltwater Ponds Fertilized with Domestic Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rearing juvenile salmonid fishes in brackish-waters fertilized withtreated domestic wastewater during 1975-76 season achieved levels of growth and survival envisioned for the system. Coho salmon fingerlings showed a 45% survival in South Pond from October...

G. H. Allen

1976-01-01

277

4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

278

EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Spares Inert Storage Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

279

22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ROOF PLAN AND CANOPY DETAIL, AND ELEVATIONS OF NEW TOILETS - Nassau County Courthouse, Atlantic Avenue & Fifth Street, Fernandina Beach, Nassau County, FL

280

5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

281

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

282

Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

NONE

1996-12-01

283

8. Detail view of window on rear wall of western ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail view of window on rear wall of western segment of Roundhouse - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

284

5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street showing original surviving 6/6 sash window and moldings. - 8-10 East State Street (Commercial Building), 8-10 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

285

6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

286

5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

287

View of rear bay in main first floor entry room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear bay in main first floor entry room with fireplace and wainscot detailing. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters I-T, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tenth & Walnut Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

288

View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

289

2. NORTH (REAR) ELEVATION. Second floor wings on the east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. NORTH (REAR) ELEVATION. Second floor wings on the east and west sides are not original, nor are center and right-hand single story appendages - Thomas Rhett House, 1009 Craven Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

290

View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

291

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

292

14. First Floor of c. 1940 final rear addition. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. First Floor of c. 1940 final rear addition. View in the body shop area looking toward the northwest corner of the building. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

293

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

294

5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

295

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

296

11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

297

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

298

12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

299

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. FLAPS REMAIN DOWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. FLAPS REMAIN DOWN AND SPOILERS UP. THIS CONFIGURATION IS AUTOMATICALLY ACTIVATED ON ROLLOUT. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

300

NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

301

5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

302

Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

303

5. WEST REAR OF BUILDING WITH SECTION OF ADDITION AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. WEST REAR OF BUILDING WITH SECTION OF ADDITION AT LEFT. NOTE BARELY VISIBLE COACH ENTRANCE BRICK ARCH ABOVE SMALL ROOF ON PORCH - General Worth Hotel, 213-215 Main Street, Hudson, Columbia County, NY

304

20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

305

19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

306

VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

307

East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near the Greek theater. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

308

3. Ninth Street view of brewery showing rear of 1890 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Ninth Street view of brewery showing rear of 1890 tower building and HI-EN Brau stone building, one of the oldest structures remaining. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

309

6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

310

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

311

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

312

8. Steve Dunwell, Photographer, March 1979. REAR VIEW SHOWING CONNECTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Steve Dunwell, Photographer, March 1979. REAR VIEW SHOWING CONNECTING ROD, CRANK, BEARING AND FLYWHEEL OF 1910 WM. A. HARRIS ENGINE. - Merchants Cold Storage Warehouse, 160 Kingsley Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

313

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

314

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

315

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

316

2. ROADLEVEL VIEW OF CROWN POINT VIADUCT AT REAR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ROAD-LEVEL VIEW OF CROWN POINT VIADUCT AT REAR OF VISTA HOUSE SHOWING SIDEWALK, ROADWAY, AND STAIRCASE IN RETAINING WALL. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Crown Point Viaduct, Encircling Vista House at Crown Point, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

317

East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

318

NORTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Solid Waste Disposal Facility, Off Connecticut Road, west of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

319

South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

320

3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

321

7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS OF SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING SIMPLE GREEK REVIVAL MANTLE. LOOKING WEST; TAKEN FROM FRONT ROOM. - Manlius Thomas House, 125 North Mulberry Street, Georgetown, Scott County, KY

322

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

323

49. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE REAR OF THE BLENHEIM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE REAR OF THE BLENHEIM AND DENNIS HOTELS - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

324

4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

325

EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Exchange Sales Store, Off New York Road, between Kansas & Idaho Avenues, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

326

CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

327

2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

328

3. COMPARATIVE PHOTO SHOWING DIFFERENT REAR ENTRIES ON TWO BUILDINGS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. COMPARATIVE PHOTO SHOWING DIFFERENT REAR ENTRIES ON TWO BUILDINGS, BUILDING MT-76-A IN FOREGROUND - Fort Keogh, Livestock & Range Research Station, 3 miles west of Miles City on U.S. Highway 10, Miles City, Custer County, MT

329

6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

330

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

331

3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Cottage HI-65, Hunting Island State Park, US Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

332

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

333

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

334

40. MAIN DRIVE SHAFT IN CENTER, PATTERN STORAGE IN REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. MAIN DRIVE SHAFT IN CENTER, PATTERN STORAGE IN REAR, WATER TANK AT RIGHT-LOOKING EAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

335

73. (Credit CBF) North embankment of settling basins, with rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. (Credit CBF) North embankment of settling basins, with rear of high service pump room and filter house, November 1911. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

336

View of corredera supports and rear (southwest) of house, including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of corredera supports and rear (southwest) of house, including attachment of rails to la casa, view towards the east - Finca Thillett, Casa, Highway 139, Kilometer 11.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

337

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

338

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

339

Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear of ammunition storage building 4403, view towards the west westside with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

340

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

341

4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

342

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO WEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

343

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

344

27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

345

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

346

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

347

South rear, east end. Original power inlet is visible halfway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South rear, east end. Original power inlet is visible halfway up the wall - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

348

East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

349

REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

350

180 degree view of two story unit illustrating rear elevation. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of two story unit illustrating rear elevation. Building 37, view facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

351

180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

352

16. View of middle bay of N (rear) elevation looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. View of middle bay of N (rear) elevation looking SE. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

353

REAR AND SIDE OF PACIFIC COAST GARRISON MONUMENT, SECTION ES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR AND SIDE OF PACIFIC COAST GARRISON MONUMENT, SECTION ES (EAST SIDE), WITH ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AT RIGHT IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

354

6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

355

4. CLOSEUP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSE-UP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR GABLE AND ROUGH STUCCO FINISH. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Operations Building No. 1, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

356

3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

357

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 651 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Shore Intermediate-Maintenance Facility, Corner of Morton & Craig Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

358

NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Air Force Communications Systems (AFCS) Maintenance Facility, Off Alabama Avenue, adjacent to Flightline Apron, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

359

4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ADDITION FOR WELL-SERVICE VEHICLE, TOOLS, AND EQUIPMENT AND REAR ENTRANCE DOOR AND WINDOW INTO FACTORY. THE METAL OUTBUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SHOP-BUILT PRIVY ERECTED OVER A SANITARY SEWER. VISIBLE ON THE ROOF ARE TWO SKYLIGHT STRUCTURES AND FLUES FOR FORGE AND HEATING STOVE. THE BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS AN ADJACENT GROCERY STORE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

360

CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL BROILERS REARED UNDER VARYING STOCKING DENSITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty numbers of straight run commercial (vencobb-100) broiler chicks were reared under varying stocking densities from 0 to 42 days of age to study their effect on various carcass quality parameters. The stocking densities tried were 900,750,600 and 450 cm 2 per bird. The broilers were reared under standard management conditions with ad-libitum feeding and watering on

T. Jayalakshmi; R. Kumararaj; T. Sivakumar; Thamil Vanan

361

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

362

Rearing greater rhea (Rhea americana) chicks: is adoption more effective than the artificial intensive system?  

PubMed

(1) Survival and weight gain of farmed Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) chicks reared by the adult males that adopted them were compared with those of chicks reared under an artificial intensive system. (2) Both variables were periodically recorded up to the age of 3 months. Gompertz growth curves were fitted to individual growth data using the average adult weight of this population as asymptote. (3) No significant differences in survival rate were detected between systems (adoption=47%, intensive=43%). However, during the first half of the breeding season (mid-spring to mid-summer), the growth rate of adopted chicks (0.01481) was higher than that of intensively reared chicks (0.01296). (4) The adoption system may be more effective in terms of growth, and is probably more efficient in cost/effectiveness than the artificial intensive technique most frequently used. Adoption by males has additional advantages, such as a correct imprinting of the chicks and the selection of more capable individuals. Therefore, it should be used not only commercially but also in conservation projects where individuals are released to the wild. PMID:15835248

Barri, F R; Navarro, J L; Maceira, N O; Martella, M B

2005-02-01

363

Kinship ecology of competition: size hierarchies in kin and nonkin laboratory cohorts of tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an experimental test of the ecological significance of kinship in competitive interactions among individuals. Tadpoles of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina variegata (Anura, Discoglossidae) reared in the laboratory in a high density of siblings grew better and developed faster than when they were reared with similar densities of nonrelatives. Kinship-based genotypic uniformity may therefore be advantageous: it can

M. Jasiefiski

1988-01-01

364

Comparison of rear seat occupant injuries in AM50 and AF05 in frontal crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For rear seat occupants involved in motor vehicle fatal crashes, the number of fatalities of the unbelted rear seat occupants is approximately 3.8 times higher than that of the belted rear seat occupants. In part because of this finding, the National Police Agency decided that wearing a seatbelt would be mandatory for rear seat occupants in Japan from June 2008.

Y. Matsui; Y. Tanaka; N. Hosokawa

2011-01-01

365

Handwashing Laboratory Activities: Fingerprint Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab (Activity #1 on page), learners compare bacteria growth on two petri dishes containing nutrient agar: one that has been touched by a finger washed only with water and one that has been touched by a finger washed with soap. Learners incubate the plates for 24-48 hours and then score the results based on the bacteria growth they observe. Use this activity to emphasize the importance of handwashing and the effectiveness of soap to disinfect.

Christine L. Case, Ed D.

2009-01-01

366

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main focus of the Ames Laboratory's Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for sa...

M. S. Anderson S. D. Braymen

1995-01-01

367

Precedence-effect-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in socially reared but not isolation-reared rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention to a prepulse presented shortly before a startling stimulus enhances prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in normal\\u000a people, but not in schizophrenics. Fear conditioning for the prepulse enhances PPI in socially reared, but not isolation-reared,\\u000a rats. In humans, selective attention to acoustic signals against masking can be facilitated by precedence-effect-induced perceived\\u000a spatial separation between the signal and the masker.

Yi Du; Jingyu Li; Xihong Wu; Liang Li

2009-01-01

368

A simplified low-cost diet for rearing Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its effect on S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus production.  

PubMed

A low-cost simplified diet has been successfully developed for rearing Spodoptera exigua larvae under laboratory conditions. The cost of ingredients was lower than that of the standard diet based on a modified tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.), diet. The simplified diet fulfilled larval nutritional requirements without apparent adverse effects on the reproductive capacity of the insect. Survival, pupal sex ratio, and fecundity registered in insects that were reared on the simplified diet did not differ from those observed on the standard diet. The mean larval development period of insects that consumed the simplified diet was also similar to that of insects that consumed the standard diet, whereas weight of pupae and adult longevity were significantly higher in insects reared on simplified diet. Larvae consumed approximately 11% more of the standard diet compared with the simplified diet and a corresponding increase was observed in the number of larvae that could be reared through to pupation on each liter of simplified diet. The production of S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) occlusion bodies (OBs) in insects grown on each type of diet was also evaluated. Weights of larvae at inoculation and at death, OB yields and biological activity of OBs did not differ significantly for each type of diet. The simplified low-cost diet appears suitable for large-scale in vivo production of SeMNPV OBs. PMID:20214363

Elvira, Sonia; Gorría, Noelia; Muñoz, Delia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

2010-02-01

369

An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)|

Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

1976-01-01

370

The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous\\u000a cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to\\u000a compare primiparae with multiparae. We observed no behavioral effect of rearing and parity. Primiparous maternal adequacy\\u000a amounted to 93% in peer-reared

P. J. A. Timmermans; J. M. H. Vossen

1996-01-01

371

Effect of Feeding Frequency on Feed Cconsumption, Growth, and Feed Efficiency in Aquarium-Reared Norris and NWAC103 Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 6 week feeding study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding frequency on growth rate of juvenile Norris and NWAC103 channel catfish reared under laboratory conditions. Four replicate groups of Norris and NWAC103 catfish (average weight of 4.0 +/- 0.2 g/fish) were fed to visual satiety a...

372

Laboratory culture and development of Euphausia pacifica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euphausia pacifica was reared from eggs released by gravid females taken from the field to l-year-old adults. The duration of each larval stage, the number of instars in each stage, and the molting sequence in the laboratory were determined. For all broods the median developmental time to juvenile 1 was 45 days at 12\\

ROBIN M. ROSS

1981-01-01

373

Picking among pen-reared quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

1945-01-01

374

Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field. PMID:23926780

Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

2013-07-01

375

Socioeconomic status and physical health, how are they related? An empirical study based on twins reared apart and twins reared together  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation used the powerful combined twin and adoption design to assess the validity of three different hypotheses--social causation, childhood experiences, and health selection--on the origin of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. The sample contains 99 pairs of monozygotic twins reared apart, 166 pairs of monozygotic twins reared together, 238 pairs of dizygotic twins reared apart, and

Paul Lichtenstein; Jennifer R. Harris; Nancy L. Pedersen; G. E. McClearn

1993-01-01

376

Parasitoids reared from predators of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), and the hymenopterous parasitoid community on western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

In western North America, infestations of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), are common on orchard, ornamental, and roadside western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent. However, these infestations rarely cause T. heterophylla mortality. Host tolerance and presence of endemic predators may be contributing to the relatively low levels of injury to T. heterophylla caused by A. tsugae. Field surveys of the arthropod community associated with A. tsugae infestations on 116 T. heterophylla at 16 sites in Oregon and Washington were conducted every 4-6 wk from January 2005 through November 2006. Fourteen uninfested T. heterophylla were also surveyed across 5 of the 16 sites. Immature A. tsugae predators collected in the field were brought to the laboratory for rearing. Eight species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from pupae of predators of A. tsugae in the laboratory. Two Pachyneuron spp. (Pteromalidae) and a Melanips sp. (Figitidae) were reared from Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) puparia. Syrphoctonus pallipes (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae), Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae), Syrphophagus sp. (Encyrtidae), and Pachyneuron albutius Walker were reared from Syrphidae (Diptera) puparia. A Helorus sp. (Heloridae) was reared from a Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) cocoon. Laboratory rearing did not show any direct association between parasitoids and A. tsugae. In the field survey, a total of 509 adult parasitic Hymenoptera representing 19 families and at least 57 genera were collected from T. heterophylla. Nonparametric analysis of community structure showed Pachyneuron spp. were strongly correlated to abundance of their Leucopis spp. hosts and to A. tsugae population score in the field. The possible impact of parasitism on Leucopis spp., potential A. tsugae biological control candidates for the eastern United States, is discussed. PMID:19161691

Kohler, G R; Stiefel, V L; Wallin, K F; Ross, D W

2008-12-01

377

Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium Kd's at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium Kd's ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium Kd's were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium Kd's may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium Kd's.

Hemming, C. H.; Bunde, R. L.; Liszewski, M. J.; Rosentreter, J. J.; Welhan, J.

1997-01-01

378

Localized ohmic contact through a passivation dielectric for solar cell rear surface design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the demonstration of a method for forming localized ohmic contact through dielectric passivation layers, via a laser doped region, with no etching prior to metal deposition. A simple bench top voltage source contacted to the gate and bulk of a test Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor device facilitates localized heating leading to ohmic contact formation. The surface passivation qualities of the dielectrics are preserved away from the contact region using this method, as hard dielectric breakdown is restricted to the laser doped region. This is a potential technique for precisely contacting rear surface of high efficiency solar cells.

Western, Ned J.; Sung, Andrew; Wenham, Stuart R.; Bremner, Stephen P.

2013-06-01

379

Automatic mass-rearing of Amblyseius womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

Using incorporated devices, Tetranychus urticae spider mites were rinsed from hydroponically-grown lima bean plants, collected, separated and blow-dried. This yielded a reliable and large volume of eggs and larvae, which were fed to Amblyseius womersleyi rearings on 15 x 5 cm2 polyethylene arenas. Of several feeding regimes tested, daily feeding of 10 mg T. urticae eggs and larvae resulted in the highest predator population levels. The best harvest period was between 15 and 27 days, when predator density exceeded 600 mites per arena. A preliminary automatic mass-rearing device was tested for A. womerslyi. This incorporated both rearing and harvesting procedures. A micro-feeder was developed to supply the required volume of spider mites and maize pollen (1:1 mixture) to the predators. A Bakelite rearing arena reduced the space requirements of a polyethylene arena, was more durable and an essential component in the automatic mass-rearing and harvesting. Mite harvesting is carried out through the use of a vacuum-head harvester. Supplements of (sterilized) spider mites, pollen, vermiculite and wheat bran are automatically added to the predators. The devices for harvesting, filling and packing are incorporated and synchronized and the entire system is controlled by a single slide-switch. The design and system can be expanded without changing the basic processes and program, for example to adopt it for other species of predaceous mites. PMID:11603734

Shih, C I

2001-01-01

380

Application of the mechanical perturbation produced by traffic as a new approach of nonlinear acoustic technique for detecting microcracks in the concrete: A laboratory simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few nonlinear acoustics techniques are currently applied on real structures because their large scale implementation is difficult. Recently, a new method based on nonlinear acoustics has been proposed at the Université de Sherbrooke for the characterization of the damage associated with Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). This method consists in quantifying the influence of an external mechanical disturbance on the propagation of a continual ultrasonic wave that probes the material. In this method, the mechanical perturbation produced by an impact causes sudden opening of microcracks and, consequently, the velocity of the probe ultrasonic wave is suddenly reduced. Then it slowly and gradually returns to its initial level as the microcracks are closing. The objective of this study is: using waves generated by traffics in infrastructures in order to monitor microdefects due to damage mechanisms like ASR. This type of mechanical disturbance (by traffic loadings) is used as a source of low frequency-high amplitude waves for opening/closing of the microdefects in the bulk of concrete. This paper presents a laboratory set-up made of three large deep concrete slabs used to study the nonlinear behavior of concrete using the disturbance caused by simulated traffic. The traffic is simulated with a controlled high accuracy jack to produce a wave similar to that produced by traffic. Results obtained from this study will be used in the future to design an in-situ protocol for assessing ASR-affected structures.

Moradi-Marani, F.; Kodjo, S. A.; Rivard, P.; Lamarche, C. P.

2012-05-01

381

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

382

Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees.  

PubMed

Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities. PMID:17928165

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2007-08-31

383

EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON SURVIVAL OF LABORATORY CULTURED SUMMER FLOUNDER 'PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies are being conducted to determine standard laboratory culture conditions for rearing summer flounder larvae to be used in toxicological bioassays. Experiments were conducted using the type of container and physical conditions use in the long term chronic toxicological bioa...

384

A Summary of the Development of Procedures for Laboratory Marine-Fouling Studies, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of procedures for the rearing of barnacles in the laboratory and for the study of the settlement of these barnacles upon test surfaces under completely controlled conditions is discussed. Categories include: development of procedures for m...

1964-01-01

385

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

386

New laser-based approaches to improve the passivation and rear contact quality in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser processing has been the tool of choice last years to develop improved concepts in contact formation for high efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. New concepts based on standard laser fired contacts (LFC) or advanced laser doping (LD) techniques are optimal solutions for both the front and back contacts of a number of structures with growing interest in the c-Si PV industry. Nowadays, substantial efforts are underway to optimize these processes in order to be applied industrially in high efficiency concepts. However a critical issue in these devices is that, most of them, demand a very low thermal input during the fabrication sequence and a minimal damage of the structure during the laser irradiation process. Keeping these two objectives in mind, in this work we discuss the possibility of using laser-based processes to contact the rear side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells in an approach fully compatible with the low temperature processing associated to these devices. First we discuss the possibility of using standard LFC techniques in the fabrication of SHJ cells on p-type substrates, studying in detail the effect of the laser wavelength on the contact quality. Secondly, we present an alternative strategy bearing in mind that a real challenge in the rear contact formation is to reduce the damage induced by the laser irradiation. This new approach is based on local laser doping techniques previously developed by our groups, to contact the rear side of p-type c-Si solar cells by means of laser processing before rear metallization of dielectric stacks containing Al2O3. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using this new approach in SHJ cells with a distinct advantage over other standard LFC techniques.

Molpeceres, Carlos; Colina, Mónica; Muñoz-Martin, David; Martín, Isidro; Ortega, Pablo; Sánchez, Isabel; Morales, Miguel B.; Lauzurica, Sara; García-Ballesteros, Juan J.; Voz, Cristóbal; López, Gema; Morales, Ana-Belén.; Alcubilla, Ramón

2013-09-01

387

Scale-up from microtiter plate to laboratory fermenter: evaluation by online monitoring techniques of growth and protein expression in Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha fermentations  

PubMed Central

Background In the past decade, an enormous number of new bioprocesses have evolved in the biotechnology industry. These bioprocesses have to be developed fast and at a maximum productivity. Up to now, only few microbioreactors were developed to fulfill these demands and to facilitate sample processing. One predominant reaction platform is the shaken microtiter plate (MTP), which provides high-throughput at minimal expenses in time, money and work effort. By taking advantage of this simple and efficient microbioreactor array, a new online monitoring technique for biomass and fluorescence, called BioLector, has been recently developed. The combination of high-throughput and high information content makes the BioLector a very powerful tool in bioprocess development. Nevertheless, the scalabilty of results from the micro-scale to laboratory or even larger scales is very important for short development times. Therefore, engineering parameters regarding the reactor design and its operation conditions play an important role even on a micro-scale. In order to evaluate the scale-up from a microtiter plate scale (200 ?L) to a stirred tank fermenter scale (1.4 L), two standard microbial expression systems, Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha, were fermented in parallel at both scales and compared with regard to the biomass and protein formation. Results Volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) ranging from 100 to 350 1/h were obtained in 96-well microtiter plates. Even with a suboptimal mass transfer condition in the microtiter plate compared to the stirred tank fermenter (kLa = 370-600 1/h), identical growth and protein expression kinetics were attained in bacteria and yeast fermentations. The bioprocess kinetics were evaluated by optical online measurements of biomass and protein concentrations exhibiting the same fermentation times and maximum signal deviations below 10% between the scales. In the experiments, the widely applied green fluorescent protein (GFP) served as an online reporter of protein expression for both strains. Conclusions The successful 7000-fold scale-up from a shaken microtiter plate to a stirred tank fermenter was demonstrated in parallel fermentations for standard microbial expression systems. This confirms that the very economical and time efficient platform of microtiter plates can be very easily scaled up to larger stirred tank fermenters under defined engineering conditions. New online monitoring techniques for microtiter plates, such as the BioLector, provide even more real-time kinetic data from fermentations than ever before and at an affordable price. This paves the way for a better understanding of the bioprocess and a more rational process design.

2009-01-01

388

Good laboratory practices  

SciTech Connect

Make your laboratory inspection procedures comply with what EPA expect of you. To ensure products under regulatory jurisdiction are safe and effective, EPA requires laboratories conducting health effects testing comply TSCA and FIFRA. Procedures for conducting laboratory inspections of facilities, techniques, recordkeeping, safety and quality assurance programs are detailed in the new EPA book.

Not Available

1985-01-01

389

FULL-SCALE LABORATORY SIMULATION FACILITY TO TEST PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A THIRD WORLD RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION PROCESS. III. EVALUATIO OF A POTENTIAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM THE INDOOR, OPEN HEARTH COMBUSTION OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. NOTE: bnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bi...

390

The maintenance of a laboratory colony of Glossina morsitans since 1959*  

PubMed Central

The authors present the results of the first successful attempt to rear a single-line colony of Glossina in the laboratory. Starting with 43 adults (21 males and 22 females) which emerged in the laboratory from G. morsitans pupae from Mozambique, this colony has been maintained under controlled environmental conditions at the Lisbon Institute of Tropical Medicine since 1959. Guinea-pigs are used as the sole food source, and are offered to the tsetse flies daily for six days each week. The colony kept developing (although not in constant progression) without the introduction of any new elements from September 1959 to September 1963. From that time, the pupae were kept in damp sand throughout the 24 hours during which they are formed. This technique led to highly encouraging progress in the growth of the population, the evolution curve of which coincides perfectly with that of an ideal population. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2

de Azevedo, J. Fraga; Pinhao, R. da Costa

1964-01-01

391

Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

2012-07-01

392

Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.  

PubMed

A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass. PMID:18613567

Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

2008-06-01

393

Homeless Youths' Descriptions of Their Parents' Child-Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored homeless youths' perceptions of their parents' child-rearing practices. Results from 409 youth aged 12 to 23 years reveal the following four parenting styles: supportive/emotionally available; intrusive/unavailable; detached; and problems with drugs/law. Implications of these findings and future research and service provision needs are…

Kipke, Michele D.; And Others

1997-01-01

394

Numerical simulation of thrust reverser for rear mounted engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to establish the feasibility of the evaluation of the performances of thrust reverser systems through numerical simulations, with Onera's Cedre computation code. Two configurations were retained, the first one was an isolated engine and the second one was an installed engine in a rear mounted generic configuration. The first configuration concerns the aft part

G. TURPIN; F. VUILLOT; C. CROISY; D. BERNIER

395

Coordinated Control of Four Wheel Braking and Rear Steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a coordinated control of four-wheel independent braking and rear steering. The objective of the control system is to improve the overall vehicle handling performance during combined braking and turning maneuvers. The braking and steering inputs of the driver are interpreted as vehicle deceleration and yaw rate commands, respectively. The control system is designed using the

Mutasim Salman; Zhihong Zhang; Nader Boustany

1992-01-01

396

Fatigue failure of a rear axle shaft of an automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the failure analysis of a rear axle shaft used in an automobile which had been involved in an accident. The axle shaft was found to break into two pieces. The investigation was carried out in order to establish whether the failure was the cause or a consequence of the accident. An evaluation of the failed axle shaft

Osman Asi

2006-01-01

397

7. General oblique view of rear (north) facade of Paper ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. General oblique view of rear (north) facade of Paper Machine Building, with ruins of brick engine house in foreground; view to southwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

398

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM BERM OVER START OF BURIED CONDUIT SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL (6/96), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

399

4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear of the main block and the courtyard between the E & W wings; looking S. Note structure 73, an air-conditioning unit, in the end of the courtyard. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

400

2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

401

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

402

Evaluation of Artificial Diets for Rearing Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Artificial aphid diets have been previously developed for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The ability to rear aphids on an artificial diet allows for selectively adding or subtracting compounds from an aphid's food source to determine the effect on fec...

403

VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

404

OBLIQUE REAR VIEW OF BOTH UNITS FACING SOUTH CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE REAR VIEW OF BOTH UNITS FACING SOUTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

405

DINING ROOM WITH THE WINDOW TO CARPORT AT REAR WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DINING ROOM WITH THE WINDOW TO CARPORT AT REAR WALL AND PASS-THRU TO THE KITCHEN AT RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

406

Spawning and Rearing of Shortnose Sturgeon from the Connecticut River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), an endangered species, was spawned in the field for the first time. One mature female yielded 62 eggs that were fertilized, of which 12 were hatched and 5 were reared to the fry stage. The eggs hatched in 8 days at 17°C. Diameter of the fertilized eggs was 3.5 mm and mean total length of

Jack Buckley; Boyd Kynard

1981-01-01

407

CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO THE ORE YARD FILLED WITH ORE, SHOWING SELF-UNLOADING SHIP BOOM IN ACTION. LOOKING EAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

408

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

409

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

410

5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

411

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

412

SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields Air Supply building from launch pad - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Air Supply Building for Building No. 0545, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

413

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ARE ORIGINAL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORTING BRICK PARTITIONS UPSTAIRS. AT CENTER IS BRICK PIER SUPPORTING MODERN SAFE. AT RIGHT IS BRICK PIER AND VAULT SUPPORTING ORIGINAL SAFE - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

414

Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

415

1. REAR AND WEST SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 43 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. REAR AND WEST SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 43 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Ammunition Depot West Loch, Oahu, Dispensary, Near Avenue A between First & Second Streets, Lualualei, West Loch Branch Naval Magazine, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

416

Looking north towards the sump, center rear, and air handling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking north towards the sump, center rear, and air handling units no. 3 and no. 4, at left. Suspended cable tray in foreground - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

417

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, FROM NORTHWEST. AT FAR RIGHT IS KID-PHYSICK HOUSE AND ADJACENT TO IT IS KID-CHANDLER HOUSE - Kid-Chandler & Kid-Physick Houses, 323-325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

418

Child rearing knowledge and practice scales for women with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Comprehensive instruments to evaluate the child rearing knowledge and practice are not readily available for clinical research. Materials and Methods: We have designed in two phases a new instrument to evaluate the child rearing knowledge and practice under the four major domains of child rearing. Twenty-five subject experts from the field of Paediatrics, Obstetrics, Neurology and Nursing elicited the content validity of the instrument. The test retest reliability was evaluated by 25 young mothers who completed the CRKS at an interval of two weeks. Results: The Content Validity Ratio (CVR) of individual items ranged between 0.6 to 1. The reliability was tested for the 20 individual items of the CRKS using Kappa coefficient. The measurement of agreement Kappa ranged from 0.51 to 1. The total knowledge scores and sub scores data were analysed for correlation using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A significant Pearson’s correlation indicated that the total scores were consistent over time (r = 0.89). The sub scores on feeding (6 items), Growth and development (4 items), protection (7 items), and infant stimulation (3 items) were found to have reliability of 0.91, 0.76, 0.84, and 0.89 respectively using Pearson’s correlation. Conclusion: The instrument is found to be valid and reliable and can be used to measure child rearing knowledge and practice in early infancy.

Saramma, P. P.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.

2010-01-01

419

CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

420

VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND 507. CONDOMINIUM TOWERS CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW FACING WEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

421

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

422

36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube boiler showing steam drum inspection manhole and blow-down valve. Note inspection plugs for water tubes in tube header below drum. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

423

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

424

9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

425

3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door and position of kilns on the slope. This placement facilitated access to the upper door. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

426

39. VIEW LOOKING NORTH INTO THE REAR OF THE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. VIEW LOOKING NORTH INTO THE REAR OF THE BUILDING COMPLEX AND SERVICE COURT. (NOTE: HISTORIC JAPANESE FALSE CYPRESS AND HINOKI FALSE CYPRESS IN CENTER; FRAMING FOR BLUEPRINT PRODUCTION EVIDENT ON SECOND STORY OF OFFICE WING TO LEFT). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

427

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

428

Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

429

5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor doorway) of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

430

4. View from rear of room of perimeter acquisition radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View from rear of room of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), showing fuel tanks - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

431

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

432

17. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR COURTYARD, AND OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSONAIKEN SERVICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR COURTYARD, AND OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSON-AIKEN SERVICE BUILDING AND STABLE (SC-275) ON LEFT, AND ROBINSON-AIKEN SLAVE BUILDING AND KITCHENS (SC-276) ON RIGHT. - Robinson-Aiken House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

433

7. REAR SIDE OF HOUSE, WITH OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSONAIKEN SERVICE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REAR SIDE OF HOUSE, WITH OUTBUILDINGS: ROBINSON-AIKEN SERVICE BUILDING AND STABLE (SC-275) ON RIGHT, AND ROBINSON-AIKEN SLAVE BUILDING AND KITCHENS (SC-276) ON LEFT. - Robinson-Aiken House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

434

budget and diving behaviours throughout the rearing period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time spent in the water and diving behaviour of subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis (Gray, 1872)) at Amsterdam Island in the southern Indian Ocean were investigated using time-depth recorders throughout the pup-rearing period. The main finding of this study, contrary to the findings of previous studies conducted on other fur seal species, was the decrease in the mean daily amount

C. Guinet; N. Servera; T. Deville; G. Beauplet

435

70. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING NORTH AT THE REAR OF UNIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING NORTH AT THE REAR OF UNIT 2, SHOWING STEAM PIPE, QUICK STOP VALVE, GOVERNOR, AND OIL COOLER; ALSO SHOWING UNIT 5 TO RIGHT (SEE DRAWING No. 12 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

436

21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, PAIRED NARROW 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT. OPEN DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

437

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

438

Effects of monocular strobe rearing on kitten striate cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocular deprivation in kittens does not lead to an ocular dominance shift in striate cortex if the visual stimuli do not contain contours. In the present study we sought to find out whether an ocular dominance shift is produced if the visual environment does contain contours but is devoid of motion. Six kittens were reared with one eye occluded in

J. P. Rauschecker; W. Schrader

1987-01-01

439

9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House showing remains of original coal bunker. Area later was the location of an oil tank. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

440

Selection of Rear Projection Screens for Learning Carrels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection of a rear projection screen for a learning carrel should take into account the viewing angle involved. In some carrels, the viewer can be seated in front of the screen (i.e., on the normal axis) since the screen is used primarily to present information. In these cases, where the screen will be viewed only from a restricted range, a…

Smith, Edgar A.

441

The effect of sex and rearing system on carcass composition and cut yields of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is an analysis of meat quality in broilers of standard fast-growing hybrid Hybro G, reared in two different non-industrial systems (extensive rearing in a poultry house or \\

S. BOGOSAVLJEVIC-BOSKOVIC; V. KURCUBIC; M. D. PETROVIC; V. RADOVIC

2006-01-01

442

Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron capturadas con mayor frecuencia que los machos. La recaptura de moscas silvestres de A. ludens fue de 0.6 a 24.8%, para A. obliqua fue del 1.3 al 16.2%, para moscas de laboratorio fue de 0.5 a 7.1 y 0.5 a 3%, respectivamente. La esperanza de vida correspondio a 4.7 y 4.3 dias para machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. obliqua respectivamente; mientras que 3 y 2 dias fueron para los machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. ludens . La dispersion para A. ludens y A. obliqua fue de 100 a 250 m tanto para individuos silvestres como de laboratorio. Los adultos de A. ludens silvestre se desplazaron del punto central de liberacion al noroeste, los individuos de laboratorio se movieron hacia el oeste del plano Cartesiano. A su vez los adultos de A. obliqua silvestre se movieron hacia el oeste y las de laboratorio hacia el suroeste. Discutimos las implicaciones de nuestros resultados con relacion al espaciamiento y frecuencia de las liberaciones de moscas esteriles para la supresion de poblaciones silvestres. (author)

Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J. [Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Calle Central Poniente No. 14 Altos, 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

2007-03-15

443

Rear Seat Occupant Thorax Protection in Near Side Impacts  

PubMed Central

Thoracic side-airbags (SAB) have proven to protect front seat occupants in side impacts. This benefit has not been evaluated for rear seat occupants who are typically small statured. The objective was to analyze field data from rear seat occupants in near side impacts, and evaluate the effect of a SAB in the rear seat, through full scale vehicle tests. A field study using the NASS-CDS database was performed to review rear seat crash characteristics, occupant injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3+, AIS3+) and injury sources. Full scale tests were performed with the side impact dummy SID-IIs at two different crash severities, with and without SAB in a midsize passenger car. Field data showed that of all AIS3+ injured restrained occupants 13 years and older, 59% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 38% had AIS3+ head injuries. The thoracic injuries were distributed to lungs (60%), skeletal fractures (38%) and injuries to arteries (1,26%) and heart (0,1%). For AIS3+ injured children, age 4–12, 51% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 54% had AIS3+ head injuries. Compared to adults, children sustained less fractures and more lung injuries. The rear side interior was the main injury source regardless of age group. In the full scale tests, the thoracic side-airbag reduced the average rib deflection by 50% and resulted in an AIS3+ injury risk reduction from 36% to 3%. At the higher impact speed, SAB reduced the injury risk from 93% to 24%. The full scale crash tests showed that SAB offer a significant potential for thoracic injury reduction in the crash severities causing the majority of serious injuries in real life crashes.

Bohman, Katarina; Rosen, Erik; Sunnevang, Cecilia; Bostrom, Ola

2009-01-01

444

Evidence for Morphometric Differentiation of Wild and Captively Reared Adult Coho Salmon: A Geometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive genetic evaluation of reproduction in naturally spawning coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, we examined morphometric variation in captively reared and wild adults from Hood Canal, Washington (U.S.A.) for evidence of differentiation between these groups. We collected captively reared fish as parr from two stocks and reared to adulthood at a freshwater hatchery, maturing in 1995 and

Jeffrey J. Hard; Barry A. Berejikian; Eugene P. Tezak; Steven L. Schroder; Curtis M. Knudsen; L. Ted Parker

2000-01-01

445

Seatbelt effectiveness for rear seat occupants in full and offset frontal crash tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, it became mandatory for rear seat occupants to wear seatbelts as of 2008. This paper summarises the results of full car crash tests for rear seat occupants, and compares the kinematics and injury risk to belted and unbelted rear sear occupants in order to show the effectiveness of seatbelts. Full-width rigid barrier and offset frontal impact tests were

Koji Mizuno; Yasuhiro Matsui; Takahiro Ikari; Toshihiro Toritsuka

2011-01-01

446

Improving the Speed of Virtual Rear Projection: A GPU-Centric Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection is the only viable way to produce very large displays. Rear projection of large-scale upright displays is often preferred over front projection because of the lack of shadows that occlude the projected image. However, rear projection is not always a feasible option for space and cost reasons. Recent research suggests that many of the desirable features of rear projection,

Matthew Flagg; Jay Summet; James M. Rehg

2005-01-01

447

49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411 Section...Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall...

2011-10-01

448

49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411 Section...Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall...

2012-10-01

449

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

450

Rearing Sarcophaga bullata fly hosts for Nasonia (parasitoid wasp).  

PubMed

Nasonia is a complex of four closely related species of wasps with several features that make it an excellent system for a variety of genetic studies. These include a short generation time, ease of rearing, interfertile species, visible and molecular markers, and a sequenced genome. It also can serve as a behavior model for studies of courtship, male aggression and territoriality, female dispersal, and sex ratio control. Nasonia vitripennis is a parasitoid of a number of calliphorid flies, such as Sarcophaga bullata, allowing investigations of questions relating to parasitoid/host dynamics, host preference, and specialist versus generalist biology. S. bullata are relatively large, increasing the offspring yield that a single N. vitripennis female can produce. They are also easily reared in the lab if proper ventilation is available. This protocol describes the methods to collect and raise S. bullata larvae that will be used as hosts for N. vitripennis. PMID:20147053

Werren, John H; Loehlin, David W

2009-10-01

451

Parasite communities of Adriatic cage-reared fish.  

PubMed

From June 2001 to March 2002, 7 semi-offshore facilities in the Adriatic Sea rearing sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, sea bream Sparus aurata, sharpsnout bream Diplodus puntazzo and red sea bream Pagellus bogaraveo aged 1+, were monitored for the presence of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Obtained data sets of abundance and prevalence were used to evaluate the structure and dynamic of infra- and component parasite communities. In all hosts, except the red sea bream, dominant parasites were monogenean specialists, showing clear seasonality. Average infracommunity richness was very low, ranging from 1 to 3 parasites per fish, while at component community level, values ranged from 3 to 8, depending on host species. Based on low diversity indices and a moderate to high similarity coefficient between different facilities, it can be concluded that the parasitofauna of Adriatic cage-reared fish is a stable and impoverished stochastic assemblage, with monogeneans as the predominant parasitic group. PMID:15900691

Mladineo, Ivona

2005-04-01

452

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

453

4. Main Control Switchboard (south end rear), view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Main Control Switchboard (south end rear), view to the north, with item 2 (the load frequency control panel) visible in right foreground, through item 7 (generator Unit 4 control panel) obliquely visible on left side of the photograph. Part of item 1 (the synchronization monitor) is visible behind the phone on right side of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

454

Effect of parathion on honey bee larvae reared in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

First instar honey bee larvae (0.2–0.4 mg) from outdoor (summer season) and flight-room colonies (winter season) were reared in an incubator on a semisynthetic diet. Parathion was either dissolved in the diet (0.01–10.0 g\\/ml) or topically applied (0–0.5 g) to the 3rd instar larvae. Increasing doses of parathion caused a delay in larval development and prepupal mortality. The half lethal

Chr Czoppelt; H. Rembold

1988-01-01

455

16. THREEQUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. THREE-QUARTER VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF A HULETT ORE UNLOADER AS IT DESCENDS INTO THE HOLD. THE WALKING BEAM AND ITS GRAB BUCKET ARE OPERATED BY MEANS OF ROPES WOUND ON DRUMS, WHICH IN TURN ARE GEARED TO ELECTRIC MOTORS. ROUND TRIP FROM BOAT TO HOPPER CAN BE MADE IN 50 SECONDS. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

456

Granulosa Cell Tumor in a Farm-Reared Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple white-to-tan, solid, nodular masses were present in the abdominal cavity of a subadult female farm-reared channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. The masses ranged in size from pinpoint to approximately 1 cm in diameter and were present on the ovaries, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, serosal surface of the intestine, and peritoneal adipose tissue. Histologically, the masses consisted of sheets and packets

L. Khoo; K. L. Camp; A. T. Leard; J. C. Harshbarger

2000-01-01

457

85. Photocopied August 1978. WATER BUBBLING UP AT THE REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

85. Photocopied August 1978. WATER BUBBLING UP AT THE REAR OF THE POWER HOUSE IN EITHER 1907 OR 1909. THE BUBBLING IMMEDIATELY IN FRONT OF THE SHEET PILING (DRIVEN IN 1903) WAS CAUSED BY WATER LEAKING UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE FOREBAY, BENEATH THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, AND INTO THE ST. MARY'S RIVER. (525?) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

458

VIEW FROM ALLEY LOOKING WEST AT REAR ELEVATION OF 260 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM ALLEY LOOKING WEST AT REAR ELEVATION OF 260 RENNIE ST., UPRIGHT AND WING TYPE MILL WORKER HOUSING, C. 1900. THIS NEW TOWN SECTION OF GRANITEVILLE ON THE HILL EAST OF THE MILL COMPLEX HAD A GRID-PLAN STREET PATTERN WITH ALLEYS RUNNING THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE BLOCKS. NOTE GARAGES ADDED IN THE 1940'S AND IDENTICAL STRUCTURES 262 AND 264 RENNIE ST. TO RIGHT - 260 Rennie Street (House), Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

459

Environmental rearing effects on impulsivity and reward sensitivity.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that rearing in an enriched environment may promote self-control in an impulsive choice task. To further assess the effects of rearing environment on impulsivity, 2 experiments examined locomotor activity, impulsive action, impulsive choice, and different aspects of reward sensitivity and discrimination. In Experiment 1, rats reared in isolated or enriched conditions were tested on an impulsive choice procedure with a smaller-sooner versus a larger-later reward, revealing that the isolated rats valued the smaller-sooner reward more than the enriched rats. A subsequent reward challenge was presented in which the delay to the 2 rewards was the same but the magnitude difference remained. The enriched rats did not choose the larger reward as often as the isolated rats, reflecting poorer reward discrimination. Impulsive action was assessed using a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate task, which revealed deficits in the enriched rats. In Experiment 2, rats reared in isolated, standard, or enriched conditions were tested on reward contrast and reward magnitude sensitivity procedures. The rats were presented with 2 levers that delivered different magnitudes of food on variable interval 30-s schedules. Across all tests, the enriched and social rats displayed more generalized responding to the small-reward lever, but a similar response to the large-reward lever, compared with the isolated rats. This confirmed the results of Experiment 1, indicating poorer reward discrimination in the enriched condition compared with the isolated condition. The results suggest that enrichment may moderate reward generalization/discrimination processes through alterations in incentive motivational processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24128360

Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T; Clarke, Jacob; Cain, Mary E

2013-10-01

460

2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. Note the cooling and service water take-off pipes for Unit 4 visible in left foreground of photograph. The deck plating that covers the oil pipes is also visible in the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

461

Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

Swift, C. H.

1977-01-01

462

Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.  

PubMed

Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192

Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John

2009-06-01

463

Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.  

PubMed

To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system. PMID:23747273

Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

2013-06-05

464

Artificial rearing of infant rats on milk formula deficient in n-3 essential fatty acids: A rapid method for the production of experimental n-3 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the function of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the\\u000a central nervous system (CNS), is often hindered by the difficulty in obtaining dramatic experimental decreases in DHA in the\\u000a brain and retina of laboratory rats. In this study, the artificial rearing procedure, whereby infant rats are removed from\\u000a their mothers, gastrostomized, and fed

Glenn Ward; James Woods; Michelle Reyzer; Norman Salem

1996-01-01

465

Effect of artificial vs. natural rearing on milk yield, kid growth and cost in Payoya autochthonous dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy full lactations of Payoya dairy goats were used to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and rearing cost. Two animal groups were established, one with goats under natural rearing (NS) and the other under artificial rearing (AR). In the NS group, the kids had free access

M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; F. P. Caravaca; J. M. Castel; F. A. Ruiz; P. González-Redondo; M. J. Alcalde

2009-01-01

466

Ecosystems in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)|

Madders, M.

1975-01-01

467

Effect of salt concentration in larval rearing water on susceptibility of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to eastern equine and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses.  

PubMed

The effect of salt concentration in larval rearing water on the susceptibility of adult Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) and Aedes sollicitans (Skuse) to infection with eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was tested in the laboratory. Ae. sollicitans was more susceptible to infection (79%, n = 82) and viral dissemination (16%) with EEE virus than was Ae. taeniorhynchus (42%, n = 184) and (5%), respectively, when fed on a chick with a viremia of 10(7) +/- 0.1 plaque-forming units/ml; however, infection rates in adults were not affected by rearing in salt concentrations ranging from fresh water to brackish water containing 2.4% sea salts (1 part fresh water and 2 parts seawater). When fed on the same viremic 6-d-old chicken, all 48 Aedes albopictus (Skuse), reared in fresh water, became infected. Similarly, Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral infection or dissemination rates did not vary among Ae. taeniorhynchus adults that were reared in water containing 0, 1, or 2% sea salts. PMID:9775590

Turell, M J

1998-09-01

468

Development of an x-ray fluorescence microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory: Early results: Comparison with data from other techniques  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical predictions for the detection levels in x-ray fluorescence analysis with a synchrotron storage ring are being achieved experimentally at several laboratories. This paper is deliberately restricted to the state of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory/University of Chicago instruments. Analyses at the parts per million (ppM) level are being made using white light apertured to 20 ..mu..m and an energy dispersive system. This system is particularly useful for elements with Z > 20 in materials dominated by elements with Z < 20. Diffraction causes an interference for crystalline materials. Development of a focusing microprobe for tunable monochromatic x-rays and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) is delayed by problems in shaping an 8:1 focusing mirror to the required accuracy. Reconnaissance analyses with a wiggler source on the CHESS synchrotron have been made in the K spectrum up to Z = 80.

Smith, J.V.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Gordon, B.M.

1986-01-01

469

Virtual Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the Virtual Laboratory contains a bold and direct statement: "Conventional teaching all too often accepts memorization and pattern recognition as true learning" After reading this statement, it makes sense that the goal of this site is "to help students to recognize, confront, correct, and expand their understanding of subject or a technique." The site contains five different sets of course materials that use interactive materials, short quizzes, and embedded demonstrations to assist students and teachers alike. One set of materials that should not be missed is in the Teaching & Learning Biology area. Here visitors will find links, fact sheets, and pedagogical suggestions for teaching a college-level biology course. Moving on, the Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything section contains a new perspective on how to reform the garden-variety general chemistry course.

2012-04-27

470

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

2003-11-01

471

MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN LABORATORY REARINGS OF GYPSY MOTH PARASITOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Male-biased sex ratios in populations of parasitic wasps used in biological control are undesirable, because a low ratio of females can prevent the establishment of introduced species or hinder commercial production of species used for augmentative control. This problem has arisen in the culture of...

472

Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

Hendrichs, M. [Department for Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Katsoyannos, B. [Laboratory of Applied Zoology and Parasitology, Department of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-03-15

473

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R (2) ) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R (2) of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R (2) of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C; Holmberg, Charles A; Smith, Bradford P

2013-04-01

474

Manufacturer predicted and measured REAR values in adult hearing aid fitting: accuracy and clinical usefulness.  

PubMed

Audiologists may fit hearing aids using real-ear aided response (REAR) values predicted by manufacturer's fitting software, rather than actual measured REARs. This study examined how well one manufacturer's software was able to predict REARs for a DSP behind-the-ear product in 41 adults (N = 79 ears) under four conditions (two hearing loss configurations and two inputs). Results showed that for all ears tested, measured REAR values were significantly different from predicted for most of the audiometric frequencies for all four test conditions. Discrepancies between measured and predicted REAR values were greater in males' ears than females'. Few ears' REAR values (< or = 12%) were judged to be clinically similar to predicted. Results suggest audiologists should consider using individual real-ear measures in adult hearing aid fittings until manufacturer software is shown to accurately predict real-ear hearing aid performance. PMID:16028792

Aarts, Nancy L; Caffee, Carrie S

2005-05-01

475

Millimeter Wave Calibration Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration practices for millimeter wavelengths are somewhat different than that for meter and centimeter wavelengths. There are technological, atmospheric, and historical reasons for this. This lecture reviews the specific techniques used for millimeter wave calibration and highlights the differences between these and the techniques used at longer wavelengths. The importance of the atmosphere at centimeter, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelengths is discussed in detail. Topics include specific calibration techniques such as the hot/sky chopper wheel method, variations such as hot/cold/sky schemes, sky tipping calibration, and the possibilities of subreflector-based calibration sources. Calibration loss factors including rear and forward spillover and error beam losses are described and illustrated. The TA*, TR*, and TMB temperature scales are defined. Techniques for absolute calibration are also discussed.

Jewell, P. R.

2002-12-01

476

Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells  

SciTech Connect

We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50{+-}0.06) {mu}m/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

Urrejola, Elias [International Solar Energy Research Center (ISC)-Konstanz, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 15, D-78467 Konstanz (Germany); Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar [Sunways AG, Macairestrasse 3-5, D-78467 Konstanz (Germany)

2011-04-11

477

17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear corridor between Units 3 and 4, view to the west. The compressor motor is located just right of center in photograph. The pressure tank on the right side of the photograph is a reserve pressure tank for governor system. The pressure tank on the left side of the photograph is the original instrument air pressure tank. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

478

Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dark-reared, neonatal turtle retinas, ganglion cell receptive fields and dendritic trees grow faster than normal. As a result, their areas may become, on average, up to twice as large as in control retinas. This raises the question of whether the coverage factor of dark-reared ganglion cells is larger than normal. Alternatively, dark rearing may lead to smaller-than-normal cell densities

Eun-Jin Lee; David K. Merwine; Laura B. Mann; Norberto M. Grzywacz

2005-01-01

479

Rearing Environmental Enrichment in Two Inbred Strains of Mice: 1. Effects on Emotional Reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an enriched rearing environment on two types of anxiety-like behavior (designated “trait” and “state” anxiety) and on spontaneous activity were investigated in two inbred strains of mice, BALB\\/c (C) and C57BL\\/6(B6). Subjects were socially reared from birth to 56 days of age under enriched or standard rearing conditions. The enriched environment consisted of an assembly of plastic

P. Chapillon; C. Manneché; C. Belzung; J. Caston

1999-01-01

480

Design of a dependable model vehicle for rear-end collision avoidance and its evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for constructing a safe automobile society to decrease traffic accidents such as rear-end collision, crossing collision, and right turn collisions. Especially, the number of the traffic accidents can be decreased significantly if the occurrence of rear-end collision can be avoided. The purpose of this paper is to design a dependable model vehicle for rear-end collision avoidance even

Takeshi Kasuga; Satoshi Yakubo

2010-01-01

481

Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair

Susan I. Fuhrman; Patricia Karg; Gina Bertocci

2010-01-01

482

Pilot Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Rearing Facility in Tunisia: Constraints and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) mass-rearing facility, located at the Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucléaires, Sidi Thabet, northern\\u000a part of Tunisia, was specifically designed for rearing genetic sexing strains of this species. Rearing operations were initiated\\u000a in 2004 to supply sterile males for a pilot project to control the Mediterranean fruit fly in 5800 hectares of

M. M'saad Guerfali; A. Raies; H. Ben Salah; F. Loussaief; C. Cáceres

483

Identification of mouse retinal genes differentially regulated by dim and bright cyclic light rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright cyclic light rearing protects BALB\\/c mice from light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis compared to dim cyclic light rearing. We used a microarray approach to search for putative neuroprotection genes that were up- or down-regulated under these environmental conditions. Retinal protection by bright cyclic rearing was determined by quantitative histology and DNA fragmentation analysis. Total RNA was isolated from 5-week-old mice raised

Hu Huang; Mark Barton Frank; Igor Dozmorov; Wei Cao; Craig Cadwell; Nick Knowlton; Michael Centola; Robert E. Anderson

2005-01-01

484

Suggestions for Evaluation Criteria of Neck Injury Protection in Rear-End Car Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rear-end impact sled tests were performed with the aim of developing evaluation criteria for neck injury protection, using the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID I). Based on accident experience, occupants in rear seats and occupants with increased distance to head restraints are at a lower and higher risk, respectively, as compared to a front-seat occupant in a regular sitting posture.

Lotta Jakobsson; Hans Norin

2002-01-01

485

Evaluation of rear-end crash risk at work zone using work zone traffic data.  

PubMed

This paper aims to evaluate the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area and merging area, as well as analyze the impacts of contributing factors by using work zone traffic data. Here, the rear-end crash risk is referred to as the probability that a vehicle is involved in a rear-end crash accident. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is used in measuring rear-end crash risk. Based on work zone traffic data in Singapore, three rear-end crash risk models are developed to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk at activity area and its contributing factors. The fourth rear-end crash risk model is developed to examine the effects of merging behavior on crash risk at merging area. The ANOVA results show that the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area is statistically different from lane positions. Model results indicate that rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area increases with heavy vehicle percentage and lane traffic flow rate. An interesting finding is that the lane closer to work zone is strongly associated with higher rear-end crash risk. A truck has much higher probability involving in a rear-end accident than a car. Further, the expressway work zone activity area is found to have much larger crash risk than arterial work zone activity area. The merging choice has the dominated effect on risk reduction, suggesting that encouraging vehicles to merge early may be the most effective method to reduce rear-end crash risk at work zone merging area. PMID:21545857

Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

2011-03-01

486

Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint loading associated with adult manual transit wheelchair in rear impact.  

PubMed

Proper securement of wheelchairs in motor vehicles is vital to providing wheelchair users an adequate level of safety in a crash. Thus far, wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) loading has mostly been examined under frontal impact conditions. Because of the inherent crash dynamic differences, rear-impact loading of WTORS is expected to differ greatly. In this study, three identical, reinforced, manual, folding, X-braced ANSI/RESNA WC19 wheelchairs were subjected to an International Organization for Standardization-proposed rear-impact crash pulse. WTORS loads (front tiedowns, rear tiedowns, lap belt, and shoulder belt) were measured and compared with frontal impact WTORS loading. Rear impact produced substantially higher loads (up to 7,851 N) in the front tiedowns than frontal impact. The rear tiedowns experienced relatively negligible loading (up to 257 N) in rear impact, while rear-impact dynamics caused the lap belt (maximum load of 1,865 N) to be loaded substantially more than the shoulder belt (maximum load of 68 N). Considering differences in frontal and rear impact WTORS loading is important to proper WTORS design and, thus, protection of wheelchair-seated occupants subjected to rear-impact events. PMID:20593327

Salipur, Zdravko; Bertocci, Gina

2010-01-01

487

Influence of the surgical technique and surface roughness on the primary stability of an implant in artificial bone with a density equivalent to maxillary bone: a laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the effect of surgical technique and surface roughness on primary implant stability in low-density bone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty screw-shaped (Biocomp) implants with machined or etched surface topography were inserted into a low-density bone equivalent. Solid rigid polyurethane blocks (Sawbones) with two different bone densities (group A=0.32 g\\/cm(3); group B=0.48

Afsheen Tabassum; Gert J. Meijer; Johannes G. C. Wolke; John A. Jansen

2009-01-01

488

Lift-off process and rear-side characterization of CuGaSe2 chalcopyrite thin films and solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative approach to the so-called ``lift-off'' technology is presented, in which a CuGaSe2 solar cell absorber film is detached from a Mo-coated glass substrate. The proposed lift-off takes advantage of an interfacial MoSe2 layer, acting as a sacrificial layer, which forms at the rear contact during the growth of the CuGaSe2 film. No additional processing step is thus required to proceed with the lift-off. The lift-off was carried out in ultrahigh vacuum for quality assessment, and the rear CuGaSe2 and top MoSe2 surfaces were characterized by means of surface-sensitive techniques, namely, Kelvin probe force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The cleanness of the CuGaSe2 rear surface was confirmed by the absence of Mo remnants, thus demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method for further processing of the absorber film onto alternative substrates. In addition, a quantitative analysis of surface photovoltage, doping concentration, and interface charge at grain boundaries on the absorber's rear surface is presented, exploiting the convenience of the procedure for characterization purposes. Preliminary results regarding the device performance and identification of limiting factors are reported.

Fuertes Marrón, D.; Meeder, A.; Sadewasser, S.; Würz, R.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Glatzel, Th.; Schedel-Niedrig, Th.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.

2005-05-01

489

Gut bacteria associated with different diets in reared Nephrops norvegicus.  

PubMed

The impact of different diets on the gut microbiota of reared Nephrops norvegicus was investigated based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity. Specimens were collected from Pagasitikos Gulf (Greece) and kept in experimental rearing tanks, under in situ conditions, for 6months. Treatments included three diets: frozen natural (mussel) food (M), dry formulated pellet (P) and starvation (S). Gut samples were collected at the initiation of the experiment, and after 3 and 6months. Tank water and diet samples were also analyzed for bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity. Statistical analysis separated the two groups fed or starved (M and P vs. S samples). Most gut bacteria were not related to the water or diet bacteria, while bacterial diversity was higher in the starvation samples. M and P samples were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria and Tenericutes. Phylotypes clustering in Photobacterium leiognathi, Shewanella sp. and Entomoplasmatales had high frequencies in the M and P samples but low sequence frequencies in S samples. The study showed that feeding resulted in the selection of specific species, which also occurs in the natural population, and might be associated with the animal's nutrition. PMID:23040460

Meziti, Alexandra; Mente, Eleni; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

2012-10-04

490

Genetic diversity of the wild and reared Pseudosciaena crocea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic diversity of both wild and reared pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) collected from Guan-Jing-Yang in Ningde, China in May 1999 was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in the present study. The polymorphism and mean difference of the wild population as revealed by RAPD were 18.9% and 0.0960 respectively, and those of the reared stocks were relatively lower, with 16.7% in polymorphism and 0.0747 in mean difference. The genetic distance between the two stocks was 0.0041. From the comprehensive investigation, the main reasons for the loss of genetic diversity were probably overfishing, small number of parents as broodstocks and the debatable artificial ranching. Results from this study also showed that the large yellow croaker populations distributed along Fujian coastal waters including Guan-Jing-yang still potentially wide genetic variability. It is suggested that genetic management and prevention should be scientifically conducted in order to maintain and improve the genetic diversity of the P. crocea population.

Wang, Jun; Su, Yong-Quan; Quan, Cheng-Gan; Ding, Shao-Xiong; Zhang, Wen

2001-06-01

491

Feeding and breeding aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25±2°C, 50±10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30x30x30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2±1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3±5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1±3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4±3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively. PMID:23193515

Salem, A; Franc, M; Jacquiet, P; Bouhsira, E; Liénard, E

2012-11-01

492

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ADULTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SIXTEEN INSECT REPELLENTS IN AEROSOL SPRAYS AGAINST THREE MOSQUITO SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixteen commercial insect repellents (six natural and 10 chemical products) in spray formulations were evaluated in the laboratory for adult knockdown (KD) and mortality of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. All tested products produced significa...

493

A New Solution for the Painting Artwork Rear Cleaning and Restoration: The Laser Cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before restoring a painting, in order to assure a good level of adhesion between the canvas and the preparation layer or to reline the painting, it is often necessary to consolidate the canvas by intervening on the painting rear. Traditional cleaning techniques, chemical combined with mechanical ones, show an important drawback: The cleaning process and technique enfeeble permanently the canvas. The present work performs a comparative study for evaluating both the cleaning process efficiency and the canvas integrity preservation by using various cleaning methods, including Nd:YAG laser systems and traditional techniques. The effects of a short free running mode (? = 1,064 nm, pulse duration of 40-110 ?s), a long Q-switched mode (? = 1, 064 nm, pulse duration of 200 ns) and a Q-switched mode (? = 1,064 and 532 nm, pulse duration of 6 ns) of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the hemp canvas of a seventeenth century painting are investigated. The analyses using FTIR spectroscopy and degradation mapping by optical microscope, with photographs taken before, during and after the cleaning process, were carried out. The work is still in progress.

Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Brunetto, A.; Daurelio, G.; Vona, F.

494

Laboratory Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) can best be studied using radio tomography and seismology. Reflection and transmission radio tomography is best suited for measuring the complex electric permittivity of poorly conducting materials to reveal the internal structure of NEOs. Such NEOs are primarily comet nuclei and carbonaceous asteroids. Seismic experiments are most suitable for studying elastic properties of consolidated materials to reveal material strengths of stony and iron-nickel asteroids. Thus, the two methods are complementary for investigating comets and asteroids of all types. Analysis of reflection and transmission radio tomography of heterogeneous irregular shaped bodies is very difficult. Scattering by internal and outer boundaries, differences in the refractive indices of heterogeneous materials, and attenuation by electric conductivity complicate the analyses. For this reason laboratory simulations with scaled objects and scaled wavelengths is extremely useful to check the reliability of inversion techniques of radio signals to arrive at the interior structure of an NEO. Another approach to obtaining quantitative information on the composition and structure of an NEO is through induced seismology. There are two approaches to producing seismic waves: small explosive charges and impactors. Experimental work has been performed in the laboratory to examine the impulse delivered by explosives. Wave travel times can be used to back out basic material properties and first order structure of an NEO. For example, if distinct arrival pulses for P and S waves are recorded and the explosive initiation/impact time and location are known, then it is possible to determine the elastic properties of bulk and shear modulus. Reflections in the seismograms allow a determination of material boundaries in an NEO. Original arrival time is important since Q numbers for stony NEO material are presumed to be high, as they were on the Moon, and thus it is expected that there will be extensive ringing and noise. Other types of NEO materials will have differing seismic characteristics.

Huebner, W. F.; Walker, J.; Gustafson, B.

495

Genetic heterogeneity in the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in commercially reared chickens.  

PubMed

The genetic heterogeneity of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strains was compared with IBDV detected in bursa tissue of commercially reared chickens. The vaccine strains tested represented classic viruses from the United States, South Africa, England, and France plus variant viruses from the United States. Bursa tissue samples used for the detection of IBDV from commercially reared chickens were from the United States. Genetic heterogeneity was examined using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of a 743-bp fragment of the VP2 gene that was amplified using reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR). The RT/PCR products were digested using restriction enzymes BstNI and MboI. On the basis of RFLP profiles, viruses were placed into molecular groups. Thirty-eight vaccine and laboratory strains of IBDV were placed into five molecular groups. Groups 1 and 2 contained variant viruses, groups 3 and 4 contained classic viruses, and group 5 contained Lukert/Edgar strain classic viruses. In contrast to these five molecular groups, 22 molecular groups were observed for 70 IBDV-positive samples from U.S. chicken flocks. Twenty-two of the 70 IBDV-positive samples were placed into molecular groups 1 (2 samples), 2 (18 samples), and 5 (2 samples). Nineteen new RFLP profiles that did not match the five molecular groups observed for vaccine strains were detected. No viruses were observed to have RFLP profiles like molecular groups 3 and 4 observed in the vaccine strains. The genetic heterogeneity was greater among IBDV strains circulating in commercially reared poultry compared with vaccine strains of the virus. PMID:9645324

Jackwood, D J; Sommer, S E

496

Post-Teneral Protein Feeding Improves Sexual Competitiveness But Reduces Longevity of Mass-Reared Sterile Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique is gaining an increasing role in the control of Mediter- ranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), populations. In the current study, we examine how post-teneral nutrition during the first 4—8 d after adult emergence affects performance and copu- latory success in leks of mass-reared sterile (TSL strain) males. We found that protein and sugar fed males

Roy Kaspi; Boaz Yuval

2000-01-01

497

Photoelastic Coating Study of CT-114 Coupon Joint Test Specimen for Horizontal Stabilizer Rear Attachment Fitting to Vertical Stabilizer Rear Spar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a program of life extension of Canadian Forces CT-114 Tutor jet trainer aircraft, an experimental investigation was initiated on the durability and damage tolerance of the horizontal stabilizer rear attachment fitting and its attached component...

J. P. Komorowski

1988-01-01

498