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1

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis VICTOR CARL MASTRO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1973 Ma)or Sub)ect: Entomology LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis by VICTOR CARL MASTRO Approved as to style and conte by (Cha rman of Committee) Head De artment) (He er) ( mber) mber) August 1973...

Mastro, Victory Carl

2012-06-07

2

Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.  

PubMed

Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations. PMID:16334318

Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

2005-10-01

3

Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

1997-01-01

4

Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

1997-01-01

5

Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

Riley, S. C.; Tatara, C. P.; Scheurer, J. A.

2005-01-01

6

Exposing Laboratory-Reared Fleas to Soil and Wild Flea Feces Increases Transmission of Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis. PMID:23939709

Jones, Ryan T.; Vetter, Sara M.; Gage, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

7

Phenotypic trait changes in laboratory--reared colonies of the maize herbivore, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.  

PubMed

The North American and European maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was used to assess whether conditions of the natal field, subsequent laboratory rearing, or genetic population origin affect phenotypic traits of fitness, activity, or morphometrics. Standardized laboratory bioassays with large sample sizes revealed that none of the 16 tested traits, except crawling behaviours, appeared consistently stable across all seven tested colonies. Environmental conditions in the natal field of the F 0 generation affected trait averages of the subsequently reared F 1 generation in laboratory in ca. 47% of cases, and trait variability in 67% of cases. This was apparent for fitness and morphometrics, but less obvious for activity traits. Early generation laboratory rearing affected trait averages in ca. 56% of cases: morphometrics changed; fecundity and egg survival increased from F 1 to F 2. Trait variability increased or decreased in 38% of cases. Laboratory rearing for over more than 190 generations affected the trait averages in 60% of cases, reflected by decreases in flight activity and increases in body size, weight, and fecundity to some extent. It had little effect on trait variability, especially so for morphometric variability. The genetic population origin affected average levels of 55% and variability of 63% of phenotypic traits. A comparison among D. v. virgifera studies might be difficult if they use different populations or laboratory colonies. It is advised to consider possible effects of original field conditions, laboratory rearing, and population genetics when planning comparative studies targeting fitness, activity, or morphometric questions regarding Diabrotica species. PMID:24267312

Li, H; Guillemaud, T; French, B W; Kuhlmann, U; Toepfer, S

2014-02-01

8

Effects of diet and laboratory rearing on demography of Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Polychaeta: Dinophilidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life table response experiments were performed to evaluate the demographic consequences of: (1) the dietary regimes and (2) the length of laboratory rearing in strains of Dinophilus gyrociliatus, a small infaunal polychaete. The first experiment was performed using animals recently collected from the natural environment and fed either on spinach or on Tetramin (artificial fish food with high caloric content).

D. Prevedelli; R. Simonini

2001-01-01

9

Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Hemibagrus filamentus (Siluriformes: Bagridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological development in laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Hemibagrus filamentus, and behavioral features observed under rearing conditions are described. Body lengths (BL) of larvae and juveniles were\\u000a 3.8 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) mm just after hatching and 11.7 ± 1.6 mm on day 15, reaching 26.5 ± 5.4 mm on day 30 after hatching.\\u000a Aggregate fin ray numbers (for caudal fin, except for procurrent rays) attained full complements in specimens larger than\\u000a 12.9 mm

Shinsuke Morioka; Bounsong Vongvichith

10

Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Pangasianodon hypophthalmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological development, including the fins, body proportions and pigmentation, of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile\\u000a Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was described and their behavioral features were observed under rearing conditions. Body lengths (BL) of larvae and juveniles\\u000a were 3.0 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) mm just after hatching, and 12.9 ± 1.1 mm on day 13, reaching 23.4 ± 1.8 mm on day 25 after hatching.\\u000a Aggregate fin ray numbers (for caudal

Shinsuke Morioka; Kosuke Sano; Phoutsamone Phommachan; Bounsong Vongvichith

2010-01-01

11

Survivorship and egg production of phytophagous pentatomids in laboratory rearing.  

PubMed

Survivorship and reproductive performance of the pentatomids Euschistus heros (F.) (EH), Nezara viridula (L.) (NV), and Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (DM) were tested in the laboratory. A mixture of natural foods (pods of green beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, and fruits of privet, Ligustrum lucidum, and 50 pairs/box (25 x 20 x 20 cm) were used, observed for 30 days, and replicated three times. Thirty days after emergence, mean female survivorship was 91% (EH), 60% (NV), and 30% (DM). More egg masses were deposited during 11-20 days after emergence, with mean number of 45.1 (EH), 5.3 (NV), and 11.8 (DM). These values were smaller during the first 10 days (25.5, 2.1, and 4.7) and last 10 days (21-30 days) (39.4, 3.9, and 4.9), respectively. Mean maximum number of eggs/day was 489 (EH) on day 29, 474 (NV) on day 11, and 153 (DM) on day 14. Mean monthly fecundity (egg masses/box) was 985 (EH), 92 (NV), and 193 (DM), and mean number of eggs/box was 8,480; 5,147, and 2,042.7, respectively. PMID:21437480

Silva, F A C; Calizotti, G S; Panizzi, A R

2011-01-01

12

Technique for rearing the European hornet ( Vespa crabro ) through an entire colony life cycle in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Laboratory rearing of wasps was studied in the European hornet Vespa crabro. Males (N = 10) and gynes (N = 13) were obtained from two field-caught colonies. Mating took place in cages (mean number of 1.31 ± 0.63 matings per gyne) and overwintering in a cool room at 10°C. Five gynes survived and one queen successfully established a nest

W. R. E. Hoffmann; P. Neumann; E. Schmolz

2000-01-01

13

Digital Techniques for Laboratory Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes techniques and equipment intended to both improve laboratory measurements and also form a background for more advanced work by introducing the concepts of electronic and digital circuits. (GS)

Dart, S. Leonard

1975-01-01

14

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

15

Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility. PMID:24498749

Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

2013-12-01

16

A TECHNIQUE FOR YEAR-ROUND REARING OF BOMBUS TERRESTRIS (APIDAE, BOMBINI)  

E-print Network

SUMMARY CO2-narcosis induces egg-formation in bumblebee queens prior to hibernation as well' as after collected in the field. This technique provides opportunities to rear bumblebee colonies year-round. INTRODUCTION The culture of bumblebee colonies is performed for pollination of agricultural crops as well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions. PMID:21838957

Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

2012-02-01

18

An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.  

PubMed

An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity. PMID:20945799

Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

2010-09-01

19

Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

1998-01-01

20

Abbreviated larval development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium pilimanus (De Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium pilimanus (De Man, 1879), were reared in the laboratory. Larval development was highly abbreviated, with two zoeal and one megalopal stages. Newly hatched larvae were benthic, with a tendency to cling on to roughened surfaces. All larval stages subsisted solely on endogenous yolk. Morphological and behavioural differences between the first zoea of this

Samuel S. C. Chong; H. W. Khoo

1987-01-01

21

REARING OF RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS IN LABORATORY AND FIELD CONDITIONS FOR CARRYING OUT VARIOUS EFFICACY STUDIES USING EPNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for rearing of red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) in laboratory and field conditions were developed. Three mediums were tested for egg laying viz., cotton wool having 20 % honey solution, apple and sugarcane pieces. Cotton wool medium had highest numbers of laid eggs 230 ± 1.0. To observe percentage of hatching, four mediums were prepared viz., Petri

F. SHAHINA; J. SALMA; G. MEHREEN; M. I. BHATTI; K. A. TABASSUM

22

Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method. PMID:22617405

Sanders, Erin R

2012-01-01

23

Self-aggression and social aggression in laboratory-reared macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early rearing conditions had little differential effect on self-aggression (SA) during 6 tests carried out on 166 stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) at 1.8 yrs of age. After over 2 yrs in a stable group, experimentally reared (ER) Ss changed from being primarily socially aggressive to being 4 times more self-aggressive. In contrast, feral- and group-reared Ss showed no SA, were

James R. Anderson; Arnold S. Chamove

1980-01-01

24

Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution. PMID:17645823

Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

2007-08-01

25

Response of intestinal flora of laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) to cold and fasting.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flora of the large intestine was examined in 35 laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) subjected to one of the following four treatments: (i) normal feeding at 21 degrees C (10 frogs); (ii) fasting for 2 weeks at 21 degrees C (8 frogs); (iii) chilling for 1 week at 4 degrees C (9 frogs); and (iv) simulated hibernation for 3 weeks at 4 degrees C (8 frogs). Bacteria from the intestinal contents and mucosa were counted microscopically and by colony counting after strictly anaerobic culturing. The predominant bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. Fasting for 2 weeks produced no significant changes in total counts or in the types of bacteria cultured. Chilling, whether rapid or in the course of simulated hibernation, was associated with a decrease in the numbers and variety of bacteria. Thus it appears that the lowering of temperature rather than the absence of food is the important factor in the reduction of bacterial flora seen in hibernating frogs. However, the bacteria showed some adaptation to the low temperature, as the longer the host had been at 4 degrees C, the higher the proportion of bacteria which could grow when cultured at that temperature. PMID:6982026

Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

1982-01-01

26

Laboratory Techniques for the Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

Tombaugh, Dorothy

1972-01-01

27

Larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards (Decapoda: Grapsidae) reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the Chinese mitten crabEriocheir sinensis were reared in the laboratory from the time of hatching and through metamorphosis. Development normally consists of a Prezoea,\\u000a 5 Zoea stages, and a Megalopa. Occasionally, an additional (stage VI) Zoea and, in one case, an additional Megalopa (transitional\\u000a to the first crab stage) were observed. Detailed morphological descriptions of all larval and

M. Montfi; K. Anger; C. de Bakker

1996-01-01

28

Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crabHyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration\\u000a were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon\\u000a (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were

K. Anger; J. Harms; M. E. Christiansen; U. Süsens; B. Wilmes

1992-01-01

29

Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens  

PubMed Central

Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

2014-01-01

30

Morphological and functional development of larval and juvenile Limanda yokohamae (Pisces: Pleuronectidae) reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and behavioural aspects in larval development need to be studied in detail to understand the early life history better, and to gain a comprehensive knowledge on early life stages for fish species important in aquaculture and fisheries. In the present study, larvae of Limanda yokohamae (Günther) were reared to observe their behavioural development, and to obtain specimens for studying

O. Fukuhara

1988-01-01

31

Acoustic tomography. Laboratory technique Implementation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From geomechanical tests carried out on rocks it is possible to determine its physico-mechanical properties, which relate the strain and applied stress; even so, conventional tests do not allow to identify how stress is distributed and how it has affected porous media. Today, techniques like acoustic tomography widely used in medicine, geophysics and others sciences, generates images by sections of the interior of a body. Acoustic tomography allows inferring the stress state within porous media; since wave velocities are closely related to media density, if a stress is applied to a rock, it will generate grains compaction and this will be showed by an increase of wave velocity. Implementation was conducted on rock plugs under diverse stress fields, simultaneously recording P-wave velocities (Compressional) on perpendicular planes to sample vertical axis. Transmission and reception of acoustic waves through porous media were done by piezoelectric crystals (PZT) used as sensors. A transmitting crystal excited by a voltage pulse causes a mechanical vibration, which travels across media; this is known as inverse piezoelectric effect. This vibration is recorded by a receiving crystal in which the direct piezoelectric effect appears; which dictates that if a piezoelectric is disturbed mechanically, an electrical signal between its terminals will appear. This electrical signal is used to obtain the wave velocity. Nevertheless, acoustic tomography corresponds to one of those called inverse Problems that arise when from observed data the model parameters must be obtained; in this way, tomography involves iterative reconstruction techniques (ART or SIRT) which are projections of observed data and its later inversion. Obtained results are cross-sectional images of velocity within the rock. In these images it is possible to identify where stress has a greater concentration observing the color map generated; thus, a greater velocity density area corresponding to a greater stress will be colored with a higher tonality within the palette used.

Galvis, Jorge; Carvajal, Jenny

2010-05-01

32

Basic Laboratory Techniques in Cell Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a reference and instructional manual for the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Course Number 8270-C, 'Basic Laboratory Techniques in Cell Culture.' It covers pertinent cell biology, cell culture terminology and definitions, the principles and meth...

B. R. Bird, F. T. Forrester

1981-01-01

33

Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).  

PubMed

Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species. PMID:22312998

Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

2011-12-01

34

Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larvae and juveniles of the Laotioan indigenous cyprinid Hypsibarbus malcolmi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological development, including the pigmentation, body proportions, fins, and survival rate for 30 days after hatching,\\u000a of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Hypsibarbus malcolmi is described. Body lengths (BL) of larvae and juveniles were 2.0 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) mm at 1 h after hatching (day 0) and 9.2 ± 0.6 mm\\u000a on day 16, reaching 12.1 ± 0.9 mm on day 30. Yolk volume decreased linearly, with the yolk being

Yuka Ogata; Shinsuke Morioka; Kosuke Sano; Bounsong Vongvichith; Hiroki Eda; Hisashi Kurokura; Thongkhoun Khonglaliane

2010-01-01

35

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

2011-06-01

36

Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

37

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

NAJAM, EDWARD W.

38

Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

Kundu, Nikhil K.

1994-01-01

39

DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

40

INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

41

Larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards (Decapoda: Grapsidae) reared in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvae of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were reared in the laboratory from the time of hatching and through metamorphosis. Development normally consists of a Prezoea, 5 Zoea stages, and a Megalopa. Occasionally, an additional (stage VI) Zoea and, in one case, an additional Megalopa (transitional to the first crab stage) were observed. Detailed morphological descriptions of all larval and the first two juvenile instars are given, and larval morphology is compared with that of two closely related species, Eriocheir japonicus and Eriocheir rectus, descriptions of which have recently become available. The zoeal stages of these species can be distinguished by their different number of aesthetascs and setae on the antennules, and different setation of maxillipeds 1 and 2. The Megalopa shows differences in the shape of the rostrum and again in the morphology of the antennule. These and other morphological differences (mainly in setation and spinulation of the zoeal carapace) between E. sinensis and E. japonicus larvae suggest that they may be very closely related but separate species; this contradicts a recent study of adult morphometrics and molecular genetics (Li et al., 1993), suggesting that they are only varieties of a single species.

Montú, M.; Anger, K.; de Bakker, C.

1996-06-01

42

Studies on the larval development of northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Procellanidae (Decapoda, Anomura). I — Redescription of the larval stages of Porcellana platycheles (Pennant, 1777) reared under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete larval development is described forPorcellana platycheles (Pennant) reared under laboratory conditions. The development consists of two zoeal stages and one megalopa. At 20C and\\u000a 35‰ salinity, the megalopa appeared 17–18 days after hatching. Survival was 56% from hatching to the megalopa stage. The morphological\\u000a features of the zoeal and megalopa stages ofP. platycheles are compared with those of

J. I. González-Gordillo; J. A. Cuesta; A. Rodríguez

1996-01-01

43

Cell death localization in situ in laboratory reared honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) larvae treated with pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cell death detected by DNA fragmentation labeling and phosphatidylserine (PS) localization was investigated in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) midgut, salivary glands and ovaries after treating larvae with different pesticides offered via an artificial diet. To do this, honey bee larvae reared in an incubator were exposed to one of nine pesticides: chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, amitraz, fluvalinate,

Ales Gregorc; James D. Ellis

2011-01-01

44

Techniques and Strategies in Clinical Laboratory Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mailed survey sent to faculty from 132 medical technology schools, 64 medical laboratory technician schools, and 58 certified laboratory assistant schools yielded 355 responses concerning most frequently vs. least frequently used teaching techniques and most effective vs. least effective teaching techniques. Information on where and how…

Vittetoe, Marie; Morris, Frances J.

45

Effect of temperature on growth, sexual maturity and reproduction of Acanthomysis robusta (Crustacea: Mysidacea) reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth, sexual maturity and reproduction of a shallow, temperate-water mysid, Acanthomysis robusta Murano, were investigated by rearing this species through a complete life cycle at 10°C, 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. The average daily growth rate, which ranged from 0.08 to 0.29 mm for immature mysids and from 0.04 to 0.15 mm for mature mysids, increased with increasing temperature. Water temperature had

H. Sudo

2003-01-01

46

Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

2011-01-01

47

Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species  

PubMed Central

The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

2007-01-01

48

Rearing Monarchs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a long-term project, you can rear monarch butterflies at home or in a classroom. This article contains practical tips on successfully rearing monarchs, and ways in which you can increase your chances of observing the changes that occur during their metamorphosis. Caretaking details are provided for every stage of the monarch butterfly's life: egg, larva, pupa, adult. This article contains information about many species of milkweed plants - the main food and habitat for monarchs. Also includes information and instructions for building cages for monarch butterflies.

Watch, Monarch

2012-06-26

49

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

50

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NOX REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of work to develop and demonstrate, in the laboratory, NOx reduction techniques that would be suited to petroleum refinery CO boilers. (Note: Most refineries have one or more CO boilers to incinerate off-gases from catalytic cracking. These devices constit...

51

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

52

Design of a Portable Streamside Rearing Facility for Lake Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable streamside rearing facility was designed and used by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians during efforts to rehabilitate a remnant population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the Big Manistee River, Michigan, beginning in 2004. The streamside rearing facility facilitates rearing of wild-caught lake sturgeon larvae in their natal water. This rearing approach provides a cost-effective technique

J. Marty Holtgren; Stephanie A. Ogren; Aaron J. Paquet; Steve Fajfer

2007-01-01

53

Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the compositional analysis of geological materials. The spectral feature in the mid-IR region is diagnostic of the mineralogy and spectral signatures of mixtures of minerals that add linearly, and therefore, can be used as an important tool to determine the mineralogy of rocks in the laboratory and remotely for planetary exploration. The greatest challenge in the emission measurement lies in the measurement of the weak thermal photons emitted from geological materials in a laboratory setup, and accurately records the temperature of the rock sample. The present work pertains to the details of a new Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) laboratory that has been developed under the ISRO Planetary Science and Exploration (PLANEX) programme, for emission related mineralogical investigations of planetary surfaces. The focus of the paper is on the acquisition and calibration technique for obtaining emissivity, and the deconvolution procedure to obtain the modal abundances of the thermal emission spectra in the range of 6-25 µm using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The basic technique is adopted from the work of Ruff et al (1997). This laboratory at the Department of Earth Sciences, IIT-Bombay is currently developing pure end mineral library of mineral particulates (<65 µm), and adding new end members to the existing ASU spectral library. The paper argues the need for considering Lunar Orbiter Thermal Emission Spectrometer (LOTES) for future Indian Moon mission programme (Chandrayan-II) to determine evidences of varied lithologies on the lunar surface.

Mathew, George; Nair, Archana; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Pande, Kanchan

2009-08-01

54

Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Pseudoloma neurophilia, a Common Microsporidian of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reared in Research Laboratories  

PubMed Central

One of the most prevalent pathogens found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) research facilities is the microsporidian parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia. Infections occur primarily in the spinal cord and are associated with emaciation and scoliotic changes. It is unclear why P. neurophilia is so widespread among research colonies, although transfer of infected animals and eggs between laboratories is a likely contributor. In addition to preventing the spread of this pathogen among facilities, it is desirable to have parasite-free fish for use in experiments. Therefore we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic test for P. neurophilia. Compared with conventional diagnostic methods, PCR diagnosis is rapid, allows for screening of large numbers of fish, and can be applied to eggs, water filtrates, biofilms, and other samples. Using PCR primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal DNA of P. neurophilia, the test was consistently capable of detecting 10 spores per reaction and often as few as 0.1 spore per reaction and did not cross-react with other selected microsporidian species from fish. We recommend this PCR diagnostic assay for use by the research community to determine the presence (or absence) of P. neurophilia in colonies and for screening fish shipped between facilities, especially when parasite-free fish are required for experiments. Furthermore, we currently are using this PCR method to investigate the potential role of vertical transmission in the spread of P. neurophilia. PMID:16539333

Whipps, Christopher M.; Kent, Michael L.

2006-01-01

55

A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ? for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ?) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

Kosugi, Yukio

56

Rearing environment affects behaviour of jumping spiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effect of rearing conditions on the behaviour of jumping spiders, Phidippus audax. Spiders were assigned randomly to either small or large cages that either were empty or contained a painted dowel. Laboratory-reared spiders were raised from second instar to adult in these environments. Field-caught adults also were randomly assigned to these containers and were held for approximately

Jeannine Pollack Carducci; Elizabeth M. Jakob

2000-01-01

57

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

58

Emission of nitric oxide from soil: laboratory vs. micrometeorological techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality field measurements of the surface exchange of nitric oxide (NO) between soils and the atmosphere usually demand complex instrumentation and considerable power supplies. The latter often impedes such flux measurements at remote sites. However, soil samples could be taken everywhere, and consecutive parameterization of NO emission rates (derived from laboratory incubation of these soil samples) and up-scaling through independent data of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture, soil temperature, soil texture) is an effective alternative to quantify NO emission from soils, particularly from (very) remote sites. These laboratory derived NO emission rates have quite frequently verified through field measurements by the dynamic chamber technique. Here, we will present the first intercomparison between the laboratory and a micrometeorological (gradient) technique. In August 2006, the field experiment LIBRETTO (LIndenBerg REacTive Trace gas prOfiles) was carried out in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD) at the field site of the Richard Aßmann Observatory in Lindenberg. At 0.15 m and 2.0 m, concentrations of the trace gases O3, NO and NO2 were measured. Applying the modified Bowen ration technique to the measured concentration differences and the directly measured sensible heat flux (eddy covariance data from DWD) yielded the field surface fluxes of the trace gases (corrected for their flux divergence due to fast photochemical reactions during the vertical turbulent transport). Soil humidity and temperature in the top soil were measured at a separate plot at the field site. Mixed soil samples were taken in May 2008 at the LIBRETTO field site, air-dried, sieved (

Meixner, F. X.; Mayer, J.-C.; Bargsten, A.; Andreae, M. O.

2009-04-01

59

Coupled explosive/structure computational techniques at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of the effects of explosives on structures is a challenge because the explosive response can best be simulated using Eulerian computational techniques and structural behavior is best modeled using Lagrangian methods. Due to the different methodology of the two computational techniques and code architecture requirements, they are usually implemented in different computer programs. Explosive and structure modeling in two different codes make it difficult or next to impossible to do coupled explosive/structure interaction simulations. Sandia National Laboratories has developed two techniques for solving this problem. The first is called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a relatively new gridless method comparable to Eulerian, that is especially suited for treating liquids and gases such as those produced by an explosive. The SPH capability has been fully implemented into the transient dynamics finite element (Lagrangian) codes PRONTO-2D and -3D. A PRONTO-3D/SPH simulation of the effect of a blast on a protective-wall barrier is presented in this paper. The second technique employed at Sandia uses a new code called Zapotec that combines the 3-D Eulerian code CTH and the Lagrangian code PRONTO-3D with minimal changes to either code. CTH and PRONTO-3D are currently executing on the Sandia Terraflops machine (9000 Pentium Pro processors). Eulerian simulations with 100 million cells have been completed on the current configuration of the machine (4500 Pentium Pro processors). The CTH and PRONTO-3D combination will soon be executing in a coupled fashion on this machine.

Preece, D.S.; Attaway, S.W.; Swegle, J.W. [and others

1997-06-01

60

Determination of meteor parameters using laboratory simulation techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric entry of meteoritic bodies is conveniently and accurately simulated in the laboratory by techniques which employ the charging and electrostatic acceleration of macroscopic solid particles. Velocities from below 10 to above 50 km/s are achieved for particle materials which are elemental meteoroid constituents or mineral compounds with characteristics similar to those of meteoritic stone. The velocity, mass, and kinetic energy of each particle are measured nondestructively, after which the particle enters a target gas region. Because of the small particle size, free molecule flow is obtained. At typical operating pressures (0.1 to 0.5 torr), complete particle ablation occurs over distances of 25 to 50 cm; the spatial extent of the atmospheric interaction phenomena is correspondingly small. Procedures have been developed for measuring the spectrum of light from luminous trails and the values of fundamental quantities defined in meteor theory. It is shown that laboratory values for iron are in excellent agreement with those for 9 to 11 km/s artificial meteors produced by rocket injection of iron bodies into the atmosphere.

Friichtenicht, J. F.; Becker, D. G.

1973-01-01

61

Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques  

PubMed Central

Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection PMID:23248735

Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Navarro-Mari, Jose-Maria

2012-01-01

62

Rearing social class, education, and criminality: A multiple indicator model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists in the criminology literature over whether rearing social class influences the emergence of criminal behavior. Theoretically, some researchers have argued, a lower rearing class status reflects intellectual and emotional deprivation that motivates later illegal activity. Other researchers argue that intelligence, regardless of rearing status, is the chief determinant of criminal behavior. Using maximum-likelihood path-analytic techniques and a split

Bill McGarvey; William F. Gabrielli; P. M. Bentler; Sarnoff A. Mednick

1981-01-01

63

[Evolution of the catheterization laboratory: new instruments and imaging techniques].  

PubMed

The Editorial Board of the Italian Heart Journal Supplement has planned to publish a series of four consecutive papers focusing on new highlights from the cardiac catheterization laboratory, developments of new devices, coronary imaging and physiological measurement. The first paper on cineless digital angiography and new fluoroscopy systems presented in this issue of the Journal has been prepared by Danzi et al. (Brescia). The paper follows the publication of the Vergara's work (Rovereto-TN) on a similar topic presented last year in a Symposium of the Gruppo Italiano di Studi Emodinamici (GISE) at the XXXI ANMCO meeting. The recent development of cineless digital angiography and the increasing interest in new digital fluoroscopic low energy systems represent a significant change in the management of cardiac images and have significant implications in the organization of a new catheterization laboratory. The second paper will focus on the clinical applications of intravascular ultrasound imaging and will be prepared by Di Mario (Milan). Intravascular ultrasound imaging has significantly contributed to the understanding of vascular adaptation to coronary artery disease and mechanisms of percutaneous coronary interventions. This new diagnostic approach is particularly useful in assessing the early stages of disease, evaluating occult atherosclerosis and guiding the strategy of coronary interventions. Unfortunately, the application of intravascular ultrasound imaging in clinical practice remains limited. The third paper prepared by Verna (Varese) will discuss the new techniques for physiological evaluation of coronary artery disease now available in the catheterization laboratory. The use of pressure and Doppler flow-wire in the assessment of functional significance of individual coronary artery stenoses and in the evaluation of the vasodilatory capacity of coronary microcirculation may provide new insights for the clinical decision at the catheterization table. In addition, the application of myocardial contrast echocardiography with new sonicated agents for intracoronary use may represent a novel approach to the direct evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion and microvascular integrity. Intracoronary stenting has become a widely used and accepted technique in percutaneous coronary interventions. The fourth article of this series, prepared by Silva (Milan), will discuss the advantages and limitations of stenting in different clinical settings based on the results of large clinical trials. In spite of the growing number of procedures safely performed in many countries, long-term results of intracoronary stenting may be sometimes disappointing in selected patients. In-stent restenosis still represents a clinical problem limiting long-term outcome. In addition, the increasing use of new antiplatelet agents in combination with most stenting procedures rise some concern about overall cost of interventions. The objective of this editorial program is to give a view of the changing scenario of the catheterization laboratory with the new methods and devices presently available. There may be significant implications and controversial issues of interest also for all clinical cardiologists. PMID:11255878

Verna, E

2001-02-01

64

Evaluation of Hadena perplexa [Lepidoptera: Phalaenidae] as a biocontrol agent of bladder campion Silene vulgaris [Caryophyllaceae] in Canada: Rearing and host specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rearing techniques and results of preliminary host range tests are reported forHadena perplexa (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Lep.: Phalaenidae) a candidate biocontrol agent against the weed bladder campion,Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, in Manitoba, Canada. In the laboratory, it was necessary to pipette a 15% honey solution in water into the\\u000a flowers as food for the adult moths. When reared singly to

D. P. Peschken; J. L. Derby

1990-01-01

65

A new larval tray and rack system for improved mosquito mass rearing.  

PubMed

The requirement for efficient mosquito mass rearing technology has been one of the major obstacles preventing the large scale application of the Sterile Insect Technique against mosquitoes. At the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/ IAEA) Insect Pest Control Laboratories we developed a larval rearing unit based on the use of a stainless steel rack that operates 50 thermoformed ABS plastic trays and is expected to be able to successfully rear 140,000-175,000 Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) adult mosquitoes per rack. The mechanized rearing unit is simple to handle, maintains minimal water temperature variation and negligible water evaporation and allows normal larval development. The mosquito mass-rearing tray was designed to provide a large surface area of shallow water that would closely mimic natural breeding sites. The trays stack into a dedicated rack structure and filling and draining were easily performed. The close stacking of the trays in the rack and the possibility to tightly line up several racks makes this rearing unit a valid solution for maximal use of the space thus reducing construction, heating, and cooling costs. The low amount of labor required to operate the system also reduces labor costs that represent one of the main expenditures in any mass rearing facility operation. Preliminary experiments performed on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) also confirm the possibility of successfully extending the use of this technology to other mosquito species. Our larval rearing unit could enhance any mosquito control strategy in which large-scale releases of mosquitoes are needed to suppress or replace natural populations. PMID:22679867

Balestrino, F; Benedict, M Q; Gilles, J R L

2012-05-01

66

5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004  

E-print Network

This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

Tabacco, Sarah

2004-01-01

67

Effect of mass rearing on life history traits and inbreeding depression in the sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae).  

PubMed

Inadvertent selection is an important genetic process that frequently occurs during laboratory culture and maintenance of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms used in procedures such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). We investigated effects of mass rearing and inbreeding depression on life history traits (number of progeny emerging from host plants, body weight, developmental period, and starvation tolerance) in the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae). The effect of inbreeding was measured by comparing the results obtained from the full-sib crosses with those obtained from nonkin crosses in both wild and mass-reared strains. The mass-reared strain had more progeny than the wild strain. The developmental period of mass-reared strain was shorter than that of the wild strain. Other traits did not differ significantly between strains. We detected inbreeding depression effects on numbers of progeny, and the effects were more pronounced in the mass-reared strain. Hence, laboratory adaptation to mass rearing can produce changes in important biological attributes of sweetpotato weevils. PMID:20857721

Kuriwada, T; Kumano, N; Shiromoto, K; Haraguchi, D

2010-08-01

68

Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

Tarshis, I.B.

1978-01-01

69

Laboratory technique for measurement of spectral induced polarization response of soil sampies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of soil samples are necessary to assess the effect of mineralogy, grain size distribution, moisture content, and electrolyte composition the resistivity spectrum of soil material. Laboratory results are also required for the interpretation of field data. Induced polarization phenomena in glacial soils are poorly understood and so far no convenient laboratory techniques are available for measurement. Coarse grain

Heikki Vanhala; Heikki Soininen

1995-01-01

70

Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

1980-01-01

71

Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

1980-04-01

72

Recovery of Plutonium From Analytical Laboratory Waste Using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium from analytical laboratory waste was recovered on litres scale using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM) technique using 30% TBP\\/n-dodecane as the carrier. The technique is faster, gives lower radiation exposure to the working personnel and generates lower volume of secondary waste as compared to traditional precipitation \\/ ion-exchange technique. The recovery of plutonium was carried out in two

S. A. Ansari; S. Chaudhury; P. K. Mohapatra; S. K. Aggarwal; V. K. Manchanda

2012-01-01

73

Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

1977-01-01

74

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teachi

Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

2010-05-01

75

Mode localization results and laboratory demonstration techniques with a multi-pendulum rig  

E-print Network

MODE LOCALIZATION RESULTS AND LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUES WITH A MULTI-PENDULUM RIG A Thesis by ROBERT KENNETH GERARD BOLLICH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MODE LOCALIZATION RESULTS AND LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUES WITH A MULTI-PENDULUM RIG A Thesis by ROBERT KENNETH GERARD BOLLICH Approved...

Bollich, Robert Kenneth Gerard

2012-06-07

76

Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

77

Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

78

22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

79

14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

80

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

81

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

82

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

83

DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY TO SITTING ROOM. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

84

Laboratory culture of Galaxias maculatus and potential applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galaxias maculatus has considerable potential as a laboratory animal. Laboratory techniques used to maintain, artificially spawn, hatch, and rear this New Zealand native freshwater fish are described. Potential research applications for the fish, the eggs, and the larvae are outlined. The development of the larvae is described.

Charles P. Mitchell

1989-01-01

85

Bluetongue virus antigen and antibody detection, and the application of laboratory diagnostic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Despite the significant advances that have been made in molecular techniques, the traditional approach using biology-based test procedures is still the mainstay for the laboratory confirmation of clinical diagnoses. The serological and virological techniques available for the detection and identification of bluetongue virus and antibody fall into two categories; those that are serotype- specific and those that are serogroup-specific.

C. Hamblin

86

Survival, Growth, and Abundance of Pellet-Reared and Minnow-Reared Muskellunge Stocked in Northwestern Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in artificial feeding techniques have increased the numbers and reliability of fingerling production of muskellunge Esox masquinongy in Iowa. Most of the muskellunge fingerlings produced in Iowa since 1984 were raised on dry pelleted feed. We compared the survival of pellet-reared fingerlings with traditional minnow-reared fingerlings stocked into Spirit and West Okoboji lakes in northwest Iowa. Beginning in

Joe Larscheid; Jim Christianson; Thomas Gengerke; Wallace Jorgensen

1999-01-01

87

Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua  

PubMed Central

As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

Rull, Juan; Encarnacion, Nery; Birke, Andrea

2012-01-01

88

Rearing environment affects behaviour of jumping spiders.  

PubMed

We tested the effect of rearing conditions on the behaviour of jumping spiders, Phidippus audax. Spiders were assigned randomly to either small or large cages that either were empty or contained a painted dowel. Laboratory-reared spiders were raised from second instar to adult in these environments. Field-caught adults also were randomly assigned to these containers and were held for approximately 4 months prior to testing. We presented spiders with three tests designed to examine a range of behaviours. Field-caught spiders were more likely than laboratory-reared spiders to (1) react to videotaped prey, (2) progress further on a detour test, and (3) be less stereotactic and more active in an open field. Larger cage size and the presence of the dowel also improved performance in several tests. Our results suggest that the rearing conditions we used, which are commonly employed by behavioural researchers, may profoundly influence the behaviour of adult spiders. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10640365

Carducci; Jakob

2000-01-01

89

Assessment of fracture-sampling techniques for laboratory tests on core  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the site characterization work to be done at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, a candidate site for the first mined-geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, laboratory tests are proposed to evaluate fluid flow in single fractures. Laboratory and onsite tests were conducted to develop methods for collecting rock-core samples containing single fractures for the subsequent laboratory tests. Techniques for collecting rock cores with axial (parallel to the core axis) and radial (perpendicular to the core axis) fractures are discussed.

Severson, G.R.; Boernge, J.M.

1991-01-01

90

[Comparison of 2 techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infections].  

PubMed

The clinical or epidemiological influenza diagnosis require fast, sensitive and accessible techniques for small laboratories. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the methods currently used in Argentina, the rapid diagnosis by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IF) was compared to the rapid viral culture in MDCK cells. The diagnosis of influenza virus infection was performed on 81 nasal and pharyngeal swabs collected from outpatients with upper respiratory infection, influenza-like syndrome. The samples were collected during 1998 winter season and both techniques were tested. The IF specificity and sensitivity obtained were 91.9% and 59.5%, respectively. In the selection of the assay to be used for influenza diagnosis, the limitations of the simplest techniques such as IF should be considered. Furthermore, it is advisable to set up an optimized culture method in complex laboratories since culture is the only technique which allows the reference centers to perform the full characterization of the isolates. PMID:11008706

Savy, V L; Baumeister, E G; Campos, A M; Pontoriero, A

2000-01-01

91

Virtual Lab Demonstrations Improve Students' Mastery of Basic Biology Laboratory Techniques  

PubMed Central

Biology laboratory classes are designed to teach concepts and techniques through experiential learning. Students who have never performed a technique must be guided through the process, which is often difficult to standardize across multiple lab sections. Visual demonstration of laboratory procedures is a key element in teaching pedagogy. The main goals of the study were to create videos explaining and demonstrating a variety of lab techniques that would serve as teaching tools for undergraduate and graduate lab courses and to assess the impact of these videos on student learning. Demonstrations of individual laboratory procedures were videotaped and then edited with iMovie. Narration for the videos was edited with Audacity. Undergraduate students were surveyed anonymously prior to and following screening to assess the impact of the videos on student lab performance by completion of two Participant Perception Indicator surveys. A total of 203 and 171 students completed the pre- and posttesting surveys, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to compare student perceptions of knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques before and after viewing the videos. Eleven demonstrations were recorded. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of students reporting increased knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques after viewing the videos. Incorporation of instructional videos as prelaboratory exercises has the potential to standardize techniques and to promote successful experimental outcomes. PMID:23653690

Maldarelli, Grace A.; Hartmann, Erica M.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Horner, Robert D.; Obom, Kristina. M.; Shingles, Richard; Pearlman, Rebecca S.

2009-01-01

92

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, MORONE SAXATILIS (WALBAUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the research undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) which can be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. For ea...

93

Ice Sample Production Techniques and Indentation Tests for Laboratory Experiments Simulating Ship Collisions with Ice  

E-print Network

with which engineers analyze structural responses to sea ice ­ as an extension of pure ice behaviour and the vast range of sea ice phenomena encountered. The result of this situation is that a combinationIce Sample Production Techniques and Indentation Tests for Laboratory Experiments Simulating Ship

Bruneau, Steve

94

An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

Duxbury, Mark

2004-01-01

95

Secondary Science Teachers' Attitudes about Microcomputer-Based Laboratory Techniques: Instructional Uses and Needed Improvements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of computers in schools focuses on a training and support project in using microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) techniques for secondary science teachers in the state of Hawaii. Results are reported for MBL use, teachers' perceptions of the usefulness of MBL, and needs for program improvement. (20 references) (LRW)

Heck, Ronald H.

1990-01-01

96

Radiation Detection Laboratory The Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Lab is used to explore novel techniques for radiation  

E-print Network

NERS Radiation Detection Laboratory The Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Lab is used to explore novel techniques for radiation detection and characterization for nuclear nonproliferation sintillaction detectors in the presence of neutron and gamma-ray sources The laboratory is equipped

Kamat, Vineet R.

97

Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).  

PubMed

The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

2002-07-01

98

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

99

Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.  

PubMed

The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated. PMID:22930776

Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

2012-01-01

100

Repair of a fractured implant overdenture gold bar: A clinical and laboratory technique report.  

PubMed

This clinical report explains a convenient, efficient, yet effective alternative for management of fractured substructure cast bars for implant-retained overdentures. The technique allows the fracture to be repaired at low cost and short time without remaking the substructure and the denture and further allowing the patient to keep their denture. The report sketches the clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the repair. PMID:24926222

Vohra, Fahim; Al Fawaz, Amani

2013-07-01

101

Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

We administered the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) to 217 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic reared-together adult twin pairs and 44 monozygotic and 27 dizygotic reared-apart adult twin pairs. A four-parameter biometric model (incorporating genetic, additive versus nonadditive, shared family-environment, and unshared environment components) and five reduced models were fitted through maximum-likelihood techniques to data obtained with the 11 primary MPQ scales

Alike Tellegen; David T. Lykken; Thomas J. Bouchard; Kimerly J. Wilcox; Nancy L. Segal; Stephen Rich

1988-01-01

102

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

103

Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

Hofstra University (Hofstra University)

2012-01-06

104

Characterisation of rear incident hypervelocity impact phenomena on hubble space telescope solar arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact damage on glass faced HST solar cells generated by rear-incident impactors represent over one-third of the total damage on the retrieved solar array. Analysis of such space and laboratory generated morphologies has revealed a means of discriminating between front and rear incident impact sites and enabled characterization through either impactor energy or a simplified indentation fracture model. Morphology is

M. K. Herbert

1999-01-01

105

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

106

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

107

3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

108

Assessment of Load and Energy Reduction Techniques (ALERT) Retrocommissioning Case Study of Two National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Sites  

E-print Network

Portland Energy Conservation Incorporated (PECI) in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) staff performed an Assessment of Load and Energy Reduction Techniques (ALERT) retrocommissioning evaluation on several buildings...

Luskay, L.; Haasl, T.; Schwab, J.; Beattie, D.

2003-01-01

109

Insect thermotolerance comparing host infestation methods: Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared in grapefruit or diet.  

PubMed

Research on insect control should be conducted in a manner that mimics as closely as is feasible its commercial application in all of its practicably conceivable forms. When significant deviations from commercial application are used in research, the effect of the deviations on efficacy should be evaluated. Pest control techniques are sometimes based on research that used untested assumptions about variables that might affect efficacy. For example, some phytosanitary treatments are based on research done with diet-reared larvae inserted into holes bored in fruits, although the effect of this manipulation has not been evaluated. This research compares this type of infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), third instars with a more natural infestation technique whereby females were allowed to oviposit on picked grapefruit in laboratory cages and third instars were reared inside the fruit. Although the results did not show statistically significant differences between infestation techniques, tendencies in the data caution against researchers making assumptions about efficacy without testing them when experimental techniques stray from more natural situations for which the research is designed. PMID:25195425

Hallman, Guy J

2014-08-01

110

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, S.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

2000-01-01

111

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, S.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

2000-01-01

112

The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti)  

PubMed Central

The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research. PMID:24754030

Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

113

Laboratory demonstration model: Active cleaning technique device. [for removal of contaminants from an optical surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.

Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

1974-01-01

114

Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory-Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.  

PubMed

In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert. PMID:25205526

Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

2014-12-01

115

DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA  

E-print Network

, the rostrum ofP. borealis has more dorsal teeth, the second pereopods are more developed, and the pleopods stage is included. MATERIALS AND METHODS Rearing techniques were identical in all re- spects to those at sea. Larvae from plankton were also reared in flasks at sea in an identical manner beginning

116

Laboratory insights into the detection of surface biosignatures by remote-sensing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the progress of direct imaging techniques, it will be possible in the short or long-term future to retrieve more efficiently the information on the physical properties of the light reflected by rocky exoplanets (Traub et al., 2010). The search for visible-infrared absorption bands of peculiar gases (O2, CH4 etc.) in this light could give clues for the presence of life (Kaltenegger and Selsis, 2007). Even more uplifting would be the direct detection of life itself, on the surface of an exoplanet. Considering this latter possibility, what is the potential of optical remote-sensing methods to detect surface biosignatures? Reflected light from the surface of the Earth exhibits a strong surface biosignature in the form of an abrupt change of reflectance between the visible and infrared range of the spectrum (Seager et al., 2005). This spectral feature called "vegetation red-edge" is possibly the consequence of biological evolution selecting the right chemical structures enabling the plants to absorb the visible energy, while preventing them from overheating by reflecting more efficiently the infrared. Such red-edge is also found in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, that colonized the surface of the Earth ocean and continents billions of years before multicellular plants (Knacke, 2003). If life ever arose on an Earth-like exoplanet, one could hypothesize that some form of its surface-life evolves into similar photo-active organisms, also exhibiting a red-edge. In this paper, we will present our plan and preliminary results of a laboratory study aiming at precising the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in detecting such surface biosignatures. Using equipment that has been developed in our team for surface photometry studies (Pommerol 2011, Jost 2013, Pommerol 2013), we will investigate the reflectance spectra and bidirectional reflectance function of soils containing bacteria such as cyanobacteria, in various environmental conditions. We will also present our plan to incorporate polarization measurements, and particularly circular polarization, because it can be a marker of homochirality, which is supposed to be a universal property of life. Finally, the analyses of both biotic and abiotic materials will help to assess if (or in which peculiar conditions) remote sensing techniques can discriminate between false positive and strong biomarkers. Ultimately, these laboratory data can serve as reference data to guide and interpret future observations, paving the way for the detection of life on distant exoplanets.

Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Roditi, I.; Frey, J.; Thomas, N.

2014-03-01

117

In vivo and In vitro Rearing of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae).  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) have a mutualistic partnership with Gram-negative Gamma-Proteobacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Xenorhabdus bacteria are associated with steinernematids nematodes while Photorhabdus are symbionts of heterorhabditids. Together nematodes and bacteria form a potent insecticidal complex that kills a wide range of insect species in an intimate and specific partnership. Herein, we demonstrate in vivo and in vitro techniques commonly used in the rearing of these nematodes under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, these techniques represent key steps for the successful establishment of EPN cultures and also form the basis for other bioassays that utilize these organisms for research. The production of aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) nematodes is often critical for an in-depth and multifaceted approach to the study of symbiosis. This protocol does not require the addition of antibiotics and can be accomplished in a short amount of time with standard laboratory equipment. Nematodes produced in this manner are relatively robust, although their survivorship in storage may vary depending on the species used. The techniques detailed in this presentation correspond to those described by various authors and refined by P. Stock's Laboratory, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ, USA). These techniques are distinct from the body of techniques that are used in the mass production of these organisms for pest management purposes. PMID:25285597

McMullen, John G; Stock, S Patricia

2014-01-01

118

[Artificial diet for rearing Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), a predator of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].  

PubMed

A new technique involving an artificial diet and an artificial substrate for oviposition for the rearing of the predator Doru luteipes (Scudder) is suggested. Both adults and nymphs were maintained in petri dishes containing a transparent piece of soda straw filled with moistened cotton and the corresponding food for the biossays. The following treatments were tested: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); insect pupae meal (FPI); Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) commercial pollen (PC); FPI + PC, and FPI + cattail pollen [Typha angustifolia L. (Thyphaceae)]. Each treatment had 50 replicates, and food was offered in excess. Treatments consisting of insect pupae meal (FPI), FPI + commercial pollen (PC), and FPI + cattail pollen resulted in nymphal development of 32, 29, and 29 days, with 83, 90 and 100% survival, respectively, and were superior to the PC treatment, with values of 37 days and 67% survival observed for insects reared on commercial pollen. Treatments that included insect pupae flour, either alone or mixed with pollens, were similar to control (S. frugiperda eggs). We conclude that the artificial diets tested and rearing technique are suitable for the artificial rearing of D. luteipes in laboratory conditions. PMID:17607467

Pasini, Amarildo; Parra, José R P; Lopes, Janaína M

2007-01-01

119

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

120

Child Rearing on the Farm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

Clark, Sam; And Others

121

A laboratory course for teaching laboratory techniques, experimental design, statistical analysis, and peer review process to undergraduate science students.  

PubMed

This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and written discussion of results. The laboratory practices were a guided inquiry based around retinol's ability to potentiate acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. To induce critical thinking, students were given a choice as to which assay they could use to determine how retinol affected acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Short summaries were handed in following each assay and formed the bases of the formative assessment. To complete the feedback loop, a summative assessment that consisted of all the graphs and concepts from the short summaries were combined into a manuscript. To give the students exposure to science communication, the manuscript had to be written in accordance to the submission guidelines for Toxicological Sciences. Evaluation of this course was determined by a student questionnaire using a Likert scale and students' responses were very favorable. While the subject matter was toxicological centric, the content could be easily modified to suit another subject matter in biochemistry and molecular biology. PMID:23166024

Gliddon, C M; J Rosengren, R

2012-01-01

122

SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

123

Establishment of a primary reference solar cell calibration technique in Korea: methods, results and comparison with WPVS qualified laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary reference solar cell calibration technique recently established at the Korea Institute of Energy Research in Korea is introduced. This calibration technique is an indoor method that uses a highly collimated continuous-type solar simulator and absolute cavity radiometer traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. The results obtained using this calibration technique are shown with a precise uncertainty analysis, and the system configuration and calibration procedures are introduced. The calibration technique avoids overestimating the short-circuit current of a reference solar cell due to multiple reflections of incident simulator light using a novel method. In addition, the uncertainty analysis indicates that the calibration technique has an expanded uncertainty of approximately 0.7% with a coverage factor of k = 2 for a c-Si reference cell calibration. In addition, the developed primary reference solar cell calibration technique was compared with other techniques established in the World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) qualified calibration laboratories to verify its validity and reliability.

Ahn, SeungKyu; Ahn, SeJin; Yun, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Winter, Stefan; Igari, Sanekazu; Yoon, KyungHoon

2014-06-01

124

Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region analysis in a laboratory plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory plasma is utilized to assess the effectiveness of several prominent spacecraft data analysis techniques. These include minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and various boundary-crossing time analyses (BCTA) such as the constant velocity approach (CVA), constant thickness approach (CTA), and minimum thickness variance (MTV). Magnetic field data from measurement points that resemble the formation of multispacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check MVAB and BCTA to deduce a proper normal vector. Results from each method are compared to the values measured by 2-D magnetic probe arrays. We examine discharges with a two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but ions are not. We conclude that CVA with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vectorn^, relative velocity along the normal vector Vn, and current sheet thickness ?CS for all of the tested cases. Unlike CVA, both CTA and MTV sometimes generate Vn and ?CS that are different from the measured values, which indicates that CTA and MTV are sensitive to changes in the current sheet thickness. CTA is, however, successful at estimating n^. MVAB, on the other hand, often fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the reconnecting neutral sheet fundamentally contains 2-D or 3-D structures. MVAB, however, does determine the direction along the reconnecting magnetic field that is close to the real magnetic geometry. Based on these observations, we suggest a hybrid procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from four spacecraft passing through a reconnecting current sheet.

Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki

2012-12-01

125

Laboratory instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi-junction solar cells for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-junction solar cells are attractive for space applications because they can be designed to convert a larger fraction of AMO into electrical power at a lower cost than single-junction cells. The performance of multi-junction cells is much more sensitive to the spectral irradiance of the illuminating source than single-junction cells. The design of high efficiency multi-junction cells for space applications requires matching the optoelectronic properties of the junctions to AMO spectral irradiance. Unlike single-junction cells, it is not possible to carry out quantum efficiency measurements using only a monochromatic probe beam and determining the cell short-circuit current assuming linearity of the quantum efficiency. Additionally, current-voltage characteristics can not be calculated from measurements under non-AMO light sources using spectral-correction methods. There are reports in the literature on characterizing the performance of multi junction cells by measuring and convoluting the quantum efficiency of each junction with the spectral irradiance; the technique is of limited value for the characterization of cell performance under AMO power-generating conditions. We report the results of research to develop instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi junction solar cells for space . An integrated system is described which consists of a standard lamp, spectral radiometer, dual-source solar simulator, and personal computer based current-voltage and quantum efficiency equipment. The spectral radiometer is calibrated regularly using the tungsten-halogen standard lamp which has a calibration based on NIST scales. The solar simulator produces the light bias beam for current-voltage and cell quantum efficiency measurements. The calibrated spectral radiometer is used to 'fit' the spectral irradiance of the dual-source solar simulator to WRL AMO data. The quantum efficiency apparatus includes a monochromatic probe beam for measuring the absolute cell quantum efficiency at various voltage biases, including the voltage bias corresponding to the maximum-power point under AMO light bias. The details of the procedures to 'fit' the spectral irradiance to AMO will be discussed. An assessment of the role of the accuracy of the 'fit' of the spectral irradiance and probe beam intensity on measured cell characteristics will be presented. quantum efficiencies were measured with both spectral light bias and AMO light bias; the measurements show striking differences. Spectral irradiances were convoluted with cell quantum efficiencies to calculate cell currents as function of voltage. The calculated currents compare with measured currents at the 1% level. Measurements on a variety of multi-junction cells will be presented. The dependence of defects in junctions on cell quantum efficiencies measured under light and voltage bias conditions will be presented. techniques. &Expeditious development of multi-junction solar cell technology for space presents challenges for cell characterization in the laboratory.

Woodyard, James R.

1995-10-01

126

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NO(SUB X) REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formatio...

127

Teaching Discrete and Programmable Logic Design Techniques Using a Single Laboratory Board  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are used at many universities in introductory digital logic laboratories, where kits containing a single high-capacity PLD replace "standard" sets containing breadboards, wires, and small- or medium-scale integration (SSI/MSI) chips. From the pedagogical point of view, two problems arise in these laboratories.…

Debiec, P.; Byczuk, M.

2011-01-01

128

Evaluation of aerosol lead measurement techniques using laboratory generated super-micrometer particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of lead in some occupational environments still exist. These include lead paint abatement sites, smelting operations, small arms firing ranges, and other construction scenarios. New emerging technologies provide the capability to provide an on-site alternative to conventional laboratory methods for airborne lead. In this paper we describe the evaluation of two such technologies using laboratory prepared lead-laden super-micron

Meng-Dawn Cheng; Leslie Karr; John Kornuc; David Staat; Thomas Wainman; Bryan Harre; Barbara Sugiyama

2002-01-01

129

Rearing larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel on media containing banana or rice bran.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials available in Thailand were substituted for some of those in the standard medium currently used in rearing larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of this study is to ...

R. Poramarcom, S. Mitchell

1983-01-01

130

The Effect of Prior Experience with Aseptic Techniques on Learning Outcomes in a Sterile Compounding Laboratory Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of prior experience in aseptic techniques on learning outcomes in the sterile compounding laboratory course among second year professional pharmacy students. Data were collected via self-reports using pre- and post-course questionnaire on proficiency in 21 practical skills in aseptic compounding. In the pre-course questionnaire, students were asked about prior experience

Anna Ratka; Elaine Demps; Andre Mack

131

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

132

Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up  

SciTech Connect

The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry, along with other modern analytical approaches, to develop routine analytical methods that significantly curtail waste but still maintain acceptable analytical figures of merit and achieve cost savings through reduced reagent consumption and reduced labor cost.

Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

1996-07-01

133

"Audibilization" in the Chemistry Laboratory: An Introduction to Correlation Techniques for Data Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study describes the development and advantages of various correlation techniques that are used for data extraction and are integral to all modern instrumentation. The "Audibilization" of the electronic signals in such cases is found to be very essential for the technique.

Hovick, James W.; Murphy, Michael; Poler, J. C.

2007-01-01

134

Modelling of Torsion Beam Rear Suspension by Using Multibody Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multibody systems analysis has become one of the main simulation techniques to calculate the elasto-kinematics characteristics of a car suspension under wheel loads or to realize complex full vehicle models in order to predict the handling performances or the NVH quality. The modelling of torsion beam rear suspensions—widely adopted in cars belonging to B or C class—presents some problems

G. Fichera; M. Lacagnina; F. Petrone

2004-01-01

135

Achieving traceable chemical measurements: inter-laboratory evaluation of a simplified technique for isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Part 1: Methodology for high accuracy analysis of trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high accuracy measurement procedure developed and validated at the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC) has been transferred to a number of expert United Kingdom laboratories and their experience in applying the technique has been evaluated by inter-laboratory comparisons. It is an “approximate matching” calibration procedure for analysis of trace metals using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Use of

Rita Harte; Gerry Newman; Mike Sargent

2004-01-01

136

Social Recovery by Isolation-Reared Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total social isolation of macaque monkeys for at least the first 6 months of life consistently produces severe deficits in virtually every aspect of social behavior. Experiments designed to rehabilitate monkeys reared in isolation are described. While young isolates exposed to equal-age normal peers achieved only limited recovery of simple social responses, some mothers reared in isolation eventually exhibited acceptable

Harry F. Harlow; Stephen J. Suomi

1971-01-01

137

Intensive rearing system for fish larvae research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae nutrition and in general larvae culture is considered to be the ‘bottle neck’ for marine finfish culture. Fish larvae rearing experiments investigating nutritional factors or rearing protocols are carried out in various systems, from small beakers to very large commercial tanks, making it difficult to compare data across systems.A continuous supply of live or dry feeds and a controlled

Sagiv Kolkovski; John Curnow; Justin King

2004-01-01

138

Rear-facing car seat (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

139

Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground—or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in São José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galvão, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; dos Santos Assenção, José Adeildo; dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

2011-11-01

140

GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

1997-01-01

141

Identification of Laboratory Technique to Optimize Superpave HMA Surface Friction Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet pavement friction is known to be one of the most important roadway safety parameters. In this research, frictional properties of flexible (asphalt) pavements were investigated.\\u000aAs a part of this study, a laboratory device to polish asphalt specimens was refined and a procedure to evaluate mixture frictional properties was proposed. Following this procedure, 46 different Superpave mixtures, one stone

Karol J. Kowalski; Rebecca S. McDaniel; Jan Olek

2010-01-01

142

Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings?  

PubMed Central

Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2013-01-01

143

Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

1993-01-01

144

Characterisation of soil NO production and consumption by an improved laboratory technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable up-scaling. This study pre¬sents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterize biogenic NO release from soil (i.e., net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10-values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterization can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e., where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterize net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing air-stream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10-values. It could be shown, that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and VOCs). First results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, Thomas; Veres, Patrick; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Williams, Jonathan; Meixner, Franz

2014-05-01

145

Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable up-scaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterize biogenic NO release from soil (i.e., net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterization can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e., where a maximum net NO release rate occurs) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterize net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing air-stream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10 values. It could be shown, that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and VOCs). First results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

2014-01-01

146

Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable upscaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterise biogenic NO release from soil (i.e. net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterisation can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e. where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterise net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing airstream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10 values. It could be shown that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and volatile organic compounds - VOCs). First, results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

2014-10-01

147

Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature is known to induce changes in mosquito physiology, development, ecology, and in some species, vector competence for arboviruses. Since colonized mosquitoes are reared under laboratory conditions that can be significantly different from their field counterparts, laboratory vector competence experiments may not accurately reflect natural vector-virus interactions. Methods We evaluated the effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development parameters and vector competence of two Culex tarsalis strains for West Nile virus (WNV). Results Rearing temperature had a significant effect on mosquito developmental parameters, including shorter time to pupation and emergence and smaller female body size as temperature increased. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days post infectious feeding were not consistently affected. Conclusions These results suggest that varying constant larval rearing temperature does not significantly affect laboratory estimates of vector competence for WNV in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. PMID:22967798

2012-01-01

148

ADAPTING WOODY SPECIES AND PLANTING TECHNIQUES TO LANDFILL CONDITIONS, FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine which tree species can best maintain themselves in a landfill environment; to investigate the feasibility of preventing landfill gas from penetrating the root zone of selected species by using gas-barrier techniques; and to identify the (those)...

149

A laboratory system for the investigation of rain fade compensation techniques for Ka-band satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/20 GHz occurs due to the carrier wavelength approaching the water droplet size. Rain in the downlink path lowers the signal power present at the receiver, resulting in a higher number of bit errors induced in the digital ground terminal. The laboratory simulation performed at NASA Lewis Research Center uses a programmable PIN diode attenuator to simulate 20 GHz satellite downlink geographic rain fade profiles. A computer based network control system monitors the downlink power and informs the network of any power threshold violations, which then prompts the network to issue commands that temporarily increase the gain of the satellite based traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier. After the rain subsides, the network returns the TWT to the normal energy conserving power mode. Bit error rate (BER) data taken at the receiving ground terminal serves as a measure of the severity of rain degradation, and also evaluates the extent to which the network can improve the faded channel.

Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

1993-01-01

150

Influence of rearing conditions on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).  

PubMed

The influence of rearing conditions on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), was studied experimentally in the laboratory and at a fish farm. In experiment I, the effect of parasitic infection on columnaris disease was studied using F. columnare carrier fish. The fish were exposed to Diplostomum spathaceum cercariae and a set of other stressors in order to induce clinical columnaris infection. Parasitic infection and other stressors failed to induce the disease. Disease occurred when the fish were challenged with F. columnare, but D. spathaceum infection did not enhance the severity of the infection. In experiment II, the influence of rearing density and water temperature was studied. Overall mortality was highest in fish at normal rearing density with high temperature (+23 degrees C). At low temperature (+18 degrees C) mortality was not affected by rearing density, but the transmission of columnaris disease was faster at normal rearing density at both temperatures. This supports the view that reduction of fish density could be used in prevention of columnaris disease especially if water temperature is high. Because the lower rearing density can also decrease the transmission of ectoparasites and penetrating endoparasites, it could be an efficient tool in ecological disease management. PMID:15892752

Suomalainen, L-R; Tiirola, M A; Valtonen, E T

2005-05-01

151

A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield  

PubMed Central

Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells’ forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

2014-01-01

152

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

153

Lactation curves of commercial ewes rearing lambs.  

PubMed

Three-hour milk production measurements determined by machine milking at 3-d intervals throughout a 63-d lactation period were used to describe lactation curves for crossbred ewes lambing at 1 and 2 yr of age and rearing single and twin lambs. Age of ewe, type of rearing, and day of lactation affected (P < 0.05) milk production. Over the 63-d lactation, average daily milk production was 2.56 and 2.63 kg, respectively, for 1- and 2-yr-old ewes rearing single lambs and 2.73 and 3.47 kg, respectively, for 1- and 2-yr-old ewes rearing twins. Milk production of 2-yr-old ewes rearing twin lambs peaked at 21 d of lactation, and that of 1- and 2-yr-old ewes rearing singles peaked between 27 and 30 d of lactation. The largest differences in the lactation curves among age and rearing ewe classes were found in early lactation. These differences were reduced by midlactation, and by late lactation, milk production for all ewes was similar. Diurnal variation in milk production by ewes was evaluated in an 8 x 8 Latin square design. Diurnal variation in milk yield measurements of eight mature ewes, each bearing and rearing twin lambs, was similar between d 21 and 24 of lactation. Time of milk production measurements within a day did not affect yield determinations. Extrapolation from 3-h production estimates to daily milk production is valid in determining a ewe's milk contribution in support of lamb growth. PMID:11831522

Cardellino, R A; Benson, M E

2002-01-01

154

Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

Adams, Amy Lynn

2011-01-01

155

A LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION HARD X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY IMAGING USING FOURIER-TRANSFORM TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

A LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION HARD X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY IMAGING USING FOURIER-TRANSFORM A laboratory imaging system has been developed to study the use of Fourier-transform techniques in high. We discuss considerations for the design of a Fourier-transform imager and describe

Prince, Thomas A.

156

Experimental Evaluation of Multi-spacecraft Data Analysis Techniques in a Laboratory Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)[1] has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and boundary-crossing time analysis (BCTA). The neutral sheet is swept, or jogged, in a controlled manner with respect to the stationary probes by pulsed internal coil currents. Magnetic field data from measurement points resembling data from multi-spacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check both techniques to deduce a proper normal vector. We examine discharges with the two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but not ions. Boundary-crossing time analysis with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector and relative velocity along the normal vector for all of the tested cases. On the other hand, MVAB sometimes fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the X-line magnetic geometry is fundamentally 2-D or 3-D. However, the direction along the reconnecting field determined by MVAB does not deviate much from the real magnetic geometry documented by 2-D magnetic probe arrays and one additional probe at a different toroidal location. Based on these observations, we suggest a procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission when spacecraft passes through a reconnecting current sheet. The distance between measurement points on the order of the ion skin depth (c/{omega}{sub pi}) is pertinent to determination of the magnetic geometry.

Jongsoo Yoo and Masaaki Yamada

2012-03-27

157

PCR-based techniques for leprosy diagnosis: from the laboratory to the clinic.  

PubMed

In leprosy, classic diagnostic tools based on bacillary counts and histopathology have been facing hurdles, especially in distinguishing latent infection from active disease and diagnosing paucibacillary clinical forms. Serological tests and IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRA) that employ humoral and cellular immune parameters, respectively, are also being used, but recent results indicate that quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a key technique due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. In fact, advances concerning the structure and function of the Mycobacterium leprae genome led to the development of specific PCR-based gene amplification assays for leprosy diagnosis and monitoring of household contacts. Also, based on the validation of point-of-care technologies for M. tuberculosis DNA detection, it is clear that the same advantages of rapid DNA detection could be observed in respect to leprosy. So far, PCR has proven useful in the determination of transmission routes, M. leprae viability, and drug resistance in leprosy. However, PCR has been ascertained to be especially valuable in diagnosing difficult cases like pure neural leprosy (PNL), paucibacillary (PB), and patients with atypical clinical presentation and histopathological features compatible with leprosy. Also, the detection of M. leprae DNA in different samples of the household contacts of leprosy patients is very promising. Although a positive PCR result is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship with disease outcome, quantitation provided by qPCR is clearly capable of indicating increased risk of developing the disease and could alert clinicians to follow these contacts more closely or even define rules for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24722358

Martinez, Alejandra Nóbrega; Talhari, Carolina; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Talhari, Sinésio

2014-04-01

158

PCR-Based Techniques for Leprosy Diagnosis: From the Laboratory to the Clinic  

PubMed Central

In leprosy, classic diagnostic tools based on bacillary counts and histopathology have been facing hurdles, especially in distinguishing latent infection from active disease and diagnosing paucibacillary clinical forms. Serological tests and IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRA) that employ humoral and cellular immune parameters, respectively, are also being used, but recent results indicate that quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a key technique due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. In fact, advances concerning the structure and function of the Mycobacterium leprae genome led to the development of specific PCR-based gene amplification assays for leprosy diagnosis and monitoring of household contacts. Also, based on the validation of point-of-care technologies for M. tuberculosis DNA detection, it is clear that the same advantages of rapid DNA detection could be observed in respect to leprosy. So far, PCR has proven useful in the determination of transmission routes, M. leprae viability, and drug resistance in leprosy. However, PCR has been ascertained to be especially valuable in diagnosing difficult cases like pure neural leprosy (PNL), paucibacillary (PB), and patients with atypical clinical presentation and histopathological features compatible with leprosy. Also, the detection of M. leprae DNA in different samples of the household contacts of leprosy patients is very promising. Although a positive PCR result is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship with disease outcome, quantitation provided by qPCR is clearly capable of indicating increased risk of developing the disease and could alert clinicians to follow these contacts more closely or even define rules for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24722358

Martinez, Alejandra Nobrega; Talhari, Carolina; Moraes, Milton Ozorio; Talhari, Sinesio

2014-01-01

159

Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

1973-01-01

160

Possible Use of Field Insectaries to Rear Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in the Eastern United States has focussed on several predators as biological control agents. Three have been released and large numbers of each species will be needed for additional releases. Current rearing programs of predators of the HWA in the laboratory require an abundance of prey that may

L. T. Kok; S. M. Salom

161

A SOLUTION TO THE REAR-VISION PROBLEM IN A FIXED-BASE DRIVING SIMULATOR  

E-print Network

conducted in this virtual driving environment. The results are relevant to understanding the processA SOLUTION TO THE REAR-VISION PROBLEM IN A FIXED-BASE DRIVING SIMULATOR Guihua Yang, Farnaz Baniahmad, Beverly K. Jaeger, and Ronald R. Mourant Virtual Environments Laboratory 334 Snell Engineering

162

Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ?  

PubMed Central

The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles. PMID:21239551

Bare, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

2011-01-01

163

Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

Sullivan, P.

2003-02-24

164

A three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in laboratory and space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. The shielding and exposure of space travelers is controlled by the transport properties of the radiation through the spacecraft, its onboard systems and the bodies of the individuals themselves. Meeting the challenge of future space programs will therefore require accurate and efficient methods for performing radiation transport calculations to analyze and predict shielding requirements. One such method, which is developed in this dissertation, is based on a three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in both laboratory and space.

Gerstner, Candice Rockell

165

Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Related Traits in Adult Twins Reared Apart and Reared Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for neuroticism, extraversion, impulsivity, and monotony avoidance were estimated in a sample of 99 monozygotic and 229 dizygotic pairs of twins reared apart (TRA) and a matched sample of 160 monozygotic and 212 dizygotic pairs of twins reared together (TRT). The average age was 58.6 (SD = 13.6); 72% of the twins

Nancy L. Pedersen; Robert Plomin; Gerald E. McClearn; Lars Friberg

1988-01-01

166

Development of laboratory-reared sheepshead,Archosargus  

E-print Network

and juveniles, begin- ning with 6-mm-TL larvae. Mook (1977) described osteology of 2-25 mm wild sheepshead and juvenile sheepshead based on wild specimens. Hildebrand and Cable (19381 described wild sheeps- head larvae, with notes on pigmentation and illustrations of mid- to late larvae and a juvenile. Rathbun (1892) reported

167

Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly ?-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A ?-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

Misra, N. L.

2014-11-01

168

Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship.  

PubMed

Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular. PMID:24504534

Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

2014-04-01

169

Hand-rearing reduces fear of humans in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.  

PubMed

Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2011-01-01

170

Parental rearing patterns and suicidal thoughts.  

PubMed

In an attempt to investigate the parental rearing patterns associated with presence of suicidal thoughts, a measure of child rearing patterns (EMBU) and the EPQ measure of personality dimensions were administered to 85 university students, 72 medical and surgical patients, and 125 employees of a state department, along with two questions tapping suicidal thoughts. Results indicated that those with suicidal ideation had parents who had separated more often than controls, and that parental rearing of those with suicidal thoughts included parents who favoured siblings rather than subject, were unstimulating, guilt-engendering, rejecting and unaffectionate. Fathers were more abusive and punitive. These findings suggest that suicidal thoughts may be related to rejection and lack of self-esteem, and that therapy which focuses on resolving parental rejection may be of some use in patients with suicidal ideation. PMID:6880825

Ross, M W; Clayer, J R; Campbell, R L

1983-06-01

171

Laboratory techniques and rhythmometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the procedures used for the analysis of rhythms are illustrated, notably as these apply to current medical and biological practice. For a quantitative approach to medical and broader socio-ecologic goals, the chronobiologist gathers numerical objective reference standards for rhythmic biophysical, biochemical, and behavioral variables. These biological reference standards can be derived by specialized computer analyses of largely self-measured (until eventually automatically recorded) time series (autorhythmometry). Objective numerical values for individual and population parameters of reproductive cycles can be obtained concomitantly with characteristics of about-yearly (circannual), about-daily (circadian) and other rhythms.

Halberg, F.

1973-01-01

172

Management of scales and other insect debris: occupational health hazard in a lepidopterous rearing facility.  

PubMed

Scales and other body parts of Lepidoptera are known allergens and pose a serious health hazard for workers in rearing programs. Researchers of the Crop Science Research Laboratory (USDA-ARS), located at Mississippi State, MS, have reared lepidopterous insects since the late 1960s. Efforts have been made by them to continuously improve management of the moth scale problem and reduce allergic reactions suffered by workers. We developed strategy that requires a separate facility for housing the moth colonies, oviposition cages that facilitate exit of scales and other debris, an improved air filtration system, and sanitation procedures. The strategy used currently (coined ALERT for Advanced Lepidoptera Environmental Rearing Technology) for scale management efficiently minimizes this serious occupational hazard. PMID:7722080

Davis, F M; Jenkins, J N

1995-04-01

173

Social rehabilitation of isolate-reared monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicate that monkeys reared in total social isolation for 6 mo. or more exhibit apparently permanent social deficits in appropriate play, aggressive, sexual, and maternal behaviors. In the present study, 4 male rhesus monkeys that spent the 1st 6 mo. of life in total social isolation were permitted to interact with 4 female socially-normal controls 3 mo. younger

Stephen J. Suomi; Harry F. Harlow

1972-01-01

174

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

175

Perception of maternal child rearing attitudes in schizophrenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective comparison was made of schizophrenic perceptions of mothers' child rearing attitudes with normals. Schizophrenic daughters showed more variant child rearing practices than normals. A major difficulty in mother-schizophrenic daughter relationship is the perception of \\

1960-01-01

176

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

177

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

178

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

179

75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride...ACTION: Request for comments on technical report...announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report, its existing Safety...

2010-11-08

180

Physical and biological evaluations of an encapsulated diet for rearing predaceous insects  

E-print Network

54. 5 60. 0 a/ Lot no. 5-026. 35 Coleomeoilla maculata, Nabis sp. , Zelus renardii. , and Geocoris sp. accepted the encapsulated diet as a food source (Table 9). Sito~tro a eggs, off'ered as a standard in some tests, were observed to be accepted.... An artificial diet for rearing coccinellid beetles. Canadian Ent. 90:563-5. Smith, B. C. 1960. A technique for rearing coccinellid beetles on dry food and influence of various Pll tl d 19*tof~d*1* 11 maculata lencei Timb. (Col eoptera: Coccinellidae...

Martin, Paul Bain

2012-06-07

181

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2010-10-01

182

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2012-10-01

183

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2013-10-01

184

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2011-10-01

185

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

186

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics...AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to...

2011-01-01

187

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics...AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to...

2010-01-01

188

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics...AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to...

2012-01-01

189

Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 9. Laboratory QPCB Task Sort for Medical Laboratory Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is Attachment 9 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in medical laboratory technology. (BT)

Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

190

Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.  

PubMed

A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

2014-06-01

191

Jamaican child-rearing practices: the role of corporal punishment.  

PubMed

The family is the most prominent social group that exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental violence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like the United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, child-rearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines the child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being. PMID:14560888

Smith, Delores E; Mosby, Gail

2003-01-01

192

Faculty perspectives of the undergraduate laboratory: A survey of faculty goals for the laboratory and comparative analysis of responses using statistical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative research methods were used in a previous study to discover the goals of faculty members teaching undergraduate laboratories. Assertions about the goals and the unique characteristics of innovative lab programs were developed from categories that emerged from the interviews. The purpose of the present research was to create a survey instrument to measure the prevalence of these themes and faculty goals for undergraduate laboratories with a national sample. This was achieved through a two-stage process that utilized a pilot survey to determine the factor structure and reduce the number of survey items to a manageable size. Once the number of survey questions was reduced, the full survey was given to a national sample of undergraduate laboratory faculty. The 312 responses to the survey were then analyzed using factor analysis. Comparative analyses were conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA). This dissertation focuses on the processes involved in the creation of this survey and the subsequent analyses of the data the survey produced. The results of these analyses and the implications of this research will also be discussed.

Bruck, Aaron D.

193

Mass rearing methods for Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), biological control agents of Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae).  

PubMed

Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L., an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Because conventional control methods have proven ineffective, current emphasis is on the introduction and release of host-specific biological control agents. To increase the availability of control agents for distribution and thus the potential for faster control, mass rearing techniques for 2 leaf beetles, Galerucella calmariensis L. and G. pusilla Duftschmidt, were developed under greenhouse and field conditions. To evaluate the success of various rearing techniques on the number of beetles produced and the effect of these methods on offspring quality, female fecundity, larval development, and adult survival were monitored. Survival of adults maintained at 4 degrees C was approximately 60% and was independent of the type of material used for storage, duration of overwintering, and number of beetles per container. Survival rates increased with increasing numbers of dry stems offered as an overwintering substrate. Females in smaller cages had significantly higher oviposition rates, and with an increase in the number of beetles per cage, female fecundity doubled. Continuous rearing in the greenhouse reduced female fecundity. Allowing beetles to overwinter significantly improved fecundity and rearing efficiency, independent of whether beetles overwintered in a controlled environment or in the field. Field rearings consistently produced 2-5 times more offspring with higher survival than greenhouse rearings. PMID:10333750

Blossey, B; Hunt, T R

1999-04-01

194

Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

2005-01-01

195

Combining impact sensor field and laboratory flume measurements with other techniques for studying fluvial bedload transport in steep mountain streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and rate of fluvial bedload transport are of central importance within sediment budget studies and in many applications in river science and engineering. During the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 detailed field measurements with portable impact sensors as a non-invasive technique for indirectly determining fluvial bedload transport intensity were conducted in two instrumented and supply-limited drainage basin systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in the fjord landscape in western Norway. Additional field measurements with portable impact sensors were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in selected transport-limited fluvial systems in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. The collected impact sensor field data were calibrated with laboratory flume experiments. The data from the impact sensor field measurements in western Norway and the flume experiments were combined with field data from continuous discharge monitoring, repeated surveys of channel morphometry and sediment texture, particle tracer measurements, Helley-Smith samplings, underwater video filming and biofilm analyses. The combination of methods and techniques applied provides insights into the temporal variability and intensity of fluvial bedload transport in the selected mountain streams: (i) in the transport-limited systems with generally high bedload transport rates during high discharge and with bedload material moving in clusters over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (based on a 1 s measuring interval) provide the opportunity to detect the start and end of bedload transport, thus to identify discharge thresholds for sediment entrainment, and to roughly estimate the intensity and relative intensity of change of bedload transport during the measuring period; (ii) in the supply-limited systems with low bedload transport rates and bedload components moving separately (as single particles) over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (with a 1 s measuring interval) allow the detection of the start and end of transport of bedload components > 11.3 mm, thus the identification of discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles, the quantification of the number of particles > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period, the rough estimation of grain sizes of the particles moving separately over the impact sensor plates, and the calculation of the total mass of the bedload material > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period; (iii) when combined with other methods and techniques (Helley-Smith sampling, particle tracer measurements, biofilm analyses, underwater video filming) which provide information on the active bedload transport channel width, on discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles of different grain sizes, and on transport rates of bedload material < 11.3 mm, total rates of fluvial bedload transport, covering all given grain sizes of the bedload material, can be calculated for the supply-limited mountain streams with generally low bedload transport. The higher measured annual bedload yield in Bødalen (13.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) compared to Erdalen (2.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) reflects a higher level of slope-channel coupling in Bødalen than in Erdalen.

Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja

2014-08-01

196

Protocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae).  

PubMed

This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28 degrees C and approximately 80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults. PMID:18979019

Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

2007-01-01

197

Social Recovery by Isolation-Reared Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Total social isolation of macaque monkeys for at least the first 6 months of life consistently produces severe deficits in virtually every aspect of social behavior. Experiments designed to rehabilitate monkeys reared in isolation are described. While young isolates exposed to equal-age normal peers achieved only limited recovery of simple social responses, some mothers reared in isolation eventually exhibited acceptable maternal behavior when forced to accept infant contact over a period of months, but showed no further recovery; isolate infants exposed to surrogates were able to develop crude interactive patterns among themselves. In contrast to the above results, 6-month-old social isolates exposed to 3-month-old normal monkeys achieved essentially complete social recovery for all situations tested. It is postulated that social stimulation that both permits subjects to achieve contact acceptability and provides an interactive medium conducive to gradual development of sophisticated social behaviors will result in almost complete recovery of social capabilities previously obliterated by rearing in isolation. Images PMID:5283943

Harlow, Harry F.; Suomi, Stephen J.

1971-01-01

198

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

1996-08-01

199

Comparison of artificial diets for rearing Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lep., Pyralidae) for Trichogramma mass production.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was, based on biological studies, to determine and adequate diet for rearing Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) in the laboratory so as to permit the rearing of this factitious host for Trichogramma mass production. The research was conducted at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, RH 60 +/- 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Six artificial diets were compared: a) whole wheat flour (48.5%), ground rice (48.5%) and sugar (3%); b) ground rice (97%) and sugar (3%); c) whole wheat flour (48.5%), rice flour (48.5%) an sugar (3%); d) whole wheat flour (97%) and yeast (3%); e) wheat germ (97%) and yeast (3%); f) rice bran (94%), sugar (3%) and yeast (3%); f) rice bran (94%), sugar (3%) and yeast (3%). All of the diets studied permitted the development of C. cephalonica although the diets with wheat germ and yeast and that consisting of rice bran, sugar and yeast proved to be the most adequate for rearing the moth. These diets reduced the total (egg-adult) cycle, shortened the egg laying period, and produced heavier adults. Studies on the fertility life tables showed that higher net reproduction rates (Ro) and finite ratio of increase (lambda) were obtained from adults reared on these diets. PMID:10838923

Bernardi, E B; Haddad, M L; Parra, J R

2000-02-01

200

Helminths of pond-reared walleye from Wisconsin.  

PubMed

One hundred extended growth walleye fingerlings, Sander vitreus (Percidae), collected on 6 October 2004, from 1 rearing pond at the Lake Mills State Fish Hatchery in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, were examined for parasites. Diplostomum sp. (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae), and Proteocephalus sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) were the only parasites found. The first 3 species occurred as larval stages. Diplostomum sp. and Contracaecum sp. had similar prevalences, mean intensities, and mean abundances (72%, 2.2, and 1.6 and 71%, 2.1, 1.5, respectively) in walleye fingerlings. A headlamp technique used by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources personnel generated a prevalence of Diplostomum sp. in the lens that overestimated the prevalence of Diplostomum sp. found in a random subsample of 100 fingerlings examined with a microscope. Proteocephalus sp. and B. cuspidatus infected 14 and 12 fingerlings, respectively. PMID:16729707

Muzzall, Patrick M; Eggold, Bradley T; Fahey, Robert J

2006-04-01

201

Histological study of the effects of starvation on reared and wild-caught larval stone flounder, Kareius bicoloratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starvation tolerance of laboratory-reared larval stone flounder, Kareius bicoloratus, was examined at different temperatures and salinities during the winters of 1984, 1985 and 1986. Starvation tolerance decreased with increased temperature and exhibited low values with high salinities. The highest starvation tolerance observed at low salinity was just before the metamorphosis stage. Starvation tolerance showed little change until larvae were 11

Y. Oozeki; T. Ishii; R. Hirano

1989-01-01

202

Medial prefrontal cortex volume loss in rats with isolation rearing-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.  

PubMed

Rearing rats in isolation produces perturbations in behavior and brain neurochemistry suggested to resemble those of schizophrenia. In particular, isolation-reared rats display deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle that in humans are associated with disorders including schizophrenia and are interpreted as abnormalities in sensorimotor gating. The prefrontal cortex is considered important in the regulation of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and postmortem studies suggest that neuropil and total volume, but not total number of neurons, are decreased in this region of the brains of schizophrenic patients. In this study we used design-based stereological techniques to examine the brains of Lister Hooded rats, reared in isolation and which displayed prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle deficits, for changes in morphology compared with the brains of their socially-reared littermates. Pooled data from three batches of animals revealed a significant 7% volume loss of the medial prefrontal cortex of isolation-reared rats whereas neuron number in this region was unchanged. In contrast, volume and total neuron number were unaffected in the rostral caudate putamen. The robust reduction in prefrontal cortical volume observed in isolation-reared rats, in the absence of reductions in total neuron number, suggest that there is a loss of volume of the neuropil. These changes parallel those reported in schizophrenia patients and therefore support the construct validity of this model. PMID:16750891

Day-Wilson, K M; Jones, D N C; Southam, E; Cilia, J; Totterdell, S

2006-09-01

203

Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

204

49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Each trailer and semitrailer with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds) or more, and manufactured on or after January 26, 1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR...

2010-10-01

205

7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

206

Comparison of field- and laboratory-collected midwave and longwave infrared emissivity spectra\\/data reduction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many targets that remote sensing scientists encounter when conducting their research experiments do not lend themselves to laboratory measurement of their surface optical properties. Removal of these targets from the field can change their biotic condition, disturb the surface composition, and change the moisture content of the sample. These parameters, as well as numerous others, have a marked influence on

Carl Salvaggio; Craig J. Miller

2001-01-01

207

Effects of Training Experienced Teachers in the Use of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year,…

Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

2014-01-01

208

An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

2011-01-01

209

An optimized protocol for rearing Fopius arisanus, a parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies.  

PubMed

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage(1). Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions(2-4). One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony(5-9). Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus(10-12). There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology(13,14), especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts(14-17); interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade(18). Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach(12). The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

2011-01-01

210

A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consume?s right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianji?s pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

211

Effects of social isolation rearing on learning in the morris water maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired learning has been shown as a consequence of isolation-rearing in a variety of paradigms. However, there are situations in which learning in isolation-reared rats is enhanced or unimpaired compared to socially reared rats. The present experiments investigated the effects of isolation rearing on place navigation in the Morris water maze. Two complementary paradigms were studied: isolation and socially reared

Noppamars Wongwitdecha; Charles Alexander Marsden

1996-01-01

212

Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.  

PubMed

Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork. PMID:25276938

Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

2014-09-01

213

Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Olsen, G.H.; Hereford, S.G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

2001-01-01

214

Behavioural responses of hatchery-reared and wild cod Gadus morhua to mechano-acoustic predator signals.  

PubMed

The behavioural responses of wild (predator-experienced) and hatchery-reared (predator-naive) cod Gadus morhua to standardized mechano-acoustic (MA) stimuli were compared in the laboratory. Wild fish responded mainly with freezing and fast-start escapes away from the stimulus, whereas hatchery-reared fish often ignored or approached the stimulus. Wild fish also had stronger responses, turning faster during escapes and reducing activity immediately after the stimulus. Both fish types were less active on a 'risky' bare substratum after the stimulus. The antipredator responses of wild fish were consistent to repeated stimuli, whereas hatchery-reared fish that had generally only encountered harmless stimuli showed more variable responses with lower repeatability. This suggests that experience plays a role in shaping the behavioural response of fishes to MA stimuli. PMID:21539552

Meager, J J; Rodewald, P; Domenici, P; Fernö, A; Järvi, T; Skjaeraasen, J E; Sverdrup, G K

2011-05-01

215

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

1995-01-27

216

Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a 228Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed 228Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10-6. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of 3He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

Zimbal, Andreas; Degering, Detlev; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Zuber, Kai

2013-08-01

217

GROWTH AND FOOD CONVERSION OF RAINBOW TROUT REARED IN  

E-print Network

NOTES GROWTH AND FOOD CONVERSION OF RAINBOW TROUT REARED IN BRACKISH AND FRESH WATER Although reared from fingerling to market size in brackish and fresh water. Materials and Methods Six 1.8-m (Andrews et aI., 1971). Fresh water from a deep well (22°C) or brackish water (25-30~,.) from the Skidaway

218

3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing on north wall, floor, and ceiling, looking north - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

219

2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Elevation of south side of dwelling and rear ell - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

220

The experimental rearing of large salmonid eggs in Petri dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Studies on the genetics or the ecology of fish eggs are typically based on inferential statistics, which require the separate rearing of many batches. 2. Salmonid eggs are believed to require a constant water flow to develop safely. Therefore, the technical requirements that have been used to rear individual batches of salmonid eggs significantly limit experimental studies. 3.

C. Wedekind; R. Muller

2004-01-01

221

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

222

INTRODUCTION In birds, the quality of rearing conditions is a  

E-print Network

-TERM FITNESS CORRELATES OF REARING CONDITIONS IN BARN OWLS TYTO ALBA ALEXANDRE ROULIN Roulin A. 2002. Short- and long-term fitness correlates of rearing condi- tions in Barn Owls Tyto alba. Ardea 90(2): 259-267. During a 12-year study of the Barn Owl Tyto alba I investigated the short- and long-term fitness

Alvarez, Nadir

223

View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear and Building No. 31 at right rear. Rolled curb design of sidewalk on left, looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

224

Passive solar system for maintaining and rearing marine organisms  

SciTech Connect

A solar-heated facility for maintaining and rearing marine organisms is described. Water from a shallow tidal bay is moved by a tide-regulated pumping system into settling tanks for removal of suspended silt and clay, from which the water drains by gravity flow to circular rearing tanks.

Yuschak, P.; Richards, F.M.

1987-04-01

225

Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

226

Front-End Analysis of Rear-End Crashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the application of a seven-step crash problem analysis methodology, as described in the preceding paper by Leasure (l), to rear-end crashes.The paper shows how modeling of rear-end crash scenarios and candidate countermeasure action h...

1992-01-01

227

N-3 fatty acid deficiency induced by a modified artificial rearing method leads to poorer performance in spatial learning tasks.  

PubMed

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major structural component of the nervous system, and depletion may lead to losses in neural function. Our objective was to demonstrate a deficit in spatial task performance in rats with low brain DHA due to a low n-3 fatty acid intake using a first-generational artificial rearing technique. Newborn rat pups were separated on d 2 and assigned to two artificial rearing groups or a dam-reared control group. Pups were hand fed artificial milk via custom-designed nursing bottles containing either 0.02% (n-3 Def) or 3.1% (n-3 Adq) of total fatty acids as LNA. At d 21, rats were weaned to either n-3 Def or n-3 Adq pelleted diets and several behavioral tasks were evaluated at 9 wk of age. Brain DHA was lower (58% and 61%, p < 0.001) in n-3 Def in comparison to n-3 Adq and dam-reared rats, respectively. At adulthood, the n-3 fatty acid-deficient rats had a significantly greater moving time than the dam-reared group (p < 0.05), but there were no differences among the three groups in the elevated plus maze test. The n-3 fatty acid deficient rats exhibited a longer escape latency (p < 0.05) and poorer memory retention in the Morris water maze compared with n-3 fatty acid adequate and dam-reared rats. We concluded that artificial rearing can be used to produce n-3 fatty acid deficiency in the first generation. This deficiency was associated with significantly reduced spatial learning. Adequate brain DHA levels are required for optimal spatial learning. PMID:16189203

Lim, Sun-Young; Hoshiba, Junji; Moriguchi, Toru; Salem, Norman

2005-10-01

228

Vortex formation and heat transfer in turbulent flow past a transverse cavity with inclined frontal and rear walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of vortex formation, distributions of pressure coefficients, and convective heat transfer in a turbulent flow past a cavity with a low aspect ratio and inclined frontal and rear walls were experimentally studied. The angle of wall inclination ? was varied in the interval from 30° to 90°. Visualization techniques were applied to trace the evolution of the flow

A. Yu. D’yachenko; V. I. Terekhov; N. I. Yarygina

2008-01-01

229

A Comparison of Value Preferences and Attitudes toward Collectivism of Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to shed some light on the effect of socialization context (home vs. orphanage) on gender-specific value acquisition. With this aim value preferences and collectivistic attitudes of institution-reared and home-reared teenagers (14-20 yrs.) were compared. Teenagers from ordinary homes were found to score high on…

Tulviste, Tiia; Gutman, Piret

2003-01-01

230

Laboratory-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique for material and medical science applications.  

PubMed

In-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for the study of materials such as carbon fibers, carbon composite materials, polymers, etc. Similarly this technique is also well suited for the imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumor and normal tissue. These represent the class of materials for which X-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low X-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method. We have set up an experimental facility using a combination of X-ray CCD detector and a microfocus X-ray source. This facility is dedicated to micro-imaging experiments such as microtomography and high-resolution phase-contrast experiments. In this paper, the results of X-ray phase-contrast imaging experiments are described. PMID:18313312

Kashyap, Yogesh S; Yadav, P S; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P S; Shukla, M; Sinha, Amar

2008-08-01

231

Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

2014-01-01

232

Hand?rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.  

PubMed

Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range. PMID:24753001

Kenow, Kevin P; Meier, Melissa S; McColl, Laurie E; Hines, Randy K; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

2014-01-01

233

Life history of Milnesium tardigradum Doyère (tardigrada) under a rearing environment.  

PubMed

A strain of carnivorous tardigrade, Milnesium tardigradum, was reared in water on agar plates at 25 degrees C. The monogonont rotifer Lecane inermis was presented as a food source. This rearing system permitted detailed observation of tardigrade behaviour. Daily measurements of body length allowed the growth rate and moulting cycle of this species to be determined. The life history of M. tardigradum raised under these conditions included up to seven periods of moult. The first and second moults occurred at intervals of 4-5 days, and individuals reached reproductive maturity at the 3rd-instar stage; the first period of egg laying accompanied the third moult. The most rapidly developing animal in the study population laid eggs 12 days after hatching. The egg-laying intervals or moulting intervals of adult animals were around 6-10 days. The mean clutch size was 6.9 eggs. All tardigrades in this laboratory population were female and reproduced by parthenogenesis. The duration of the embryonic stage ranged from 5-16 days. The most long-lived female survived for 58 days after hatching, and laid a total of 41 eggs in 5 separate clutches. The entire life cycle of tardigrades reared under these conditions was recorded and photographed. A brief description of the embryonic development of M. tardigradum was also reported. PMID:12560601

Suzuki, Atsushi C

2003-01-01

234

Foster Dams Rear Fighters: Strain-Specific Effects of Within-Strain Fostering on Aggressive Behavior in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species. PMID:24040381

Rissman, Emilie F.

2013-01-01

235

Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.  

PubMed

1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available. PMID:11081418

Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

2000-07-01

236

National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program  

E-print Network

National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program NVLAP Assessor Training Assessment Techniques #12;National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program Outline · Purpose of the Types of Assessments Meeting · Case Study Assessment Techniques ­ September 24, 2013 2 #12;National Voluntary Laboratory

237

Locally contacted rear surface passivated solar cells by inkjet printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inkjet printing of photoresist material may provide a new route for low-cost fabrication of patterned oxide passivation layer of solar cells that require fine patterning and simple process. However, printing by liquid-based, environmentally friendly ink and printing device required development efforts aimed at achieving a fine patterning and long used inkjet nozzles under corrosive influence. This work was demonstrated a concept for grooved silicon oxide patterning for rear localized contact of p-n junction solar cells by chemical etching after photoresist patterning obtained. This article reviews the silicon dioxide fabrication on p-Si substrate from sol-gel technique for oxide passivation layer of solar cells. The aluminium was deposited on the patterned oxide layer and then heated at its Al-Si eutectic temperature. Finally, an aluminium-induced solid-phase epitaxial growth of p+ forming into the openings of the oxide passivation layer was presented. The sheet resistance of n-emitter layer, carrier life-time and surface recombination velocity values are investigated. Photoconductive measurements were performed on the prepared samples after each thermal process to measure the effective lifetime of the minority carriers. Carrier lifetime up to 60 microseconds has been measured on c-Si wafer passivated by the opened SiO2 layer. It was shown that the patterned SiO2 passivation has obtained high passivation quality making by the proposed inkjet printing method.

Phiwpha, N.; Fangsuwannarak, T.; Sopitpan, S.

2014-06-01

238

Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 ?m-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

2014-11-01

239

8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW TREATMENT. See CA-174-B-22 FOR INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR LAB AT CENTER. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Engineering-Administration Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

240

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

241

7. BASEMENT, REAR WALL OF FRONT HOUSE, DETAIL SHOWING MARBLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. BASEMENT, REAR WALL OF FRONT HOUSE, DETAIL SHOWING MARBLE SILL AND HEADED JAMB OF FORMER BASEMENT WINDOW. Photo by Theodore F. Dillon, August 1960 - Captain James Abercrombie House, 268-270 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

242

SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Observation Bunker Types, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

243

12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

244

4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

245

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

246

Use of four types of litter for rearing broilers.  

PubMed

1. One hundred and forty four Shaver broiler chicks (Starbro 15) were reared from 4 d to 56 d of age on 4 types of litter: sawdust, paddy straw, sand and rice husk each spread to a depth of 75 mm. 2. Birds reared on rice husk litter showed the greatest food consumption, greatest weight gain, best food conversion efficiency and scored highest in production number. 3. Survivability was also highest with rice husk group (94.4%) but differences in this variable were not thought to be attributable to types of litter. 4. Breast blisters were found only in birds reared on sand (8.3%). 5. It was concluded that rice husk is a suitable litter for rearing broilers on the floor, particularly in paddy-growing countries. PMID:8842460

Anisuzzaman, M; Chowdhury, S D

1996-07-01

247

5. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, REAR CORNER DETAIL, LOOKING NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, REAR CORNER DETAIL, LOOKING NORTH. - Geraldine Lucas Homestead, Geraldine Lucas Cabin, West bank Cottonwood Creek, 2.5 miles downstream from Jenny Lake, Moose, Teton County, WY

248

14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

249

4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

250

North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

251

Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

252

North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

253

Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

254

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

255

VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

256

1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

257

5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

258

4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) elevation. View to south. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

259

6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. View to east. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

260

Rear Quonset huts, currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rear Quonset huts, currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass company. View northwest from loading dock. - Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company, Factory No. 1, 851 Pennsylvania Avenue, Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

261

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

262

6. Weave shed, view of rear of building from adjacent ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Weave shed, view of rear of building from adjacent property, stone mill and boiler plant smokestack at background right - Norfolk Manufacturing Company Cotton Mill, 90 Milton Street, Dedham, Norfolk County, MA

263

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

264

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

265

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

266

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

267

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

268

Oblique view of the northwest end of the rear facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of the northwest end of the rear facade showing structural glue-laminated beams, view facing southeast - Pearl Harbor Memorial Community Church, 20 Bougainville Drive, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

269

5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street showing original surviving 6/6 sash window and moldings. - 8-10 East State Street (Commercial Building), 8-10 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

270

11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

271

NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

272

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

273

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

274

SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING WOODEN STAIRS AND RAILROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING WOODEN STAIRS AND RAILROAD TIE BARRICADE. Looking northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, VIP Viewing Stand, Southwest of Station "50" area, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

275

27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

276

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

277

19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

278

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

279

3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

280

11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

281

3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Cottage HI-65, Hunting Island State Park, US Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

282

5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

283

4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE TRASH RACKS BELOW. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

284

16. View of middle bay of N (rear) elevation looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. View of middle bay of N (rear) elevation looking SE. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

285

3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

286

Site overview. View of hangar no. 1 at rear, hangar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site overview. View of hangar no. 1 at rear, hangar no. 2 at right. Looking 350 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

287

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

288

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

289

SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

290

WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

291

EARTHCOVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EARTH-COVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ON TOP, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, ARMCO Hut, Hamilton Road between Moffett & Harrison Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

292

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

293

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

294

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

295

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

296

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

297

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

298

MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Magazine Type 2, Fourth Place, Seventh & Eighth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

299

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

300

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

301

10. SOUTHEAST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SOUTHEAST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING) FROM SOUTH CORNER ALONG PERIMETER FENCE. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

302

15. NORTH REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8966 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTH REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8966 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

303

Southwest rear, northwest part, looking obliquely to the north, also ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southwest rear, northwest part, looking obliquely to the north, also showing Sentry Post A272 at the left - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

304

South rear, east end. Original power inlet is visible halfway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South rear, east end. Original power inlet is visible halfway up the wall - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

305

View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

306

Characterization of captive reared bobwhite quail for hunting resorts  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF CAPTIVE REARED BOBWHITE QUAIL FOR HUNTING RESORTS A Thesis by PAUL EDWARD MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1977 Major Subject: Poultry Science CHARACTERIZATION OF CAPTIVE REARED BOBWHITE OUAIL FOR HUNTING RESORTS A Thesis by PAUL EDWARD MOORE Approved as to style and content by: (Ch 'n o Commit ee) c~w', ( ad of Depa tment (Member) (Member...

Moore, Paul Edward

2012-06-07

307

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

308

Child-rearing goals of Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mothers.  

PubMed

In the present study, the child-rearing goals of mothers of 4- to 6-year-old children from Estonia, Finland, and Sweden were compared. The developed Child-Rearing Goals Questionnaire consisted of three different tasks: open-ended questions, item rating, and item ranking. All mothers were similar in valuing highly self-maximization, but differed in emphasis on traditional child-rearing goals (e.g., conformity, obedience, politeness, being hard-working, etc.). The Swedish mothers tended to stress the characteristics connected with self-maximization as well as self-confidence and children's happiness, but did not value the traditional child-rearing goals. The Estonian mothers attached a great significance both to the traditional characteristics and to self-maximization. The Finnish mothers also stressed both traditional and non-traditional values, but to a lesser extent than the Estonians. The Swedish and Finnish mothers' child-rearing goals were relatively homogeneous. In contrast, the Estonian mothers were generally less focused on any specific goal. Mothers with a lower level of education stressed traditional goals more than mothers with a higher level of education. The results are discussed in the light of the possible effect different cultural contexts have on maternal child-rearing goals: bringing up children in stable welfare societies (such as Sweden and Finland) in contrast to a rapidly changing society (such as Estonia). PMID:18028071

Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

2007-12-01

309

A novel method for rearing first-feeding larval zebrafish: polyculture with Type L saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).  

PubMed

Promoting high rates of growth and survival can be a major challenge in zebrafish culture, especially during the first-feeding stage. Here we describe a new rearing technique in which zebrafish larvae are polycultured in static tanks with Type "L" saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) for the first 5 days of feeding (days 5-9 postfertilization). To demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted rearing trials using fish from two different strains: AB and nacre. Growth, survival, water quality, and rotifer density were assayed daily through the polyculture phase (days 5-9), and during the transition to standard rearing conditions (days 10-12). After that point, once the fish were fully integrated onto recirculating systems, parameters were measured once per week out to day 30. In all trials, the fish displayed high rates of growth and survival throughout the three phases (polyculture, transition, and recirculating flow), indicating that this method may be employed during the critical first-feeding stage to help improve rearing performance in zebrafish facilities. Additionally, water quality parameters observed during the polyculture phase of the trials reveal that early zebrafish larvae are much more tolerant of elevated levels of ammonia and salinity than previously believed. PMID:20936984

Best, Jason; Adatto, Isaac; Cockington, Jason; James, Althea; Lawrence, Christian

2010-09-01

310

Flight characteristics of pen-reared and wild prairie-chickens and an evaluation of a greenhouse to rear prairie-chickens  

E-print Network

The introduction of pen-reared Attwater's prairie-chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) into the wild to supplement existing populations has met with marginal success. Flight characteristics, predator avoidance behavior, and rearing methods...

Hess, Marc Frederick

2004-09-30

311

Predator–prey interaction between hatchery-reared Japanese flounder juvenile, Paralichthys olivaceus, and sandy shore crab, Matuta lunaris: daily rhythms, anti-predator conditioning and starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator–prey interaction between sandy shore crab, Matuta lunaris (Forskål, 1775), and juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck et Schlegel), was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Possibility of training and conditioning hatchery-reared flounder to avoid predators was also examined. Crabs took over 75% of their daily ration at night when they were given access to prey 24 h a day. Large

Mostafa A. R Hossain; Masaru Tanaka; Reiji Masuda

2002-01-01

312

Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques—the ISOS-3Inter-laboratory Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {ge} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Risoe DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results - hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

Germack D.; Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Jorgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Hoppe, H.; Krebs, F.C.

2012-04-01

313

Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques - The ISOS-3 Inter-Laboratory Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {>=} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Riso DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results -- hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D. M.; Jrgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M. T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H. F.; Gevorgyan, S. A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.

2012-04-01

314

Relationships between a clinical-visual scoring system and two histological techniques: a laboratory study on occlusal and approximal carious lesions.  

PubMed

One aim of the present laboratory study was to determine whether a visual scoring system (ERK) developed for occlusal caries could be applied to approximal lesions. A new histological technique (autofluorescence, AF) recognises dentine that is soft and would be removed with an excavator during operative treatment. A second aim was to investigate the relationship between the visual scoring system (ERK) and AF of dentine both occlusally and approximally. The sample comprised 93 extracted teeth chosen to represent the range of visual scores on approximal and occlusal surfaces. After sectioning through the investigation site, the cut faces were examined in a stereomicroscope and the depth of demineralization was scored. Autofluorescence was viewed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results showed reasonable correlation between the visual scores and the stereomicroscope histological evaluations for occlusal surfaces and non-cavitated approximal surfaces. However, cavitated approximal surface lesions were less advanced histologically than cavitated occlusal carious lesions. The AF technique indicated that several lesions with intact surfaces would have had soft, excavatable dentine, whereas several with microcavities would not. PMID:12652050

Kidd, E A M; Banerjee, A; Ferrier, S; Longbottom, C; Nugent, Z

2003-01-01

315

Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field. PMID:23926780

Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

2013-07-01

316

Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water.  

PubMed

In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

2014-10-15

317

National Laboratory Christine Brakel  

E-print Network

of Energy. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE The technique provides a sensitive reliable method of detectingBrookhaven National Laboratory Christine Brakel Office of Intellectual Property and Sponsored address: brakel@bnl.gov METHOD FOR ASSAYING CLUSTERED DNA DAMAGES Brookhaven National Laboratory

318

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

319

The effects of isolation-rearing on sucrose consumption in rats.  

PubMed

Three experiments examined the hypothesis that social isolation of weanling rats potentiates hedonic processes by examining the consumption of sucrose solutions. In the first experiment no differences in consumption were found between socially reared rats and isolation-reared rats allowed to consume sucrose in a familiar test apparatus. In a second experiment socially-reared rats and isolation-reared rats were food and water deprived. Again, no differences in consumption were found. In a third experiment socially reared and isolation-reared rats were allowed to consume sucrose presented in either an ascending or descending order of concentration. When given sucrose in an ascending order of presentation isolation-reared rats consumed significantly more sucrose than socially reared rats. This suggests that isolation-rearing increased the effects of positive contrast, and is consistent with other observations of increased incentive motivation in isolates. PMID:9251970

Hall, F S; Humby, T; Wilkinson, L S; Robbins, T W

1997-08-01

320

Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees.  

PubMed

Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities. PMID:17928165

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2008-02-01

321

Perceived parental rearing behavior in children of Holocaust survivors.  

PubMed

Holocaust survivors have often been described as inadequate parents. Their multiple losses were assumed to create child-rearing problems around both attachment and detachment. Empirical research, however, has yielded contradictory evidence regarding the parenting behavior of Holocaust survivors when investigated with classical parenting instruments. The present pilot-study investigated parental behavior with a new self-report instrument that also included salient Holocaust dimensions. The parent perception of 159 adult children of Holocaust survivors was thus compared with 151 control subjects. Factor analysis of data yielded four major kinds of parental rearing behaviors: transmission; affection; punishing and over-protection. While the second-generation group rated their parents higher on transmission, other differences in child-rearing practices were small, if taken as a whole. These findings largely support the descriptive literature on transgenerational transmission of trauma while at the same time refuting the view that Holocaust survivors function more inadequately than other parents do. PMID:11381587

Kellermann, N P

2001-01-01

322

Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

323

A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~ -26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -26 and -18 °C. Only instruments making measurement techniques with wet suspended samples were able to measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -26 and -18 °C is discussed. In general, the seventeen immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within the range of about 7 °C in terms of temperature, by three orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency (i.e., ns) of illite NX particles is relatively independent on droplet size, particle mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature-dependence and weak time- and size-dependence of immersion freezing efficiency of illite-rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. We also characterized the ns (T) spectra, and identified a section with a steep slope between -20 and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 °C. A multiple exponential distribution fit is expressed as ns(T) = exp(23.82 × exp(-exp(0.16 × (T + 17.49))) + 1.39) based on the specific surface area and ns(T) = exp(25.75 × exp(-exp(0.13 × (T + 17.17))) + 3.34) based on the geometric area (ns and T in m-2 and °C, respectively). These new fits, constrained by using an identical reference samples, will help to compare IN measurement methods that are not included in the present study and, thereby, IN data from future IN instruments.

Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

2014-08-01

324

Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

325

New laser-based approaches to improve the passivation and rear contact quality in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser processing has been the tool of choice last years to develop improved concepts in contact formation for high efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. New concepts based on standard laser fired contacts (LFC) or advanced laser doping (LD) techniques are optimal solutions for both the front and back contacts of a number of structures with growing interest in the c-Si PV industry. Nowadays, substantial efforts are underway to optimize these processes in order to be applied industrially in high efficiency concepts. However a critical issue in these devices is that, most of them, demand a very low thermal input during the fabrication sequence and a minimal damage of the structure during the laser irradiation process. Keeping these two objectives in mind, in this work we discuss the possibility of using laser-based processes to contact the rear side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells in an approach fully compatible with the low temperature processing associated to these devices. First we discuss the possibility of using standard LFC techniques in the fabrication of SHJ cells on p-type substrates, studying in detail the effect of the laser wavelength on the contact quality. Secondly, we present an alternative strategy bearing in mind that a real challenge in the rear contact formation is to reduce the damage induced by the laser irradiation. This new approach is based on local laser doping techniques previously developed by our groups, to contact the rear side of p-type c-Si solar cells by means of laser processing before rear metallization of dielectric stacks containing Al2O3. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using this new approach in SHJ cells with a distinct advantage over other standard LFC techniques.

Molpeceres, Carlos; Colina, Mónica; Muñoz-Martin, David; Martín, Isidro; Ortega, Pablo; Sánchez, Isabel; Morales, Miguel B.; Lauzurica, Sara; García-Ballesteros, Juan J.; Voz, Cristóbal; López, Gema; Morales, Ana-Belén.; Alcubilla, Ramón

2013-09-01

326

EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON SURVIVAL OF LABORATORY CULTURED SUMMER FLOUNDER 'PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies are being conducted to determine standard laboratory culture conditions for rearing summer flounder larvae to be used in toxicological bioassays. Experiments were conducted using the type of container and physical conditions use in the long term chronic toxicological bioa...

327

Comparison of meat and carcass quality in organically reared and conventionally reared pasture-fed lambs.  

PubMed

The 'Organic' product label guarantees a production process that avoids the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and hormones and minimises recourse to pharmaceuticals or veterinary drugs; however, the product's quality remains an issue that needs to be addressed in response to consumer demand. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the sensory and nutritional qualities of meat and carcasses from pasture-fed lambs reared organically (O) or conventionally (C). Mean lamb growth profile was kept similar between the two treatments to avoid confounding effects with lamb age or weight at slaughter. The experiment was conducted over 3 years (2005 to 2007) with 12 O and 12 C lambs each year. The O and C treatments differed in the level of on-pasture mineral N fertilisation inducing a higher proportion of white clover in the organic pasture than the conventional pasture. Lambs were slaughtered when they attained a fat class of 2 to 3, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Lambs were slaughtered at an average weight and age of 35.3 kg and 156 days in the O treatment, respectively, and 35.2 kg and 155 days in the C treatment, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that loin chops from the O treatment had a higher level of abnormal fat odour compared with the C treatment. Carcasses from the O treatment had a softer subcutaneous fat one among 3 years (2007) compared to the C treatment. These results are probably due to a higher proportion of white clover in the diet. Organically reared lambs did offer the slight advantage of muscle fatty acid containing a higher level of stearic acid, which may have positive effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans. This may be the result of a higher rumen bio-hydrogenation of C18:3n-3 due to differences in the botanical composition between the O and the C pasture. Production system had no effect on the colour characteristics of the meat and subcutaneous fat, except lightness of subcutaneous dorsal fat, which was slightly higher in the O lambs. There were no differences between O and C lambs in terms of colour stability and lipid oxidation of the meat during the 6-day refrigerated storage under gas-permeable film. PMID:22440477

Prache, S; Gatellier, P; Thomas, A; Picard, B; Bauchart, D

2011-12-01

328

Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

2012-07-01

329

5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

330

3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

331

2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

332

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

333

Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident.  

PubMed Central

Family physicians regularly treat victims of rear-end vehicle accidents. This article describes how taking a detailed history of the accident and understanding the significance of the physical events is helpful in understanding and anticipating patients' morbidity and clinical course. Eight questions to ask patients are suggested to help physicians understand the severity of injury. PMID:8495140

Sehmer, J. M.

1993-01-01

334

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

335

Welfare implications of artificial rearing and early weaning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after parturition a lasting and mutual ewe–lamb bond is established. However, in an increasing number of intensive sheep farms, lambs are separated from the dam at an early age. When artificial rearing is applied lambs are often kept with mothers for 2 days to allow the ingestion of maternal colostrum and then abruptly removed from their dams. Thus, lambs

Fabio Napolitano; Giuseppe De Rosa; Agostino Sevi

2008-01-01

336

View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

337

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

338

Child rearing knowledge and practice scales for women with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Comprehensive instruments to evaluate the child rearing knowledge and practice are not readily available for clinical research. Materials and Methods: We have designed in two phases a new instrument to evaluate the child rearing knowledge and practice under the four major domains of child rearing. Twenty-five subject experts from the field of Paediatrics, Obstetrics, Neurology and Nursing elicited the content validity of the instrument. The test retest reliability was evaluated by 25 young mothers who completed the CRKS at an interval of two weeks. Results: The Content Validity Ratio (CVR) of individual items ranged between 0.6 to 1. The reliability was tested for the 20 individual items of the CRKS using Kappa coefficient. The measurement of agreement Kappa ranged from 0.51 to 1. The total knowledge scores and sub scores data were analysed for correlation using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A significant Pearson’s correlation indicated that the total scores were consistent over time (r = 0.89). The sub scores on feeding (6 items), Growth and development (4 items), protection (7 items), and infant stimulation (3 items) were found to have reliability of 0.91, 0.76, 0.84, and 0.89 respectively using Pearson’s correlation. Conclusion: The instrument is found to be valid and reliable and can be used to measure child rearing knowledge and practice in early infancy. PMID:21085526

Saramma, P. P.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.

2010-01-01

339

Mothering and Fathering: The Gender Differences in Child Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both parents have unique contributions to make in the development of a child. Mothers and fathers think and act differently from one another, and children thrive on these differences. This book examines gender differences in child rearing, focusing on the conflict between male experts' advice promoting early independence and women's desire for…

Thevenin, Tine

340

20. View from rear door; space in foreground is transverse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View from rear door; space in foreground is transverse room connecting north and south cell blocks; room at right center with screened window was presumably visiting room; view to southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

341

2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN CENTER AND NEWER ADDITIONS TO THIS STILL OPERATIONAL TEXTILE MILL. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

342

Impact of Liability Rules on Rear Ending Crashes  

E-print Network

Transportation Research Conference #12;2 Setting the Stage #12;3 Motivation · Rear-Ending Crashes on Congested when #12;5 Assumptions of the Game i) Accidents bound to happen unless both players exercise care. ii exercise care) Source: "Game Theory And Law" by Baird, Gertner and Picker #12;6 Regime of no Liability ·Pay

Minnesota, University of

343

VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

344

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

345

Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

2014-01-01

346

15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

347

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

348

CHAPTER TWELVE Resource Selection During Brood-Rearing  

E-print Network

CHAPTER TWELVE Resource Selection During Brood-Rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse Nicholas W. Kaczor management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha- sianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection

349

Educators’ beliefs and values about child rearing and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating the values and beliefs teachers possess about child rearing and education might be the first step to understand why children are educated in some settings and not others, why the settings are established in the ways they are, why teachers encourage some activities and discourage others. The aim of this study is to determine the relation between teachers’ beliefs

I?ik Gür?im?ek; Melek Göregenli

2009-01-01

350

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

351

Rearing and Larval Development of 'Siganus canaliculatus' (Park) (Pisces: Siganidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eggs of the siganid fish Siganus canaliculatus, were obtained from a hormone-induced spawning, and approximately 200 larvae were reared to metamorphosis in outdoor tanks shielded from rain by a translucent roof. Water temperatures ranged from 28 to 32C. R...

R. C. May, D. Popper, J. P. McVey

1974-01-01

352

Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often over- looked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks ( Somateria mollissima ) may rear

MARKUS OST; EMMA VITIKAINEN; PETER WALDECK; LISELOTTE SUNDSTROM; KAI LINDSTROM; TUULA HOLLMEN; J. CHRISTIAN FRANSON; MIKAEL KILPI

2005-01-01

353

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GASANDOIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GAS-AND-OIL HOUSE (BUILDING #2500), FACING SOUTHWEST. (NOTE: CANOPY STRUCTURE NEXT TO BUILDING FORMERLY COVERED GAS PUMPS; CANOPY BUILT IN 1930s BUT MOVED TO THIS LOCATION IN ABOUT 1970.) - Medford Service Center, Gas & Oil House, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

354

5. 1748 HOUSES (TENEMENTS 12 AND TENEMENTS 34) AT REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. 1748 HOUSES (TENEMENTS 1-2 AND TENEMENTS 3-4) AT REAR OF 742-46 S. FRONT STREET. WALLS WITH CHIMNEYS FACE PEMBERTON STREET TO THE NORTH, WHICH MEETS FRONT STREET TO THE EAST. NOTE 'GM' (FOR GEORGE MIFFLIN) AND CONSTRUCTION DATE, '1748', ON THE WALLS. - Workman Place, 742-746 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

355

Biochemical Reference Ranges for Commercially Reared Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference ranges for serum osmolality and 22 serum constituents were determined for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) reared under commercial conditions in Mississippi ponds for 8 months. The constituents analyzed were sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, urea nitrogen, uric acid, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, ?-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine transferase, alkaline

J. Bentinck-Smith; M. H. Beleau; P. Waterstrat; C. S. Tucker; F. Stiles; P. R. Bowser; L. A. Brown

1987-01-01

356

Selection of Rear Projection Screens for Learning Carrels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection of a rear projection screen for a learning carrel should take into account the viewing angle involved. In some carrels, the viewer can be seated in front of the screen (i.e., on the normal axis) since the screen is used primarily to present information. In these cases, where the screen will be viewed only from a restricted range, a…

Smith, Edgar A.

357

View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 23, 25, 25, 27, and 39 from left to right. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

358

Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

359

9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House showing remains of original coal bunker. Area later was the location of an oil tank. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

360

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

361

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

362

Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection…

Vlahos, Petro

1961-01-01

363

Numerical simulation of thrust reverser for rear mounted engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to establish the feasibility of the evaluation of the performances of thrust reverser systems through numerical simulations, with Onera's Cedre computation code. Two configurations were retained, the first one was an isolated engine and the second one was an installed engine in a rear mounted generic configuration. The first configuration concerns the aft part

G. TURPIN; F. VUILLOT; C. CROISY; D. BERNIER

364

21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMICIRCULAR SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMI-CIRCULAR SIDE DINING ROOM, NOW CALLED THE BEAR PIT WAS ADDED IN 1927. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY-PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

365

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, FROM NORTHWEST. AT FAR RIGHT IS KID-PHYSICK HOUSE AND ADJACENT TO IT IS KID-CHANDLER HOUSE - Kid-Chandler & Kid-Physick Houses, 323-325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

366

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ARE ORIGINAL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORTING BRICK PARTITIONS UPSTAIRS. AT CENTER IS BRICK PIER SUPPORTING MODERN SAFE. AT RIGHT IS BRICK PIER AND VAULT SUPPORTING ORIGINAL SAFE - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

367

Modification of the Block Child Rearing Practices Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factor analyzed the Block Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) consisting of 91 socialization-relevant statements. Administered it to parents and undergraduates. Results indicated the modified 40-item Likert format of the CRPR facilitates administration and interpretation of the scale, without impeding reliability, and enhances its usefulness as…

Rickel, Annette U.; Biasatti, Lawrence L.

1982-01-01

368

Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula; Franson, J. C.; Kilpi, M.

2005-01-01

369

4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

370

92. View of east facade of powerhouse, showing rear door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

92. View of east facade of powerhouse, showing rear door of the building; the steel tanks adjacent to the powerhouse are surge tanks, each penstock has two surge tanks; looking west. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

371

Captive-reared burrowing owls show higher site-affinity, survival, and reproductive performance when reintroduced using a soft-release  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remaining challenge for animal reintroductions is how best to aid individuals transitioning from captivity into the wild. We tested two techniques – ‘soft’ vs. ‘hard’ release – in a 7-year study on endangered Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in British Columbia, Canada. Traditionally, captive-reared yearling adults were released into the wild, as pairs, directly from artificial burrows (hard-release).

Aimee M. Mitchell; Troy I. Wellicome; Dawn Brodie; Kimberly M. Cheng

2011-01-01

372

FULL-SCALE LABORATORY SIMULATION FACILITY TO TEST PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A THIRD WORLD RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION PROCESS. III. EVALUATIO OF A POTENTIAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM THE INDOOR, OPEN HEARTH COMBUSTION OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. NOTE: bnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bi...

373

49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411 Section...Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be...

2011-10-01

374

Nipple preferences in nursing singleton- and twin-reared rhesus monkey infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed the nursing behavior of 12 rhesus monkey infants, 8 reared as twins and 4 as singletons. Ss were found to have decided preferences for one or another of the mother's nipples. Preferences were apparent in singleton-reared S and twin-reared Ss, but were slightly stronger in the latter. No preference for the left as opposed to the right nipple was

Allyn C. Deets; Harry F. Harlow

1970-01-01

375

Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for delta18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques.  

PubMed

Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC)a in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). To aid in the calibration of these reference materials, which span more than 125 per thousand, an artificially enriched reference water (delta(18)O of +78.91 per thousand) and two barium sulfates (one depleted and one enriched in (18)O) were prepared and calibrated relative to VSMOW2b and SLAP reference waters. These materials were used to calibrate the other isotopic reference materials in this study, which yielded: Reference material delta(18)O and estimated combined uncertainty IAEA-602 benzoic acid+71.28 +/- 0.36 per thousand USGS 35 sodium nitrate+56.81 +/- 0.31 per thousand IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate+25.32 +/- 0.29 per thousand IAEA-601 benzoic acid+23.14 +/- 0.19 per thousand IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate+12.13 +/- 0.33 per thousand NBS 127 barium sulfate+8.59 +/- 0.26 per thousand VSMOW2 water 0 per thousand IAEA-600 caffeine-3.48 +/- 0.53 per thousand IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate-11.35 +/- 0.31 per thousand USGS 34 potassium nitrate-27.78 +/- 0.37 per thousand SLAP water-55.5 per thousand The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for delta(18)O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the delta(18)O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS 34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS 35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the delta(18)O values at a later time should it become necessary.The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing delta(18)O and delta(2)H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible. PMID:19263478

Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T; Böhlke, J K; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G; Meijer, Harro A J; Mroczkowski, Stanley J; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M; Werner, Roland A

2009-04-01

376

Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes fish culture and research activities conducted from December 1991 to October 1992 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on the Redfish Lake (Idaho) sockeye salmon captive broodstock study. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded restoration efforts for Redfish Lake sockeye salmon. Snake River sockeye salmon, now represented only by the Redfish Lake population, were formally listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the NMFS in December 1991. Restoration is being coordinated through the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee. Participation by state and federal agencies and private groups involved in sockeye salmon restoration efforts in Idaho. Our efforts since then have focused on rearing of 1991-brood Redfish Lake sockeye salmon at the NMFS/BPA Stock Restoration Laboratory at the NWFSC (Seattle, Washington), and on research to refine captive-broodstock methodology.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1993-04-01

377

Simulative and experimental investigations on pressure-induced structural vibrations of a rear muffler.  

PubMed

The periodically blown out exhaust gas of a combustion engine may excite structural vibrations of the exhaust system. In addition to the noise of the orifice, these vibrations contribute to the overall noise radiation of the exhaust system. In this work, the excitation of structural vibrations of a rear muffler via the acoustic path is investigated both in experiments and simulations. In both cases transfer functions from the acoustic pressure at the inlet to the structural deflection on the surface of the rear muffler are determined and compared to each other. For the simulation an FE-FE (finite element) coupling is applied to account for the fluid-structure interaction. To efficiently predict the fluid-structure coupled behavior, a model reduction technique for the finite element method based on the Craig-Bampton method and the Rubin method is presented. In a last step, the sound radiation is evaluated by solving the exterior acoustic problem with the fast multipole boundary element method. For this purpose, the results of the FE computation are used as boundary datum. PMID:21110573

Junge, Michael; Brunner, Dominik; Walz, Nico-Philipp; Gaul, Lothar

2010-11-01

378

Effects of social isolation rearing on learning in the Morris water maze.  

PubMed

Impaired learning has been shown as a consequence of isolation-rearing in a variety of paradigms. However, there are situations in which learning in isolation-reared rats is enhanced or unimpaired compared to socially reared rats. The present experiments investigated the effects of isolation rearing on place navigation in the Morris water maze. Two complementary paradigms were studied: isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the water maze either without drug pretreatment or following systemic administration of scopolamine. Two conditions were examined: place learning and reversal learning. Male Lister hooded rats were either housed singly (isolation reared) or in groups of four (social reared) from weaning at 21 days of age. Six weeks later place learning and reversal learning were determined using the Morris water maze. The time taken to locate the submerged island (escape latency) was used as the measure of learning ability. The results showed that place learning, and reversal learning were enhanced in isolation reared rats compared to socially reared controls. Pretreatment with scopolamine (0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-related cognitive deficit as shown by an increase in the escape latency. Scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg) impaired both place and reversal learning but this was less pronounced in isolation compared to socially-reared rats. These results suggest that rearing in isolation may enhance spatial learning though central cholinergic mechanisms. PMID:8739630

Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A

1996-04-01

379

Growth and blood chemistry of ducklings reared on acidified wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid deposition is one factor that may be responsible for the decline of some waterfowl populations. Growth and physiological condition were monitored in captive-reared black ducks (Anas rubripes) exposed for 10-day trials (day 11-20 of life) on control (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 5.0) man-made emergent wetlands. Impaired growth (body weight, culmen and tarsus length) and increased mortality (50%) were apparent in broods (hen + 4 ducklings) reared on acidified wetIands. Ducklings exbibiting poor growth had reduced hematocrit, plasma protein and cholesterol levels. This subset of birds had elevated plasma uric acid concentration and creatine kinase activity (perhaps due to enhanced protein and nucleotide catabolism). and elevated pIasma K+ levels. Based upon overt appearance, growth and blood chemistry, ducklings exposed to acidified wetlands were concluded to be in poorer condittion than those exposed on circumneutral pH wetlands.

Rattner, B.A.; Haramis, G.; Linder, G.; Chu, D.

1985-01-01

380

Psychiatric symptoms of adolescents reared in an orphanage in Ankara.  

PubMed

This study compared male adolescents in an orphanage with adolescents raised by their families in terms of psychiatric symptoms, using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility, and Global Severity Index points were significantly higher in adolescents in the orphanage, although they did not reach pathological levels except with respect to hostility. Adolescents reared in orphanages scored high points for hostility, reaching pathological levels. PMID:21980809

Kanbur, Nuray; Tüzün, Zeynep; Derman, Orhan

2011-01-01

381

5. Main Control Switchboard (north end rear), view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Main Control Switchboard (north end rear), view to the south, with item 14 (the Libby transmission line panel) visible in left foreground, through item 9 (the Hot Springs No. 2 transmission line panel) obliquely visible on left side of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

382

2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. Note the cooling and service water take-off pipes for Unit 4 visible in left foreground of photograph. The deck plating that covers the oil pipes is also visible in the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

383

Generalized nonlinear models for rear-end crash risk analysis.  

PubMed

A generalized nonlinear model (GNM)-based approach for modeling highway rear-end crash risk is formulated using Washington State traffic safety data. Previous studies majorly focused on causal factor identification and crash risk modeling using Generalized linear Models (GLMs), such as Poisson regression, Logistic regression, etc. However, their basic assumption of a generalized linear relationship between the dependent variable (for example, crash rate) and independent variables (for example, contribute factors to crashes) established via a link function can be often violated in reality. Consequently, the GLM-based modeling results could provide biased findings and conclusions. In this research, a GNM-based approach is developed to utilize a nonlinear regression function to better elaborate non-monotonic relationships between the independent and dependent variables using the rear end accident data collected from 10 highway routes from 2002 through 2006. The results show for example that truck percentage and grade have a parabolic impact: they increase crash risks initially, but decrease them after the certain thresholds. Such non-monotonic relationships cannot be captured by regular GLMs which further demonstrate the flexibility of GNM-based approaches in the nonlinear relationship among data and providing more reasonable explanations. The superior GNM-based model interpretations help better understand the parabolic impacts of some specific contributing factors for selecting and evaluating rear-end crash safety improvement plans. PMID:24125803

Lao, Yunteng; Zhang, Guohui; Wang, Yinhai; Milton, John

2014-01-01

384

Dynamic emergy evaluation of a fish farm rearing process.  

PubMed

The environmental sustainability of a fish farm rearing process was examined by means of emergy analysis. Many emergy analyses integrate data for a whole year smoothing short term variations and sometimes losing meaningful information (aliasing). For this reason we developed a model for an instantaneous emergy evaluation in an aquacultural system so that transformities, efficiency and effort spent at each moment during the fish rearing activity could be calculated. By means of the model and dynamic emergy calculations it is possible to recognize step by step the importance of the various emergy contributions and verify where and when to modify the system to move toward optimum production of a sustainable product. By the application of the model we confirmed that the emergy trends in a fish farm installation follow wide oscillations during a year due to variations in both internal and external emergy contributions. Among the fluxes considered, those due to the introduction of fingerlings represented the highest contributions to the total emergy budget. Thus, to improve the sustainability of the analyzed system the amount, frequency and timing of these fluxes must be carefully considered. For this purpose, a comparison between two different fry introduction schedules was performed to evaluate differences in the efficiency of the rearing process. PMID:19344995

Vassallo, P; Beiso, I; Bastianoni, S; Fabiano, M

2009-06-01

385

An Evaluation of a Chemical Immersion Marking Technique for Juvenile Yellow Perch and Application to a  

E-print Network

for Juvenile Yellow Perch and Application to a Stocking Assessment of.Marsh-Reared Yellow Perch into Eastern MARKING TECHNIQUE FOR JUVENILE YELLOW PERCH AND APPLICATION TO A STOCKING ASSESSMENT OF MARSH-REARED YELLOW PERCH INTO EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA LAKES MichaelL. Brown1, Todd St. Sauver2, David O. Lucchesi3

386

Components for Rear Projection Systems. Establishing Criteria for Rear Projection Systems for Use in the Communication-Lecture Hall Centers, State University of New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rear projection systems and their requirements and limitations are discussed in the light of projection equipment, screens, the observer, and physical surroundings. Performance criteria for rear projection systems for use in the communication-lecture hall centers are revealed, based on an evaluation of nineteen different systems. Design…

Caravaty, Raymond D.; Winslow, William F.

387

Isolation rearing effects on probabilistic learning and cognitive flexibility in rats.  

PubMed

Isolation rearing is a neurodevelopmental manipulation that produces neurochemical, structural, and behavioral alterations in rodents that in many ways are consistent with schizophrenia. Symptoms induced by isolation rearing that mirror clinically relevant aspects of schizophrenia, such as cognitive deficits, open up the possibility of testing putative therapeutics in isolation-reared animals prior to clinical development. We investigated what effect isolation rearing would have on cognitive flexibility, a cognitive function characteristically disrupted in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we assessed cognitive flexibility using between- and within-session probabilistic reversal-learning tasks based on clinical tests. Isolation-reared rats required more sessions, though not more task trials, to acquire criterion performance in the reversal phase of the task, and were slower to adjust their task strategy after reward contingencies were switched. Isolation-reared rats also completed fewer trials and exhibited lower levels of overall activity in the probabilistic reversal-learning task than did the socially reared rats. This finding contrasted with the elevated levels of unconditioned investigatory activity and reduced levels of locomotor habituation that isolation-reared rats displayed in the behavioral pattern monitor. Finally, isolation-reared rats also exhibited sensorimotor gating deficits, reflected by decreased prepulse inhibition of the startle response, consistent with previous studies. We concluded that isolation rearing constitutes a valuable, noninvasive manipulation for modeling schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and assessing putative therapeutics. PMID:23943516

Amitai, Nurith; Young, Jared W; Higa, Kerin; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Powell, Susan B

2014-03-01

388

SYSTEMATIC BIAS ESTIMATES OF THE SNAP ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE IN MEASUREMENT TRIALS OF KNOWN PU STANDARDS IN MOCKUP DRUMS AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the performance of the SNAP? (Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform) analytical software for measurements of known plutonium standards in twenty-five 55-gallon certification drums. The trials were designed to test the accuracy and precision of SNAPTM measurements as well as to probe the lower limit of detection for Pu-239.

Steven C. Myers; Kathleen Gruetzmacher

2001-01-01

389

Introduction, spat-rearing and experimental culture of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians lamarck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bay scallops were introduced from the east coast of the U.S. into China to shorten the economic turn-over from 2 to 1 year. Parent scallops were carried to Qingdao on Dec. 20, 1982 and stocked in indoor tanks at controlled temperature and fed with a mixture of Phaeodictylum tricornutum, Pyramimonas sp. and Chlorella sp. They spawned on Jan. 26 of the next year. The larvae were reared at a temperature of 18 21°C and fed with Isochrysis galbana, Pyramimonas sp. and Chorella sp. In 4 weeks’ growing, the spats averaged 827 ?m. They attained a height of 6.9 mm on May 9. In the middle of May, the seed scallops were transferred to Luoyuan Bay in Fujian Province, and Jiaozhou Bay, as well as the area off Taiping Jiao Cape, Qingdao, Shandong Province for experimental culture in plastic netcages suspended on a single line raft. Bay scallops cultured in Luoyuan Bay grew to an averaged shell height of 10.4 mm. In Jiaozhou Bay and the Taiping Jiao Cape culture area, they grew to 50 mm in average shell height (marketable size) and 26 g in average weight by late September; and attained 59 mm in average shell height (R. 39 75 mm) and 46 g in average weight in late December. The ovary and testis could be distinguished by color in August. In early September, eggs and sperms were collected for our laboratory where the second generation of seed scallops was successfully reared to suitable size for growing outdoor and breeding. This species can be harvested within a year after fertilization of the eggs, so we consider it suitable for culture in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. This is the first reported successful introduction of Atlantic mollusks to the China Seas.

Zhang, Fusui; He, Yichao; Liu, Xiangsheng; Ma, Jianghu; Li, Shuying; Qi, Lingxin

1991-06-01

390

Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

Hendrichs, M. [Department for Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Katsoyannos, B. [Laboratory of Applied Zoology and Parasitology, Department of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-03-15

391

Millimeter Wave Calibration Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration practices for millimeter wavelengths are somewhat different than that for meter and centimeter wavelengths. There are technological, atmospheric, and historical reasons for this. This lecture reviews the specific techniques used for millimeter wave calibration and highlights the differences between these and the techniques used at longer wavelengths. The importance of the atmosphere at centimeter, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelengths is discussed in detail. Topics include specific calibration techniques such as the hot/sky chopper wheel method, variations such as hot/cold/sky schemes, sky tipping calibration, and the possibilities of subreflector-based calibration sources. Calibration loss factors including rear and forward spillover and error beam losses are described and illustrated. The TA*, TR*, and TMB temperature scales are defined. Techniques for absolute calibration are also discussed.

Jewell, P. R.

2002-12-01

392

Isolation and titration of dengue viruses by the mosquito inoculation technique.  

PubMed

Mosquito inoculation is a highly sensitive technique for isolation and titration of dengue virus (DENV) from sera, human tissues, wild animals, or mosquitoes. It has been under utilized since it was described 40 years ago because most dengue laboratories do not have access to an insectary to rear mosquitoes. This technique requires good eye-hand coordination while doing manipulation under a stereoscopic microscope, and extensive practice is needed to become proficient at inoculating mosquitoes. Following inoculation, mosquitoes are held for 10 days to allow dengue virus to replicate and disseminate to tissues throughout the mosquitoes. They are then harvested and examined for the presence of viral antigens in head tissue by either immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The mosquito infectious dose 50 (MID50) is calculated using the method of Reed and Muench to quantitate the virus. This method can be used for other arboviruses as well as for dengue. PMID:24696328

Choy, Milly M; Gubler, Duane J

2014-01-01

393

Evaluation of noise barriers for soundscape perception through laboratory experiments  

E-print Network

noise pollution caused by traffic noise from cars and trains in urban space. However, installationEvaluation of noise barriers for soundscape perception through laboratory experiments J.Y. Honga noise barriers. Field measurements were performed: the SPLs in front and rear of the barriers were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Combined plasmonic and upconversion rear reflectors for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A novel rear reflector structure that combines NIR light harvesting ?-NaGdF4:Yb, Er, Fe upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and light reflecting silver particles has been successfully used to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs with a rear reflector was 7.04%, which is an increase of 21.3% compared to the cell without a rear reflector (5.8%). PMID:24296964

Ramasamy, Parthiban; Kim, Jinkwon

2014-01-25

395

Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population\\u000a studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood\\u000a anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is\\u000a suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty

Ingeborg E. Lindhout; Monica Th. Markus; Thea H. G. Hoogendijk; Frits Boer

2009-01-01

396

Evaluation of rear-end crash risk at work zone using work zone traffic data.  

PubMed

This paper aims to evaluate the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area and merging area, as well as analyze the impacts of contributing factors by using work zone traffic data. Here, the rear-end crash risk is referred to as the probability that a vehicle is involved in a rear-end crash accident. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is used in measuring rear-end crash risk. Based on work zone traffic data in Singapore, three rear-end crash risk models are developed to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk at activity area and its contributing factors. The fourth rear-end crash risk model is developed to examine the effects of merging behavior on crash risk at merging area. The ANOVA results show that the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area is statistically different from lane positions. Model results indicate that rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area increases with heavy vehicle percentage and lane traffic flow rate. An interesting finding is that the lane closer to work zone is strongly associated with higher rear-end crash risk. A truck has much higher probability involving in a rear-end accident than a car. Further, the expressway work zone activity area is found to have much larger crash risk than arterial work zone activity area. The merging choice has the dominated effect on risk reduction, suggesting that encouraging vehicles to merge early may be the most effective method to reduce rear-end crash risk at work zone merging area. PMID:21545857

Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

2011-07-01

397

Fate of translocated wild-caught and captive-reared stone martens ( Martes foina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We radio-tracked one urban wild-caught and four orphaned captive-reared stone martens (Martes foina) after translocation to novel habitats. The wild-caught marten rapidly returned to urban habitat but died 7 days after release.\\u000a The captive-reared martens survived >130 days after release. An initial period of extensive movements was followed by decreased\\u000a activity. Captive-reared martens apparently adapted well to living in the wild. However,

Jan Herr; Laurent Schley; Timothy J. Roper

2008-01-01

398

Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.  

PubMed

With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions. PMID:20808853

Chittenden, Cedar M; Biagi, Carlo A; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Davidsen, Anette Grimsrud; Kondo, Hidehiro; McKnight, Allison; Pedersen, Ole-Petter; Raven, Peter A; Rikardsen, Audun H; Shrimpton, J Mark; Zuehlke, Brett; McKinley, R Scott; Devlin, Robert H

2010-01-01

399

Laboratory rearing of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): a predator of pecan pest insects  

E-print Network

. carnea Stephens also has been effective in the control of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphoribiae (Thomas), and buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii (Kaltenbach) (Shands and Simpson 1972, Shands et al. 1972). C.... carnea Stephens also has been effective in the control of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphoribiae (Thomas), and buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii (Kaltenbach) (Shands and Simpson 1972, Shands et al. 1972). C...

Elkarmi, Lina Ali

2012-06-07

400

The complete larval development of the mud shrimp Upogebia vasquezi (Gebiidea: Upogebiidae) reared in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The larval development of Upogebia vasquezi consists of four zoeal stages and a megalopa. In the present study, each larval stage was described and illustrated in detail. The first two stages are re-described in order to provide a detailed comparison with the data available for this species recorded in a previous study. The morphological features of all the stages are compared with those of the larvae of other Upogebia species reported previously in the literature. Broad morphological similarities and distinctions were found among most Upogebia species. The main interspecific variations in the morphology of the zoeal stages are the segmentation pattern of the antennular endopod and number of aesthetascs, the number of setae on the scaphognathite and the presence or absence of a mandibular palp.  PMID:24990062

De Oliveira, Danielly Brito; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara Moretto; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

2014-01-01

401

EFFECTS OF HEPTACHLOR AND TOXAPHENE ON LABORATORY-REARED EMBRYOS AND FRY OF THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through seawater bioassays of 28-days duration were conducted with the organochlorine pesticides heptachlor and toxaphene to determine their toxicity to and bioconcentration by embryos and fry of the sheepshead minnow (Cyprindon variegatus). At technical heptachlor measured ...

402

LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF LABORATORY-REARED ROSYLIP SCULPIN, ASCELICHTHYS RHODORUS (COTTIDAE)  

E-print Network

. MATARESEl AND JEFFREY B. MARLIAVE2 ABSTRACT Larvae which hatched from egg masses collected at southwest and preopercular spination is discussed. Minimum egg incubation time was 24 days (10°C); the minimum spawning by smooth skin, a low spin- ous dorsal fin, the absence of pelvic fins, and a single hooked preopercular

403

Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology  

E-print Network

during his study in the United States. XETRGBUCTXOB ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o. e o ~ e ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ a ~ ~ o o o a o e o o a o e a o REVIEW GP LXTEMURE e ~ dooos ~ oosooaeeooooooeeaeo BESCRXFTXOR GP STAGES a ~ e ~ ee ~ eaa ~ ~ ~ easaossseeeae As Egg eeoeeoo... ~ o s a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ JLo %ting habits ss ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ eoo ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ce The percent hatohabilitg of'the eggs ~ ~ D, Pupation sites on the 1'ice grown ized blloheta in the greenhQuas s'e ~ sa ~ e ~ ~ o Table eS Gontentsa Ce...

Supharngkasen, Phaisal

2012-06-07

404

Ecosystems in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

Madders, M.

1975-01-01

405

Structure and Properties of Silk from the African Wild Silkmoth Gonometa postica Reared Indoors  

PubMed Central

African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and irreversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed. The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. postica are discussed.

Teshome, Addis; Raina, S. K.; Vollrath, Fritz

2014-01-01

406

Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended maximum for the rearing conditions encountered In the off-station rearing sites. Costs of rearing fish are dramatically affected by densities. Alternate rearing facilities, including polyethylene and wooden walkway framing, are initially a higher investment, but may prove to be more desirable than the aluminum frames tested during this study.

Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

1987-12-01

407

Quality Control and Captive Rearing Genetics of the Biological Control Agent Trichogramma pretiosum.  

E-print Network

??In these studies, we determined the quality of Trichogramma parasitoids reared in several Mexican insectaries, evaluated the clonal variability found in Trichogramma pretiosum populations where… (more)

Gonzalez-Cabrera, Jaime

2011-01-01

408

Structure and properties of silk from the African wild silkmoth Gonometa postica reared indoors.  

PubMed

African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and ir-reversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed.The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. posticaare discussed. PMID:25373183

Teshome, Addis; Raina, S K; Vollrath, Fritz

2014-01-01

409

Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory  

E-print Network

Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory Multi-scale,multi-mode imaging tools to understand the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. The Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL

410

Colonization and bionomics of Forcipomyia taiwana (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) in the laboratory.  

PubMed

An improvement in colonizing the biting midge Forcipomyia taiwana (Shiraki) was achieved by a new technique that facilitated the rearing of the midges and induced them to mate in the laboratory. At temperature of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, the development duration of the egg, 4 larval instars, and pupa decreased as temperature increased. Among 7 different diets, the blue green algae, Anabaena sp.Ch3, was the best food for rearing the midges. When the larvae were fed on the blue green algae at 25 degrees C, they needed 12 d to pupate, the pupation rate was 71.4%, the emergence rate was 80.2%, and the average longevity of the male and the female 38.3 and 22.6 d, respectively. When 120 paris were kept in a plastic cage (60 by 60 by 60 cm), swarming and copulation occurred during 0700-0900 and 1700-1800 hours. Swarm occurred throughout the cage and consisted of 10 males. The copulation was performed on the wall and the bottom of the cage, and the average duration was 290 s. PMID:8667393

Yeh, C C; Chuang, Y Y

1996-05-01

411

Laboratory investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

Russell, Ray W.

1988-01-01

412

Virtual Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the Virtual Laboratory contains a bold and direct statement: "Conventional teaching all too often accepts memorization and pattern recognition as true learning" After reading this statement, it makes sense that the goal of this site is "to help students to recognize, confront, correct, and expand their understanding of subject or a technique." The site contains five different sets of course materials that use interactive materials, short quizzes, and embedded demonstrations to assist students and teachers alike. One set of materials that should not be missed is in the Teaching & Learning Biology area. Here visitors will find links, fact sheets, and pedagogical suggestions for teaching a college-level biology course. Moving on, the Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything section contains a new perspective on how to reform the garden-variety general chemistry course.

2012-04-27

413

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R2) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R2 of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R2 of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Pare, Julie; Van Metre, David C.; Holmberg, Charles A.; Smith, Bradford P.

2013-01-01

414

Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and transfer of fish from the hatchery did not appear to have an adverse effect. Estimated costs of rearing fed fish at regular, double, and triple the regular density were lower than for rearing a similar poundage of fish in a hatchery. However, estimated costs using present rearing scenarios in net pens at low densities and in a barrier net were high in relation to all other methods considered.

Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

1986-12-01

415

The effect of rearing substrate and space allowance on the behavior and physiology of dairy calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rearing substrate and space allowance on the behavior and physiology of dairy calves. At 1 wk of age, 72 calves were moved into 1 of 18 experimental pens (n=4 calves/pen) where they remained until 6 wk of age. Half of the pens had floors covered with quarry stones (QS) and the other half were covered with sawdust (SW). For each substrate type, calves were reared at 1 of 3 space allowances: 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 m(2)/calf. Behavior was video-recorded continuously for 24 h in the home pen at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age; the time calves spent lying, standing, walking, and running were estimated using 1-min instantaneous scan sampling. Body weight, cleanliness, fecal fluidity, and skin surface temperature were recorded at 1, 4, and 6 wk of age. Escherichia coli numbers were assessed on the skin surface of the shoulder and in feces of calves at 4 and 6 wk of age. Blood samples were taken at 1, 4, and 6 wk of age to measure cortisol, creatine kinase, immunoglobulin G, serum amyloid A, and total protein concentrations. Calves reared on QS spent less time lying and walking and more time standing at 4 and 6 wk of age compared with calves reared on SW. Furthermore, calves reared at a space allowance of 2.0 m(2)/calf spent less time lying and more time standing and walking compared with calves reared at a space allowance of 1.0 and 1.5 m(2)/calf. Calves reared on QS had lower skin surface temperatures compared with calves reared on SW. Fecal fluidity scores were lower in calves reared on QS than SW at 2 wk of age. Fewer E. coli were recovered from the shoulder of calves reared on QS than those of calves reared on SW, but fecal E. coli counts were similar between rearing substrates and space allowances. Serum amyloid A concentrations were lower in calves reared on QS than SW. We detected no effect of rearing substrate or space allowance on body weight, cleanliness, or concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, immunoglobulin G, and total protein. In conclusion, lower skin temperature in combination with reduced lying behavior may reflect reduced comfort of calves reared on QS. Furthermore, a space allowance of 2.0 m(2)/calf may provide calves with more opportunity to perform active behaviors. PMID:24792793

Sutherland, M A; Worth, G M; Stewart, M

2014-07-01

416

Analysis of work zone rear-end crash risk for different vehicle-following patterns.  

PubMed

This study evaluates rear-end crash risk associated with work zone operations for four different vehicle-following patterns: car-car, car-truck, truck-car and truck-truck. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is adopted to measure work zone rear-end crash risk. Results show that the car-truck following pattern has the largest rear-end crash risk, followed by truck-truck, truck-car and car-car patterns. This implies that it is more likely for a car which is following a truck to be involved in a rear-end crash accident. The statistical test results further confirm that rear-end crash risk is statistically different between any two of the four patterns. We therefore develop a rear-end crash risk model for each vehicle-following pattern in order to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk and its influencing factors, including lane position, the heavy vehicle percentage, lane traffic flow and work intensity which can be characterized by the number of lane reductions, the number of workers and the amount of equipment at the work zone site. The model results show that, for each pattern, there will be a greater rear-end crash risk in the following situations: (i) heavy work intensity; (ii) the lane adjacent to work zone; (iii) a higher proportion of heavy vehicles and (iv) greater traffic flow. However, the effects of these factors on rear-end crash risk are found to vary according to the vehicle-following patterns. Compared with the car-car pattern, lane position has less effect on rear-end crash risk in the car-truck pattern. The effect of work intensity on rear-end crash risk is also reduced in the truck-car pattern. PMID:25150525

Weng, Jinxian; Meng, Qiang; Yan, Xuedong

2014-11-01

417

Comparison of high efficiency solar cells on large area n-type and p-type silicon wafers with screen-printed Aluminum-alloyed rear junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost, high-efficiency, and large area n-type silicon cells can be processed based on the screen printed Aluminum-alloyed rear junction concept. This process uses fabrication techniques which are very close to the current industry-standard screen printed mc-Si cell process. We compare, by experimental tests and modeling, the differences of using n-type wafers and p-type wafers with this process. An independently confirmed

D. S. Saynova; V. D. Mihailetchi; L. J. Geerligs; A. W. Weeber

2008-01-01

418

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Eating Behavior - A Study of Twin Pairs Reared Apart or Reared Together  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18–76 years, BMI 17–43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Genetic and environmental variance components were determined for the three eating behavior constructs and their subscales using model-fitting univariate and multivariate analyses. Unique environmental factors had a substantial influence on all eating behavior variables (explaining 45–71% of variance), and most strongly influenced external locus for hunger and strategic dieting behavior of restraint (explaining 71% and 69% of variance, respectively). Genetic factors had a statistically significant influence on only 4 variables: restraint, emotional susceptibility to disinhibition, situational susceptibility to disinhibition, and internal locus for hunger (heritabilities were 52%, 55%, 38% and 50%, respectively). Common environmental factors did not statistically significantly influence any variable assessed in this study. In addition, multivariate analyses showed that disinhibition and hunger share a common influence, while restraint appears to be a distinct construct. These findings suggest that the majority of variation in eating behavior variables is associated with unique environmental factors, and highlights the importance of the environment in facilitating specific eating behaviors that may promote excess weight gain. PMID:25067963

Elder, Sonya J.; Neale, Michael C.; Fuss, Paul J.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; McCrory, Megan A.; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.

2014-01-01

419

A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry  

EPA Science Inventory

We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

420

Analytical techniques for retrieval of atmospheric composition with the quadrupole mass spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on Mars Science Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is the largest scientific payload on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, which landed in Mars' Gale Crater in August 2012. As a miniature geochemical laboratory, SAM is well-equipped to address multiple aspects of MSL's primary science goal, characterizing the potential past or present habitability of Gale Crater. Atmospheric measurements support this goal through compositional investigations relevant to martian climate evolution. SAM instruments include a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a gas chromatograph that are used to analyze martian atmospheric gases as well as volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials (Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report presents analytical methods for retrieving the chemical and isotopic composition of Mars' atmosphere from measurements obtained with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer. It provides empirical calibration constants for computing volume mixing ratios of the most abundant atmospheric species and analytical functions to correct for instrument artifacts and to characterize measurement uncertainties. Finally, we discuss differences in volume mixing ratios of the martian atmosphere as determined by SAM (Mahaffy et al., 2013) and Viking (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977) from an analytical perspective. Although the focus of this paper is atmospheric observations, much of the material concerning corrections for instrumental effects also applies to reduction of data acquired with SAM from analysis of solid samples. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument measures the composition of the martian atmosphere. Rigorous calibration of SAM's mass spectrometer was performed with relevant gas mixtures. Calibration included derivation of a new model to correct for electron multiplier effects. Volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 obtained with SAM differ from those obtained with Viking. Differences between SAM and Viking volume mixing ratios are under investigation.

B. Franz, Heather; G. Trainer, Melissa; H. Wong, Michael; L. K. Manning, Heidi; C. Stern, Jennifer; R. Mahaffy, Paul; K. Atreya, Sushil; Benna, Mehdi; G. Conrad, Pamela; N. Harpold, Dan; A. Leshin, Laurie; A. Malespin, Charles; P. McKay, Christopher; Thomas Nolan, J.; Raaen, Eric

2014-06-01

421

The accuracy of parental recall of aspects of child development and of child rearing practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective accounts of child rearing obtained from parents of 3-year-olds were compared with reports they previously gave in the course of a longitudinal study begun with the birth of the child. The parents were quite inaccurate in their memory of details about child rearing practices and early development progress, in spite of the frequent rehearsal of these data due to

Lillian Cukier Robbins

1963-01-01

422

Aggression in Delinquent Adolescents versus Controls: The Role of Parental Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the relationship between adolescent aggression and parental rearing factors for delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents in Russia. Found that delinquent adolescents differed from nondelinquents on aggression as well as on the parental rearing factors of rejection and overprotection and maternal warmth, with aggression in both groups…

Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Hagglof, Bruno; Eisemann, Martin

1998-01-01

423

Long-term evaluation of isolation-rearing induced prepulse inhibition deficits in rats: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Rats reared in social isolation from weaning show prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits which are thought to model the sensorimotor gating deficits seen in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. We have previously reported that ten cohorts of Lister Hooded rats reared in isolation showed robust and reliable PPI deficits. Objective: Our methodology differed from those used by others (Weiss and

J. Cilia; P. D. Hatcher; C. Reavill; D. N. C. Jones

2005-01-01

424

Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

2002-01-01

425

Breeding, rearing and feeding studies in the cleaner goby Gobiosoma evelynae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding and rearing some of the species most commonly used in the aquarium trade actually represent an economical and ecological tool for broadening development, thus the present study investigates captive breeding and rearing of a small goby, the cleaner goby Gobiosoma evelynae.Egg clutches were obtained from two couples maintained in 100-L tanks under controlled conditions. Eggs were laid in PVC

Ike Olivotto; Alessio Zenobi; Arianna Rollo; Beatrice Migliarini; Matteo Avella; Oliana Carnevali

2005-01-01

426

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection B Henary, C P between rear-facing (RFCS) and forward-facing (FFCS) car seats for children less than 2 years of age riding in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, or light trucks were included in the study. Logistic

427

Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

428

49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement (S5.2.2) of 49 CFR 571.223. S4. Definitions...procedures required by S5.5 of § 571.223, Rear Impact Guards...deliver asphalt and other road building materials, in a controlled...223, Rear Impact Guards (§ 571.223). When the...

2010-10-01

429

Rearing Larvae of Lucilia sericata for Chronic Ulcer Treatment – an Improved Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval therapy is a biological 'dressing' for chronic ulcers which is used for debridement, to initiate healing and to reduce bacteria and unpleasant odour. One condition for being able to employ larval therapy is access to disinfected larvae of good quality. We therefore started rearing Lucilia sericata larvae in 1998. Rearing necrophagous larvae in a hospital setting makes it essential

Hélène Wolff; Carita Hansson

2005-01-01

430

Impact of Racial Identity on African American Child-Rearing Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of racial identity attitudes on African American parents' child-rearing beliefs. Parent surveys indicated that parents with immersion attitudes endorsed discipline and religion but not independence in children. Parents with internalization attitudes supported all Afrocentric parenting beliefs and child-rearing practices…

Thomas, Anita Jones

2000-01-01

431

Aeroelastic tailoring using lamination parameters: drag reduction of a Formula One rear wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to passively reduce the induced drag of the rear wing of a Formula One car at high velocity through aeroelastic tailoring. The angle-of-attack of the rear wing is fixed and is determined by the required downforce needed to get around a turn. As a result, at higher velocity, the amount of downforce and

G. A. A. Thuwis; R. De Breuker; M. M. Abdalla; Z. Gürdal

2009-01-01

432

A Mass-Rearing Method for the Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker) is a predator of larvae and nymphs of many pestiferous insects for which natural enemies are not commercially available. This paper describes a containerized mass-rearing method for P. plagipennis using hot water-killed larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L.) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In addition, the effect of P. plagipennis density during nymphal rearing and adult oviposition was investigated.

Paul R. Grundy; Derek A. Maelzer; Allan Bruce; Errol Hassan

2000-01-01

433

A multi-body head and neck model for low speed rear impact analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a 50th percentile male head and neck model has been developed using multi-body dynamics to analyse low speed rear impacts and the resulting whiplash injury effects. The model has been validated by using data from JARI (Japanese Automobile Research Institute) rear impact sled tests conducted with 7 volunteers in normal driving posture on a rigid seat without

S. Himmetoglu; M. Acar; A. J. Taylor; K. Bouazza-Marouf

434

Impact of Haemophilia on Child-rearing Practices and Parental Co-operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The parents of eight 3-5-year-old hemophilic boys and 3-5-year-old nonhemophilic boys were interviewed to explore (a) extent to which the rearing practices and cooperation between the parents of a hemophilic child differ from the parents of a nonhemophilic child and (b) differences between rearing practices and parental cooperation in families…

Markova, Ivana; And Others

1980-01-01

435

Control methods suitable for electric vehicles with independently driven front and rear wheel structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control methods suitable for electric vehicle (EV) drive systems with independently driven front and rear wheel structure are studied here, especially focussing on electric braking force control in consideration of safety and riding comfort. The proposed EV drive systems have the function to distribute not only driving torque but braking force to the front and rear wheels according to various

Nobuyoshi Mutoh; Hiromichi Yahagi

2005-01-01

436

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2014-01-01

437

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2013-01-01

438

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2012-01-01

439

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2014-01-01

440

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2012-01-01

441

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2013-01-01

442

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2012-01-01

443

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2011-01-01

444

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2011-01-01

445

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2013-01-01

446

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2011-01-01

447

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

...position lights. No position light intensity may exceed the applicable...dihedral angle A 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1 Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1...dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect...

2014-01-01

448

Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida  

E-print Network

bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus Un resumen en espan~ol se incluye detra´s del texto principal de for many fish species, Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides flor- idanus (LeSeuer), reared in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Ecology

Motta, Philip J.

449

Costs and benefits of communal rearing to female prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communal rearing of offspring may help mothers maximize their investment in offspring at a reduced cost to their own bodily condition, thus maximizing their potential for reproductive success. The objective of this study was to quantify the costs and benefits of communal rearing to prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster) pups and mothers. Mothers were assigned to one of three social

Loren Donald Hayes; Nancy Gail Solomon

2004-01-01

450

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2010-01-01

451

Parental rearing and transient thought disorder in young adults.  

PubMed

85 students and 72 medical and surgical patients, aged between 16 and 24, and 48 mature-aged clerical and executive workers, aged between 29 and 60, were administered a written version of a scale measuring transient thought disorder, the Eysenck personality questionnaire and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing methods. It was found that there were differences between samples on frequency of depersonalisation, and that a majority of the young adult sample had had two or more depersonalisation experiences. Those who had experienced the greater degree of transient thought disorder had had fathers who were more intolerant, unaffectionate and unstimulating, and mothers who were more intolerant, unstimulating and rejecting. Transient thought disorder was related significantly to both psychoticism and particularly to neuroticism on the EPQ in the young, but not the mature adult, sample. It is suggested that it arises as a function of remote and uninvolved parents and is related to uncertainty about identity. PMID:6701262

Clayer, J R; Campbell, R L; Ross, M W

1984-01-01

452

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves. PMID:15455067

Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

2001-01-01

453

Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1994-11-01

454

Individual coping characteristics, rearing conditions and behavioural flexibility in pigs.  

PubMed

Several studies suggest that classification of piglets early in life based on the degree of resistance they display in a so-called Backtest may be indicative of their coping style at a later age. In the present study behavioural flexibility was investigated in pigs diverging for Backtest response and housing environment during rearing. Pigs were housed either without a rooting substrate (barren housing, B) or in identical pens enriched with deep straw bedding (enriched housing, E) from birth. During the suckling period piglets were subjected to the Backtest. Each piglet was restrained on its back for 1 min and the resistance (i.e. number of escape attempts) was scored. Pigs classified as 'high-resisting' (HR) or as 'low-resisting' (LR) were subjected to a simple (left/right) spatial discrimination (T-maze) task at 8 weeks of age. The effect of a single, subtle intramaze change was determined after acquisition of the task. In addition, pigs were subjected to reversal learning to assess their ability to modulate established behaviour patterns. Housing and its interaction with Backtest classification influenced the behavioural response to the intramaze change: E pigs were considerably more distracted than B pigs. Housing condition affected LR pigs more than HR pigs, as indicated by the interaction effects on various recorded behaviours. These interactions indicate that behavioural responding of pigs with diverging coping characteristics cannot simply be generalised across rearing conditions. Furthermore, HR pigs were less successful in reversal learning than LR pigs, suggesting that they have a higher propensity to develop inflexible behavioural routines. PMID:15196803

Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Schouten, Willem G P; de Leeuw, John A; Schrama, Johan W; Wiegant, Victor M

2004-07-01

455

The effect of an experimental infection of the nematode Heterakis gallinarum on hand-reared grey partridges Perdix perdix.  

PubMed

We compared 26 hand-reared grey partridges given an experimental infection of the caecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum with 26 uninfected ones. Under laboratory conditions after 91 days, there were no measurable clinical effects of the infection. We found no effect of treatment on the amount of food eaten or on caecal dropping production. However, treated birds, in particular females, developed slightly lower body mass (around 2%) compared to the controls. At post-mortem examination, we found a positive relationship between breast muscle mass and the number of worms collected from the caeca of treated birds. Treated birds with no worms when examined had smaller breast muscle mass (4.6%) compared to the uninfected control birds. These results are largely different to those found in a similar study that documented significant negative impacts on most of these factors in 8 infected birds compared to 6 controls. Its findings were used in a published model to support a hypothesis that H. gallinarum maintained in the environment by common pheasants, the primary host for this worm, could negatively affect wild grey partridge productivity and survival. In the same model our data would not support this hypothesis. Possible explanations for the different results from the 2 experiments are discussed. Together they suggest that only in certain, as yet unidentified circumstances, could experimental H. gallinarum infections have deleterious effects on hand-reared grey partridges. PMID:12049415

Sage, R B; Woodburn, M I A; Davis, C; Aebischer, N J

2002-05-01

456

Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1989 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if thinning releases were used.

Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

1990-02-01

457

Apptication of Biofloc Technology (BFI) in Ihe nunery rearing and farming of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachillm rosenbergii (de Man).  

E-print Network

??This thesis Entitled Application of Biofloc technology (BFT) In the Nursery Rearing and Farming of Giant Freshwater Prawn,Macrobrachium Rosenbergii(De Man). Aquaculture, rearing plants and animals… (more)

Prajith, K K

2011-01-01

458

14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2014-01-01

459

14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2011-01-01

460

14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2012-01-01

461

14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...to 110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2014-01-01

462

14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 40 30 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2011-01-01

463

14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 40 30 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2012-01-01

464

14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2013-01-01

465

14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2011-01-01

466

14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2012-01-01

467

14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...to 110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2013-01-01

468

14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2013-01-01

469

14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.  

...plane of forward and rear position lights. Each position light intensity must equal or exceed...following table: Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right...110° 4030 5 A (rear white) 110° to 180°...

2014-01-01

470

A scalable distributed paradigm for multi-user interaction with tiled rear projection display walls.  

PubMed

We present the first distributed paradigm for multiple users to interact simultaneously with large tiled rear projection display walls. Unlike earlier works, our paradigm allows easy scalability across different applications, interaction modalities, displays and users. The novelty of the design lies in its distributed nature allowing well-compartmented, application independent, and application specific modules. This enables adapting to different 2D applications and interaction modalities easily by changing a few application specific modules. We demonstrate four challenging 2D applications on a nine projector display to demonstrate the application scalability of our method: map visualization, virtual graffiti, virtual bulletin board and an emergency management system. We demonstrate the scalability of our method to multiple interaction modalities by showing both gesture-based and laser-based user interfaces. Finally, we improve earlier distributed methods to register multiple projectors. Previous works need multiple patterns to identify the neighbors, the configuration of the display and the registration across multiple projectors in logarithmic time with respect to the number of projectors in the display. We propose a new approach that achieves this using a single pattern based on specially augmented QR codes in constant time. Further, previous distributed registration algorithms are prone to large misregistrations. We propose a novel radially cascading geometric registration technique that yields significantly better accuracy. Thus, our improvements allow a significantly more efficient and accurate technique for distributed self-registration of multi-projector display walls. PMID:20975205

Roman, Pablo; Lazarov, Maxim; Majumder, Aditi

2010-01-01

471

Artificial Rearing of Infant Mice Leads to n-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency in Cardiac, Neural and Peripheral Tissues  

PubMed Central

The ability to control the fatty acid content of the diet during early development is a crucial requirement for a one-generation model of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) deficiency. A hand feeding method using artificial rearing (AR) together with sterile, artificial milk was employed for feeding mice from postnatal day 2–15. The pups were fed an n-3 fatty acid adequate (3% ?-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n3) + 1% 22:6n3) or a deficient diet (0.06% 18:3n3) with linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) as the only dietary source of essential fatty acids by AR along with a dam-reared control group (3.1% 18:3n3). The results indicate that restriction of n-3 fatty acid intake during postnatal development leads to markedly lower levels of brain, retinal, liver, plasma and heart 22:6n3 at 20 weeks of age with replacement by docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6; 22:5n6), arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) and docosatetraenoic acid (DTA; 22:4n6). A detailed analysis of phospholipid classes of heart tissue indicated that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin were the major repositories of 22:6n3, reaching 40, 29 and 15%, respectively. A novel heart cardiolipin species containing four 22:6n3 moieties is described. This is the first report of the application of artificially rearing to mouse pup nutrition; this technique will facilitate dietary studies of knockout animals as well as the study of essential fatty acid (EFA) functions in the cardiovascular, neural and other organ systems. PMID:19588181

Hussein, Nahed; Fedorova, Irina; Moriguchi, Toru; Hamazaki, Kei; Kim, Hee-Yong; Hoshiba, Junji

2009-01-01

472

Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for ??18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for ??18 O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (??18 O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the ??18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5,IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the delta;18 O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing ??18 O and ??2 H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Brand, W.A.; Coplen, T.B.; Aerts-Bijma, A. T.; Böhlke, J.K.; Gehre, M.; Geilmann, H.; Groning, M.; Jansen, H.G.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Qi, H.; Soergel, K.; Stuart-Williams, H.; Weise, S.M.; Werner, R.A.

2009-01-01

473

The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten

Katja Petrowski; Hendrik Berth; Silke Schmidt; Jörg Schumacher; Andreas Hinz; Elmar Brähler

2009-01-01

474

Chemistry laboratory safety manual available  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

Elsbrock, R. G.

1968-01-01

475

Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for d18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

IAEA-602 benzoic acid +71.28?±?0.36‰ USGS35 sodium nitrate +56.81?±?0.31‰ IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate +25.32?±?0.29‰ IAEA-601 benzoic acid +23.14?±?0.19‰ IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate +12.13?±?0.33‰ NBS 127 barium sulfate +8.59?±?0.26‰ VSMOW2 water 0‰ IAEA-600 caffeine -3.48?±?0.53‰ IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate -11.35?±?0.31‰ USGS34 potassium nitrate -27.78?±?0.37‰ SLAP water -55.5‰ The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for d18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (d18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the d18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the d18O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing d18O and d2H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible."

Tyler B Coplen;Johnkarl F Bohlke;Stanley J Mroczkowski;Haiping Qi;Willi A. Brand;Anita T. Aerts-Bijma;Matthias Gehre;Heike Geilmann;Manfred Groning

2009-01-01

476

Co-treatment of landfill leachate in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors: analysis of system performance and biomass activity by means of respirometric techniques.  

PubMed

Aged or mature leachate, produced by old landfills, can be very refractory; for this reason mature leachate is difficult to treat alone, but it can be co-treated with sewage or domestic wastewater. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of leachate co-treatment with synthetic wastewater, in terms of process performance and biomass activity, by means of respirometric techniques. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), named SBR1 and SBR2, were fed with synthetic wastewater and two different percentages of landfill leachate (respectively 10% and 50% v v(-1) in SBR1 and SBR2). The results showed good chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency for both reactors, with average COD removals equal to 91.64 and 89.04% respectively for SBR1 and SBR2. Furthermore, both SBRs showed good ammonia-nitrogen (AN) removal efficiencies, higher than 60%, thus confirming the feasibility of leachate co-treatment with a readily biodegradable wastewater. Significant respiration rates were obtained for the heterotrophic population (average values of maximum oxygen uptake rate equal to 37.30 and 56.68 mg O2 L(-1) h(-1) respectively for SBR1 and SBR2), thus suggesting the feasibility of leachate co-treatment with synthetic wastewater. PMID:24647193

Capodici, M; Di Trapani, D; Viviani, G

2014-01-01

477

18.5% efficient AlOx/SiNy rear passivated industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the trend toward thinner and higher efficient crystalline silicon solar cells, excellent rear surface passivation and internal optical reflectance have become more and more important. Aluminum oxide (AlOx) capped with silicon nitride (SiNy), which is considered as one of the most promising candidates to achieve superior rear passivation and internal reflectance, has to date been mostly used for the rear side of p-type monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. In this paper, we have optimized rear AlOx/SiNy stacks deposited by industrial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC). Sufficient passivation activation effect from industrial fast-firing process and SiNy deposition process have been demonstrated, so the samples were not subjected to additional thermal treatment process in the cell fabrication flow. For rear AlOx/SiNy stack, it is shown that when PECVD AlOx is thicker than 40 nm, apparent blisters in fired AlOx deteriorate the cell performance, and the appropriate SiNy capping is N-rich SiNy with thickness of at least 180 nm. After process optimization with the least additional process steps, independently confirmed efficiency of 18.5% for Pluto-PERC with PECVD AlOx/SiNy rear passivation on standard 156 mm × 156 mm p-type mc-Si wafers has been achieved.

Qiao, Qi; Lu, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Xi, Xi; Chen, Rulong; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jingbing; Shi, Zhengrong; Chu, Junhao

2014-06-01