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1

Therapeutic Treatment for Epibiotic Fouling on Dungeness Crab ('Cancer magister') Larvae Reared in the Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study shows that larvae of the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister Dana) reared in the laboratory are susceptible to epibiotic microbial infestation similar to that described for eggs of the same species. Larval survival in the laboratory was increased by...

W. S. Fisher R. T. Nelson

1976-01-01

2

Effect of Phloem Thickness on Heterozygosity in Laboratory-Reared Mountain Pine Beetles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measu...

G. D. Amman M. W. Stock

1995-01-01

3

Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

Riley, S. C.; Tatara, C. P.; Scheurer, J. A.

2005-01-01

4

Egg-harvesting allows large scale rearing of Amblyseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method to rearAmblyseius finlandicus (Oudemans) in the laboratory is described that allows large numbers to be produced. Mites developed faster and had a higher\\u000a ovipositional rate when fed on pollen and reared on a bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf substrate than when fed on pollen on an artificial arena. Two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were an inferior

Tuomas Kostiainen; Marjorie A. Hoy

1994-01-01

5

Production of fertile eggs and sperms in laboratory-reared amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Althoug hamphioxus has been studied embryologically for over 130 years, little is known concerning the gonadal development of the laboratory-reared animal. The present study in which the amphioxus were sucessfully maintained in the laboratory for more than one year showed that they could produce fertile eggs and sperms like their wild counterparts.

Zhang, Shi-Cui; Zhu, Jin-Tian; Jia, Cui-Hong; Li, Guo-Rong

1999-03-01

6

Chemistry Laboratory Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning to navigate the treacherous shoals of the chemistry laboratory is tricky business. Fortunately, interested parties can use this fine online course from MIT's OpenCourseWare to become more familiar with such matters. The course consists of "intensive practical training in basic chemistry lab techniques" and the site includes a host of instructional videos. The manual and materials for this course were prepared by Dr. Katherine J. Franze and Dr. Kevin M. Shea in collaboration with a number of their colleagues. Visitors can make their way through the syllabus, course calendar, labs, and the study materials. In the Study Materials area, visitors will find ten videos, including "Using a Balance," "Melting Point Determination," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Students of chemistry and educators will find this site most useful and will wish to share it widely with others.

7

Rearing Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

We developed a method for rearing larvae of Africanized bees under laboratory conditions to determine the amount of diet needed during larval development to obtain a worker bee. We started with larvae 18-24 h old, which were transferred to polyethylene cell cups and fed for five days. We found that the amount of diet needed for successful larval development was: 4, 15, 25, 50, and 70 microl during the first to fifth days, respectively. The survival rate to the adult stage was 88.6% when the larvae received the daily amount of diet divided into two feedings, and 80% when they received only one feeding per day. The adult weight obtained in the laboratory, when the larvae received the daily amount of diet in a single dose, did not differ from those that were developed under field conditions (our control). All adults that we obtained in laboratory appeared to be normal. This technique has the potential to facilitate studies on brood pathogens, resistance mechanisms to diseases and also might be useful to test the impacts of transgenic products on honey bee brood. PMID:19551650

Silva, I C; Message, D; Cruz, C D; Campos, L A O; Sousa-Majer, M J

2009-01-01

8

Phenotypic trait changes in laboratory--reared colonies of the maize herbivore, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.  

PubMed

The North American and European maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was used to assess whether conditions of the natal field, subsequent laboratory rearing, or genetic population origin affect phenotypic traits of fitness, activity, or morphometrics. Standardized laboratory bioassays with large sample sizes revealed that none of the 16 tested traits, except crawling behaviours, appeared consistently stable across all seven tested colonies. Environmental conditions in the natal field of the F 0 generation affected trait averages of the subsequently reared F 1 generation in laboratory in ca. 47% of cases, and trait variability in 67% of cases. This was apparent for fitness and morphometrics, but less obvious for activity traits. Early generation laboratory rearing affected trait averages in ca. 56% of cases: morphometrics changed; fecundity and egg survival increased from F 1 to F 2. Trait variability increased or decreased in 38% of cases. Laboratory rearing for over more than 190 generations affected the trait averages in 60% of cases, reflected by decreases in flight activity and increases in body size, weight, and fecundity to some extent. It had little effect on trait variability, especially so for morphometric variability. The genetic population origin affected average levels of 55% and variability of 63% of phenotypic traits. A comparison among D. v. virgifera studies might be difficult if they use different populations or laboratory colonies. It is advised to consider possible effects of original field conditions, laboratory rearing, and population genetics when planning comparative studies targeting fitness, activity, or morphometric questions regarding Diabrotica species. PMID:24267312

Li, H; Guillemaud, T; French, B W; Kuhlmann, U; Toepfer, S

2014-02-01

9

Techniques for Hatching and Rearing Cobia, 'Rachycentron canadum', through Larval and Juvenile States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report the possibilities of hatching and rearing cobia fish are assessed. The report evaluates the cobia's potential as a cultured organism by developing techniques of collecting, identifying and maintaining cobia eggs, and it defines the environme...

W. W. Hassler R. P. Rainville

1975-01-01

10

Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

1992-01-01

11

Observations on Scale Patterns and Growth of the Pacific Sardine Reared in the Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scale patterns and growth of Pacific sardine (Sardinops caerulea) were studied with laboratory-reared fish held for 24 months. All scales examined after the fourth month had accessory marks. The first accessory mark was formed in August to October and the...

M. Kimura G. T. Sakagawa

1972-01-01

12

LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF BATHYNECTES SUPERBA (COSTA) REARED IN THE LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of several portunid species have now been described to varying extents by laboratory culture studies, including Portunus puber (egg to juvenile) , P. de purator (egg to Zoea III) , Carcinus maenas (egg to Zoea IV) by Lebour (1928), and Callinectes sapidus (egg to Zoea IV, Hopkins, 1943, 1944 ; egg to juvenile, Costlow and Bookhout, 1959) . The

MORRIS H. ROBERTS

13

[Occurrence of the mite Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae) in insect rearing in laboratory].  

PubMed

Pyemotidae mites have been reported as ectoparasites of a large number of arthropods, especially of insects. These mites are frequently found attacking insects in different habitats, including insect rearing. This paper reports the occurrence of Pyemotes sp., ventricosus group, in colonies of Tuta absoluta (Meyerick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the insect rearing laboratory of ESALQ-USP, in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, provoking dematitis in those involved with the rearing. This is the first report of a Pyemotes species parasitizing T. absoluta and S. zeamais. Considering the capacity of Pyemotes to cause dermatitis in human beings, demonstrated by other authors, the direct use of the Pyemotes species found in this work for the control of the reported insect species may not be promising. PMID:17061810

da Cunha, Uemerson S; Silva, Edmilson S; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Vendramim, José D

2006-01-01

14

Biotechnology Laboratory: Micropipet Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Micropipets are used in almost all biotechnology experiments. These precise instruments allow for the dispensing of extremely small volumes. This laboratory exercise will teach students to learn how to operate a micropipet, understand measuring volumes in microliters, and convert metric volumes. This seven-page pdf contains teacher information for conducting the lab, the laboratory exercise itself with complete instructions, and a student activity for them to complete as they work through the exercise.

2008-08-13

15

Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

1995-02-01

16

Survivorship and egg production of phytophagous pentatomids in laboratory rearing.  

PubMed

Survivorship and reproductive performance of the pentatomids Euschistus heros (F.) (EH), Nezara viridula (L.) (NV), and Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (DM) were tested in the laboratory. A mixture of natural foods (pods of green beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, and fruits of privet, Ligustrum lucidum, and 50 pairs/box (25 x 20 x 20 cm) were used, observed for 30 days, and replicated three times. Thirty days after emergence, mean female survivorship was 91% (EH), 60% (NV), and 30% (DM). More egg masses were deposited during 11-20 days after emergence, with mean number of 45.1 (EH), 5.3 (NV), and 11.8 (DM). These values were smaller during the first 10 days (25.5, 2.1, and 4.7) and last 10 days (21-30 days) (39.4, 3.9, and 4.9), respectively. Mean maximum number of eggs/day was 489 (EH) on day 29, 474 (NV) on day 11, and 153 (DM) on day 14. Mean monthly fecundity (egg masses/box) was 985 (EH), 92 (NV), and 193 (DM), and mean number of eggs/box was 8,480; 5,147, and 2,042.7, respectively. PMID:21437480

Silva, F A C; Calizotti, G S; Panizzi, A R

2011-01-01

17

Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels

G. D. Amman; M. W. Stock

1995-01-01

18

Growth and reproduction of Caprella danilevskii (Crustacea: Amphipoda) reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, an epifaunal amphipod crustacean, was successfully reared for two generations under laboratory conditions. Amphipods were maintained in pairs or fours in a Petri dish. Temperature and photoperiod were maintained at 20°C, and 14 h light: 10 h dark, respectively. Colonies of the diatomCylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reumann and Lewin were provided as food source. The red algaGelidium amansii

I. Takeuchi; R. Hirano

1991-01-01

19

Selectivity of pesticides used on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to Trichogramma pretiosum reared on two laboratory-reared hosts.  

PubMed

The side-effects of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators) used on cotton were tested on adults and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley reared in the laboratory on two different hosts, the Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) and the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller)). The eggs of the host enclosing the parasitoid pupae received direct pesticide sprays, while the adults of the parasitoid were exposed to the pesticides through contact with residues on sprayed eggs offered to parasitism. Alpha-cypermethrin, carbosulfan, deltamethrin, endosulfan, profenofos and zeta-cypermethrin were highly noxious to the parasitoid, significantly reducing the percentage of emergence and parasitism of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella or S. cerealella eggs. However, the pupal stage of the parasitoid developing in S. cerealella eggs was less susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Lufenuron and metamidophos greatly reduced the percentage of adult emergence from eggs of both hosts, while novaluron only interfered on this variable when the wasps were developing in E. kuehniella eggs. However, lufenuron and monocrotophos had no effect on the parasitoid pupae of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella eggs. Chlorfluazuron, diafenthiuron, diflubenzuron, fentin hydroxide, mepiquat chloride, novaluron, thiacloprid and triflumuron did not affect T. pretiosum emergence when eggs of S. cerealella enclosing pupae of the wasps were surface treated. The pesticides azoxystrobin, carbendazin + thiram, mepiquat chloride and novaluron had no effect on the ability of the wasps to parasitise E. kuehniella eggs. However, only mepiquat chloride did not affect the percentage of F1 wasps emerging from E. kuehniella eggs. The remaining pesticides moderately reduced the percentage of emergence and parasitism of the wasps when they had contact with the chemicals during their pupal or adult stage. Thus there were differences in pesticide toxicity according to the host used for parasitoid development. These differences were hypothesised to occur because of differences in egg morphology and parasitoid performance. PMID:16308868

Bastos, Cristina S; de Almeida, Raul P; Suinaga, Fábio A

2006-01-01

20

Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility. PMID:24498749

Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

2013-12-01

21

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths.

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

22

Molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of the bombycid moth, Trilocha varians.  

PubMed

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day-degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

23

Digital Techniques for Laboratory Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes techniques and equipment intended to both improve laboratory measurements and also form a background for more advanced work by introducing the concepts of electronic and digital circuits. (GS)

Dart, S. Leonard

1975-01-01

24

Major changes in the sex differences in cuticular chemical profiles of the western conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis) after laboratory rearing.  

PubMed

Chemical compounds covering the insect cuticle have several functions ranging from protection against water loss to inter- and intra-specific communication. Their composition is determined by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among these factors, laboratory rearing has been poorly investigated even though it has a strong potential for biasing behavioral experiments. We selected an invasive species with unknown cuticular mixtures as a model. Our aim was to describe its mixtures and to determine if highly simplified laboratory rearing conditions interact with sexual signatures. We analyzed the cuticle by means of two different techniques - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) - to obtain data on a wide range of compounds with different molecular weight. We found that both sets of chemicals showed correlations with gender but also that cuticular waxes detected by GC/MS were highly dependent on rearing conditions, with a strong bias in sexual dimorphism. Conversely, the heavier signatures detected by MALDI-TOF showed a less clear diversification between sexes, although the discrimination power was unaffected by rearing conditions. The biological and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:23602828

Dapporto, Leonardo; Baracchi, David; Benassai, Daniele; Capretti, Paolo; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turillazzi, Stefano

2013-07-01

25

Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory.  

PubMed

Life history of a free-living meiobenthic nematode Daptonema normandicum (DeMan, 1890) was studied in the laboratory. Live specimens were primarily collected from the sewage outlet site near the mouth of the Mandovi estuary, Goa This species was the most dominant (> 67%) among the meiobenthic nematodes. Vertically, nematode abundance was highest at the surface sediment and correlated with the organic carbon and sediment chlorophyll-a. Considering their dominance in the meiofauna, attempts were made to rear D. normandicum in laboratory. Salinity of the culture medium was maintained at 14 to 17 PSU (same as the collection site). All the culture experiments were conducted in semisolid nutrient agar media at 27 +/- 2 degrees C temperature for 12 hr dark: 12 hr light conditions. The food consists primarily of an unidentified bacterium and mixed algae, but diatom and ciliates were also observed in culture. Females produced first batch of eggs at the age of 23 days. Gravid female normally carry 8-10 eggs. Embryonic development is completed in -72 hr and entire life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in 22-24 days. Average size of juveniles at the hatching was 0.189 mm. Young individuals attains a maximum size of 1.23 mm (male) and 1.04 mm (female) in -21-23 days. Growth, in terms of length was augmented upto 23rd day and ceased thereafter. The daily growth increment for the first 5 days was 0.01-0.04 mm which increased upto 0.05-0.08 mm d(-1) during the maturation (10-18 days). Male : female ratio was 1:2. In this laboratory study, we provided information on the embryonic development, the life cycle and ecology Our results demonstrated that D. normandicum can be reared successfully under the controlled conditions, suggesting possible use of this species in toxicological and aquaculture studies. The culture method described is very handy and can be applicable for rearing other meiobenthic species particularly the nematodes with comparable feeding habits. PMID:21882647

Singh, Ravail; Ingole, Baban

2011-03-01

26

Techniques for Efficient Mass Rearing and Infestation in Screening for Host Plant Resistance to Corn Earworm, 'Heliothis zea'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insect resistant cultivars have resulted from development of techniques to mass rear the insects, artificially infest the crop species, and screen the species' germplasm for resistance, followed by crop breeding to improve the resistance trait over severa...

J. A. Mihm

1982-01-01

27

Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics.  

PubMed

Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males. PMID:24316237

Hapairai, Limb K; Marie, Jérôme; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

2014-04-01

28

Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution. PMID:17645823

Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

2007-08-01

29

Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method. PMID:22617405

Sanders, Erin R

2012-01-01

30

Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

1992-01-01

31

Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

1992-09-01

32

Laboratory Techniques for the Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

Tombaugh, Dorothy

1972-01-01

33

Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).  

PubMed

Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species. PMID:22312998

Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

2011-12-01

34

Microwave techniques for diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

Microwaves (MWs) were first introduced as a method of fixation just over 20 years ago. In recent years their use has extended far beyond that of a safe, clean and rapid method of fixation of tissue blocks and large specimens, including brains. MWs accelerate the action of cross-linking fixatives and can greatly accelerate the various stages of tissue processing to produce a paraffin block in 30 min. An extensive range of ultrafast MW-stimulated special stains has been developed, and immunohistochemical procedures can be completed in 20 min by employing MWs. Cellular antigens are distinctly better preserved in tissues fixed by MWs than by conventional cross-linking fixatives. Also, the cytomorphology of cryostat sections irradiated in Wolman's solution is clearly improved. MWs can similarly be applied for fixation and staining of preparations for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and they also greatly accelerate polymerisation of resins. In the current climate of cost containment, this wide range of applications makes the MW oven an invaluable addition to the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:8287207

Leong, A S

1993-01-01

35

Acoustic tomography. Laboratory technique Implementation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From geomechanical tests carried out on rocks it is possible to determine its physico-mechanical properties, which relate the strain and applied stress; even so, conventional tests do not allow to identify how stress is distributed and how it has affected porous media. Today, techniques like acoustic tomography widely used in medicine, geophysics and others sciences, generates images by sections of the interior of a body. Acoustic tomography allows inferring the stress state within porous media; since wave velocities are closely related to media density, if a stress is applied to a rock, it will generate grains compaction and this will be showed by an increase of wave velocity. Implementation was conducted on rock plugs under diverse stress fields, simultaneously recording P-wave velocities (Compressional) on perpendicular planes to sample vertical axis. Transmission and reception of acoustic waves through porous media were done by piezoelectric crystals (PZT) used as sensors. A transmitting crystal excited by a voltage pulse causes a mechanical vibration, which travels across media; this is known as inverse piezoelectric effect. This vibration is recorded by a receiving crystal in which the direct piezoelectric effect appears; which dictates that if a piezoelectric is disturbed mechanically, an electrical signal between its terminals will appear. This electrical signal is used to obtain the wave velocity. Nevertheless, acoustic tomography corresponds to one of those called inverse Problems that arise when from observed data the model parameters must be obtained; in this way, tomography involves iterative reconstruction techniques (ART or SIRT) which are projections of observed data and its later inversion. Obtained results are cross-sectional images of velocity within the rock. In these images it is possible to identify where stress has a greater concentration observing the color map generated; thus, a greater velocity density area corresponding to a greater stress will be colored with a higher tonality within the palette used.

Galvis, Jorge; Carvajal, Jenny

2010-05-01

36

A Technique Oriented Freshman Laboratory Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program built on the philosophy that laboratory exercises were to be exclusively reserved for those concepts which could not be taught more effectively by other pedagogical techniques. Presents faculty and student criticisms of the program. (GS)

Palma, R. J., Sr.

1975-01-01

37

Food selection by laboratory-reared larvae of the scaled sardine Harengula pensacolae (Pisces, Clupeidae) and the bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli (Pisces, Engraulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food selection by laboratory-reared larvae of scaled sardines Harengula pensacolae, and bay anchovies Anchoa mitchilli, was compared. Natural plankton was fed to the larvae during the 22 days following hatching. Food levels in the rearing tanks were maintained at an average of 1,600 to 1,800 potential food organisms per liter. Larvae of both species selected as food copepod nauplii, copepodites,

R. Detwyler; E. D. Houde

1970-01-01

38

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

2011-06-01

39

Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

40

Introducing improvements in the mass rearing of the housefly: biological, morphometric and genetic characterization of laboratory strains.  

PubMed

Understanding the biology of the housefly (Musca domestica L.) is crucial for the development of mass-rearing protocols in order to use this insect as a degradation agent for livestock waste. In this study, the biological and genetic differences between different laboratory strains of M. domestica were analysed. Additionally, hybrids were obtained by mixing the strains and their biological parameters were also measured. The three strains of M. domestica presented differences in their biological and morphological parameters, the main differences were: size, egg production and developmental time. The strain A (specimens from Central Europe) had the best qualities to be used in mass-rearing conditions: it produced the largest quantities of eggs (5.77±0.38 eggs per female per day), the individuals were larger (12.62±0.22 mg) and its developmental time was shorter (15.22±0.21 days). However, the strain C (specimens from SW Europe) produced the fewest eggs (3.15±0.42 eggs per female per day) and needed 18.16±0.49 days to develop from larva to adult, whilst the females from strain B (from South America) produced 4.25±0.47 eggs per day and needed 17.11±0.36 days to complete its development. Genetic analysis of the original laboratory strains showed four different mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes. Statistical parsimony network analysis showed that the SW Europe and South-American strains shared haplotypes, whereas the Central Europe strain did not. Upon hybridizing the strains, variations in egg production and in developmental time were observed in between hybrids and pure strains, and when mixing Central European and South-American strains only males were obtained. PMID:24824066

Pastor, B; Martínez-Sánchez, A S; Ståhls, G A; Rojo, S

2014-08-01

41

Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

Kundu, Nikhil K.

1994-01-01

42

DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

43

Larval growth, development, and survival of laboratory-reared Aplysia californica: Effects of diet and veliger density*  

PubMed Central

Over the last three decades, the California sea hare, Aplysia californica, has played an increasingly important role as a model organism in the neurosciences. Since 1995, the National Resource for Aplysia has supported a growing research community by providing a consistent supply of laboratory-reared individuals of known age, reproductive status, and environmental history. The purpose of the present study was to resolve the key biological factors necessary for successful culture of large numbers of high quality larval Aplysia. Data from a sequence of five experiments demonstrated that algal diet, food concentration, and veliger density significantly affected growth, attainment of metamorphic competency, and survival of Aplysia larvae. The highest growth and survival were achieved with a mixed algal diet of 1:1 Isochrysis sp (TISO) and Chaetoceros muelleri (CHGRA) at a total concentration of 250 x 103 cells/mL and a larval density of 0.5 – 1.0 per mL. Rapid growth was always correlated with faster attainment of developmental milestones and increased survival, indicating that the more rapidly growing larvae were healthier. Trials conducted with our improved protocol resulted in larval growth rates of >14 ?m/d, which yielded metamorphically competent animals within 21 days with survival rates in excess of 90%. These data indicate the important effects of biotic factors on the critical larval growth period in the laboratory and show the advantages of developing optimized protocols for culture of such marine invertebrates.

Capo, Thomas R.; Bardales, Ana T.; Gillette, Phillip R.; Lara, Monica R.; Schmale, Michael C.; Serafy, Joseph E.

2009-01-01

44

Development of reproductive organs in the ivory shell Babylonia japonica: observations from wild populations and laboratory-reared juveniles.  

PubMed

We histologically examined normal differentiation and development of genital tract and gonad in the ivory shell Babylonia japonica (Buccinidae) to determine whether the formation of male-type genitalia in imposex-exhibiting females mimics the normal development of male genitalia in prosobranch gastropods. We used a wild-caught 2-year-old specimen and laboratory-reared juveniles aged 0-24 months. Gonad differentiation was unclear before age 14 months, but progressed after 16 months. Both sexes had complete genital tract and mature gonad at 20 months. However, differentiation and development occurred earlier in females than in males. Development of genital tract preceded gonad differentiation. Vas deferens morphogenesis in males resembled that in imposex-exhibiting females. These findings help to understand the morphogenesis of genital tract and gonad in prosobranch gastropods and will contribute to more in-depth studies of the mode of action of organotin compounds such as TBT and TPhT in imposex development in female prosobranch gastropods. PMID:23921202

Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Fumihiko; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

2014-02-01

45

INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

46

Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Resolve the Species, Gender, Age, and the Presence of Wolbachia Infection in Laboratory-Reared Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age, and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory-reared Drosophila. NIRS measures the absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model was developed for each study. An independent set with flies not involved in initial cross-validation was then used to validate the accuracy of each calibration model. Flies from the independent sets were correctly classified into Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans with 94% and 82% accuracy, respectively, whereas flies were successfully classified by gender with accuracy greater than 90%. In the age grading test, correlation plots of the actual and predicted age for males and females of D. melanogaster and D. simulans were shown to be overlapping between the adjacent age groups. It is, however, possible to predict the age of flies as less than 9 days of age with 62–88% accuracy and flies that are equal to or older than 9 days of age with 91–98% accuracy. Finally, we used NIRS to detect the presence of Wolbachia in flies. Flies from the independent sets were successfully identified as infected or not infected with Wolbachia with approximately 90% accuracy. These results suggest that NIRS has the potential to quantify the species, gender, and presence of Wolbachia in fly populations. However, additional optimization of the protocol may be necessary before the technique can reliably estimate fly age.

Aw, Wen C.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Ballard, J. William O.

2012-01-01

47

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

2013-10-01

48

Graphing Techniques for Materials Laboratory Using Excel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students nei...

N. K. Kundu

1994-01-01

49

Cell death localization in situ in laboratory reared honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) larvae treated with pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cell death detected by DNA fragmentation labeling and phosphatidylserine (PS) localization was investigated in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) midgut, salivary glands and ovaries after treating larvae with different pesticides offered via an artificial diet. To do this, honey bee larvae reared in an incubator were exposed to one of nine pesticides: chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, amitraz, fluvalinate,

Ales Gregorc; James D. Ellis

2011-01-01

50

Validation of a new larval rearing unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mass rearing.  

PubMed

The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms. PMID:24647347

Balestrino, Fabrizio; Puggioli, Arianna; Gilles, Jérémie R L; Bellini, Romeo

2014-01-01

51

Validation of a New Larval Rearing Unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mass Rearing  

PubMed Central

The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms.

Gilles, Jeremie R. L.; Bellini, Romeo

2014-01-01

52

Rearing Blister Beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receipt, recently, of several requests for information and assistance in rearing blister beetles (Meloidae) has prompted me to prepare the following account of the rearing method used in my laboratory. In order to make the account as useful as possible to new students. I have included a considerable amount of information on meloid bionomics. Larval phases are designated as

Richard B. Selander

1986-01-01

53

Laboratory Testing of Volcanic Gas Sampling Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of laboratory experiments were performed designed to calibrate several commonly used methods for field measurement of volcanic gas composition. H2, CO2, SO2 and CHCl2F gases were mixed through carefully calibrated rotameters to form mixtures representative of the types of volcanic compositions encountered at Kilauea and Showa-Shinzan. Gas mixtures were passed through a horizontal furnace at 700oC to break down CHCl2F and form an equilibrium high-temperature mixture. With the exception of Giggenbach bottle samples, all gas sampling was performed adjacent to the furnace exit in order to roughly simulate the air-contaminated samples encountered in Nature. Giggenbach bottle samples were taken from just beyond the hot-spot 10cm down the furnace tube to minimize atmospheric contamination. Alkali-trap measurements were performed by passing gases over or bubbling gases through 6N KOH, NaOH or LiOH solution for 10 minutes. Results were highly variable with errors in measured S/Cl varying from +1600% to -19%. In general reduced Kilauea compositions showed smaller errors than the more oxidized Showa-Shinzan compositions. Results were not resolvably different in experiments where gas was bubbled through the alkaline solution. In a second set of experiments, 25mm circles of Whatman 42 filter paper were impregnated with NaHCO3or KHCO3 alkaline solutions stabilized with glycerol. Some filters also included Alizarin (5.6-7.2) and neutral red (6.8-8.0) Ph indicator to provide a visual monitor of gas absorption. Filters were mounted in individual holders and used in stacks of 3. Durations were adjusted to maximize reaction in the first filter in the stack and minimize reaction in the final filter. Errors in filter pack measurements were smaller and more systematic than the alkali trap measurements. S/Cl was overestimated in oxidized gas mixtures and underestimated in reduced mixtures. Alkali-trap methods allow extended unattended monitoring of volcanic gasses, but our results suggest that they are poor recorders of gas composition. Filter pack methods are somewhat better, but are more difficult to interpret than previously recognized. We suggest several refinements to the filter-pack technique that can improve accuracy. Giggenbach bottles remain the best method for volcanic gas sampling, despite the inherent difficulty and danger of obtaining samples in active volcanic environments. Relative merits of different alkali solutions and indicators are discussed.

Kress, V. C.; Green, R.; Ortiz, M.; Delmelle, P.; Fischer, T.

2003-12-01

54

Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

Michael Lehman

2008-06-01

55

Laboratory Testing of Volcanic Gas Sampling Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laboratory experiments were performed designed to calibrate several commonly used methods for field measurement of volcanic gas composition. H2, CO2, SO2 and CHCl2F gases were mixed through carefully calibrated rotameters to form mixtures representative of the types of volcanic compositions encountered at Kilauea and Showa-Shinzan. Gas mixtures were passed through a horizontal furnace at 700oC to break

V. C. Kress; R. Green; M. Ortiz; P. Delmelle; T. Fischer

2003-01-01

56

Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects.

Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

2011-01-01

57

Clinical Laboratory Techniques and MEMS Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This unit introduces users to the Clinical Laboratory. This module presents information for users to learn about the testing that takes place in a clinical lab, the requirements of the technicians and equipment used to produce accurate and consistent results, and the possibilities of replacing some of these tests with MEMS and bioMEMS. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

58

Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of about 43 52% in organic C, 9 10% in N, 6 9% H, 31 49% of AFW in protein, 3 10% in lipid, and <1% in carbohydrates. All these constituents showed, on the average, a decreasing tendency during the first two crab instars, whereas N remained fairly constant. It cannot be explained at present, what other elements and biochemical compounds, respectively, might replace these decreasing components of AFW. Decreasing tendencies during juvenile growth were observed also in the organic C/N and in the lipid/protein weight ratios, both indicating that the proportion of lipid decreased at a higher rate than that of protein. Changes were observed also in the composition of inorganic matter, with significantly lower inorganic C in early postmoult (2 4% of ash) than in later stages of the moult cycle (about 9%). This reflected probably an increase in the degree of calcification, i.e. in the calcium carbonate content of the exoskeleton. As a fraction of total C, inorganic C reached maximum values of 17 and 20% in the crab I and II instars, respectively. The energy content of juvenile spider crabs was estimated independently from organic C and biochemical constituents, with a significant correlation between these values. However, the former estimates of energy were, on the average, significantly lower than the latter (slope of the regression ?1). Since organic C should be a reliable integrator of organic substances, but the sum of protein, lipid, chitin, and carbohydrates amounted to only 60 91% of AFW, it is concluded that the observed discrepancy between these two estimates of energy was caused by energy from biochemical constituents that had not been determined in our analyses. Thus, energy values obtained from these biochemical fractions alone may underestimate the actual amount of organic matter and energy. Respiration per individual in juvenile spider crabs was higher than that in larval stages of the same species (previous studies), but their W-specific values of oxygen consumption (QO2) were lower than in conspecific larvae (0.6 2?g O2·[mg W]-1). QO2 showed a consiste

Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

1992-03-01

59

A Clinical and Laboratory Comparison of Alginate Impression Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A clinical and laboratory comparison of alginate impression techniques was undertaken. Rim-lock (trademark) trays were modified with a combination of modeling compound, wax, and alginate adhesive. Both the modified and unmodified trays were used to make a...

J. O. Hollinger, L. Lorton, W. A. Krantz

1981-01-01

60

Supercooling ability in the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum: effect of field-collected and laboratory-reared prey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of prey animals on the supercooling ability of the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum, was studied by feeding spiders with field-collected and laboratory-cultured prey animals. Irrespective of the prey species supplied, spiders given field-collected prey had a higher supercooling point than those given laboratory-cultured counterparts. This means that (1) the field prey animals contained some efficient ice nucleators, whereas the laboratory animals were free from such substances and (2) the ice nucleators must be of external origin. Several lines of evidence also suggest that, under natural conditions, potential prey animals for the house spider are highly contaminated with ice nucleators.

Tanaka, Kazuhiro

2001-10-01

61

Supercooling ability in the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum: effect of field-collected and laboratory-reared prey.  

PubMed

The influence of prey animals on the supercooling ability of the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum, was studied by feeding spiders with field-collected and laboratory-cultured prey animals. Irrespective of the prey species supplied, spiders given field-collected prey had a higher supercooling point than those given laboratory-cultured counterparts. This means that (1) the field prey animals contained some efficient ice nucleators, whereas the laboratory animals were free from such substances and (2) the ice nucleators must be of external origin. Several lines of evidence also suggest that, under natural conditions, potential prey animals for the house spider are highly contaminated with ice nucleators. PMID:11729810

Tanaka, K

2001-10-01

62

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

63

Design of a Portable Streamside Rearing Facility for Lake Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable streamside rearing facility was designed and used by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians during efforts to rehabilitate a remnant population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the Big Manistee River, Michigan, beginning in 2004. The streamside rearing facility facilitates rearing of wild-caught lake sturgeon larvae in their natal water. This rearing approach provides a cost-effective technique

J. Marty Holtgren; Stephanie A. Ogren; Aaron J. Paquet; Steve Fajfer

2007-01-01

64

Characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the laboratory rearing of the beet armyworm Spodoptera Exigua (HBN.) in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Polish laboratory culture), SeMNPV (P), morphologically similar to the viral bioinsecticide virus Spod-XR, was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis based on three conserved baculovirus genes, polh, lef-8 and pif-2, showed the highest homology of SeMNPV (P) to Mamestra brassicae (Mb) MNPV and M. configurata (Maco) MNPV, and much less to

A. K. Jakubowska; J. M. Vlak; J. Ziemnicka

2005-01-01

65

Development of selective social buffering of the plasma cortisol response in laboratory-reared male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).  

PubMed

The authors examined the effect of different classes of females on the plasma cortisol response of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) from shortly after weaning through full adulthood. Males housed under standard laboratory conditions with artificial harems of 2 unrelated females of similar age were tested at 4 age ranges (approximately Days 40, 120, 180, and 240). At each age range, males were placed into a novel environment for 2 hr on 4 separate occasions: while alone, with 1 female cage mate, with the other female cage mate, or with an unfamiliar female. Relative preference for the 2 female cage mates was determined from observations in the home cage. Puberty was estimated by plasma testosterone levels. At the 3 youngest ages, the more preferred, less preferred, and unfamiliar females did not differentially reduce the plasma cortisol response. At 240 days of age, only the presence of the more preferred female was able to significantly reduce cortisol levels. These results demonstrate a very selective social buffering effect on the plasma cortisol response in a nonmonogamous species. This effect emerges well after sexual maturity and can be observed under standard laboratory housing. PMID:19331458

Maken, Deborah S; Hennessy, Michael B

2009-04-01

66

Development of Micro-Scale Laboratory Filtration Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need exists for developing micro-scale techniques in order to investigate vacuum filtration in the laboratory to provide design parameters for full-scale plant use. The results of tests conducted indicate that similar values for the mean specific resi...

J. C. Burdick W. A. Drewry

1974-01-01

67

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

68

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NOX REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of work to develop and demonstrate, in the laboratory, NOx reduction techniques that would be suited to petroleum refinery CO boilers. (Note: Most refineries have one or more CO boilers to incinerate off-gases from catalytic cracking. These devices constit...

69

Cryptosporidiosis associated with emaciation and proliferative gastritis in a laboratory-reared South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).  

PubMed

A 2-year-old emaciated female South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) was euthanized because of chronic weight loss. At necropsy, there was no evidence of bacterial, fungal or viral disease; however, the histopathologic findings indicated a proliferative gastritis and the presence of numerous cryptosporidial stages throughout the intestinal tract. Crytosporidial oocysts were present in the water taken from the aquarium housing the infected frog and were likely shed by the sick frog; however, the exact source of the oocysts could not be identified. Water samples from other frog aquaria in the facility did not contain cryptosporidial oocysts. Some Cryptosporidium species are important zoonotic pathogens and, to our knowledge, this is the first report of disease associated with Cryptosporidium infection in a laboratory Xenopus laevis. PMID:12625511

Green, Sherril L; Bouley, Donna M; Josling, Catherine A; Fayer, Ronald

2003-02-01

70

Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the compositional analysis of geological materials. The spectral feature in the mid-IR region is diagnostic of the mineralogy and spectral signatures of mixtures of minerals that add linearly, and therefore, can be used as an important tool to determine the mineralogy of rocks in the laboratory and remotely for planetary exploration. The greatest challenge in the emission measurement lies in the measurement of the weak thermal photons emitted from geological materials in a laboratory setup, and accurately records the temperature of the rock sample. The present work pertains to the details of a new Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) laboratory that has been developed under the ISRO Planetary Science and Exploration (PLANEX) programme, for emission related mineralogical investigations of planetary surfaces. The focus of the paper is on the acquisition and calibration technique for obtaining emissivity, and the deconvolution procedure to obtain the modal abundances of the thermal emission spectra in the range of 6-25 µm using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The basic technique is adopted from the work of Ruff et al (1997). This laboratory at the Department of Earth Sciences, IIT-Bombay is currently developing pure end mineral library of mineral particulates (<65 µm), and adding new end members to the existing ASU spectral library. The paper argues the need for considering Lunar Orbiter Thermal Emission Spectrometer (LOTES) for future Indian Moon mission programme (Chandrayan-II) to determine evidences of varied lithologies on the lunar surface.

Mathew, George; Nair, Archana; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Pande, Kanchan

2009-08-01

71

A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ? for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ?) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

Kosugi, Yukio

72

Infrared band strengths: Laboratory techniques and applications to astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever an abundance measurement is derived by way of infrared spectroscopy, it will typically make use of a laboratory-obtained conversion factor between the size of an IR absorption feature and the (column) density of the molecule under study. This factor is usually called the "absolute absorption intensity" by a chemist or the "band strength" by a typical IR astronomer. Band strengths have been studied in chemistry since the 1950s, and the commonly quoted "accuracy to with a factor of ten" historically required of astronomical calculations has not required much new input into this area. Today, however, astronomical measurements require much higher precision, and it is time for IR astronomers to ask more of laboratory measurements and to understand when and why to use IR band strengths in a more appropriate manner. The history, interpretation, measurement, and common astrophysical applications of infrared band strengths will be discussed. The "secrets" of the laboratory techniques involved in their measurement are described, and a compilation of results from the literature is given along with some new results. Typical astrophysical applications and appropriate uses will also be discussed. Common misconceptions are confronted and two challenges are presented: (i) to the laboratory astrophysics community to produce and advertise accurate values with caveats when necessary, and (ii) to the observational community to use the most appropriate results for the environment under study.

Gerakines, P. A.

2002-09-01

73

NOVEL TECHNIQUES TO PREVENT EDGE ISOLATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS BY AVOIDING LEAK AGE CURRENTS BETWEEN THE EMITTER AND THE ALUMINIUM REAR CONTACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever the base contacting is effected by overcompensating the rear side electrically active emitter, short-circuits occur between the emitter and the alloyed aluminium rear contact. Without additional costly processing steps for the avoidance of excessive leakage currents this transition is non-rectifying. The development of novel cell designs like POWER (POlycrystalline Wafer Engineering Result) or EWT (Emitter Wrap-Through) solar cells with

K. Faika; R. Kühn; P. Fath; E. Bucher

74

Laboratory detection of respiratory viruses by automated techniques.  

PubMed

Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection. PMID:23248735

Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Navarro-Marí, María

2012-01-01

75

Determination of meteor parameters using laboratory simulation techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric entry of meteoritic bodies is conveniently and accurately simulated in the laboratory by techniques which employ the charging and electrostatic acceleration of macroscopic solid particles. Velocities from below 10 to above 50 km/s are achieved for particle materials which are elemental meteoroid constituents or mineral compounds with characteristics similar to those of meteoritic stone. The velocity, mass, and kinetic energy of each particle are measured nondestructively, after which the particle enters a target gas region. Because of the small particle size, free molecule flow is obtained. At typical operating pressures (0.1 to 0.5 torr), complete particle ablation occurs over distances of 25 to 50 cm; the spatial extent of the atmospheric interaction phenomena is correspondingly small. Procedures have been developed for measuring the spectrum of light from luminous trails and the values of fundamental quantities defined in meteor theory. It is shown that laboratory values for iron are in excellent agreement with those for 9 to 11 km/s artificial meteors produced by rocket injection of iron bodies into the atmosphere.

Friichtenicht, J. F.; Becker, D. G.

1973-01-01

76

Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques  

PubMed Central

Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection

Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Navarro-Mari, Jose-Maria

2012-01-01

77

Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. ·Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. ·Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

Sanders, Erin R

2012-01-01

78

Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

79

A new larval tray and rack system for improved mosquito mass rearing.  

PubMed

The requirement for efficient mosquito mass rearing technology has been one of the major obstacles preventing the large scale application of the Sterile Insect Technique against mosquitoes. At the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/ IAEA) Insect Pest Control Laboratories we developed a larval rearing unit based on the use of a stainless steel rack that operates 50 thermoformed ABS plastic trays and is expected to be able to successfully rear 140,000-175,000 Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) adult mosquitoes per rack. The mechanized rearing unit is simple to handle, maintains minimal water temperature variation and negligible water evaporation and allows normal larval development. The mosquito mass-rearing tray was designed to provide a large surface area of shallow water that would closely mimic natural breeding sites. The trays stack into a dedicated rack structure and filling and draining were easily performed. The close stacking of the trays in the rack and the possibility to tightly line up several racks makes this rearing unit a valid solution for maximal use of the space thus reducing construction, heating, and cooling costs. The low amount of labor required to operate the system also reduces labor costs that represent one of the main expenditures in any mass rearing facility operation. Preliminary experiments performed on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) also confirm the possibility of successfully extending the use of this technology to other mosquito species. Our larval rearing unit could enhance any mosquito control strategy in which large-scale releases of mosquitoes are needed to suppress or replace natural populations. PMID:22679867

Balestrino, F; Benedict, M Q; Gilles, J R L

2012-05-01

80

Rebound After Rear Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A number of field accident studies have found that rebound is a source for occupant injury after rear impacts. Sled tests were run to investigate occupant kinematics and rebound, including head velocity and displacement with three different seats, two conventional seat designs and one all belts to seat (ABTS).Methods: Nine rear sled tests were run with a belted 50

David C. Viano; Chantal S. Parenteau; Roger Burnett

2012-01-01

81

Effect of mass rearing on life history traits and inbreeding depression in the sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae).  

PubMed

Inadvertent selection is an important genetic process that frequently occurs during laboratory culture and maintenance of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms used in procedures such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). We investigated effects of mass rearing and inbreeding depression on life history traits (number of progeny emerging from host plants, body weight, developmental period, and starvation tolerance) in the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae). The effect of inbreeding was measured by comparing the results obtained from the full-sib crosses with those obtained from nonkin crosses in both wild and mass-reared strains. The mass-reared strain had more progeny than the wild strain. The developmental period of mass-reared strain was shorter than that of the wild strain. Other traits did not differ significantly between strains. We detected inbreeding depression effects on numbers of progeny, and the effects were more pronounced in the mass-reared strain. Hence, laboratory adaptation to mass rearing can produce changes in important biological attributes of sweetpotato weevils. PMID:20857721

Kuriwada, T; Kumano, N; Shiromoto, K; Haraguchi, D

2010-08-01

82

Laboratory technique for simulation of projectile penetration into geological targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to laboratory-scale experiments on high-velocity penetration of projectiles into geological materials is demonstrated. This method utilizes a commercial accelerometer mounted within a small penetrator model that impacts a sample of target material. As in previous laboratory-scale experiments at high velocities, a compressed-gas gun is used in a reverse-ballistics configuration to accelerate a geological sample into an initially

R. E. Setchell; J. A. Guzman

1983-01-01

83

Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden  

SciTech Connect

Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

Hettler, W.F.

1981-04-01

84

Coupled explosive\\/structure computational techniques at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of the effects of explosives on structures is a challenge because the explosive response can best be simulated using Eulerian computational techniques and structural behavior is best modeled using Lagrangian methods. Due to the different methodology of the two computational techniques and code architecture requirements, they are usually implemented in different computer programs. Explosive and structure modeling in two

D. S. Preece; S. W. Attaway; J. W. Swegle

1997-01-01

85

Effects of different host plants and rearing atmosphere on life cycle of large white cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of different host plants and rearing atmosphere on life cycle of cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae. Insects were reared in the field (fluctuating weather) as well as in the laboratory (constant rearing conditions) on four host plants, viz. cabbage, cauliflower, knol-khol and broccoli. Significant differences were not found in the incubation and pupal period of butterfly reared

Damitre Lytan; D. M. Firake

2012-01-01

86

Laboratory technique for measurement of spectral induced polarization response of soil sampies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of soil samples are necessary to assess the effect of mineralogy, grain size distribution, moisture content, and electrolyte composition the resistivity spectrum of soil material. Laboratory results are also required for the interpretation of field data. Induced polarization phenomena in glacial soils are poorly understood and so far no convenient laboratory techniques are available for measurement. Coarse grain

Heikki Vanhala; Heikki Soininen

1995-01-01

87

Activities of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Vienna. Biennial Report 1983-1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the activities of the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Vienna during the period 1983-1984, with emphasis on the research and development of mass rearing systems for insect control programmes applying the sterile insect technique an...

1985-01-01

88

Water balance of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, throughout its development with comparative observations between field-collected and laboratory-reared ticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water balance characteristic data are compiled and determined for each non-fed instar of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, vector of tularaemia and spotted fever rickettsia, comparing wild-caught and laboratory-colonized populations, to establish how habitat influences D. variabilis dehydration resistance. In contrast to ticks from the field, laboratory-colonized ticks show a progression in percentage body water content from a low

Jay A. Yoder; Brian Z. Hedges; Joshua B. Benoit

2012-01-01

89

Spatial repellency of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in a semi-field tunnel cage  

PubMed Central

Background Vapour phase spatial repellents deter mosquitoes from attacking one or more humans in a protected space. Simulation models indicate that high coverage of spatial repellents can enhance the impact of long - lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) where mosquito vectors commonly bite humans outdoors. Here we report a preliminary evaluation of an effective, user-friendly prototype product for delivering spatial repellents to protect against malaria vector mosquitoes. Findings Protective efficacy of a 4.0 × 0.3 m strip of hessian sacking treated with 10 ml of transfluthrin was evaluated in a 60 m × 2 m ×2.5 m netting tunnel with malaria-free insectary-reared Anopheles arabiensis Patton mosquitoes. Personal protection, in terms of proportional reduction of exposure to bites, was measured by comparing human landing catches of volunteers with treated and untreated strips. A freshly treated hessian strip reduced mosquito attack rate on human volunteers by > 99% and consistently conferred > 90% protective efficacy for a period of 6 months. Over the entire study period, only 22 out of 1400 released mosquitoes bit volunteers using the treated sacking strip while 894 out of 1400 mosquitoes released into cages containing volunteers using an untreated strip fed upon them. Conclusion Locally available natural fibers may be promising absorbent substrates for delivering spatial repellents, such as transfluthrin, to protect against mosquitoes in tropical settings. However, these observations relate to a single prototype specimen of this particular device, therefore, much more detailed, well replicated studies are essential to establish long-term efficacy, effectiveness, practicability and affordability.

2012-01-01

90

Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

1977-01-01

91

CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

92

22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

93

14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

94

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

95

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

96

[Modern angiographic diagnostic techniques in the catheter laboratory].  

PubMed

Even at the beginning of the twenty-first century angiography still is the gold standard for imaging coronary arteries. Many limitations of this technique have facilitated advancements, such as quantitative coronary angiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. The use of intravascular ultrasound has enabled a transmural in vivo imaging of the coronary arteries while creating cross-sectional images of the vessel wall. This led to a better evaluation of vascular plaques and the surrounding structures of the vessel. Optical coherence tomography is a new modality based on infrared light, which provides intraluminal and extraluminal imaging of vessels with a resolution of 10-20 µm, which is better than intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). However even this modern diagnostic tool is limited in the assessment of the relevance of an epicardial stenosis. Evaluation of the fractional flow reserve is a pathophysiological test, which measures the pressure before and after an epicardial stenosis and is able to assess the functional condition of a vessel with a high sensitivity and specificity. The so-called C-arm computed tomography (CACT; DynaCT Cardiac; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) is a new application of an intraprocedural technique based on rotation of an x-ray source around a patient. It is able to generate information similar to that created by conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and offers the possibility to significantly enhance angiographic diagnostic modalities. PMID:21720795

Rittger, H; Sinha, A-M; Brachmann, J

2011-08-01

97

Laboratory Comparison of Aerosol Optical Property Measurement Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol particles influence the global radiative balance with their optical properties, i.e., the ability of scattering and/or absorbing the incoming solar radiation (aerosol direct effect). Because this ability depends on aerosol characteristics such as composition, size distribution and mixing state, it is critical to link aerosol optical,physical and chemical properties to emissions for better assessing the regional and global impact of different aerosol types. During 2006, NOAA ERSL/CSD performed a series of laboratory based comparison studies to address the performance, uncertainties, and biases of both existing and newly developed instruments to measure aerosol optical properties. These investigations included measurements of extinction using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRD-AES),scattering by a TSI nephelometer, and absorption by a Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) and a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). In this work we compare the optical properties derived for several aerosol types and mixtures by using various combinations of CRD-AES, nephelometer, and PSAP measurements. Our results indicate that such properties significantly depend on composition and mixing state of aerosols. We complete the study with top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing estimates and we compare the newly obtained values with what has been reported in past calculations.

Massoli, P.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Ravishankara, A.; Lovejoy, E.

2006-12-01

98

9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

99

Techniques to obtain orbital debris encounter speeds in the laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes in hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences such as orbital-debris impact on a debris shield. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be dominated by phase changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled, repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas guns. In this paper, techniques used to extend the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s are described. It is anticipated that this technology will be useful in testing, evaluating, and design of various debris shields proposed for many different spacecrafts.

Chhabildas, L.C.

1996-06-01

100

Revitalizing pathology laboratories in a gastrointestinal pathophysiology course using multimedia and team-based learning techniques.  

PubMed

In 2008, we changed the gastrointestinal pathology laboratories in a gastrointestinal pathophysiology course to a more interactive format using modified team-based learning techniques and multimedia presentations. The results were remarkably positive and can be used as a model for pathology laboratory improvement in any organ system. Over a two-year period, engaging and interactive pathology laboratories were designed. The initial restructuring of the laboratories included new case material, Digital Atlas of Video Education Project videos, animations and overlays. Subsequent changes included USMLE board-style quizzes at the beginning of each laboratory, with individual readiness assessment testing and group readiness assessment testing, incorporation of a clinician as a co-teacher and role playing for the student groups. Student responses for pathology laboratory contribution to learning improved significantly compared to baseline. Increased voluntary attendance at pathology laboratories was observed. Spontaneous student comments noted the positive impact of the laboratories on their learning. Pathology laboratory innovations, including modified team-based learning techniques with individual and group self-assessment quizzes, multimedia presentations, and paired teaching by a pathologist and clinical gastroenterologist led to improvement in student perceptions of pathology laboratory contributions to their learning and better pathology faculty evaluations. These changes can be universally applied to other pathology laboratories to improve student satisfaction. PMID:22464153

Carbo, Alexander R; Blanco, Paola G; Graeme-Cooke, Fiona; Misdraji, Joseph; Kappler, Steven; Shaffer, Kitt; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Berzin, Tyler; Leffler, Daniel; Najarian, Robert; Sepe, Paul; Kaplan, Jennifer; Pitman, Martha; Goldman, Harvey; Pelletier, Stephen; Hayward, Jane N; Shields, Helen M

2012-05-15

101

Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)

Saltinski, Ronald

1969-01-01

102

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

103

Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

104

Laboratory evaluation of NOx reduction techniques for refinery CO boilers. Final report, March-December 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formation in the boiler furnace, and (3) to evaluate combustion modification techniques to reduce the NOx emissions. The

H. B. Lange; J. K. Arand; M. N. Mansour; S. C. Hunter

1985-01-01

105

Laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections.  

PubMed Central

Yolk-sac inoculation of embryonated eggs was superseded 25 years ago by the use of cell cultures (often McCoy) for the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Centrifugation of specimens onto the cell monolayers was shown to increase sensitivity, but little of late has further improved sensitivity which is at least ten-fold greater than that of eggs. However, culture is slow and labour intensive so that non-cultural techniques without these drawbacks have come to dominate. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests are rapid and have sensitivities that range from 70% to 100% for men and 68% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 87% to 99% for men and 82% to 100% for women; if the tests are read by competent observers the values are at the top end of the ranges. The detection rate may be enhanced even further by relatively low-speed centrifugation of specimens before staining. Skilled reading is not a feature of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) which according to the literature have sensitivities that range from 62% to 97% for men and 64% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 92% to 100% for men and 89% to 100% for women. However, comparison against poor reference tests is responsible for most of the higher values and the clinician should not be misled into believing that EIAs have excellent sensitivity; the lower values in the ranges are closer to reality. Furthermore, EIAs that are being designed for use by general practitioners should be regarded with the greatest caution since lack of sensitivity means that chlamydia-positive patients will go undetected. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not bedevilled by insensitivity but it is no more sensitive than the most sensitive cell culture or DFA tests. PCR is unsuitable for routine diagnosis but has a place as a research tool. For men, examination of "first-catch" urine samples by the best of the non-cultural procedures provides an acceptable non-invasive approach to diagnosis; for women, the value of examining urine may be less, but needs to be thoroughly tested. However, there is little doubt that a Cytobrush used to obtain cervical specimens holds no practical advantage over a swab. Serological tests are reliant on the provision of paired sera for making a diagnosis; high antibody titres in single sera may be suggestive of an aetiological association in deep-seated chlamydial infections (epididymitis, arthritis, salpingitis, etc), but unequivocal interpretation is unusual, particularly in an individual case, since the distinction between a current and past infection is problematical.

Taylor-Robinson, D; Thomas, B J

1991-01-01

106

Mass rearing history and irradiation affect mating performance of the male fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua.  

PubMed

As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

2012-01-01

107

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

2010-01-01

108

Assessment of fracture-sampling techniques for laboratory tests on core  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the site characterization work to be done at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, a candidate site for the first mined-geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, laboratory tests are proposed to evaluate fluid flow in single fractures. Laboratory and onsite tests were conducted to develop methods for collecting rock-core samples containing single fractures for the subsequent laboratory tests. Techniques for collecting rock cores with axial (parallel to the core axis) and radial (perpendicular to the core axis) fractures are discussed.

Severson, G. R.; Boernge, J. M.

1991-01-01

109

Clinical evaluation of analytical variations in serum creatinine measurements: why laboratories should abandon Jaffe techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Non-equivalence in serum creatinine (SCr) measurements across Dutch laboratories and the consequences hereof on chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging were examined. Methods National data from the Dutch annual external quality organization of 2009 were used. 144 participating laboratories examined 11 pairs of commutable, value-assigned SCr specimens in the range 52–262 ?mol/L, using Jaffe or enzymatic techniques. Regression equations were created for each participating laboratory (by regressing values as measured by participating laboratories on the target values of the samples sent by the external quality organization); area under the curves were examined and used to rank laboratories. The 10th and 90th percentile regression equation were selected for each technique separately. To evaluate the impact of the variability in SCr measurements and its eventual clinical consequences in a real patient population, we used a cohort of 82424 patients aged 19–106 years. The SCr measurements of these 82424 patients were introduced in the 10th and 90th percentile regression equations. The newly calculated SCr values were used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the 4-variable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Differences in CKD staging were examined, comparing the stratification outcomes for Jaffe and enzymatic SCr techniques. Results Jaffe techniques overestimated SCr: 21%, 12%, 10% for SCr target values 52, 73 and 94 ?mol/L, respectively. For enzymatic assay these values were 0%, -1%, -2%, respectively. eGFR using the MDRD formula and SCr measured by Jaffe techniques, staged patients in a lower CKD category. Downgrading to a lower CKD stage occurred in 1-42%, 2-37% and 12–78.9% of patients for the 10th and 90th percentile laboratories respectively in CKD categories 45–60, 60–90 and >90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Using enzymatic techniques, downgrading occurred only in 2-4% of patients. Conclusions Enzymatic techniques lead to less variability in SCr measurements than Jaffe techniques, and therefore result in more accurate staging of CKD. Therefore the specific enzymatic techniques are preferably used in clinical practice in order to generate more reliable GFR estimates.

2012-01-01

110

THE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL REARING ENVIRONMENT IN THE DOMESTICATION OF THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL (MER\\/ONES UNGUICULATUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gerbils reared in tunnel systems responded to a visual stimulus by fleeing, foot-thumping and remaining concealed, whereas many gerbils reared in laboratory cages responded in the same situation by approaching the stimulus. The critical factor in tunnel-rearing was the opportunity to flee to shelter during maturation. Neither isolation from illumination nor isolation from stimuli associated with human handlers produced the

MERTICE M. CLARK; BENNETT G. GALEF

1977-01-01

111

Laboratory technique for predicting the scaling propensity of RO feed waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the further development of a novel laboratory technique for characterizing the scaling potential of RO feed waters. The work is focused on the CaCO3 scaling system, which is of general interest and is encountered in RO purification of Seine River water. Scaling intensity at various water recovery levels is characterized by measuring permeate flux decline and changes

Alexander Drak; Karl Glucina; Markus Busch; David Hasson; Jean-Michel Laîne; Raphael Semiat

2000-01-01

112

Repair of a fractured implant overdenture gold bar: A clinical and laboratory technique report  

PubMed Central

This clinical report explains a convenient, efficient, yet effective alternative for management of fractured substructure cast bars for implant-retained overdentures. The technique allows the fracture to be repaired at low cost and short time without remaking the substructure and the denture and further allowing the patient to keep their denture. The report sketches the clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the repair.

Vohra, Fahim; Al Fawaz, Amani

2013-01-01

113

SKI GLIDING TECHNIQUE ON A QUASI STATIC LABORATORY DEVICE ­ COMPARISON WITH THE SITUATION \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce possibilities for the enhancement of the gliding performance in alpine ski racing using a specific gliding device. This device is used in our laboratory for evaluating and adjusting ski equipment on the one hand, and to give specific feedback on the athletes gliding technique on the other hand. Two independent studies will

Josef Kroll; Gerhard Stricker; Klaus Mayrhofer; Hermann Schwameder; Erich Muller

2004-01-01

114

Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques

MacDonald, Gina

2008-01-01

115

An artificial diet for rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).  

PubMed

Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use secondary screwworms in our laboratory for preliminary experiments as a model for the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), which has been eradicated from the United States. C. macellaria larvae reared on animal tissues produced a putrid odor, an unfavorable condition in the laboratory, and variable pupal size and weight, bringing into question the validity of use as a model for C. hominivorax. Therefore, studies were conducted to develop a less odiferous artificial diet with reduced variability in resulting pupae by comparing three diets: 1) an artificial diet prepared from spray-dried blood, spray-dried poultry egg, dry milk substitute, and solidified with a polyacrylate polymer gel; 2) a fresh blood-based diet prepared similarly, except fresh bovine blood was used in place of spray-dried blood; and 3) a beef liver diet. Data from seven life-history parameters of resulting insects were collected and analyzed. Larval and pupal weights of C. macellaria reared on both the dry and fresh blood-based diets were significantly higher than those reared on the liver diet. Numbers of pupae and percentage of adult emergence were also significantly higher from both dry blood and fresh blood-based diets than those reared on the liver diet. Female flies developing from larvae reared on dry and fresh blood-based diets laid significantly more eggs than females developing from larvae reared on the liver diet. Results show that C. macellaria larvae developed and grew normally in the dry and fresh blood-based diets, indicating that an artificial diet can effectively replace the liver diet commonly used for rearing C. macellaria. PMID:24020312

Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

2013-08-01

116

REAR OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING OPEN GRASSY REAR YARD. VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING OPEN GRASSY REAR YARD. VIEW FACING NORTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

117

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

118

Presentation of clinical laboratory results: an experimental comparison of four visualization techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate how clinical chemistry test results were assessed by volunteers when presented with four different visualization techniques. Materials and methods A total of 20 medical students reviewed quantitative test results from 4 patients using 4 different visualization techniques in a balanced, crossover experiment. The laboratory data represented relevant patient categories, including simple, emergency, chronic and complex patients. Participants answered questions about trend, overall levels and covariation of test results. Answers and assessment times were recorded and participants were interviewed on their preference of visualization technique. Results Assessment of results and the time used varied between visualization techniques. With sparklines and relative multigraphs participants made faster assessments. With relative multigraphs participants identified more covarying test results. With absolute multigraphs participants found more trends. With sparklines participants more often assessed laboratory results to be within reference ranges. Different visualization techniques were preferred for the four different patient categories. No participant preferred absolute multigraphs for any patient. Discussion Assessments of clinical chemistry test results were influenced by how they were presented. Importantly though, this association depended on the complexity of the result sets, and none of the visualization techniques appeared to be ideal in all settings. Conclusions Sparklines and relative multigraphs seem to be favorable techniques for presenting complex long-term clinical chemistry test results, while tables seem to suffice for simpler result sets.

Torsvik, Torbj?rn; Lillebo, B?rge; Mikkelsen, Gustav

2013-01-01

119

Rear axle designed in oriented FRP  

SciTech Connect

Using techniques of both synthesis and analysis, together with carefully defined goals, a team of investigators devised a major suspension member using oriented fiber reinforced plastic. A weight saving of 57% resulted for an innovative rear axle design estimate to increase cost about /1.20 per kilogram of weight saved. Only durability fell short of expectations, a factor which should improve with further refinements.

Not Available

1982-08-01

120

Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

We administered the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) to 217 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic reared-together adult twin pairs and 44 monozygotic and 27 dizygotic reared-apart adult twin pairs. A four-parameter biometric model (incorporating genetic, additive versus nonadditive, shared family-environment, and unshared environment components) and five reduced models were fitted through maximum-likelihood techniques to data obtained with the 11 primary MPQ scales

Alike Tellegen; David T. Lykken; Thomas J. Bouchard; Kimerly J. Wilcox; Nancy L. Segal; Stephen Rich

1988-01-01

121

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

122

STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research â Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in todayâs video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

Group, Janus R.

123

Ultimate ceramic veneer: a laboratory-guided preparation technique for minimally invasive laminate veneers.  

PubMed

Clinical success of ceramic laminate veneers depends on material selection, bonding procedures, controlled laboratory steps, and enamel preservation. Enamel preservation is the most critical because excessive tooth preparation can expose dentin reducing bond strength, which is a factor that can cause a decrease in long-term clinical success. The proposed technique based on carefully treatment planning developed between clinician and dental technician helps to maximize enamel preservation, which is an important element for clinical success. PMID:22856034

De Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Hirata, Ronaldo; Celestrino, Marcos; Seto, Marcio; Siqueira, Sérgio; Nahas, Rodrigo

2012-06-01

124

6. HOUSE REAR EXTERIOR SHOWING UTILITY PORCH AND REAR ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. HOUSE REAR EXTERIOR SHOWING UTILITY PORCH AND REAR ENTRANCE TO DINNING/KITCHEN AREA AT PHOTO CENTER. SMALL RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF HOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT CENTER BELOW SMALL, DOUBLEHUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOW IS THE HOT WATER HEATER CABINET. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

125

Relevance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed Central

Clinical laboratories are increasingly receiving requests to perform nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of a wide variety of infectious agents. In this paper, the efficiency of nucleic acid amplification techniques for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections is reviewed. In general, these techniques should be applied only for the detection of microorganisms for which available diagnostic techniques are markedly insensitive or nonexistent or when turnaround times for existing tests (e.g., viral culture) are much longer than those expected with amplification. This is the case for rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and hantaviruses causing a pulmonary syndrome, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii. For Legionella spp. and fungi, contamination originating from the environment is a limiting factor in interpretation of results, as is the difficulty in differentiating colonization and infection. Detection of these agents in urine or blood by amplification techniques remains to be evaluated. In the clinical setting, there is no need for molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. At present, amplification methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot replace the classical diagnostic techniques, due to their lack of sensitivity and the absence of specific internal controls for the detection of inhibitors of the reaction. Also, the results of interlaboratory comparisons are unsatisfactory. Furthermore, isolates are needed for susceptibility studies. Additional work remains to be done on sample preparation methods, comparison between different amplification methods, and analysis of results. The techniques can be useful for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis in particular circumstances, as well as the rapid detection of most rifampin-resistant isolates. The introduction of diagnostic amplification techniques into a clinical laboratory implies a level of proficiency for excluding false-positive and false-negative results.

Ieven, M; Goossens, H

1997-01-01

126

Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

Hofstra University (Hofstra University)

2012-01-06

127

A UK perspective on intensive hatchery rearing methods for Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of UK hatchery rearing techniques for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.), based on research findings and commercial practices. Operations from gamete collection through to weaning are covered, including reference to survival rates at each developmental phase. Areas of recent progress are discussed in relation to the remaining production bottlenecks and research requirements. Rearing techniques have been

Robin J Shields; Brendan Gara; Malcolm J. S Gillespie

1999-01-01

128

6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

129

5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

130

IET contextual view. facing south. rear of coupling station at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET contextual view. facing south. rear of coupling station at right of view. control building (TAN-620) to its left. exhaust stack and duct have been removed. INEEL negative no. HD-21-9-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

131

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

132

2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

133

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

134

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

135

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

136

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

137

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

138

Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

2013-12-01

139

A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

2012-01-01

140

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, S.G.; Olsen, G. H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

2000-01-01

141

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D. H.; Gee, G. F.; Hereford, S. G.; Olsen, G. H.; Chisolm, T. D.; Nicolich, J. M.; Sullivan, K. A.; Thomas, N. J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J. S.

2000-01-01

142

The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti).  

PubMed

The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research. PMID:24754030

Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

143

The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti)  

PubMed Central

The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research.

Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

144

Laboratory demonstration model: Active cleaning technique device. [for removal of contaminants from an optical surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.

Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

1974-01-01

145

A laboratory and field evaluation of a technique for hydraulic fracturing stimulation of deep wells  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, over 1,000 new wells were drilled below 15,000 feet. Although bottom hole temperatures in these wells vary widely, all have a number of similar characteristics which make hydraulic fracturing treatments very difficult. The high treating pressures encountered necessitate the use of fluids with minimal pumping friction pressures. The high closure pressures often require the use of high strength proppants which are more difficult to transport than sand. Low formation permeabilities dictate the need for long propped fractures to achieve the desired production increase and thus long term fluid stability is required. To minimize contraction in long tubing strings, treating fluids often must be preheated (100-140/sup 0/F). The high initial fluid temperatures can alter fluid properties downhole. The expected effective viscosity of treating fluids as a function of time and temperature is of key importance to the design of stimulation treatments for these wells. In most cases, crosslinked gels are the fluid of choice for stimulation treatments, and most crosslinked fluids are shear history dependent, therefore possessing no unique rheological characteristics. A laboratory method has been developed to more concisely evaluate the role of the above parameters and data is presented demonstrating the magnitude of the effects on the time-temperature stability of the crosslinked fluid. Results from both a laboratory and field evaluation of various techniques are discussed.

Conway, M.W.; Harris, L.E.

1982-09-01

146

Heavy Truck Rear Underride Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) has initiated a program to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a rear guard design. VRTC developed a rigid static test device and successfully fabricated a minimally compliant guard design. A number of add...

J. C. Elias M. W. Monk

1993-01-01

147

SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

148

A laboratory comparison of chemical volcanic gas sampling techniques using an artificial fumarole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic gases play a critical role in nearly all volcanic processes. A number of chemical and spectroscopic techniques have been developed in recent decades to measure volcanic gas output. Giggenbach bottles, alkaline traps, filter packs, and venturi samplers are examples of chemical gas sampling techniques involving the reaction of acidic gas with an alkaline solution or a solid hydroxide salt on a filter. Aside from Giggenbach bottles all of these methods are disequilibrium techniques relying on the assumption that the kinetics of gas reaction are identical for all species. Given that equilibrium species solubilities differ, there is reason to suspect this assumption. While these chemical sampling methods have been used extensively in the field, we are aware of no direct calibration in a lab setting. To address this problem we have built an artificial fumarole in the laboratory for quantitative comparison and evaluation of gas sampling techniques. The fumarole consists of a metered mixture of H2 CO2 SO2, CO gas combined in a high-temperature mixing chamber with an aqueous solution of HCl and HF. The resulting equilibrium high-temperature gas is sampled at the furnace exit. Several gas mixtures were considered representing a range of compositions encountered at natural fumaroles. Results of analysis are compared with equilibrium gas concentrations calculated from the input gas composition and furnace temperature. We compared Giggenbach bottles, a variety of filter-pack chemistries, and passive alkaline trap samplers. In addition, we tested a venturi sampler of our own design; optimized for ruggedness, ease of field use, reliability and sampling efficiency. Each sample was analyzed by ion chromatography both before and after oxidation with H2O2 for fluoride, chloride, and several sulfur species. While reduced sulfur is not easily analyzed by IC, it can be determined from the difference in concentrations between total S in the oxidized samples and the other sulfur species in the non-oxidized samples. Preliminary results show that the alkaline trap is the least accurate method, while the remaining techniques show varying degrees of success. Our redesigned venturi sampler works particularly well and promises to be a very successful field instrument.

Mioduszewski, L.; Kress, V.

2006-12-01

149

A laboratory course for teaching laboratory techniques, experimental design, statistical analysis, and peer review process to undergraduate science students.  

PubMed

This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and written discussion of results. The laboratory practices were a guided inquiry based around retinol's ability to potentiate acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. To induce critical thinking, students were given a choice as to which assay they could use to determine how retinol affected acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Short summaries were handed in following each assay and formed the bases of the formative assessment. To complete the feedback loop, a summative assessment that consisted of all the graphs and concepts from the short summaries were combined into a manuscript. To give the students exposure to science communication, the manuscript had to be written in accordance to the submission guidelines for Toxicological Sciences. Evaluation of this course was determined by a student questionnaire using a Likert scale and students' responses were very favorable. While the subject matter was toxicological centric, the content could be easily modified to suit another subject matter in biochemistry and molecular biology. PMID:23166024

Gliddon, C M; J Rosengren, R

2012-01-01

150

Integrating Novel Field, Laboratory and Modelling Techniques to Upscale Estimates of Soil Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion is a particle-based phenomenon, yet most of current understanding and modelling of this process is based on bulk measurements rather than the movement of individual particles. Difficulties with measuring particle motions in dynamically changing conditions are being overcome with the application of two new technologies - particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and radio frequency identification (RFID). It is thus possible to evaluate the entrainment, transport and deposition of individual particles and these data can be used to parameterize and to test particle-based modelling of the particle-based process. Both PIV and RFID tagging have been used in laboratory experiments to evaluate the detachment process by raindrops on bare surfaces and in shallow flows using rainfall simulation. The results suggest that the processes are more complex than hitherto thought with multiple detachment and transfer mechanisms. Because both mechanisms affect travel distance, they affect the ways in which estimates of soil erosion can be scaled from plot to hillslope and catchment scales. To evaluate movements at larger scales, we have also used RFID-tagged particles in field settings to look at sediment transfers following the Fukushima accident in Japan, 2011. A marker-in-cell model (MAHLERAN-MiC) has been developed to enable the laboratory results to be upscaled and tested in a field setting. Markers (representing sediment particles), containing sediment-property information, are initially distributed on a cellular grid. A cellular model is used to set up the boundary conditions and determine the hydrology and hydraulics on the hillslope. The markers are then moved through the grid according to these properties. This technique combines the advantages of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods while avoiding the shortcomings of each (computational efficiency vs. accuracy). The model simulates all the processes of detachment and transport; raindrop detachment and transport, interrill erosion, concentrated erosion (bedload transport) and suspended sediment transport. We demonstrate how distributions of travel distances change as spatial and temporal scales of application change, and thereby how the laboratory and field experiments can be best used to develop more robust approaches to the upscaling of estimates of erosion rates.

Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony; Cooper, James; Long, Edward; Hargrave, Graham; Kitchener, Ben; Hewett, Caspar; Onda, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Obana, Eiichiro; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Takehiro

2013-04-01

151

Rear View of Opportunity's Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This animation shows the rear view from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it drives north away from the lander and towards the eastern edge of the rock outcropping near its landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The movie strings together images taken over the past six martian days, or sols, of its journey, beginning with a 1 meter (3 feet) stroll away from the lander on sol 7. On the 12th sol, Opportunity drove another 3 1/2 meters (11 feet), and then, one sol later, another 1 1/2 meters (5 feet). On its way, the rover twisted and turned in a test of its driving capabilities. This movie is made-up of fish-eye images taken by the rover's rear hazard-identification camera.

2004-01-01

152

Clinical laboratory comparison of lysis-centrifugation and BACTEC radiometric blood culture techniques.  

PubMed

The lysis-centrifugation technique (ISOLATOR; E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del.) and the radiometric blood culture technique (BACTEC; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Cockeysville, Md.) were compared on 1,000 blood cultures. A total of 16 ml of blood was distributed: 8 ml into an ISOLATOR 7.5 microbial tube and 4 ml each into BACTEC 7C and 8B bottles. The concentrate from the ISOLATOR tubes was inoculated under a laminar-flow hood onto two sheep blood agar plates (one incubated in CO2 and one incubated anaerobically), one chocolate agar plate, and one brain heart infusion agar plate. Of 91 blood specimens obtained that yielded clinically significant organisms, 52 were positive by both systems, 27 were positive by the ISOLATOR system only, and 12 were positive by the BACTEC system only. From the positive blood specimens, 97 clinically significant organisms were isolated: 57 by both systems, 27 by the ISOLATOR system only, and 13 by the BACTEC system only. Of the 57 organisms detected by both systems, 28 were detected simultaneously, 13 were detected earlier by the ISOLATOR system, and 16 were detected earlier by the BACTEC system. Isolated colonies were obtained earlier by the ISOLATOR system in 40 cases and by the BACTEC system in 5 cases. Organisms determined to be contaminants by thorough chart review were isolated from 138 ISOLATOR tubes. In 98 instances, these were represented by one colony of Staphylococcus epidermidis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, or diphtheroids. The ability to determine CFU per milliliter with the ISOLATOR system did not help differentiate clinically significant organisms from contaminants. PMID:6358246

McLaughlin, J C; Hamilton, P; Scholes, J V; Bartlett, R C

1983-11-01

153

Clinical laboratory comparison of lysis-centrifugation and BACTEC radiometric blood culture techniques.  

PubMed Central

The lysis-centrifugation technique (ISOLATOR; E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del.) and the radiometric blood culture technique (BACTEC; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Cockeysville, Md.) were compared on 1,000 blood cultures. A total of 16 ml of blood was distributed: 8 ml into an ISOLATOR 7.5 microbial tube and 4 ml each into BACTEC 7C and 8B bottles. The concentrate from the ISOLATOR tubes was inoculated under a laminar-flow hood onto two sheep blood agar plates (one incubated in CO2 and one incubated anaerobically), one chocolate agar plate, and one brain heart infusion agar plate. Of 91 blood specimens obtained that yielded clinically significant organisms, 52 were positive by both systems, 27 were positive by the ISOLATOR system only, and 12 were positive by the BACTEC system only. From the positive blood specimens, 97 clinically significant organisms were isolated: 57 by both systems, 27 by the ISOLATOR system only, and 13 by the BACTEC system only. Of the 57 organisms detected by both systems, 28 were detected simultaneously, 13 were detected earlier by the ISOLATOR system, and 16 were detected earlier by the BACTEC system. Isolated colonies were obtained earlier by the ISOLATOR system in 40 cases and by the BACTEC system in 5 cases. Organisms determined to be contaminants by thorough chart review were isolated from 138 ISOLATOR tubes. In 98 instances, these were represented by one colony of Staphylococcus epidermidis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, or diphtheroids. The ability to determine CFU per milliliter with the ISOLATOR system did not help differentiate clinically significant organisms from contaminants.

McLaughlin, J C; Hamilton, P; Scholes, J V; Bartlett, R C

1983-01-01

154

Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease. PMID:24569613

Cai, H Y; Caswell, J L; Prescott, J F

2014-03-01

155

ESRF metrology laboratory: overview of instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESRF has initiated an ambitious ten-year upgrade program involving the construction of eight new beamlines and significant refurbishment of existing instruments. The availability of high-precision X-ray optical elements will be a key factor in ensuring the successful implementation of these beamline projects. Particular challenges are to ensure the necessary optical quality for X-ray beam coherence preservation and high numerical-aperture high focusing systems. Surface optical metrology is a key tool, not only for the quality control, but also in improving the manufacturing processes of such components. Amongst the most demanding tasks is the characterisation of the surface topography of highly aspheric surfaces for reflective nanofocusing technologies which typically require measurement of shape errors in the nm range. In order to satisfy these new demands, the ESRF metrology laboratory has recently been equipped with two new instruments: a Fizeau interferometer and a micro-interferometer. In parallel the long trace profiler has been continuously developed to increase both stability and accuracy. In this paper we will present the new instrumentation and associated techniques like micro-stitching interferometry used to measure typical high quality X-ray mirrors. We will also focus on the parameters that can affect repeatability and accuracy of the radius of curvature assessment of flat optical surfaces, in particular when measuring with the long trace profiler. Finally an example of the power spectral density function based on our instrument measurements of a typical high quality x-ray mirror will be shown.

Rommeveaux, Amparo Vivo; Lantelme, Benjamin; Barrett, Raymond

2010-08-01

156

Establishment of a primary reference solar cell calibration technique in Korea: methods, results and comparison with WPVS qualified laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary reference solar cell calibration technique recently established at the Korea Institute of Energy Research in Korea is introduced. This calibration technique is an indoor method that uses a highly collimated continuous-type solar simulator and absolute cavity radiometer traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. The results obtained using this calibration technique are shown with a precise uncertainty analysis, and the system configuration and calibration procedures are introduced. The calibration technique avoids overestimating the short-circuit current of a reference solar cell due to multiple reflections of incident simulator light using a novel method. In addition, the uncertainty analysis indicates that the calibration technique has an expanded uncertainty of approximately 0.7% with a coverage factor of k = 2 for a c-Si reference cell calibration. In addition, the developed primary reference solar cell calibration technique was compared with other techniques established in the World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) qualified calibration laboratories to verify its validity and reliability.

Ahn, SeungKyu; Ahn, SeJin; Yun, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Winter, Stefan; Igari, Sanekazu; Yoon, KyungHoon

2014-06-01

157

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon. Annual Report 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs wer...

D. A. Venditti C. Willard C. Looney P. Sline

2002-01-01

158

Residual stress analysis in Co-based laser clad layers by laboratory X-rays and synchrotron diffraction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick Co-based coatings were prepared by laser cladding technique on C45 steel substrates with different geometries. Microstructural observations were realized using optical, scanning electron and orientation imaging microscopy. The residual strain state on the surface of a clad layer was determined by the sin2?-technique using laboratory X-rays. The diffraction of synchrotron radiation in ?-2? was used to acquire information from

U. de Oliveira; M. De Hosson

159

Rear Side Passivated Monocrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells with Laser Fired Contact Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) thin film solar cells based on transfer technique are promising for reduction of silicon material consumption and cost. In this paper, we present the rear passivated type 15-mum-thick c-Si thin film solar cells using the laser fired contact (LFC). After separation, the rear side process using transfer technique is maintained at below 200 °C. We applied NH3

Yu Takahashi; Kenji Hirata; Akiyoshi Ogane; Yukiharu Uraoka; Takashi Fuyuki

2008-01-01

160

Host adaptation of a gregarious parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi in artificial rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptations of a parasitoid, Sclerodermus harmandi (Buysson 1903) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) to a target host, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were investigated in laboratory colonies. We quantified the physiological and behavioral\\u000a flexibility of the parasitoid reared on M. alternatus compared to the parasitoid reared on a common host, Saperda populnea (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Adult performance (fecundity and pre-oviposition period) and offspring physiological

Li LiWei; Wei Wei; Zhudong Liu; Jianghua Sun

2010-01-01

161

Competitive Differences between Newly Emerged Offspring of Captive-Reared and Wild Coho Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated competition among newly emerged fry from captive-reared and wild female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch by conducting dominance challenges and growth and survival experiments in laboratory stream channels. Newly emerged fry from captive-reared females won a significant majority (72.7%) of dyadic dominance challenges against fry from wild females. In a growth and survival experiment conducted from emergence to 30

Barry A. Berejikian; E. Paul Tezak; Steven L. Schroder; Thomas A. Flagg; Curtis M. Knudsen

1999-01-01

162

Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region analysis in a laboratory plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory plasma is utilized to assess the effectiveness of several prominent spacecraft data analysis techniques. These include minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and various boundary-crossing time analyses (BCTA) such as the constant velocity approach (CVA), constant thickness approach (CTA), and minimum thickness variance (MTV). Magnetic field data from measurement points that resemble the formation of multispacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check MVAB and BCTA to deduce a proper normal vector. Results from each method are compared to the values measured by 2-D magnetic probe arrays. We examine discharges with a two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but ions are not. We conclude that CVA with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vectorn^, relative velocity along the normal vector Vn, and current sheet thickness ?CS for all of the tested cases. Unlike CVA, both CTA and MTV sometimes generate Vn and ?CS that are different from the measured values, which indicates that CTA and MTV are sensitive to changes in the current sheet thickness. CTA is, however, successful at estimating n^. MVAB, on the other hand, often fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the reconnecting neutral sheet fundamentally contains 2-D or 3-D structures. MVAB, however, does determine the direction along the reconnecting magnetic field that is close to the real magnetic geometry. Based on these observations, we suggest a hybrid procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from four spacecraft passing through a reconnecting current sheet.

Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki

2012-12-01

163

Assessing the environmental impact of pesticides - a sequential modelling technique to interpret and extrapolate laboratory and field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the environmental impact of a pesticide requires consideration of a complex series of experimental results, the use pattern of the compound, and a large number of parameters which may vary spatially and temporally across the landscape. A sequential modelling technique is described which uses detailed modelling to interpret field and laboratory data. Important environmental processes are investigated under

C. D. Brown; J. M. Hollis

164

Clay identification and amount measured by laboratory techniques compared to well log responses: Application to tight gas sands and shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and amount of clay in tight sands and shales calculated by downhole log interpretation techniques have been compared with those measured by a variety of analytical laboratory methods. The US DOE's Multiwell Experiment in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado has provided a wide selection of core and extensive logging data from the Mesaverde Formation. The samples were analyzed for

D. M. Heinze

1985-01-01

165

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NO(SUB X) REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formatio...

166

Laboratory instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi-junction solar cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-junction solar cells are attractive for space applications because they can be designed to convert a larger fraction of AMO into electrical power at a lower cost than single-junction cells. The performance of multi-junction cells is much more sensitive to the spectral irradiance of the illuminating source than single-junction cells. The design of high efficiency multi-junction cells for space applications requires matching the optoelectronic properties of the junctions to AMO spectral irradiance. Unlike single-junction cells, it is not possible to carry out quantum efficiency measurements using only a monochromatic probe beam and determining the cell short-circuit current assuming linearity of the quantum efficiency. Additionally, current-voltage characteristics can not be calculated from measurements under non-AMO light sources using spectral-correction methods. There are reports in the literature on characterizing the performance of multi junction cells by measuring and convoluting the quantum efficiency of each junction with the spectral irradiance; the technique is of limited value for the characterization of cell performance under AMO power-generating conditions. We report the results of research to develop instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi junction solar cells for space . An integrated system is described which consists of a standard lamp, spectral radiometer, dual-source solar simulator, and personal computer based current-voltage and quantum efficiency equipment. The spectral radiometer is calibrated regularly using the tungsten-halogen standard lamp which has a calibration based on NIST scales. The solar simulator produces the light bias beam for current-voltage and cell quantum efficiency measurements. The calibrated spectral radiometer is used to 'fit' the spectral irradiance of the dual-source solar simulator to WRL AMO data. The quantum efficiency apparatus includes a monochromatic probe beam for measuring the absolute cell quantum efficiency at various voltage biases, including the voltage bias corresponding to the maximum-power point under AMO light bias. The details of the procedures to 'fit' the spectral irradiance to AMO will be discussed. An assessment of the role of the accuracy of the 'fit' of the spectral irradiance and probe beam intensity on measured cell characteristics will be presented. quantum efficiencies were measured with both spectral light bias and AMO light bias; the measurements show striking differences. Spectral irradiances were convoluted with cell quantum efficiencies to calculate cell currents as function of voltage. The calculated currents compare with measured currents at the 1% level. Measurements on a variety of multi-junction cells will be presented. The dependence of defects in junctions on cell quantum efficiencies measured under light and voltage bias conditions will be presented. Comments will be made on issues related to standards for calibration, and limitations of the instrumentation and techniques. Expeditious development of multi-junction solar cell technology for space presents challenges for cell characterization in the laboratory.

Woodyard, James R.

1995-01-01

167

In vitro rearing of the screwworm fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica.  

PubMed

Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) is the main agent of traumatic myiasis in many European, African and Asian countries. Although it can be reared in vivo without technical difficulty, such rearing presents ethical problems. Studies were therefore made of in vitro rearing to facilitate development of laboratory colonies that could be used in a wide range of biological, physiological and applied studies of W. magnifica, particularly in the long period of the year when natural populations of the fly are unavailable for study. Parental colonies of W. magnifica were established from larvae collected from natural infestations of sheep and cattle in central Hungary. First stage larvae were harvested from gravid females and were reared in groups of 5-20 on one of six artificial diets. The diets were based on various combinations of five to seven of eight ingredients: water, agar, blood (heparinized or dried), ground meat, egg yolk, low-fat milk powder, yeast and 10% formol. The larvae were incubated on the diets at 37 degrees C. There was no mortality of first stage larvae, which appeared to feed together in foci, in a natural manner. However, during the second stage, and especially after renewal of diet associated with disturbance of the larvae, many larvae began to disperse, crawling over the surface of the media and feeding less intensively. Mortality of larvae during all larval stadia was 64-98%, compared to 33% in batches of third stage larvae collected from natural infestations. The mean weights of puparia from artificial diets ranged from 38.7 to 59.3 mg, compared to 92.2 mg of puparia from larvae collected from natural infestations. There was a high mortality in the pupal stage, from 61 to 100%. Only a maximum of 6% of first stage larvae were successfully reared to the adult stage. Further studies are needed to identify factors present or absent in the diets that contributed to the present poor development of W. magnifica in vitro. PMID:15752173

Farkas, R; Hell, E; Hall, M J R; Gyurkovszky, M

2005-03-01

168

Studies on Aedes albopictus larval mass-rearing optimization.  

PubMed

To set up a sterile male technique program to control Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in areas in northern Italy, a pilot mass-rearing facility is under development. For this purpose, experiments were carried out to find the optimal larval density for the optimization of the rearing parameters, i.e., to obtain the fastest larval development, the highest larval and pupal survival rate, and large-sized pupae. Several different larval densities, from 40 to 2874 larvae per liter, were tested. For densities from 40 to 600 larvae per liter significant size differences were found among pupae obtained under different larval densities. The larvae raised at the lowest density tended to be smaller and to develop most slowly, i.e., longer pupation time. Also, increasing water volume and depth seemed to negatively affect the pupation success. Compared with the other larval densities tested, the larvae reared at a density of 2874 larvae per liter developed slightly faster and showed higher survival rates, indicating this density as appropriate for the development of a mass rearing, at least using the current larval diet. PMID:21404867

Medici, Anna; Carrieri, Marco; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Maccagnani, Bettina; Dindo, Maria Luisa; Bellini, Romeo

2011-02-01

169

Clay identification and amount measured by laboratory techniques compared to well log responses: Application to tight gas sands and shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification and amount of clay in tight sands and shales calculated by downhole log interpretation techniques have been compared with those measured by a variety of analytical laboratory methods. The US DOE's Multiwell Experiment in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado has provided a wide selection of core and extensive logging data from the Mesaverde Formation. The samples were analyzed for clay content in the laboratory using all of the following methods: optical petrography, X-ray diffraction, bulk chemical, acetate method for cation exchange capacity, sedigraph, pipet, and centrifuge. Potassium, uranium, and thorium (KUT) concentrations were determined utilizing the following techniques: X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, neutron activation, gamma spectroscopy and alpha spectrometry. This multiple technique approach was used in order to corroborate laboratory data. The results clearly show that relying on one or two methods can result in significant error. Laboratory data point out that this small sampling of log-defined good sands and shales actually represents a variety of lithologies and compositions.

Heinze, D. M.

1985-03-01

170

Rearing larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel on media containing banana or rice bran.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials available in Thailand were substituted for some of those in the standard medium currently used in rearing larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of this study is to ...

R. Poramarcom S. Mitchell

1983-01-01

171

Overdenture Technique, An, Pt 3, Laboratory Procedures, Denture Insertion and Oral Hygiene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstrates technical variations which are utilized in adapting the usual laboratory procedures for the fabrication of an overdenture. Also, the use of pressure indicator paste is shown to obtain equalized contacts at the time of delivery. Explains oral ...

1994-01-01

172

Identification of Laboratory Techniques to Optimize Superpave HMA Surface Friction Characteristics. Phase I: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an investigation into various options for polishing, testing and analyzing pavement surface frictional properties in the laboratory. Devices were sought that could assess the effects of both microtexture and macrotexture of hot mix ...

B. J. Coree R. S. McDaniel

2003-01-01

173

Technical Notes: Improved Survival of Walleye Fry during the First 30 Days of Intensive Rearing on Brine Shrimp and Zooplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two techniques are described that increased the survival of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) when fry were reared intensively on brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) and other zooplankton. Darkening the sides of rearing units and manipulating light intensity improved 30-d survival from approximately 7.5% in 1982–1983 to 37% in 1986 and 54% in 1987.

Richard T. Colesante

1989-01-01

174

Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book contains greatly elaborated and revised versions of 36 papers presented at a conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Insect Rearing Group in March 1980. These papers deal comprehensively with the genetics of reared ins...

E. G. King N. C. Leppla

1984-01-01

175

Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

2007-01-01

176

Rear Steering Inoperative: Apollo 16 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inoperative condition of the rear steering system of the lunar roving vehicle (Apollo 16) during the initial drive to the modular equipment stowage assembly was investigated. The front and rear steering systems are described, and the failure analyzed. It is concluded that an open circuit must have occurred either in the hand controller potentiometer or between the potentiometer wiper and the summing node.

1973-01-01

177

Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

178

REAR SEATED OCCUPANT SAFETY IN FRONTAL IMPACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rear seating systems are still being used in military vehicles as well as in some civilian 4 Wheel Drive (4WD) vehicles. Very limited research work is available in regards to the safety of a rear facing seated occupants in a frontal impact crash. This paper describes a new energy absorbing rearward facing seating system which can be used in a

Roger Zou; Raphael Grzebieta

179

Characterization of pyrocarbon coated materials using laboratory based x-ray phase contrast imaging technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-line x-ray phase contrast is an emerging x-ray imaging technique that promises to improve the contrast in x-ray imaging process. This technique is most suited for x-ray imaging of soft materials, low atomic number elements such as carbon composite fibers, very thin coatings, etc. We have used this new emerging technique for visualization and characterization of the pyrocarbon coated materials

Y. S. Kashyap; Tushar Roy; P. S. Sarkar; P. S. Yadav; Mayank Shukla; Amar Sinha; K. Dasgupta; D. Sathiyamoorthy

2007-01-01

180

Clay identification and amount measured by laboratory techniques compared to well log responses: application to tight gas sands and shales  

SciTech Connect

Identification and amount of clay in tight sands and shales calculated by downhole log interpretation techniques have been compared with those measured by a variety of analytical laboratory methods. The US DOE's Multiwell Experiment in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado has provided a wide selection of core and extensive logging data from the Mesaverde Formation. The samples were analyzed for clay content in the laboratory using all of the following methods: optical petrography, x-ray diffraction, bulk chemical, acetate method for cation exchange capacity, sedigraph, pipet, and centrifuge. Potassium, uranium, and thorium (KUT) concentrations were determined utilizing the following techniques: x-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, neutron activation, gamma spectroscopy and alpha spectrometry. This multiple technique approach was used in order to corroborate laboratory data. The results clearly show that relying on one or two methods can result in significant error. Laboratory data point out that this small sampling of log-defined good sands and shales actually represents a variety of lithologies and compositions. Also, it is apparent that the log data and log-based interpretations of clay and KUT content in these samples are in significant disagreement with the laboratory-derived information. The KUT logs of the two service companies represented also yielded different clay types based on the Th/K ratios. The results put forth in this study point out some of the difficulties in accurately making the calibrations commonly used in interpreting the clay quantity of a given interval. Two apparently identical gamma ray responses may represent two fairly different mineral compositions or distributions. Core analysis is necessary in order to accurately apply logging interpretations in a formation of this type. 30 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

Heinze, D.M.

1985-03-01

181

Video image-based technique for measuring wave field evolution in a laboratory wave tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of numerical simulations based on theoretical models that describe the evolution of linear and\\/or nonlinear water-wave field are usually verified by carrying out comparison with corresponding experimental data. In most cases, the temporal variation of the instantaneous surface elevation is recorded in a laboratory wave tank using a number of fixed wave gauges placed at the prescribed locations within

B. Dorfman; L. Shemer

182

Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature is known to induce changes in mosquito physiology, development, ecology, and in some species, vector competence for arboviruses. Since colonized mosquitoes are reared under laboratory conditions that can be significantly different from their field counterparts, laboratory vector competence experiments may not accurately reflect natural vector-virus interactions. Methods We evaluated the effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development parameters and vector competence of two Culex tarsalis strains for West Nile virus (WNV). Results Rearing temperature had a significant effect on mosquito developmental parameters, including shorter time to pupation and emergence and smaller female body size as temperature increased. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days post infectious feeding were not consistently affected. Conclusions These results suggest that varying constant larval rearing temperature does not significantly affect laboratory estimates of vector competence for WNV in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes.

2012-01-01

183

Improved Performance in Qualitative Analysis from Incorporating Some Microscale Techniques into a Traditional Organic Laboratory Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three experiments which can be used to introduce microscale techniques. Highlights the benefits and advantages of having undergraduate students prepare and purify derivatives on the small scale. (ML)

Hammond, Christina Noring; Tremelling, Michael J.

1987-01-01

184

Characterization of pyrocarbon coated materials using laboratory based x-ray phase contrast imaging technique  

SciTech Connect

In-line x-ray phase contrast is an emerging x-ray imaging technique that promises to improve the contrast in x-ray imaging process. This technique is most suited for x-ray imaging of soft materials, low atomic number elements such as carbon composite fibers, very thin coatings, etc. We have used this new emerging technique for visualization and characterization of the pyrocarbon coated materials using a combination of microfocus x-ray source and x-ray charge coupled device detector. These studies are important for characterization of coating and optimization of various process parameters during deposition. These experiments will help us to exploit the potential of this technique for studies in other areas of material science such as characterization of carbon fibered structures and detection of cracks and flaws in materials. The characterization of the imaging system and optimization of some process parameters for carbon deposition are also described in detail.

Kashyap, Y. S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P. S.; Yadav, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar; Dasgupta, K.; Sathiyamoorthy, D. [Laser and Neutron Physics Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2007-08-15

185

Applying risk-based M&S VV&A techniques to test and laboratory facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) is exercising a risk-based process for verifying, validating and accrediting models and simulations (M&S) used in system acquisition. Test and laboratory facilities can potentially have even greater potential negative consequences to a program than M&S if there are errors present in the test and analysis results, since test results are usually considered closer to the "truth" than M&S results. This paper will discuss how the risk-based M&S verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) process is being applied to test and laboratory facilities, issues associated with this different application of the process, and thoughts on the broader applicability of risk-based VV&A beyond the current application.

Smith, Jeremy; Elele, James; Hall, David; Pedriani, Charles

2011-05-01

186

Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground--or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in Sa~o José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galva~O, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; Dos Santos Assença~O, José Adeildo; Dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

2011-11-01

187

The use of an acoustic technique to assess wood decay in laboratory soil-bed tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the changes in elastic behaviour (i.e. modulus of elasticity – MOE) and mass loss of different hardwood\\u000a and softwood species exposed to decay in laboratory soil-bed tests. Elasticity moduli were determined using conventional static\\u000a methods as well as a dynamic method based on flexural vibration. The results obtained show a high correlation between dynamic\\u000a and static bending

L. Machek; H. Militz; R. Sierra-Alvarez

2001-01-01

188

Use of borehole radar techniques to characterize fractured granitic bedrock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-hole radar reflection and cross-hole radar tomography surveys have been used to assist in characterizing a 105-m3 block of granite rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeast Manitoba, Canada. The surveys were conducted in a series of seven boreholes drilled in moderately fractured granite rock from the URL 240 meter level. The RAMAC borehole radar system with rated

M. H Serzu; E. T Kozak; G. S Lodha; R. A Everitt; D. R Woodcock

2004-01-01

189

Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

1975-01-01

190

GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

1997-01-01

191

The effects of rearing method on social behaviors of mentored, captive-reared juvenile California condors.  

PubMed

Puppet-reared and parent-reared captive-bred California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) juveniles were studied before their release into the wild. Behavioral data were collected during social interactions within two cohorts of juveniles (N = 11) and their adult mentors (N = 5). The purposes of this study were to (1) document the social behaviors of mentored juvenile California condors, and (2) compare social behaviors for two different rearing methods (puppet-reared versus parent-reared) during two phases of the mentoring process (San Diego Wild Animal Park versus release sites). Of the 17 behaviors examined by 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs), two significant interactions between the rearing method and mentoring phase were found: pulls feathers and feeds alone. For both behaviors, parent-reared condors engaged in these activities more often at the zoo and less often at the release pens than did the puppet-reared condors. The main effect of rearing was also significant for two behaviors: near others, and receives contact aggression from other. Parent-reared birds were more likely to be near another bird and receive contact aggression, regardless of mentoring phase, than puppet-reared birds. The effect size for 16 of the 17 behaviors was greater for the rearing method than for mentoring phase. Rearing method differences may persist long-term, as parent-reared adult mentors were significantly more aggressive than puppet-reared adult mentors. Dominance relations were examined for both cohorts, with the first cohort exhibiting a strong linear relationship (h' = 0.86, P = 0.018), whereas the second cohort exhibited a moderate but non-significant linear hierarchy (h' = 0.63, P = 0.21). The rearing method had no effect on dominance among the juveniles, but adults were probably dominant to juveniles (P = 0.052; the difference was nearly significant). Although social behaviors between the two rearing groups were similar in most respects, this study is the first to document measurable differences between puppet- and parent-reared captive-bred California condor juveniles. Zoo Biol 27:1-18, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360600

Utt, Amy C; Harvey, Nancy C; Hayes, William K; Carter, Ronald L

2008-01-01

192

Mass Rearing and Radiation Sterilization of Tsetse Flies. Part of a Coordinated Programme on Control and Eradication of Tsetse Flies by the Sterile Insect Technique. Final Report for the Period 1 November 1974 - 31 August 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were conducted with the tsetse flies Glossina palpalis palpalis, G.p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides to evaluate the practicality in Ghana of various laboratory and field procedures used to conduct a sterile insect release programme. Investigations...

E. Offori

1980-01-01

193

Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable up-scaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterize biogenic NO release from soil (i.e., net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterization can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e., where a maximum net NO release rate occurs) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterize net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing air-stream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10 values. It could be shown, that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and VOCs). First results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

2014-01-01

194

Characterisation of soil NO production and consumption by an improved laboratory technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable up-scaling. This study pre¬sents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterize biogenic NO release from soil (i.e., net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10-values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterization can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e., where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterize net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing air-stream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10-values. It could be shown, that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and VOCs). First results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, Thomas; Veres, Patrick; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Williams, Jonathan; Meixner, Franz

2014-05-01

195

Quantitative thermal emission spectroscopy of minerals: A laboratory technique for measurement and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous descriptions of thermal emission spectroscopy have presented techniques that vary in accuracy and reproducibility. Contributions of thermal energy from the instrument and environment are major calibration factors that limit accuracy in emissivity determination. Reproducibility is related to the stability of these quantities. Sample temperature determination is also a significant factor in arriving at accurate emissivity. All of the factors

Steven W. Ruff; Philip R. Christensen; Paul W. Barbera; Donald L. Anderson

1997-01-01

196

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

197

ADAPTING WOODY SPECIES AND PLANTING TECHNIQUES TO LANDFILL CONDITIONS, FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine which tree species can best maintain themselves in a landfill environment; to investigate the feasibility of preventing landfill gas from penetrating the root zone of selected species by using gas-barrier techniques; and to identify the (those)...

198

A laboratory system for the investigation of rain fade compensation techniques for Ka-band satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/20 GHz occurs due to the carrier wavelength approaching the water droplet size. Rain in the downlink path lowers the signal power present at the receiver, resulting in a higher number of bit errors induced in the digital ground terminal. The laboratory simulation performed at NASA Lewis Research Center uses a programmable PIN diode attenuator to simulate 20 GHz satellite downlink geographic rain fade profiles. A computer based network control system monitors the downlink power and informs the network of any power threshold violations, which then prompts the network to issue commands that temporarily increase the gain of the satellite based traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier. After the rain subsides, the network returns the TWT to the normal energy conserving power mode. Bit error rate (BER) data taken at the receiving ground terminal serves as a measure of the severity of rain degradation, and also evaluates the extent to which the network can improve the faded channel.

Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

1993-01-01

199

Development of a new laboratory technique for high-temperature thermal emission spectroscopy of silicate melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the prevalence of glass and molten silicates in volcanic environments, and the important role of surface emissivity in thermal infrared (TIR) measurements, it is imperative to characterize accurately the spectral features associated with silicate glasses and melts. A microfurnace has been developed specifically for use with a laboratory Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to collect the first in situ TIR emission spectra of actively melting and cooling silicate glasses. The construction, implementation, and calibration of the microfurnace spectrometer system are presented here. Initial testing of the microfurnace is also discussed, which includes acquisition of thermal emission spectra of a quartz powder (unmelted), a melted and cooled oligoclase feldspar, and glassy melt of rhyolitic composition. Unlike a solid material, which may only have bending and stretching vibrations within its molecular structure, a fully molten material will exhibit several more degrees of freedom in structural movement, thus changing its spectral character. Differences in spectral behavior and morphology are observed between a glass in a solid state and its molten counterpart, confirming previous field measurements of lower emissivity upon melting. This laboratory microfurnace system has been designed to quantify the TIR emission spectral behavior of glassy materials in various physical states. Ultimately, it is hoped that the microfurnace data will help improve the ability of field-based, airborne, and spaceborne TIR data to characterize glassy volcanic terranes.

Lee, Rachel J.; Ramsey, Michael S.; King, Penelope L.

2013-05-01

200

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01

201

Analysis and study of an automobile rear seat by FEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to carry out the design of an automobile rear seat and the simulation by finite element method (FEM) on its performance using different standard tests. The design is intended for the rear seats of a four-seat vehicle: two front seats and two rear seats. The rear seat set comprises the right and the left

P. J. García Nieto; J. A. Vilán Vilán; J. J. del Coz Díaz; José M. Matías

2009-01-01

202

Application of non-intrusive geophysical techniques at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessment and remediation of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The Mixed Waste Landfill is an inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. The landfill contains disposal pits and trenches of questionable location and dimension. Non-intrusive geophysical techniques were utilized to provide an effective means of determining the location and dimension of suspected waste disposal trenches before Resource Conservation and Recovery Act intrusive assessment activities were initiated. Geophysical instruments selected for this investigation included a Geonics EM-31 ground conductivity meter, the new Geonics EM-61 high precision, time-domain metal detector, and a Geometrics 856 total field magnetometer. The results of these non-intrusive geophysical techniques were evaluated to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of future waste-site investigations at Environmental Restoration Project sites.

Peace, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Project; Hyndman, D.A. [Sunbelt Geophysics, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goering, T.J. [Gram, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

203

Using Elearning techniques to support problem based learning within a clinical simulation laboratory.  

PubMed

This paper details the results of the first phase of a project that used eLearning to support students' learning within a simulated environment. The locus was a purpose built Clinical Simulation Laboratory (CSL) where the School's newly adopted philosophy of Problem Based Learning (PBL) was challenged through lecturers reverting to traditional teaching methods. The solution, a student-centred, problem-based approach to the acquisition of clinical skills was developed using learning objects embedded within web pages that substituted for lecturers providing instruction and demonstration. This allowed lecturers to retain their facilitator role, and encouraged students to explore, analyse and make decisions within the safety of a clinical simulation. Learning was enhanced through network communications and reflection on video performances of self and others. Evaluations were positive, students demonstrating increased satisfaction with PBL, improved performance in exams, and increased self-efficacy in the performance of nursing activities. These results indicate that an elearning approach can support PBL in delivering a student centred learning experience. PMID:15360935

Docherty, Charles; Hoy, Derek; Topp, Helena; Trinder, Kathryn

2004-01-01

204

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

205

Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en masa. (author)

Barnes, B. [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J. [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

2007-03-15

206

Laboratory Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Evaluation of Two Screening Agar Plates and Two Confirmation Techniques?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance.

Overdevest, I. T. M. A.; Willemsen, I.; Elberts, S.; Verhulst, C.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.

2011-01-01

207

Laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance. PMID:21123527

Overdevest, I T M A; Willemsen, I; Elberts, S; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W

2011-02-01

208

Development and population dynamics of Tisbe biminiensis (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) reared on different diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe biminiensis was reared under controlled laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on larval development and on population dynamics, three diets were tested: the microalgae Nitzschia closterium, Tetraselmis gracilis and a mixture of both algae. The life-cycle parameters were measured, and the demographic variables such as generation time, net reproductive rate, and exponential

Cristiane S. C Pinto; L??lia P Souza-Santos; Paulo Jorge P Santos

2001-01-01

209

Mass rearing of Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), a potential predator of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) has been recorded as a potential predator of various species of mealybug crop pests worldwide. We describe the mass rearing of S. epius, as no information on this topic is available. Outdoor nylon tent cages of different dimensions were provided to achieve mating and oviposition as S. epius adults did not mate in the laboratory cages.

Melally Giddegowda Venkatesha; Anegunda Shankar Dinesh

2011-01-01

210

Rearing veal calves with respect to animal welfare: effects of group housing and solid feed supplementation on growth performance and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate how rearing techniques that improve veal calf welfare affect growth performance and carcass and meat quality, by comparing both traditional rearing in individual stalls with group rearing in collective pens and exclusive milk feeding with maize grain supplementation. Eighty male calves were raised from 60 days-of-age (live weight 76.4±5.5 kg) until slaughter (at 182 and

G Xiccato; Angela Trocino; P. I Queaque; A Sartori; A Carazzolo

2002-01-01

211

Desiccation resistance of wild and mass-reared Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

In pest management programmes that incorporate the sterile insect technique (SIT), the ability of mass-reared insects to tolerate dry conditions may influence their survival after release in the field. In the present study, desiccation resistance of adult mass-reared Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that are routinely released in SIT programmes was compared with that of wild flies at 1, 10 and 20 days after adult eclosion. Under dry conditions without access to food or water, longevity of mass-reared B. tryoni was significantly less than that of their wild counterparts. Desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies declined monotonically with age, but this was not the case for wild flies. The sharp decline in desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies as they aged was likely explained by decreased dehydration tolerance. As in an earlier study, desiccation resistance of females was significantly lower than that of males but this was particularly pronounced in mass-reared females. Female susceptibility to dry conditions corresponded with declining dehydration tolerance with age and associated patterns of reproductive development, which suggests that water content of their oocyte load is not available for survival during periods of water stress. PMID:23866088

Weldon, C W; Yap, S; Taylor, P W

2013-12-01

212

Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ?  

PubMed Central

The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

Bare, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

2011-01-01

213

Laboratory Evaluation of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a New in situ Chemical Sensing Technique for the Deep Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) possesses many of the characteristics required for in situ chemical sensing, and is a promising technique for field measurements in extreme environments. In this work, laboratory experiments validate the LIBS te...

A. P. Michel

2007-01-01

214

Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.  

PubMed

Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could be "mapped" over ranges of the key parameters. Accident cases were compared with predictions to verify the methodology. PMID:15133988

Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

2004-01-01

215

PCR-based techniques for leprosy diagnosis: from the laboratory to the clinic.  

PubMed

In leprosy, classic diagnostic tools based on bacillary counts and histopathology have been facing hurdles, especially in distinguishing latent infection from active disease and diagnosing paucibacillary clinical forms. Serological tests and IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRA) that employ humoral and cellular immune parameters, respectively, are also being used, but recent results indicate that quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a key technique due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. In fact, advances concerning the structure and function of the Mycobacterium leprae genome led to the development of specific PCR-based gene amplification assays for leprosy diagnosis and monitoring of household contacts. Also, based on the validation of point-of-care technologies for M. tuberculosis DNA detection, it is clear that the same advantages of rapid DNA detection could be observed in respect to leprosy. So far, PCR has proven useful in the determination of transmission routes, M. leprae viability, and drug resistance in leprosy. However, PCR has been ascertained to be especially valuable in diagnosing difficult cases like pure neural leprosy (PNL), paucibacillary (PB), and patients with atypical clinical presentation and histopathological features compatible with leprosy. Also, the detection of M. leprae DNA in different samples of the household contacts of leprosy patients is very promising. Although a positive PCR result is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship with disease outcome, quantitation provided by qPCR is clearly capable of indicating increased risk of developing the disease and could alert clinicians to follow these contacts more closely or even define rules for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24722358

Martinez, Alejandra Nóbrega; Talhari, Carolina; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Talhari, Sinésio

2014-04-01

216

Experimental Evaluation of Multi-spacecraft Data Analysis Techniques in a Laboratory Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)[1] has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and boundary-crossing time analysis (BCTA). The neutral sheet is swept, or jogged, in a controlled manner with respect to the stationary probes by pulsed internal coil currents. Magnetic field data from measurement points resembling data from multi-spacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check both techniques to deduce a proper normal vector. We examine discharges with the two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but not ions. Boundary-crossing time analysis with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector and relative velocity along the normal vector for all of the tested cases. On the other hand, MVAB sometimes fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the X-line magnetic geometry is fundamentally 2-D or 3-D. However, the direction along the reconnecting field determined by MVAB does not deviate much from the real magnetic geometry documented by 2-D magnetic probe arrays and one additional probe at a different toroidal location. Based on these observations, we suggest a procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission when spacecraft passes through a reconnecting current sheet. The distance between measurement points on the order of the ion skin depth (c/{omega}{sub pi}) is pertinent to determination of the magnetic geometry.

Jongsoo Yoo and Masaaki Yamada

2012-03-27

217

Interlenticular opacification in piggyback AcrySof intraocular lenses: explantation technique and laboratory investigations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Interlenticular opacification (ILO) is a recognised complication of piggyback intraocular lenses (IOLs). The aetiology, histopathology, and treatment are not clearly defined, however.?METHODS—Two pairs of AcrySof IOLs were explanted from a patient with bilateral ILO. The explantation technique and surgical challenges of IOL exchanges are described. The explanted IOL complexes and a sample of the anterior capsule were examined by phase, polarising, and immunofluorescence microscopy.?RESULTS—A 50 year old man developed ILO bilaterally after piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation. A central contact zone was surrounded by a homogeneous paracentral opacity possibly consisting of extracellular matrix previously laid down by proliferating lens epithelial cells (LECs). These opacities were in turn surrounded by interlenticular Elschnig pearl-type opacities contiguous with the same material filling the periphery of the capsular bag. The IOL complexes were very adherent to the capsular bag and they had to be separated with the help of high viscosity viscoelastic before a single one piece PMMA IOL implantation via large limbal incisions. The sample of anterior capsule showed a ridge configuration from the piling of LECs in the site of apposition with the anterior capsule and cells showing different characteristics on either side of the ridge.?CONCLUSION—Cellular proliferation, deposition of ECM from proliferating LECs, and capsular changes induced by cell metaplasia may lead to ILO formation in piggyback AcrySof IOLs. Careful separation of the AcrySof IOL complex from the capsule, meticulous clean up of the proliferating material, and implantation of single or dual in the bag PMMA IOLs through a large incision with capsulorrhexis enlargement may help in the prevention of recurrence of interface opacification.??

Eleftheriadis, H.; Marcantonio, J.; Duncan, G.; Liu, C.

2001-01-01

218

Influence of Rearing Temperature and Feeding Regime on Otolith Increment Deposition in Larval Ciscoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi were reared in the laboratory from eggs collected in Lake Superior to validate the use of otolith microstructure for estimating age in days. Throughout a 75-d period, water temperatures in two laboratory streams were increased progressively (from 5.6°C to 7.0°C and from 6.1°C to 12.3°C), mimicking the range larvae would probably experience in Lake Superior. Otolith

Jason K. Oyadomari; Nancy N. Auer

2007-01-01

219

Hand-Rearing Reduces Fear of Humans in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level.

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2011-01-01

220

Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

2014-04-01

221

A three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in laboratory and space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. The shielding and exposure of space travelers is controlled by the transport properties of the radiation through the spacecraft, its onboard systems and the bodies of the individuals themselves. Meeting the challenge of future space programs will therefore require accurate and efficient methods for performing radiation transport calculations to analyze and predict shielding requirements. One such method, which is developed in this dissertation, is based on a three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in both laboratory and space.

Gerstner, Candice Rockell

222

The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi  

PubMed Central

Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory reared An. stephensi were tested. Results Parental rearing conditions did not influence the time taken for offspring to emerge, or their size or survival as adults. However, parental effects were influential in determining the fecundity of daughters. Counter-intuitively, daughters of parents reared in low food conditions produced larger egg clutches than daughters of parents reared in high food conditions. Offspring reared in low food conditions took larger blood meals if their parents had also experienced a low food environment. Conclusion So far as we are aware, this is the first evidence of parental effects on progeny in Anopheles.

Grech, Katrina; Maung, Liam Aye; Read, Andrew F

2007-01-01

223

Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B. H.; Hofmann, H. A.

2005-01-01

224

Development of the DGT technique for Hg measurement in water: comparison of three different types of samplers in laboratory assays.  

PubMed

The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique is an operationally defined method to determine the dissolved fraction of trace elements in water. The aim of this study was to develop this technique for the measurement of the bioavailable mercury species in natural waters. For that purpose, three types of DGT units (commercial, manufactured with agarose diffusive gel (DG) and manufactured with polyacrylamide DG) were tested under controlled conditions using an Hg(II) solution both with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). An acid digestion method using aqua regia was optimised to efficiently digest the resin gel discs prior to analysis. A good performance was obtained for the three DGT types when deployed in a DOM-free mercury solution in the laboratory, and it was demonstrated that polyacrylamide gel can be used as diffusive layer for mercury sampling. However, when the DGT units were deployed in a mercury solution containing DOM, performance differences were observed. Furthermore, the mass of background mercury (blanks) varied among the different DGT types. In the light of the results, the devices manufactured with polyacrylamide DG seemed to be the best choice for dissolved mercury determination. PMID:21925697

Fernández-Gómez, C; Dimock, B; Hintelmann, H; Díez, S

2011-11-01

225

REAR IMPACT TEST METHODOLOGIES: QUASISTATIC AND DYNAMIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a vehicle's seat back in rear impact accidents can significantly affect occupant kinematics and resulting injury potential. The only current United States (U.S.) government regulation addressing seat back strength is outlined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 207, Seating Systems (1). The test method outlined in this regulation is only partially predictive of seat performance in

Brian R. Herbst; Steven E. Meyer; Arin A. Oliver; Stephen M. Forrest

226

Studies of Identical Twins Reared Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a case report of four pairs of identical twins who were reared apart. These summaries and analyses of data were collected by Barbara Burks and found in her files after her death. There are often cryptic notations which were obviously intended to remind her of incidents or opinions which she would have remembered in analyzing the data. The impossibility

Barbara S. Burks; Anne Roe; Lewis M. Terman

1949-01-01

227

SYNTHESIS REPORT ON REARING ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since not all research on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB) can be conducted in China or at North American sites where it is being eradicated, the ability to mass rear the Asian longhorned beetle is critical to rapid progress on research necessary for exclusion, detection, and eradication of this serious pest. Large numbers of beetles in all life stages are needed

Melody A. Keena; Ann E. Hajek; Thomas L. M. Dubois; David R. Lance

228

7. East side and north rear of building, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. East side and north rear of building, view to southwest. Scale stick visible against one-story rear kitchen wing. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Big Sur Inn Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

229

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

230

Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

231

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

232

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

233

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

234

Effects of drying method and rearing temperature on broiler manure nutrient content  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no universally accepted method for preparing poultry manure samples prior to chemical analysis for nutrient content. Proper sample preparation and optimization of the techniques for manure chemical analyses are the keys to the determination of precise rates for land application to crops and pastures. This study was conducted to determine the effect of bird-rearing temperature (RT) and pre-analysis

K. R. Sistani; D. E. Rowe; D. M. Miles; J. D. May

2001-01-01

235

Fish Production in China. The Rearing of Fish Fry and Fingerlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The supply of fish fry and fingerlings is of primary concern to the fish culturing industry. In order to increase the supply, it is necessary to improve rearing techniques. The first of many parts to this program is to improve pond condition. It is recomm...

Y. F. Chang

1978-01-01

236

Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume IV, 1978-1983, Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead in 1978. From 1978--1985, over 4 million salmon and steelhead were marked and released and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and provide fishery managers with the

Emil Slatick; Lyle G. Gilbreath; Jerrel R. Harmon

1988-01-01

237

GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

238

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

239

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80 Transportation...Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck...shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

2010-10-01

240

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80 Transportation...Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck...shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

2013-10-01

241

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80 Transportation...Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck...shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side, firmly...

2009-10-01

242

Cost analysis for upgraded passenger car rear signal lighting requirements. Final report, December 1979-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

A production cost analysis was performed on four candidate vehicle rear signal lighting system upgrades. The systems studied were: (1) a high-mounted brake (stop) lamp only; (2) a deceleration signal only; (3) combination of high-mounted brake lamp and the deceleration signal; and a (4) mandatory yellow (amber) rear turn signal lamp. The specific performance levels for the systems were established and the necessary changes in vehicle hardware were determined. Two of each market size class of vehicles were selected for design studies and quarter-scale design layouts of the vehicle modifications were made. Using standard production cost estimating techniques, the consumer costs of each of the four upgraded systems were estimated. Assuming any upgraded rear lighting requirements to become effective on 1983 models, the effects of leadtime on the manufacturers is discussed. The effects on fuel operating and maintenance costs are considered.

McLean, R.F.; Wakeley, H.; Viergutz, O.J.

1980-03-01

243

Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Laboratory and zoo housed non-human primates sometimes exhibit abnormal behaviors that are thought to reflect reduced wellbeing. Previous research attempted to identify risk factors to aid in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors, and focused on demographic (e.g. sex or age) and experience-related (e.g. single housing or nursery rearing) factors. However, not all animals that display abnormal behavior possess these risk factors and some individuals that possess a risk factor do not show behavioral abnormalities. We hypothesized that other aspects of early experience and individual characteristics might identify animals that were more likely to display one specific abnormal behavior, motor stereotypy (MS). Using logistic regression we explored the influence of early rearing (involving four different types of rearing conditions), and variation in temperament, on likelihood of displaying MS while controlling for previously identified risk factors. Analyses indicated that having a greater proportion of life lived indoors, a greater proportion of life-indoors singly-housed, and a greater number of anesthesias and blood draws significantly increased the risk of displaying MS (P < 0.001). Rearing condition failed to independently predict the display of MS; however significant interactions indicated that single housing had a greater impact on risk for indoor-reared animals versus outdoor-reared animals, and for indoor mother-reared animals versus nursery-reared animals. There were no main effects of temperament, although interactions with rearing were evident: scoring high on Gentle or Nervous was a risk factor for indoor-reared animals but not outdoor-reared animals. The final model accounted for approximately 69.3 % of the variance in the display of MS, and correctly classified 90.6% of animals. These results indicate that previously identified risk factors may impact animals differently depending on the individual’s early rearing condition. These results are also the first in non-human primates to demonstrate that individual difference factors, like temperament, could be additional tools to identify animals at highest risk for motor stereotypy.

Vandeleest, Jessica J.; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John P.

2011-01-01

244

Evaluating High-Throughput Ab Initio Gene Finders to Discover Proteins Encoded in Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomes Missed by Laboratory Techniques  

PubMed Central

Next generation sequencing technology is advancing genome sequencing at an unprecedented level. By unravelling the code within a pathogen’s genome, every possible protein (prior to post-translational modifications) can theoretically be discovered, irrespective of life cycle stages and environmental stimuli. Now more than ever there is a great need for high-throughput ab initio gene finding. Ab initio gene finders use statistical models to predict genes and their exon-intron structures from the genome sequence alone. This paper evaluates whether existing ab initio gene finders can effectively predict genes to deduce proteins that have presently missed capture by laboratory techniques. An aim here is to identify possible patterns of prediction inaccuracies for gene finders as a whole irrespective of the target pathogen. All currently available ab initio gene finders are considered in the evaluation but only four fulfil high-throughput capability: AUGUSTUS, GeneMark_hmm, GlimmerHMM, and SNAP. These gene finders require training data specific to a target pathogen and consequently the evaluation results are inextricably linked to the availability and quality of the data. The pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, is used to illustrate the evaluation methods. The results support current opinion that predicted exons by ab initio gene finders are inaccurate in the absence of experimental evidence. However, the results reveal some patterns of inaccuracy that are common to all gene finders and these inaccuracies may provide a focus area for future gene finder developers.

Goodswen, Stephen J.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Ellis, John T.

2012-01-01

245

Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.  

PubMed

A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

2014-06-01

246

Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

2005-01-01

247

Mass-Rearing of the Tephritid Fruit Fly Parasitoid Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus (Fullaway)) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an egg-pupal parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies was successfully bred in captivity, resulting in the development of a laboratory-adapted strain. Subsequently, we developed a mass-rearing method that facilitated large scale production of F. arisanus for the first time. Over 13 months, nearly 10 million parasitoids were propagated on the oriental fruit

Renato C Bautista; Noboru Mochizuki; John P Spencer; Ernest J Harris; Dwayne M Ichimura

1999-01-01

248

Pair-rearing infant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) using a "rotating-peer" strategy.  

PubMed

Appropriate rearing conditions for captive primates are important for both research and breeding purposes. In an earlier study, pigtailed macaque infants that were pair-reared with a single continuous partner exhibited excessive social clinging and could not adapt to living in large social groups at 8-10 months of age. In the present study, eight macaques were pair-reared until they were 6 months old. Each member of an animal's four-monkey social group served as a home-cage partner. In an attempt to reduce excessive mutual clinging, the pairs were rotated every 2-3 days to increase the variability of social stimulation in the home cage. However, these infants developed abnormal social behaviors that were in some cases even more extreme than those exhibited by infants pair-reared with a single continuous partner. A second goal of this experiment was to study interlaboratory reliability for the development of social behavior. The animals were divided into two groups, one housed in a nursery and the other in a biological safety level 3 virus laboratory. Some differences were detected between the two groups, demonstrating the necessity of controls in biobehavioral developmental research. PMID:9050371

Novak, M F; Sackett, G P

1997-01-01

249

Combining impact sensor field and laboratory flume measurements with other techniques for studying fluvial bedload transport in steep mountain streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and rate of fluvial bedload transport are of central importance within sediment budget studies and in many applications in river science and engineering. During the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 detailed field measurements with portable impact sensors as a non-invasive technique for indirectly determining fluvial bedload transport intensity were conducted in two instrumented and supply-limited drainage basin systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in the fjord landscape in western Norway. Additional field measurements with portable impact sensors were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in selected transport-limited fluvial systems in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. The collected impact sensor field data were calibrated with laboratory flume experiments. The data from the impact sensor field measurements in western Norway and the flume experiments were combined with field data from continuous discharge monitoring, repeated surveys of channel morphometry and sediment texture, particle tracer measurements, Helley-Smith samplings, underwater video filming and biofilm analyses. The combination of methods and techniques applied provides insights into the temporal variability and intensity of fluvial bedload transport in the selected mountain streams: (i) in the transport-limited systems with generally high bedload transport rates during high discharge and with bedload material moving in clusters over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (based on a 1 s measuring interval) provide the opportunity to detect the start and end of bedload transport, thus to identify discharge thresholds for sediment entrainment, and to roughly estimate the intensity and relative intensity of change of bedload transport during the measuring period; (ii) in the supply-limited systems with low bedload transport rates and bedload components moving separately (as single particles) over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (with a 1 s measuring interval) allow the detection of the start and end of transport of bedload components > 11.3 mm, thus the identification of discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles, the quantification of the number of particles > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period, the rough estimation of grain sizes of the particles moving separately over the impact sensor plates, and the calculation of the total mass of the bedload material > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period; (iii) when combined with other methods and techniques (Helley-Smith sampling, particle tracer measurements, biofilm analyses, underwater video filming) which provide information on the active bedload transport channel width, on discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles of different grain sizes, and on transport rates of bedload material < 11.3 mm, total rates of fluvial bedload transport, covering all given grain sizes of the bedload material, can be calculated for the supply-limited mountain streams with generally low bedload transport. The higher measured annual bedload yield in Bødalen (13.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) compared to Erdalen (2.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) reflects a higher level of slope-channel coupling in Bødalen than in Erdalen.

Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja

2014-08-01

250

M2DART: a real image rear-projection display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mobile Modular Display for Advanced Research and Training (M2DART) was designed and fabricated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Warfighter Training Research Facility. The M2DART is part of a long term development goal of AFRL to produce a display and imaging system combination with significantly improved visual acuity in a full field-of- view/field-of-regard environment. The M2DART is an eight- channel, state-of-the-art, real image, rear-projection visual display system. It is a full color, high resolution, wraparound display designed for use with single-seat cockpit simulators. Depending on the number of available image generator channels, the system allows for a wide instantaneous field-of-view, when used in conjunction with a magnetic head tracker and video router combination to provide a full field- of-regard. The display is designed to accommodate a variety of visual image generators and cockpit simulators. The system uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) BARCO CRT projectors to display the out-the-window (OTW) visual imagery to the pilot. The M2DART concept demonstrates that a rear-projected, real image approach is a viable means of providing full color imagery to flight simulators with improved brightness and resolution characteristics. The final design of the M2DART represents a balance between such considerations as training requirements, the number of available image generator channels, system resolution, field of view, brightness, image stability and maintainability. This paper will provide a system description, which includes design trade-off considerations, hardware configuration, screen geometry, field of view, and performance specifications.

Best, Leonard G.; Wight, Don R.; Peppler, Philipp W.

1999-08-01

251

Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.  

PubMed

In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi-variable, method to compare the injury biomechanical data with actual accident cases. PMID:12724904

Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

2003-01-01

252

Popular Child-Rearing Books: Where Is Daddy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which popular child-rearing books reflect a new image of fatherhood. It was hypothesized that child-rearing books would be primarily written to mothers. The authors also wanted to know how fathers' roles were portrayed in this literature. A random sample of 23 child-rearing books was scanned and coded. Of the

Linda M. Fleming; David J. Tobin

2005-01-01

253

Laboratory Culture of Zebra ( Dreissena polymorpha) and Quagga ( D. bugensis) Mussel Larvae Using Estuarine Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussel (D. bugensis) larvae were reared through and beyond metamorphosis in the laboratory on diets of the estuarine algae, Isochrysis galbana T-Iso and Pavlova (= Monochrysis) lutheri. Larvae were successfully spawned and raised in the laboratory for over 1 year with routine survival to settlement. Some adult males reared from an August 1994 spawn reached

David A. Wright; Eileen M. Setzler-Hamilton; John A. Magee; H. Rodger Harvey

1996-01-01

254

GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

255

BLDG 102, REAR (WEST) AND NORTH END. Naval Magazine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BLDG 102, REAR (WEST) AND NORTH END. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street between Kolekole Road & Gilbert Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

256

An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements.

Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

2011-01-01

257

A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consume?s right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianji?s pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

258

Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G. F.; Olsen, G. H.; Hereford, S.G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

2001-01-01

259

LABORATORY STUDIES OF THE DEPOSITION OF ALKALI SULFATE VAPORS FROM COMBUSTION GASES USING A FLASH-EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively simple experimental technique is proposed and demonstrated for making measurements of absolute dewpoints and relative deposition rates from flowing combustion gases containing condensible inorganic vapors (here alkali sulfates). In using this “flash evaporation” technique, one first accumulates an inventory of condensate on a Pt-ribbon target maintained below the dewpoint and then flash-evaporates this condensate inventory into the filament

DANIEL. E. ROSNER; BAISHEN LIANG

1986-01-01

260

Effects of Enhanced Laboratory Instructional Technique on Senior Secondary Students' Attitude toward Chemistry in Oyo Township, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effect of supplementing laboratory instruction with problem solving strategy and or practical skills teaching on students' attitude toward chemistry. A total of 286 senior secondary class II students (145 males and 141 females) drawn from four local government areas in Oyo township in Oyo state, Nigeria, took part in the…

Adesoji, Francis Adewumi; Raimi, Sikiru Morakinyo

2004-01-01

261

Effects of Training Experienced Teachers in the Use of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year,…

Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

2014-01-01

262

Comparison of field- and laboratory-collected midwave and longwave infrared emissivity spectra\\/data reduction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many targets that remote sensing scientists encounter when conducting their research experiments do not lend themselves to laboratory measurement of their surface optical properties. Removal of these targets from the field can change their biotic condition, disturb the surface composition, and change the moisture content of the sample. These parameters, as well as numerous others, have a marked influence on

Carl Salvaggio; Craig J. Miller

2001-01-01

263

Feeding Larval Marine Fishes in the Laboratory: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in rearing marine fishes under laboratory conditions has intensified during the past decade, and there is every reason to believe that this trend will continue. The larval stages of marine fishes are being investigated experimentally because of t...

R. C. May

1970-01-01

264

Rearing and rehabilitation of common seal pups (Phoca vitulina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary surgeons may be presented with seal pups that require rearing and rehabilitation. This paper describes the feeding, weight gains and clinical care of 22 harbour or common seal pups (Phoca vitulina) that were reared and rehabilitated at the RSPCA Seal Assessment Unit in Norfolk during 1989. Eighteen of the seals survived and were released but four died. On arrival

SJ Mayer; AJ Hutchison

1990-01-01

265

A Machine to Fill Insect Rearing Cells with Diet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes a new apparatus and method for metering insect diet accurately and efficiently into individual insect rearing cells. Insect diet is accurately metered into a set of plastic rearing cells which are preformed by a form-fill-...

E. A. Harrell A. N. Sparks W. D. Perins W. W. Hare

1974-01-01

266

Transforming Growth Factor-?1 and Cortisol in Differentially Reared Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of primate infants to adverse rearing conditions during the first half year of life can result in enduring behavioral, neuroendocrine, and immunologic abnormalities. However, the effects of differential rearing on cytokines, some of which can regulate immune and inflammatory responses and modulate activity of the central nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are largely unexamined. The present study

Eric L. P. Smith; Olcay A. Batuman; Ronald C. Trost; Jeremy D. Coplan; Leonard A. Rosenblum

2002-01-01

267

2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

268

Planar rear emitter back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar rear emitter back contact silicon heterojunction (PreBC-SHJ) solar cell design is presented, which combines the advantages of different high efficiency concepts using point contacts, back contacts, and silicon heterojunctions. Electrically insulated point or stripe contacts to the solar cell absorber are embedded within a planar hydrogenated amorphous silicon emitter layer deposited at low temperature on the rear side.

R. Stangl; J. Haschke; M. Bivour; L. Korte; M. Schmidt; K. Lips; B. Rech

2009-01-01

269

Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

270

Flexion-Torsion Neck Injury in Rear Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study material is from the Automotive Crash Injury Research program. All injury producing rural automobile accidents were included which had been received up to July 1968. Specifically, impacts from the rear direction to the rear portions of the car w...

J. K. Kihlberg

1969-01-01

271

Reproductive Behavior and Breeding Success of Captively Reared Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release of captively reared adults is one of several strategies currently being used to maintain imperiled populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Pacific Northwest. This study evaluated the breeding behavior and success of captively reared chinook salmon released at maturity into a controlled-flow stream channel. Female egg deposition was 49.5%, which is much lower than that reported for

B. A. Berejikian; E. P. Tezak; S. L. Schroder

2001-01-01

272

View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear and Building No. 31 at right rear. Rolled curb design of sidewalk on left, looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

273

Practical Laboratory Guide to the Techniques and Methodology of Electrophoresis and Its Application to Fish Fillet Identification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gel electrophoresis is a simple, fast and powerful method of separating proteins in a complex mixture. When combined with sensitive histochemical methods of visualizing general proteins and specific enzymes, electrophoretic techniques can be used to provi...

J. B. Shaklee C. P. Keenan

1986-01-01

274

Laboratory-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique for material and medical science applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for the study of materials such as carbon fibers, carbon composite materials, polymers, etc. Similarly this technique is also well suited for the imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumor and normal tissue. These represent the class of materials for which X-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Thus

Yogesh S. Kashyap; P. S. Yadav; Tushar Roy; P. S. Sarkar; M. Shukla; Amar Sinha

2008-01-01

275

The Fundamentals of Flying: Simple and Inexpensive Strategies for Employing Drosophila Genetics in Neuroscience Teaching Laboratories  

PubMed Central

Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories.

Pulver, Stefan R.; Berni, Jimena

2012-01-01

276

Infant temperament and child-rearing stress: birth order influences.  

PubMed

The relationship between an infant's temperamental difficulty and the mother's child-rearing stress was investigated in a sample of 128 children. Children's temperament was assessed by the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ) at 6-7 months, and by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) at 18 months. The mothers' child-rearing stress was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. At the children's age of 18 months, mothers of difficult children reported higher child-rearing stress than mothers of easy children. Although difference in the level of child-rearing stress reflecting birth order was not evident at either 6-7 months or 18 months, the proportion of child-rearing stress which could be explained by the children's temperament was highest for mothers of first-borns when their children were 18 months old. PMID:9605465

Honjo, S; Mizuno, R; Ajiki, M; Suzuki, A; Nagata, M; Goto, Y; Nishide, T

1998-05-29

277

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

1995-01-27

278

Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

Tulviste, Tiia

2011-01-01

279

Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Rearing, Storing, and Efficacy Studies on Arzama densa for Release Programs against Waterhyacinth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was conducted to develop mass rearing and dispersal techniques for large-scale releases of Arzama densa as a biological agent for the management of waterhyacinth. Life history information on A. densa was obtained from field observations of n...

R. G. Baer P. C. Quimby

1984-01-01

280

Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume I of III; Narrative, 1978-1983 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released, and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: (1) develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and (2) provide fishery managers with the information

Emil Slatick; Lyle G. Gilbreath; Jerrel R. Harmon

1988-01-01

281

Lean Management and Six-Sigma yield big gains in hospital's immediate response laboratory. Quality improvement techniques save more than $400,000.  

PubMed

DSI Laboratories has used Lean and Six-Sigma methodologies to systematically eliminate waste and reduce variation in its hospital clinical laboratory. The net result was a savings of more than $400,000 in the first year. After mapping its process, the laboratory found that phlebotomists were submitting samples in large batches, which created an early-morning flood of specimens. Switching to single-piece workflow and distributing the workload more evenly allowed DSI to cover the same number of patients with two to three phlebotomists instead of 12. By establishing a more efficient workflow process within the laboratory, a single technologist could quickly move between stations and perform those tests that made up 80% of the work volume. New inventory management techniques reduced both excess inventory and the risk of shortages. Cost savings for the first year were: Reduced overtime spending by 60% ($78,000), Reassigned six phlebotomists for an annual savings of $160,000, 4.5 fewer technologist positions for a savings of $250,000. PMID:15493100

Sunyog, Martha

2004-01-01

282

Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory  

SciTech Connect

We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup ?6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Degering, Detlev [Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e. V. (VKTA), D-01314 Dresden (Germany)] [Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e. V. (VKTA), D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Technische Universität Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Universität Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

2013-08-08

283

Combined characterization techniques to understand the stability of a variety of organic photovoltaic devices: the ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is part of the inter-laboratory collaboration to study the stability of seven distinct sets of state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic (OPVs) devices prepared by leading research laboratories. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at the Danish Technical University (DTU, formerly RISO-DTU) up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. In this work we present a summary of the degradation response observed for the NREL sample, an inverted OPV of the type ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag/Al, under full sun stability test. The results reported from the combination of the different characterization techniques results in a proposed degradation mechanism. The final conclusion is that the failure of the photovoltaic response of the device is mainly due to the degradation of the electrodes and not to the active materials of the solar cell.

Lira-Cantu, Monica; Tanenbaum, David M.; Norrman, Kion; Voroshazi, Eszter; Hermenau, Martin; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Teran-Escobar, Gerardo; Galagan, Yulia; Zimmermann, Birger; Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik F.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Gevorgyan, Suren; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Hoppe, Harald; Rösch, Roland; Würfel, Uli; Andriessen, Ronn; Rivaton, Agnès.; Uzuno?lu, Gül?ah Y.; Germack, David; Andreasen, Birgitta; Madsen, Morten V.; Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C.

2012-10-01

284

Nestmate recognition cues in laboratory and field colonies of Solenopsis invicta buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-rearedSolenopsis invicta workers were tested for the ability to discriminate nestmates from nonnestmate conspecifics. Postcontact aggressive response to workers from local field colonies was significantly greater than the response to lab-reared workers, even when the latter were selected from colonies originating hundreds of miles away. Behavioral observations support the conclusion that lab-reared ants were less distinctive than field-collected ants with

Martin S. Obin

1986-01-01

285

Fin development in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine the effect of development and environment on fin growth, we measured fin lengths of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two hatcheries (August, October and April-May), stream-reared fish (July and October) stocked as fry into two tributaries, and smelts from the main stem of the Connecticut River (May). For stream-reared parr, there was a linear relationship between the dorsal, caudal and anal fins with fork length, while the pectoral, pelvic and adipose fins exhibited a curvilinear relationship with fork length. Parr from a high gradient stream had larger caudal fins than fish from a low gradient stream, but other fins did not differ. Regression lines for the fins of stream-reared smelts were all linear when fin length was regressed against fork length. Stream-reared parr had larger pectoral, pelvic and anal fins than smolts of similar size while dorsal and caudal fin lengths did not differ. Regression equations formulated using the fins of stream-reared parr were used to calculate the percent difference (100 x observed fin length/expected) in fin lengths between stream- and hatchery-reared parr. The pelvic, adipose, caudal and anal fins of hatchery-reared parr showed no signs of degeneration by the first sampling period 7 months after hatching, whereas degeneration in the pectoral (13-20%) and dorsal (15-18%) fins was evident at this time. By the end of the study, degeneration was present in every fin except the adipose, with the pectoral (35-65%) and dorsal (32-58%) fins exhibiting the greatest amount of fin loss. All fins of hatchery-reared parr became shorter with time. There were minor differences in fin degeneration among parr from the two hatcheries, but the overall pattern of decreasing fin size was similar, indicating a common cause of fin degeneration. Comparison of stream- and hatchery-reared fish is a valuable means of determining the impact of captive environments on fin growth.

Pelis, R. M.; McCormick, S. D.

2003-01-01

286

Acquisition of the tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field by the PIV technique in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based measurement method is proposed to obtain the high-resolution tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field in the laboratory. A long gravity wave was generated to simulate the tide in a narrow tank full of water laden with PIV particles. Consecutive charge-coupled device (CCD) images were recorded with the studied layer illuminated with a laser beam. Two images separated by one tidal period were processed by applying the pattern-matching algorithm to get the horizontal tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field. The results coincide with sporadic results from the traditional surface-float tracing method, but with much higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the direct acquisition of the Lagrangian residual current may reduce the error at least by one order compared with those acquisition methods that require the detailed information of the tidal cycle.

Wang, Tao; Jiang, Wensheng; Chen, Xu; Feng, Shizuo

2013-12-01

287

Iodixanol development of a laboratory-scale technique to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is a potential human pathogen known to be present in raw milk from infected dairy herds. Current pasteurisation regimes do not totally inactivate Map resulting in the possibility of viable cells being present in pasteurised milk used for Cheddar cheese production. A laboratory-based method, ensuring strict safety precautions, was developed to manufacture 800-g Cheddar blocks, experimentally contaminated (postpasteurisation) with two different strains of Map. The composition of the model Cheddar produced was consistent with commercial product. Syneresis of the cheese curd caused a 1 log10 concentration of Map numbers from milk to cheese for a strain isolated from pasteurised milk. The type strain NCTC 8578 did not show a similar concentration effect, but did however survive the Cheddar manufacturing process. A small percentage (<5%) of the Map load for each strain was recovered in the whey fraction during the process. PMID:14665738

Donaghy, J A; Totton, N L; Rowe, M T

2003-12-01

288

Foster Dams Rear Fighters: Strain-Specific Effects of Within-Strain Fostering on Aggressive Behavior in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

Rissman, Emilie F.

2013-01-01

289

Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities  

SciTech Connect

In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

1994-05-01

290

Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands  

SciTech Connect

The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el campo. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de la domesticacion en el laboratorio fue evaluado. Tres poblaciones naturales, una poblacion semi-natural y una poblacion criada en masa fueron evaluadas: las poblaciones natural de (1) Isla de Madeira (costa norte), (2) Isla de Madeira (costa sur) y (3) Isla de Porto Santo; (4) una poblacion semi-natural despues de 7 a 10 generaciones de domesticacion en el laboratorio (respectivamente, para el primero y segundo experimento); y (5) la raza para separar sexos geneticamente que es usada en el laboratorio de la mosca mediterranea de Madeira (VIENNA 7mix2000). Los experimentos usando jaulas en el campo mostraron que las poblaciones de diferentes origines fueron en su mayor parte compatibles. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad para competir sexualmente entre las poblaciones naturales. Los machos semi-naturales y los machos criados en masa mostraron un desempeno significativamente bajo en ambos experimentos que los machos naturales en el logro de copula con las hembras naturales. Este estudio indica que no hay un aislamiento significativo entre las razas probadas, aunque el desempeno en el apareamiento fue reducido en las moscas criadas en masa y semi-naturales despues de 7 a 10 generaciones en el laboratorio. (author)

Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L. [Programa Madeira-Med, Estrada Eng. Abel Vieira 262, 9135-260 Camacha, Madeira (Portugal)

2007-03-15

291

Laboratory techniques to obtain different forms of Trypanosoma cruzi: applications to wild-type and genetically modified parasites.  

PubMed

Nowadays, there are no simple techniques for mimicking in vitro the life cycle of the kinetoplasmtid Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909, causative agent of Chagas disease, especially for parasite strains maintained as epimastigotes for many years. In the present study, we propose a method for obtaining metacyclic trypomastigotes, which were capable of infecting mammalian cells by simply lowering pH media. The collected amastigotes and trypomastigotes were differentiated into epimastigotes closing T. cruzi life cycle in vitro. Metacyclogenesis rates and infectivity were enhanced in cycled parasites. Finally, using this method, we were able to infect cells with transgenic parasites obtaining trypomastigotes and amastigotes using a neomycin-resistant cell line. PMID:24471281

de Cámara, María de los Milagros; Bouvier, León A; Miranda, Mariana R; Reigada, Chantal; Pereira, Claudio A

2013-11-01

292

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

2002-02-25

293

6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

294

Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

295

Interior view from rear of chapel, facing west toward the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view from rear of chapel, facing west toward the sanctuary, noting scissor trusses. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

296

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

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19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

297

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

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21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

298

7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR TBRACE. Photocopy of photograph. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR T-BRACE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

299

7. PARTIAL VIEW OF REAR (WEST) FACADE, SHOWING MASONRY BASE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. PARTIAL VIEW OF REAR (WEST) FACADE, SHOWING MASONRY BASE AND LATTICE COLUMNS AT BASEMENT (TRACK) LEVEL. NOTE ACANTHUS KEYSTONE DETAIL OVER DOORWAY - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

300

4. PARTIAL VIEW. LOOKING FROM SHED ROOF, OF REAR (EAST) ...  

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4. PARTIAL VIEW. LOOKING FROM SHED ROOF, OF REAR (EAST) ELEVATION, SHOWING SECOND AND THIRD STORIES OF ORIGINAL SECTION - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

301

5. CLOSER VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST. TAKEN 1908. ...  

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5. CLOSER VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST. TAKEN 1908. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

302

4. REAR SIDE OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. TAKEN 1908. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR SIDE OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. TAKEN 1908. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

303

SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING WOODEN STAIRS AND RAILROAD ...  

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SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING WOODEN STAIRS AND RAILROAD TIE BARRICADE. Looking northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, VIP Viewing Stand, Southwest of Station "50" area, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

304

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

305

5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING 1967 REAR ADDITION AND ...  

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5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING 1967 REAR ADDITION AND DOOR TO KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND SHRUB. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

306

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...  

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28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

307

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...  

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13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

308

14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...  

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14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

309

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...  

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12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

310

15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

311

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

312

NORTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

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NORTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Solid Waste Disposal Facility, Off Connecticut Road, west of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

313

9. NORTH (REAR) SIDE, ENTRY AND STAIRHALL DORMER. This dormer ...  

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9. NORTH (REAR) SIDE, ENTRY AND STAIRHALL DORMER. This dormer not original with house; note Flemish bond brickwork v.s. English bond brickwork of front and side elevations. - Mulberry, Cooper River, West Branch, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC

314

NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

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NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Instrument Landing System (ILS) Middle Marker, Off Perimeter Road at North end of Runway, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

315

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

316

3. Southwest rear of addition. View to northeast. Offutt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Southwest rear of addition. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

317

1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

318

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

319

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

320

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

321

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...  

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2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

322

MANUAL SPOT WELDING STATION IN THE REAR PAN SCRAP REWORK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MANUAL SPOT WELDING STATION IN THE REAR PAN SCRAP REWORK AREA FACING S. NORTH END OF HISTORIC PORTION OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, FIRST FLOOR, X7, COLUMN 17. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

323

Perspective circular rearing ponds on north side of hatchery. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective circular rearing ponds on north side of hatchery. View to the west, northwest. Includes view of ditch and step up to hatchery building on left side of image. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

324

WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

325

SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...  

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SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

326

WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Airmen Dining Hall, Connecticut Road, between Illinois Drive & Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

327

5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

328

6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

329

4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

330

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

331

5. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, REAR CORNER DETAIL, LOOKING NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, REAR CORNER DETAIL, LOOKING NORTH. - Geraldine Lucas Homestead, Geraldine Lucas Cabin, West bank Cottonwood Creek, 2.5 miles downstream from Jenny Lake, Moose, Teton County, WY

332

View of rear façade of office building; note projecting bay, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear façade of office building; note projecting bay, above the basement level, which commanded a view of the iron works - Everett Iron Company, Office Building, 0.25 mile Southwest of Everett, Earlston, Bedford County, PA

333

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

334

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

335

15. NORTH REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8966 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTH REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8966 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

336

10. SOUTHEAST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SOUTHEAST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING) FROM SOUTH CORNER ALONG PERIMETER FENCE. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

337

8. PART OF NORTH SIDE AND REAR OF FRONT (WEST) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. PART OF NORTH SIDE AND REAR OF FRONT (WEST) PORTION OF BUILDING, SHOWING CONNECTING NORTH WING, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

338

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

339

EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Spares Inert Storage Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

340

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 660 FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ship Repair Shop, Morton Street between Coe & Craig Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

341

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 660 FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ship Repair Shop, Morton Street between Coe & Craig Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

342

5. View of southeast (rear) elevation, showing property in setting; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of southeast (rear) elevation, showing property in setting; palms are street trees shown in CA-2211-1; view to northwest. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

343

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

344

4. BUILDING 324, REAR YARD AREA, FROM NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. BUILDING 324, REAR YARD AREA, FROM NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 323, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

345

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

346

19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

347

20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

348

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

349

2. WILLIAM ELLIOT CABIN AND OUTBULIDING, CABIN WEST REAR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WILLIAM ELLIOT CABIN AND OUTBULIDING, CABIN WEST REAR AND NORTH SIDES, OUTBULIDING WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE - Liberty Historic District, William Elliot Cabin, Route 2, Cle Elum, Liberty, Kittitas County, WA

350

COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

351

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

352

14. Rear of the commercial buildings on the east side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street between 9th and 10th Streets. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

353

15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

354

17. Rear of the buildings on the west side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Rear of the buildings on the west side of the 900 block of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

355

Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear of ammunition storage building 4403, view towards the west westside with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

356

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

357

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

358

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

359

5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

360

2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

361

View from underneath umbrella shed at rear of Train Shed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from underneath umbrella shed at rear of Train Shed looking W. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

362

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

363

MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Magazine Type 2, Fourth Place, Seventh & Eighth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

364

4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE TRASH RACKS BELOW. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

365

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

366

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

367

27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

368

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO WEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

369

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (REAR) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Demineralized Water Storage Building, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

370

11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

371

3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

372

EARTHCOVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EARTH-COVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ON TOP, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, ARMCO Hut, Hamilton Road between Moffett & Harrison Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

373

3. Control Area, Barracks, detail of chimney and rear door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Control Area, Barracks, detail of chimney and rear door VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

374

10. VIEW OF NORTH BEND RANGER STATION REAR PARKING AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF NORTH BEND RANGER STATION REAR PARKING AREA LOOKING APPROXIMATELY NORTHWEST. BUILDING NO. 2230 IS IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND. - North Bend Ranger Station, Building 2230, 42404 Southeast North Bend Way, North Bend, King County, WA

375

Perspective view to show rear (west) elevation (Note background skyline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view to show rear (west) elevation (Note background skyline of ca. 2000 buildings & construction cranes across Glebe Road from the dealership) - Bob Peck Chevrolet, 800 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

376

73. (Credit CBF) North embankment of settling basins, with rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. (Credit CBF) North embankment of settling basins, with rear of high service pump room and filter house, November 1911. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

377

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

378

188. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

188. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF REAR OF CUPOLA BUILDING, SHOWING ALLIS CHALMERS STEAM ENGINE (C. 1898) AND MOTOR-GENERATOR SET. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

379

VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

380

VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

381

3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

382

View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

383

8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW TREATMENT. See CA-174-B-22 FOR INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR LAB AT CENTER. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Engineering-Administration Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

384

23. LOWER FACADE, NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONCLOSEUP Copy photograph of photogrammetric ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. LOWER FACADE, NORTH (REAR) ELEVATION--CLOSEUP Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-T-2564-107L. - Grant's Monument, Riverside Drive & West 122nd Street, New York, New York County, NY

385

DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF THE BUILDING. SHOWING THE PIVOTING METAL LOOP RECESSED INTO THE CONCRETE. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type A, 601 Boquet Boulevard , Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

386

CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

387

VIEW OF THE WEST BACK OF THE REAR WING OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE WEST BACK OF THE REAR WING OF BUILDING 72, FACING EAST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 72, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

388

VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST REAR OF BUILDING 61, FACING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST REAR OF BUILDING 61, FACING SOUTH - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers , Building 61, North side of Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

389

6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. View to east. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

390

5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

391

4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) elevation. View to south. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

392

A laboratory experimental technique for determining satellite cable response to SGEMP - Comparisons between CXR and FXR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison is conducted of results obtained in tests performed with a flash X-ray source (FXR) and data obtained with the aid of the continuous X-ray source (CXR). Attention is given to X-ray source differences, a CXR/FXR amplitude comparison, and CXR/FXR waveform comparisons. Excellent correlation is obtained between the FXR and CXR results for most of the cables tested. Highly reproducible, low noise responses are obtained with the CXR source at 0.1 to 1 pA. The high quality of the CXR data demonstrates the importance of spectral differences. Nonlinear response associated with polyvinylidene fluoride dielectrics is thought to be due to dielectric relaxation. The reliability of the experimental technique eliminates uncertainty concerning cable response.

Tigner, J. E.; Chadsey, W. L.; Frederick, D.; Miller, R. J.; Smith, P.

1981-12-01

393

Influence of water-desaturation technique and stress on laboratory measurement of hydraulic properties of tight sandstones  

SciTech Connect

Mercury porosimetry on unconfined sample chips and effective-gas-permeability measurements with evaporation used as the desaturating mechanism are two of the most common core-analysis measurements for tight sands. Data obtained with these two techniques have been compared with data on gas/water capillary pressure and effective gas permeability along a true drainage path at in-situ net confining stress. Results show that confining stress can have a significant effect on capillary pressure. Also, the use of evaporation to desaturate samples yields effective gas permeabilities much smaller than those obtained under true drainage conditions, suggesting that the evaporation method results in a pore-water distribution similar to that in an inhibition process.

Chowdiah, P.

1988-12-01

394

4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ADDITION FOR WELL-SERVICE VEHICLE, TOOLS, AND EQUIPMENT AND REAR ENTRANCE DOOR AND WINDOW INTO FACTORY. THE METAL OUTBUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SHOP-BUILT PRIVY ERECTED OVER A SANITARY SEWER. VISIBLE ON THE ROOF ARE TWO SKYLIGHT STRUCTURES AND FLUES FOR FORGE AND HEATING STOVE. THE BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS AN ADJACENT GROCERY STORE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

395

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

396

Different rearing systems for fattening rabbits: Performance and carcass characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of different rearing systems and sex on productive performance and carcass composition and quality, 80 rabbits (40 males and 40 females) of Carmagnola breed were reared from 9 to 16 weeks of age in individual California type cages (0.12m2) or in group ground pens (0.25m2\\/head). The animals were kept in standard and uniform environmental conditions and

Carla Lazzaroni; Davide Biagini; Carola Lussiana

2009-01-01

397

Developmental times and oviposition rates of predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) reared on different foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental times and the reproduction of two resistant Italian strains ofTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten andAmblyseius andersoni (Chant) were studied in the laboratory by rearing them on the spider mitesPanonychus ulmi (Koch) andEotetranychus carpini (Oud.), on the eriophyidColomerus vitis (Pgst.) and on pollen ofMesembryanthemum criniflorum. The response ofT. pyri andA. andersoni females to a spider mite supply (P. ulmi orE. carpini)

C. Duso; P. Camporese

1991-01-01

398

3-D thermo-mechanical laboratory modeling of plate-tectonics: modeling scheme, technique and first experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental apparatus for 3-D thermo-mechanical analogue modeling of plate tectonic processes such as oceanic and continental subductions, arc-continent or continental collisions. The model lithosphere, made of temperature-sensitive elasto-plastic analogue materials with strain softening, is submitted to a constant temperature gradient causing a strength reduction with depth in each layer. The surface temperature is imposed using infrared emitters, which allows maintaining an unobstructed view of the model surface and the use of a high resolution optical strain monitoring technique (Particle Imaging Velocimetry). Subduction experiments illustrate how the stress conditions on the interplate zone can be estimated using a force sensor attached to the back of the upper plate and adjusted via the density and strength of the subducting lithosphere or the lubrication of the plate boundary. The first experimental results reveal the potential of the experimental set-up to investigate the three-dimensional solid-mechanics interactions of lithospheric plates in multiple natural situations.

Boutelier, D.; Oncken, O.

2011-05-01

399

Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laboratory conditions, effects of rearing temperature and stocking density were examined on hatching of fertilized egg and growth of auricularia larvae of Apostichopus japonicus respectively. Data series like larval length and density, metamorphic time, and survival rate of the larvae were recorded. Statistics showed that for A. japonicus, survival rate (from fertilized egg to late auricularia) decreased significantly with the increasing rearing temperature ( P<0.05). At different temperatures SGR was statistically significant as well ( P<0.05) from day 1, and maximal SGR was found on day 9 at 24°C (159.26±3.28). This study clearly indicated that at low temperature (<24°C), metamorphic rate was remarkably higher than at higher temperature (>26°C). Hatching rate was significantly different between 0.2-5 ind./ml groups and 20-50 ind./ml groups. Rearing larvae at the higher density had the smaller maximal-length, whereas needed longer time to complete metamorphosis. This study suggested that 21°C and 0.4 ind./ml can be used as the most suitable rearing temperature and stocking density for large -scale artificial breeding of A. japonicus’s larvae.

Liu, Guangbin; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Shilin

2010-07-01

400

Laboratory Mass Production and Genetics of 'Anopheles freeborni'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To support malaria vaccine work, rearing techniques were developed for Anopheles freeborni to insure production of adequate numbers of insects of uniform age and size to be used in sporozoite production studies. Colonies of several geographic strains were...

D. L. Kline

1990-01-01

401

Efficiency of three diets for larval development in mass rearing Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

A fundamental step in establishing a mass production system is the development of a larval diet that promotes high adult performance at a reasonable cost. To identify a suitable larval diet for Aedes albopictus (Skuse), three diets were compared: a standard laboratory diet used at the Centro Agricoltura Ambiente, Italy (CAA) and two diets developed specifically for mosquito mass rearing at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory, Austria. The two IAEA diets, without affecting survival to the pupal stage, resulted in a shorter time to pupation and to emergence when compared with the CAA diet. At 24 h from pupation onset, 50 and 90% of the male pupae produced on the CAA and IAEA diets, respectively, had formed and could be collected. The diet received during the larval stage affected the longevity of adult males with access to water only, with best results observed when using the CAA larval diet. However, similar longevity among diet treatments was observed when males were supplied with sucrose solution. No differences were observed in the effects of larval diet on adult male size or female fecundity and fertility. Considering these results, along with the relative costs of the three diets, the IAEA 2 diet is found to be the preferred choice for mass rearing of Aedes albopictus, particularly if a sugar meal can be given to adult males before release, to ensure their teneral reserves are sufficient for survival, dispersal, and mating in the field. PMID:23926780

Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, F; Damiens, D; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Madakacherry, O; Dindo, M L; Bellini, R; Gilles, J R L

2013-07-01

402

Picking among pen-reared quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

1945-01-01

403

Reproduction and Larval Rearing of Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in these reproduction technologies have been driven by (1) difficul- ties with achieving reliable reproduction of threatened spe- cies in captive breeding programs, (2) the need for the efficient reproduction of laboratory model species, and (3) the cost

Robert K. Browne; Kevin Zippel

404

Automatic mass-rearing of Amblyseius womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

Using incorporated devices, Tetranychus urticae spider mites were rinsed from hydroponically-grown lima bean plants, collected, separated and blow-dried. This yielded a reliable and large volume of eggs and larvae, which were fed to Amblyseius womersleyi rearings on 15 x 5 cm2 polyethylene arenas. Of several feeding regimes tested, daily feeding of 10 mg T. urticae eggs and larvae resulted in the highest predator population levels. The best harvest period was between 15 and 27 days, when predator density exceeded 600 mites per arena. A preliminary automatic mass-rearing device was tested for A. womerslyi. This incorporated both rearing and harvesting procedures. A micro-feeder was developed to supply the required volume of spider mites and maize pollen (1:1 mixture) to the predators. A Bakelite rearing arena reduced the space requirements of a polyethylene arena, was more durable and an essential component in the automatic mass-rearing and harvesting. Mite harvesting is carried out through the use of a vacuum-head harvester. Supplements of (sterilized) spider mites, pollen, vermiculite and wheat bran are automatically added to the predators. The devices for harvesting, filling and packing are incorporated and synchronized and the entire system is controlled by a single slide-switch. The design and system can be expanded without changing the basic processes and program, for example to adopt it for other species of predaceous mites. PMID:11603734

Shih, C I

2001-01-01

405

Discrimination between shepherds by lambs reared under artificial conditions.  

PubMed

We studied the ability of 32 lambs reared artificially in groups of four to discriminate between their shepherd and an unknown shepherd. Half of the lambs were bottle fed in isolation by one shepherd during the first 3 wk. The other half was fed alternately by three shepherds. Lambs had no visual contact with humans for the next 3 wk. Lambs were weaned at 6 wk of age and reared together with the minimum human contact necessary for rearing management. Lambs were tested at 3, 6, and 14 wk of age, investigating the effect of the rearing conditions on the response to isolation and to reunion with the known or an unknown shepherd. During tests, lambs were observed 1) in isolation for 1 min, 2) in the presence of a shepherd who entered and squatted at one end of the pen for 1 min, trying to touch the lambs if they approached, 3) again in isolation for 1 min. Early rearing management (one vs three shepherds) had no significant effect on any criteria studied. Lambs vocalized and moved less when in the presence of the shepherd than when isolated. They vocalized less, moved less, approached more quickly, and interacted more with the known than with an unknown shepherd. The difference persisted after 3 wk spent without visual human contact. However, no difference was evident at 14 wk of age. The effect of shepherd knowledge is clearly demonstrated by this experiment after an intensive early period of contact. PMID:9374301

Boivin, X; Nowak, R; Desprès, G; Tournadre, H; Le Neindre, P

1997-11-01

406

Handwashing Laboratory Activities: Bowl Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab (Activity #2 on page), learners compare bacteria growth on two petri dishes containing nutrient agar. Learners touch the doors, faucets, etc. in bathroom and then immerse their hands in 100 ml sterile water. They place 0.5 ml of this "dirty" water into one petri dish. They repeat this process again but wash their hands before immersing them in 100 ml sterile water. Learners incubate the plates for 24-48 hours and then score the results based on the bacteria growth they observe. Use this activity to emphasize the importance of hand-washing and the effectiveness of soap to disinfect.

Christine L. Case, Ed D.

2009-01-01

407

Power transmission system for rear wheels of a motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A power transmission system is described for a motor vehicle comprising: a rear drive shaft connected to a propeller shaft of the motor vehicle; final reduction gear means operatively connected to the rear drive shaft; a pair of oil hydraulic clutches for transmitting output of the final reduction gear to rear wheels of the motor vehicle respectively; hydraulic circuit means including passage means for applying pressurized oil to the clutches and control valve means for controlling pressure of the oil applied to each of the clutches; sensing means for sensing driving conditions of the vehicle at cornering and for producing signals representing sensed conditions; control unit responsive to the signals for operating the control valve means whereby controlling transmitting torque capacity of each clutch at cornering.

Oyama, F.; Takashashi, A.

1987-07-21

408

Closeup of rear of LASRE pod  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this interaction. The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on one of NASA's SR-71s, which were at that time on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use the information gained from the LASRE and X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator Projects to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin were partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement. The goal of that program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote creation and delivery of new space services and activities to improve the United States's economic competitiveness. In March 2001, however, NASA cancelled the X-33 program.

1996-01-01

409

An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

1976-01-01

410

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

411

EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON SURVIVAL OF LABORATORY CULTURED SUMMER FLOUNDER 'PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies are being conducted to determine standard laboratory culture conditions for rearing summer flounder larvae to be used in toxicological bioassays. Experiments were conducted using the type of container and physical conditions use in the long term chronic toxicological bioa...

412

New laser-based approaches to improve the passivation and rear contact quality in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser processing has been the tool of choice last years to develop improved concepts in contact formation for high efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. New concepts based on standard laser fired contacts (LFC) or advanced laser doping (LD) techniques are optimal solutions for both the front and back contacts of a number of structures with growing interest in the c-Si PV industry. Nowadays, substantial efforts are underway to optimize these processes in order to be applied industrially in high efficiency concepts. However a critical issue in these devices is that, most of them, demand a very low thermal input during the fabrication sequence and a minimal damage of the structure during the laser irradiation process. Keeping these two objectives in mind, in this work we discuss the possibility of using laser-based processes to contact the rear side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells in an approach fully compatible with the low temperature processing associated to these devices. First we discuss the possibility of using standard LFC techniques in the fabrication of SHJ cells on p-type substrates, studying in detail the effect of the laser wavelength on the contact quality. Secondly, we present an alternative strategy bearing in mind that a real challenge in the rear contact formation is to reduce the damage induced by the laser irradiation. This new approach is based on local laser doping techniques previously developed by our groups, to contact the rear side of p-type c-Si solar cells by means of laser processing before rear metallization of dielectric stacks containing Al2O3. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using this new approach in SHJ cells with a distinct advantage over other standard LFC techniques.

Molpeceres, Carlos; Colina, Mónica; Muñoz-Martin, David; Martín, Isidro; Ortega, Pablo; Sánchez, Isabel; Morales, Miguel B.; Lauzurica, Sara; García-Ballesteros, Juan J.; Voz, Cristóbal; López, Gema; Morales, Ana-Belén.; Alcubilla, Ramón

2013-09-01

413

Deposition of energy outside of the focal spot as observed on the rear surface of laser irradiated targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a normally impinging, visible backlighting technique, lateral energy transport out of the focal spot has been observed on the rear surface of targets irradiated by 1.06 micron laser light. The range of irradiances employed extended from 5 x 10 to the 12th to 2 x 10 to the 14th W\\/sq cm. For a small focal spot, 40 microns in

A. Zigler; A. Ludmirsky; A. Loeb; J. L. Borowitz; S. Eliezer; M GIVON; Y GAZIT; S JACKEL; A KRUMBEIN; M ROSENBLUM

1985-01-01

414

Microarray-based genetic identification of beneficial organisms as a new tool for quality control of laboratory cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of beneficial organisms to help control pests and pathogens in field and greenhouse crops is constantly increasing. Insects and mites are commonly used as beneficial organisms and, nowadays, rearing companies have to produce them in large quantities. Because of the peculiarities of laboratory culture conditions, the quality of lab-reared organisms generally degrades over time. To maintain high fitness

Frédérique Pasquer; Monika Pfunder; Beatrice Frey; Juerg E. Frey

2009-01-01

415

Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

2012-07-01

416

Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.  

PubMed

A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass. PMID:18613567

Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

2008-06-01

417

The eye movements of the dark-reared cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats reared in total darkness to adulthood have abnormal eye movements. A spontaneous nystagmus is found in the dark before any visual experience. The eye movements evoked by vestibular or optokinetic stimulation are less effective at compensation than for a normal cat. The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) has a low gain (around 0.3) and a frequency dependent phase relation. The efficiency

L. R. Harris; M. Cynader

1981-01-01

418

Homeless Youths' Descriptions of Their Parents' Child-Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored homeless youths' perceptions of their parents' child-rearing practices. Results from 409 youth aged 12 to 23 years reveal the following four parenting styles: supportive/emotionally available; intrusive/unavailable; detached; and problems with drugs/law. Implications of these findings and future research and service provision needs are…

Kipke, Michele D.; And Others

1997-01-01

419

10. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING REAR SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING REAR SIDE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE GUIDEWALL BUILT ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM NAVIGATION LOCK #1. MASONRY RIPRAP ON NORTH SIDE OF CHANNEL IS VISIBLE IN THE CENTER/RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

420

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

421

Apollo 16 mission anomaly report no. 10: Rear steering inoperative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report by the Apollo 16 crew that the lunar roving vehicle rear steering was inoperative during the initial drive from the vehicle's deployment site was investigated. The malfunction, and the steering system are described. It is concluded that an open circuit occurred either in the hand controller potentiometer or between the potentiometer wiper and the summing node.

1973-01-01

422

6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

423

8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

424

View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

425

7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

426

2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

427

12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

428

13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

429

19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

430

Child-Rearing Practices of Two Generations of Punjabi Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…

Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.

1997-01-01

431

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

432

ACE Designs: the beauty of rear contact solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents an outline of the work done in the EC co-funded project ACE Designs. The objective of this project was to develop rear contact solar cell designs and to demonstrate their applicability as an alternative crystalline silicon technology for industrial module production. An overview of the results is given with links to the most relevant, publications for further details. The

A. Schonecker; D. Eikelboom; P. Manshanden; M. Goris; P. Wyers; S. Roberts; T. Bruton; W. Jooss; K. Faika; A. Kress; R. Kuhn; W. Neu; H. Knauss; P. Fath; F. Ferrazza; R. V. Nacci; E. Van Kerschaver; S. De Wolf; J. Szlufcik; O. Leistiko; A. Jorgensen; S. W. Glunz; J. Dicker; D. Kray; J. Solter; S. Schfer

2002-01-01

433

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

434

5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor doorway) of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

435

21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMICIRCULAR SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMI-CIRCULAR SIDE DINING ROOM, NOW CALLED THE BEAR PIT WAS ADDED IN 1927. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY-PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

436

Analysis of Rear Underride in Fatal Truck Crashes, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) to collect and analyze crash data on rear underride in fatal truck crashes in 2008. The underride data was collected as a supplement to the 2008 Trucks Involv...

D. Blower J. Woodrooffe O. Page

2012-01-01

437

2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

438

9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR OBSERVATION MIRRORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

439

SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE. Protective berm at left shields Air Supply building from launch pad - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Air Supply Building for Building No. 0545, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

440

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

441

Rearing and Larval Development of 'Siganus canaliculatus' (Park) (Pisces: Siganidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eggs of the siganid fish Siganus canaliculatus, were obtained from a hormone-induced spawning, and approximately 200 larvae were reared to metamorphosis in outdoor tanks shielded from rain by a translucent roof. Water temperatures ranged from 28 to 32C. R...

R. C. May D. Popper J. P. McVey

1974-01-01

442

2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from west bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW SOUTHEAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

443

5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Rear view of lower dam showing crest, masonry pier and sluice gate. Photograph taken from east bank of the sandy beach. VIEW SOUTH - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

444

Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula; Franson, J. C.; Kilpi, M.

2005-01-01

445

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ARE ORIGINAL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORTING BRICK PARTITIONS UPSTAIRS. AT CENTER IS BRICK PIER SUPPORTING MODERN SAFE. AT RIGHT IS BRICK PIER AND VAULT SUPPORTING ORIGINAL SAFE - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

446

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, FROM NORTHWEST. AT FAR RIGHT IS KID-PHYSICK HOUSE AND ADJACENT TO IT IS KID-CHANDLER HOUSE - Kid-Chandler & Kid-Physick Houses, 323-325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

447

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

448

INTERIOR VIEW, HALL TO CENTER REAR OF HOUSE, CONSTRUCTION VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, HALL TO CENTER REAR OF HOUSE, CONSTRUCTION VIEW WITH FLOOR REMOVED (TO ADD I-BEAMS) REVEALS THE TOP OF THE VAULTED BRICK WINE CELLAR IN THE BASEMENT (CRUCIFORM PLAN) - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

449

4. Semioblique view of southeast (rear) elevation; note back yard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Semi-oblique view of southeast (rear) elevation; note back yard has been converted to parking lot; chain-link fence separates property from 208 Palm (HABS-CA-2211); view to north-northwest. - Albert Hayman Cottage, 212 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

450

2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

451

3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

452

5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

453

Mothering and Fathering: The Gender Differences in Child Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both parents have unique contributions to make in the development of a child. Mothers and fathers think and act differently from one another, and children thrive on these differences. This book examines gender differences in child rearing, focusing on the conflict between male experts' advice promoting early independence and women's desire for…

Thevenin, Tine

454

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

455

Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

456

Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

2014-01-01

457

Parental Child-Rearing Attitudes and Preadolescents' Problem Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher's ratings of fifth and sixth graders on internalization and externalization behaviors were correlated with scores based on children's reports of their parents' child rearing behaviors. While the degrees of both internalization and externalization were inversely related to reported parental acceptance, externalization alone was positively…

Armentrout, James A.

1971-01-01

458

Parental child-rearing attitudes and preadolescents' problem behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated teacher's ratings of 278 5th and 6th graders on internalization and externalization behaviors with scores on ss' reports of their parents' child-rearing behaviors as assessed by schaefer's child report of parental behavior inventory. While the degrees of both internalization and externalization were inversely related to reported parental acceptance, externalization alone was related to reported parental control in a positive

James A. Armentrout

1971-01-01

459

15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

460

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GASANDOIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GAS-AND-OIL HOUSE (BUILDING #2500), FACING SOUTHWEST. (NOTE: CANOPY STRUCTURE NEXT TO BUILDING FORMERLY COVERED GAS PUMPS; CANOPY BUILT IN 1930s BUT MOVED TO THIS LOCATION IN ABOUT 1970.) - Medford Service Center, Gas & Oil House, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

461

Cost Analysis for Upgraded Passenger Car Rear Signal Lighting Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A production cost analysis was performed on four candidate vehicle rear signal lighting system upgrades. The systems studied were: (1) A high-mounted brake (stop) lamp only; (2) A deceleration signal only; (3) Combination of high-mounted brake lamp and th...

R. F. McLean H. Wakeley O. J. Viergutz

1980-01-01

462

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

463

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

464

2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN CENTER AND NEWER ADDITIONS TO THIS STILL OPERATIONAL TEXTILE MILL. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

465

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM BERM OVER START OF BURIED CONDUIT SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL (6/96), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

466

Object Construction and Imitation under Differing Conditions of Rearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the ages at which infants living under different conditions in two orphanges in Athens, Greece achieve levels of object construction and imitation, both verbal and gestural. Home-reared infants of the same age range were also examined using two of the Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Infant Psychological Development. (WY)

Paraskevopoulos, John; Hunt, J. McV.

1971-01-01

467

REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

468

VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPES 8 AND 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

469

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

470

UTILITY ROOM SHOWING THE JALOUSIE PANEL REAR DOOR. VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UTILITY ROOM SHOWING THE JALOUSIE PANEL REAR DOOR. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

471

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM ACROSS THE COMMON AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM ACROSS THE COMMON AREA WITH AN ADJACENT HOUSE VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

472

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTHEAST SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTHEAST SIDE - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

473

FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING REAR OF CARPORT STORAGE AREA. VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING REAR OF CARPORT STORAGE AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

474

36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube boiler showing steam drum inspection manhole and blow-down valve. Note inspection plugs for water tubes in tube header below drum. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

475

4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

476

DINING ROOM WITH THE WINDOW TO CARPORT AT REAR WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DINING ROOM WITH THE WINDOW TO CARPORT AT REAR WALL AND PASS-THRU TO THE KITCHEN AT RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

477

CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO THE ORE YARD FILLED WITH ORE, SHOWING SELF-UNLOADING SHIP BOOM IN ACTION. LOOKING EAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

478

View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 23, 25, 25, 27, and 39 from left to right. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

479

View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 41 and 23 from left to right. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

480

Anomalous Visible Emission Observed from the Rear Side of Laser-Irradiated Thin Transparent Targets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visible emission measurements from the rear surface of laser-irradiated thin transparent target foils show a transient light flash followed by secondary light emission due to rear surface heating. This temporal signature is different from that reported in...

S. H. Gold E. A. McLean

1981-01-01

481

Releases of Anadromous Salmon and Trout from Pacific Coast Rearing Facilities, 1960 to 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Releases of anadromous salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., and trout, Salmo spp., from all rearing facilities in Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California are listed for the years 1960 through 1973. A total of 113 hatcheries, 42 rearing p...

R. R. Vreeland R. J. Wahle W. D. Parente P. J. Jurich

1975-01-01

482

Application of the mechanical perturbation produced by traffic as a new approach of nonlinear acoustic technique for detecting microcracks in the concrete: A laboratory simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few nonlinear acoustics techniques are currently applied on real structures because their large scale implementation is difficult. Recently, a new method based on nonlinear acoustics has been proposed at the Université de Sherbrooke for the characterization of the damage associated with Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). This method consists in quantifying the influence of an external mechanical disturbance on the propagation of a continual ultrasonic wave that probes the material. In this method, the mechanical perturbation produced by an impact causes sudden opening of microcracks and, consequently, the velocity of the probe ultrasonic wave is suddenly reduced. Then it slowly and gradually returns to its initial level as the microcracks are closing. The objective of this study is: using waves generated by traffics in infrastructures in order to monitor microdefects due to damage mechanisms like ASR. This type of mechanical disturbance (by traffic loadings) is used as a source of low frequency-high amplitude waves for opening/closing of the microdefects in the bulk of concrete. This paper presents a laboratory set-up made of three large deep concrete slabs used to study the nonlinear behavior of concrete using the disturbance caused by simulated traffic. The traffic is simulated with a controlled high accuracy jack to produce a wave similar to that produced by traffic. Results obtained from this study will be used in the future to design an in-situ protocol for assessing ASR-affected structures.

Moradi-Marani, F.; Kodjo, S. A.; Rivard, P.; Lamarche, C. P.

2012-05-01

483

Thermally unstable polyynes and n-organics of planetological interest: new laboratory data and implications for their detection by in situ and remote sensing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of a laboratory program on organic compounds of planetological interest only stable at low temperatures, we are currently studying the gas chromatographic (GC) and mass spectrometric (MS) behaviour of gaseous polyynes and N-organics, together with their UV and IR spectra. We report here new experimental data on triacetylene (C_6H_2) expected to be present in Titan's atmosphere and dicyanoacetylene (C_4N_2), already detected in this environment. The GC-MS behaviour of these compounds has been studied using fused silica wall coated open capillary column and Ion trap mass spectrometer. Quantitative GC-MS analysis is possible if the chromatographic conditions use room temperature, fast separation (less than about 20 minutes) and low partial pressure of these unstable compounds. The limit of detectability of C_4N_2 by GC-MS analysis is 500 pg, about 50 times higher than that of C_6H_2. The UV and IR spectra of these compounds, which were only partially available in the literature, have been studied, including at low temperature. The strength of the main signatures (UV absorption coefficients and IR integrated intensities) have been systematically determined. In particular, we report the first quantitative spectroscopic data for C_6H_2. Such combined experimental studies avoid the risk of wrong diagnostics due to possible chemical contamination. The application of these techniques for searching for these organics in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

Aflalaye, A.; Andrieux, D.; Bénilan, Y.; Bruston, P.; Coll, P.; Coscia, D.; Gazeau, M. C.; Khlifi, M.; Paillous, P.; Sternberg, R.; de Vanssay, E.; Guillemin, J. C.; Raulin, F.

484

Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron capturadas con mayor frecuencia que los machos. La recaptura de moscas silvestres de A. ludens fue de 0.6 a 24.8%, para A. obliqua fue del 1.3 al 16.2%, para moscas de laboratorio fue de 0.5 a 7.1 y 0.5 a 3%, respectivamente. La esperanza de vida correspondio a 4.7 y 4.3 dias para machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. obliqua respectivamente; mientras que 3 y 2 dias fueron para los machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. ludens . La dispersion para A. ludens y A. obliqua fue de 100 a 250 m tanto para individuos silvestres como de laboratorio. Los adultos de A. ludens silvestre se desplazaron del punto central de liberacion al noroeste, los individuos de laboratorio se movieron hacia el oeste del plano Cartesiano. A su vez los adultos de A. obliqua silvestre se movieron hacia el oeste y las de laboratorio hacia el suroeste. Discutimos las implicaciones de nuestros resultados con relacion al espaciamiento y frecuencia de las liberaciones de moscas esteriles para la supresion de poblaciones silvestres. (author)

Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J. [Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Calle Central Poniente No. 14 Altos, 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

2007-03-15

485

Measurement of rear surface temperatures of laser-irradiated thin transparent targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible emission measurements from the rear surface of laser-irradiated thin transparent target foils show a transient light flash followed by secondary light emission due to rear surface heating. This temporal signature is different from that reported in shock experiments in transparent solids.