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1

Physiological consequences of laboratory rearing of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae).  

PubMed

Several aspects of the basic biology of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, are poorly known despite the economic importance of this species. Among these are the factors regulating the adult diapause. Reports of recent studies questioned the validity of earlier reports of diapause in L. hesperus, in part because of the demonstrated loss of diapause response in insects obtained from long-standing laboratory colonies. However, use of laboratory reared insects would facilitate additional diapause research, so long as those insects exhibit a diapause response similar to that of the field population. L. hesperus, originating as eggs from field-collected insects, were reared in the laboratory for four generations to examine corresponding changes in selected biological characteristics. Over the course of the four generations, incidence of diapause in both L. hesperus genders decreased whereas the frequency of oviposition by virgin females increased. Measurable changes were not observed in frequency of occurrence of a specific fat body type (glass bead fat) or nymphal development time. These results suggest L. hesperus used in diapause research should be as close to the field population as possible, but no further removed than three generations. Results further demonstrate variability among different biological characteristics in their responses to selection from laboratory rearing. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the influences of rearing on specific biological characteristics under study, and the need to verify the similarity of laboratory-reared insects to their native counterparts in studies used to draw inferences regarding the field population. PMID:22507017

Spurgeon, D W

2012-04-01

2

LABORATORY REARING OF THE DESERT PUPFISH, Cyprinodon macularius DAVID CREAR' AND IRWIN HAYDOCK'  

E-print Network

LABORATORY REARING OF THE DESERT PUPFISH, Cyprinodon macularius DAVID CREAR' AND IRWIN HAYDOCK' ABSTRACT The desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macmarius, may b~ reared in the laboratory for use in the study treatments described. Methods for spawning and rearing the desert pupfish in the laboratory are detailed

3

Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

2014-01-01

4

1996,52.529-537 Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish,  

E-print Network

. .fllim. B.-htlV, 1996,52.529-537 @ Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish, Sepiaofficinalis L. No evidenceof Insli- Cuttlefish are neither solitary, .as arc octo- lute, 301 UnivcrsilY Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555

Boal, Jean

5

EFFECT OF SEVERAL DIETS ON SURVIVAL, DEVELOPMENT TIME, AND GROWTH OF LABORATORY-REARED  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SEVERAL DIETS ON SURVIVAL, DEVELOPMENT TIME, AND GROWTH OF LABORATORY-REARED SPIDER CRAB determined for larvae of the spider crab, Libinia emarginata, reared with nine diet combinations of algae for diets ofA. salina nauplii, either alone or in combination with otherfood sources. Zoealsurvival

6

Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

Nichols, S. Jerrine

1992-01-01

7

Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

2005-01-01

8

Announcing a new book: Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique  

E-print Network

Announcing a new book: Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique The codling moth Cydia for Lepidopteran pests is very often underestimated. There has been an increasing interest to develop codling moth series compiles and summarizes available information on the rearing of the codling moth in relation

Ray, David

9

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

hickory shuckworm medium 20 g pectin 2 ml linseed oil Anthon et al. peach twi. g borer medium 5 g pectin 10 g glucose substituted for 10 sucrose 36 g vitamins 12 ml linseed oil 15 g vitamins Modifications per 1000 ml water quanity of diet. a...). One modification was the addition of 20 g of pectin to possibly stimulate feeding. The other was the addition of linseed oil in an attempt to correct abnormal wing expansion, which was obtained when rearing the insect on the unmodified diet...

Mastro, Victory Carl

1973-01-01

10

Phenotypic trait changes in laboratory--reared colonies of the maize herbivore, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.  

PubMed

The North American and European maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was used to assess whether conditions of the natal field, subsequent laboratory rearing, or genetic population origin affect phenotypic traits of fitness, activity, or morphometrics. Standardized laboratory bioassays with large sample sizes revealed that none of the 16 tested traits, except crawling behaviours, appeared consistently stable across all seven tested colonies. Environmental conditions in the natal field of the F 0 generation affected trait averages of the subsequently reared F 1 generation in laboratory in ca. 47% of cases, and trait variability in 67% of cases. This was apparent for fitness and morphometrics, but less obvious for activity traits. Early generation laboratory rearing affected trait averages in ca. 56% of cases: morphometrics changed; fecundity and egg survival increased from F 1 to F 2. Trait variability increased or decreased in 38% of cases. Laboratory rearing for over more than 190 generations affected the trait averages in 60% of cases, reflected by decreases in flight activity and increases in body size, weight, and fecundity to some extent. It had little effect on trait variability, especially so for morphometric variability. The genetic population origin affected average levels of 55% and variability of 63% of phenotypic traits. A comparison among D. v. virgifera studies might be difficult if they use different populations or laboratory colonies. It is advised to consider possible effects of original field conditions, laboratory rearing, and population genetics when planning comparative studies targeting fitness, activity, or morphometric questions regarding Diabrotica species. PMID:24267312

Li, H; Guillemaud, T; French, B W; Kuhlmann, U; Toepfer, S

2014-02-01

11

Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

1995-02-01

12

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

13

Techniques for microbial control in the intensive rearing of marine larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive cultivation conditions for marine larvae may easily cause microbial problems, resulting in poor growth and mass mortality, and techniques for improvement by enhancing environmental and larval factors should be developed. Establishment of a beneficial, protective microflora of marine larvae can be obtained by use of microbial matured water and probiotics. Microbial maturation of the rearing water before use

Jorunn Skjermo; Olav Vadstein

1999-01-01

14

Rearing of coconut mite Aceria guerreronis and the predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki in the laboratory.  

PubMed

A method was developed for the rearing of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on embryo culture seedlings of coconut (Cocos nucifera) in the laboratory. Seedlings in the ages of <2, 2-4 and 4-6 months were infested with 75 field-collected coconut mites and the population growth was determined up to six weeks after introduction. The populations of coconut mites increased exponentially up to five weeks after introduction and declined thereafter on seedlings of all ages with significant differences among the three groups of seedlings occurring over time. At week 5, a significantly higher mean number (+/-SE) of coconut mites (20,098 +/- 3,465) was bred on 4-6-month-old seedlings than on smaller seedlings, and on the largest seedlings the numbers were highest at all time intervals, except at week 2. Neoseiulus baraki was reared on embryo culture seedlings of the three age groups infested with coconut mites, by introduction of five female deutonymphs and one male, three weeks after introducing coconut mites. Predator numbers progressed significantly over time, but the size of seedlings did not significantly influence the numbers. On all groups of seedlings, the mean number of N. baraki increased up to two weeks after introduction on to seedlings and then declined. Many coconut mites were successfully reared in the laboratory for a longer period by this method and it could also be used as an alternative method to rear N. baraki. Development of this method may contribute to the progress of studies on the biology and ecology of coconut mite and its interactions with natural enemies. PMID:18058025

De Silva, P H P R; Fernando, L C P

2008-01-01

15

Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions. PMID:21838957

Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

2012-02-01

16

Standard metabolism and growth dynamics of laboratory-reared larvae of Sardina pilchardus.  

PubMed

This study provides the first measurements of the standard respiration rate (R(S)) and growth dynamics of European sardine Sardina pilchardus larvae reared in the laboratory. At 15° C, the relationship between RS (µl O(2) individual(-1) ?h(-1)) and larval dry mass (M(D), µg) was equal to: R(S) = 0·0057(±0·0007, ± s.e.)·M(D) (0·8835(±0·0268)), (8-11% M(D) day(-1)). Interindividual differences in RS were not related to interindividual differences in growth rate or somatic (Fulton's condition factor) or biochemical-based condition (RNA:DNA). PMID:24646016

Moyano, M; Garrido, S; Teodósio, M A; Peck, M A

2014-04-01

17

Laboratory rearing conditions for improved growth of juvenile Helix aspersa Müller snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory rearing system in semi-controlled conditions is proposed to facilitate the behavioural rhythms of the edible snail (Helix aspersa) and to produce a high growth rate with low variability. The growth data were used to construct a model for weight estimation based on age. The animals' live weights showed low variability (<17%) and normal distribution. The best model for estimating weight from age is the logistic model, with a high corelation coefficient (>90%), and a high level of significance for the coefficient (P < 0.0001). PMID:16803649

García, A; Perea, J M; Mayoral, A; Acero, R; Martos, J; Gómez, G; Peña, F

2006-07-01

18

Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory.  

PubMed

Life history of a free-living meiobenthic nematode Daptonema normandicum (DeMan, 1890) was studied in the laboratory. Live specimens were primarily collected from the sewage outlet site near the mouth of the Mandovi estuary, Goa This species was the most dominant (> 67%) among the meiobenthic nematodes. Vertically, nematode abundance was highest at the surface sediment and correlated with the organic carbon and sediment chlorophyll-a. Considering their dominance in the meiofauna, attempts were made to rear D. normandicum in laboratory. Salinity of the culture medium was maintained at 14 to 17 PSU (same as the collection site). All the culture experiments were conducted in semisolid nutrient agar media at 27 +/- 2 degrees C temperature for 12 hr dark: 12 hr light conditions. The food consists primarily of an unidentified bacterium and mixed algae, but diatom and ciliates were also observed in culture. Females produced first batch of eggs at the age of 23 days. Gravid female normally carry 8-10 eggs. Embryonic development is completed in -72 hr and entire life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in 22-24 days. Average size of juveniles at the hatching was 0.189 mm. Young individuals attains a maximum size of 1.23 mm (male) and 1.04 mm (female) in -21-23 days. Growth, in terms of length was augmented upto 23rd day and ceased thereafter. The daily growth increment for the first 5 days was 0.01-0.04 mm which increased upto 0.05-0.08 mm d(-1) during the maturation (10-18 days). Male : female ratio was 1:2. In this laboratory study, we provided information on the embryonic development, the life cycle and ecology Our results demonstrated that D. normandicum can be reared successfully under the controlled conditions, suggesting possible use of this species in toxicological and aquaculture studies. The culture method described is very handy and can be applicable for rearing other meiobenthic species particularly the nematodes with comparable feeding habits. PMID:21882647

Singh, Ravail; Ingole, Baban

2011-03-01

19

Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Laboratory, PO Box 748, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States); Styer, E.L. [University of Georgia, Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, PO Box 1389, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States)

2007-03-15

20

An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.  

PubMed

An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity. PMID:20945799

Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

2010-09-01

21

Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

1998-01-01

22

Feeding, growth, and survival of Engraulis mordax larvae reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are described for the successful rearing of northern anchovy larvae (Engraulis mordaxGirard) on cultured foods. Larvae were fed successively on the unarmored dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens, the veliger of the gastropod Bulla gouldiana, and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Rearing containers ranging in capacity from 4.5 to 510 l were tested; the smaller ones were found to be

R. LASKEIr; H. M. Feder; G. H. Theilacker; R. C. May

1970-01-01

23

Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

24

Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

25

Larval development of the land hermit crab Coenobita violascens Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Anomura, Coenobitidae) described from laboratory-reared materia.  

PubMed

The zoeal and the megalopal stages of the land hermit crab Coenobita violascens Heller, 1862 are described and illustrated from laboratory-reared material, and compared with larvae of nine other described coenobitid species. The larvae developed through four planktonic zoeal stages to the megalopal stage. Coenobita violascens had characteristics of zoeal pleomeres and megalopal antennules typical of those found in other Coenobita species, excluding C. brevimanus.  PMID:25662121

Kato, Saori; Hamasaki, Katsuyuki; Dan, Shigeki; Kitada, Shuichi

2015-01-01

26

Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov., from the digestive tract of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris).  

PubMed

Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus were isolated from the digestive tracts of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris) using MRS agar under anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as undescribed members of the genus Lactobacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.9?%) to the uncharacterized bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. Mboho2r2 isolated from the stomach of a European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Lactobacillus tucceti was found to be the closest related species with a validly published name, with 92.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain. However, phylogenetic analyses based on different markers revealed that this species is phylogenetically very distant from the novel strains. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain BTLCH M1/2(T) is 37.8 mol%. The fatty acids C(19?:?1)?6c and/or C(19?:?0) cyclo ?10c/19?6, C(18?:?1)?9c and C(16?:?0) were predominant in all strains. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, seven glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids were detected in the novel strains. Growth was observed at 47 °C. The peptidoglycan type A4? L-Lys-D-Asp was determined for strain BTLCH M1/2(T). Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on the phylogenetic markers hsp60, pheS, rpoA and tuf as well as phenotypic characteristics and the results of chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the new isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BTLCH M1/2(T) (?=?DSM 26517(T)?=?CCM 8440(T)). PMID:24824637

Killer, J; Votavová, A; Valterová, I; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Hroncová, Z

2014-08-01

27

Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto  

PubMed Central

Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

2013-01-01

28

VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

29

Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

2014-06-01

30

Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larvae and juveniles of the Laotioan indigenous cyprinid Hypsibarbus malcolmi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological development, including the pigmentation, body proportions, fins, and survival rate for 30 days after hatching,\\u000a of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Hypsibarbus malcolmi is described. Body lengths (BL) of larvae and juveniles were 2.0 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) mm at 1 h after hatching (day 0) and 9.2 ± 0.6 mm\\u000a on day 16, reaching 12.1 ± 0.9 mm on day 30. Yolk volume decreased linearly, with the yolk being

Yuka Ogata; Shinsuke Morioka; Kosuke Sano; Bounsong Vongvichith; Hiroki Eda; Hisashi Kurokura; Thongkhoun Khonglaliane

2010-01-01

31

Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

JEAN GEARY BOAL

1996-01-01

32

Laboratory rearing of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): a predator of pecan pest insects  

E-print Network

-artificial nutrient mixture for rearing and egg prcduction of adult green lacewings, which consisted of five parts Food Wheast (a yeast, Saccharomyces fragilis, cultured on a whey substrate), six parts sugar, and ten parts water. prcduction of green lacewing... Hagen, K. S. , and R. L. Tassan. 1970. The influence of Fcod Wheast and related Saccharomyces fragilis yeast products on the fecundity of Chrysopa carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Can. Entorrol. 102= 806-811 Hydron, W. H. , and S. B. Whitcomb. 1979...

Elkarmi, Lina Ali

2012-06-07

33

Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

34

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

NAJAM, EDWARD W.

35

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory-rearing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective ...

36

Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

37

DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

38

Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

39

Additional moults into 'elongatus' males in laboratory-reared Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae) - implications for taxonomy.  

PubMed

The number of stadia during post-embryonic development is supposed to be fixed in most species of the millipede order Polydesmida. For the first time since 1928, additional moults were observed in two males of Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 reared in the laboratory. These 'elongatus' males sensu Verhoeff reached stadium IX instead of stadium VIII, with addition of a further podous ring (32 pairs of legs). One male had well-developed gonopods at stadium VIII, which regressed at stadium IX; the other had no gonopods at stadium VIII, which developed at stadium IX. The two cases correspond to the 'regressionis' and 'progressionis' forms described by Verhoeff in Polydesmus complanatus (Linnaeus, 1761), which confirms entirely his results. Additional moults appear to be associated with small body sizes and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Comparisons between millipede orders indicate that post-embryonic development is less strictly canalized in Polydesmida than in Chordeumatida. This implies that the adult number of body rings is of limited taxonomic value in Polydesmida and should not be viewed as a character of generic importance. PMID:22303094

David, Jean-Francois; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques

2011-01-01

40

Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

Michael Lehman

2008-06-01

41

Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

2011-01-01

42

Clinical Laboratory Techniques and MEMS Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This unit introduces users to the Clinical Laboratory. This module presents information for users to learn about the testing that takes place in a clinical lab, the requirements of the technicians and equipment used to produce accurate and consistent results, and the possibilities of replacing some of these tests with MEMS and bioMEMS. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

43

Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species  

PubMed Central

The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

2007-01-01

44

Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques  

SciTech Connect

Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

45

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

46

Design of a Portable Streamside Rearing Facility for Lake Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable streamside rearing facility was designed and used by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians during efforts to rehabilitate a remnant population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the Big Manistee River, Michigan, beginning in 2004. The streamside rearing facility facilitates rearing of wild-caught lake sturgeon larvae in their natal water. This rearing approach provides a cost-effective technique

J. Marty Holtgren; Stephanie A. Ogren; Aaron J. Paquet; Steve Fajfer

2007-01-01

47

Pathfinder Rear Ramp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

1997-01-01

48

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

49

Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Pseudoloma neurophilia, a Common Microsporidian of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reared in Research Laboratories  

PubMed Central

One of the most prevalent pathogens found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) research facilities is the microsporidian parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia. Infections occur primarily in the spinal cord and are associated with emaciation and scoliotic changes. It is unclear why P. neurophilia is so widespread among research colonies, although transfer of infected animals and eggs between laboratories is a likely contributor. In addition to preventing the spread of this pathogen among facilities, it is desirable to have parasite-free fish for use in experiments. Therefore we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic test for P. neurophilia. Compared with conventional diagnostic methods, PCR diagnosis is rapid, allows for screening of large numbers of fish, and can be applied to eggs, water filtrates, biofilms, and other samples. Using PCR primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal DNA of P. neurophilia, the test was consistently capable of detecting 10 spores per reaction and often as few as 0.1 spore per reaction and did not cross-react with other selected microsporidian species from fish. We recommend this PCR diagnostic assay for use by the research community to determine the presence (or absence) of P. neurophilia in colonies and for screening fish shipped between facilities, especially when parasite-free fish are required for experiments. Furthermore, we currently are using this PCR method to investigate the potential role of vertical transmission in the spread of P. neurophilia. PMID:16539333

Whipps, Christopher M.; Kent, Michael L.

2006-01-01

50

Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO\\/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf,

B. Barnes; S. Rosenberg; L. Arnolds; J. Johnson

2007-01-01

51

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

52

View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

53

Laboratory rearing of bed bugs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

54

Further Success in the Development of Laboratory Techniques for Spawning Brook Trout, Salvelinus Fontinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small plastic spawning baskets served successfully as spawning sites for the laboratory reared brook trout. Five of the six pairs of 1-yr-old trout spawned with normal egg production in four pairs. The temperature was maintained at 9.4 to 15.4°C for optimum growth. Fungus disease, especially in the males, was the principal problem encountered during the spawning attempt. (RAF)

T. O. Thatcher; E. G. Wolf; M. J. Schneider

1975-01-01

55

DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU  

E-print Network

DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY not been verified by rearing the larvae from known parentage. Larvae ofP. goniurus were reared in situ of describing pandalid shrimp larvae reared in the laboratory from known par- entage. I have reported on larvae

56

Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

57

Evaluation of Hadena perplexa [Lepidoptera: Phalaenidae] as a biocontrol agent of bladder campion Silene vulgaris [Caryophyllaceae] in Canada: Rearing and host specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rearing techniques and results of preliminary host range tests are reported forHadena perplexa (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Lep.: Phalaenidae) a candidate biocontrol agent against the weed bladder campion,Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, in Manitoba, Canada. In the laboratory, it was necessary to pipette a 15% honey solution in water into the\\u000a flowers as food for the adult moths. When reared singly to

D. P. Peschken; J. L. Derby

1990-01-01

58

Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. ·Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. ·Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

Sanders, Erin R

2012-01-01

59

Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Volume Transfers with Serological Pipettes and Micropipettors  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: •Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. •Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility.• Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. •Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. •Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. •State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. •Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. •Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

Sanders, Erin R.

2012-01-01

60

A new larval tray and rack system for improved mosquito mass rearing.  

PubMed

The requirement for efficient mosquito mass rearing technology has been one of the major obstacles preventing the large scale application of the Sterile Insect Technique against mosquitoes. At the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/ IAEA) Insect Pest Control Laboratories we developed a larval rearing unit based on the use of a stainless steel rack that operates 50 thermoformed ABS plastic trays and is expected to be able to successfully rear 140,000-175,000 Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) adult mosquitoes per rack. The mechanized rearing unit is simple to handle, maintains minimal water temperature variation and negligible water evaporation and allows normal larval development. The mosquito mass-rearing tray was designed to provide a large surface area of shallow water that would closely mimic natural breeding sites. The trays stack into a dedicated rack structure and filling and draining were easily performed. The close stacking of the trays in the rack and the possibility to tightly line up several racks makes this rearing unit a valid solution for maximal use of the space thus reducing construction, heating, and cooling costs. The low amount of labor required to operate the system also reduces labor costs that represent one of the main expenditures in any mass rearing facility operation. Preliminary experiments performed on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) also confirm the possibility of successfully extending the use of this technology to other mosquito species. Our larval rearing unit could enhance any mosquito control strategy in which large-scale releases of mosquitoes are needed to suppress or replace natural populations. PMID:22679867

Balestrino, F; Benedict, M Q; Gilles, J R L

2012-05-01

61

Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

62

Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden  

SciTech Connect

Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

Hettler, W.F.

1981-04-01

63

5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004  

E-print Network

This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

Tabacco, Sarah

2004-01-01

64

Research Associate Rearing and Identification of Wood-boring Beetles Intercepted in US Ports Xavier University & USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST Otis Laboratory  

E-print Network

of Entry Xavier University & USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST Otis Laboratory The Xavier University Department of Biology and USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST Otis Laboratory seeks applications for a research associate to work candidate will work with USDA and university taxonomists to identify specimens by morphological

Ferrara, Katherine W.

65

CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

66

and physiology between reared and wild larvae and concluded that results on growth, nutrition,  

E-print Network

and physiology between reared and wild larvae and concluded that results on growth, nutrition, and mortality of laboratory-reared larvae should not be related to the field. My study shows that jack mackerel larvae reared with food in 10 1 containers were smaller and in poorer nutritional condition than larvae

67

Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

68

Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

69

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

70

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

71

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

72

9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

73

Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua  

PubMed Central

As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

2012-01-01

74

Toward Communal Child Rearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

Sands, Rosalind M.

1973-01-01

75

Revitalizing pathology laboratories in a gastrointestinal pathophysiology course using multimedia and team-based learning techniques.  

PubMed

In 2008, we changed the gastrointestinal pathology laboratories in a gastrointestinal pathophysiology course to a more interactive format using modified team-based learning techniques and multimedia presentations. The results were remarkably positive and can be used as a model for pathology laboratory improvement in any organ system. Over a two-year period, engaging and interactive pathology laboratories were designed. The initial restructuring of the laboratories included new case material, Digital Atlas of Video Education Project videos, animations and overlays. Subsequent changes included USMLE board-style quizzes at the beginning of each laboratory, with individual readiness assessment testing and group readiness assessment testing, incorporation of a clinician as a co-teacher and role playing for the student groups. Student responses for pathology laboratory contribution to learning improved significantly compared to baseline. Increased voluntary attendance at pathology laboratories was observed. Spontaneous student comments noted the positive impact of the laboratories on their learning. Pathology laboratory innovations, including modified team-based learning techniques with individual and group self-assessment quizzes, multimedia presentations, and paired teaching by a pathologist and clinical gastroenterologist led to improvement in student perceptions of pathology laboratory contributions to their learning and better pathology faculty evaluations. These changes can be universally applied to other pathology laboratories to improve student satisfaction. PMID:22464153

Carbo, Alexander R; Blanco, Paola G; Graeme-Cooke, Fiona; Misdraji, Joseph; Kappler, Steven; Shaffer, Kitt; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Berzin, Tyler; Leffler, Daniel; Najarian, Robert; Sepe, Paul; Kaplan, Jennifer; Pitman, Martha; Goldman, Harvey; Pelletier, Stephen; Hayward, Jane N; Shields, Helen M

2012-05-15

76

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teachi

Sara Nottingham

2010-05-01

77

Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)

Saltinski, Ronald

1969-01-01

78

Survey of Laboratory Scale Fabrication Techniques for Passive UHF RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Survey of Laboratory Scale Fabrication Techniques for Passive UHF RFID Tags Tamer Elsherbeni1 an overview of various RFID tag fabrication methods and briefly describes the advantages and disadvantages that can be applied for RFID fabrication purposes for laboratory scale experiments. This paper will present

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

79

Laboratory-scale techniques for the measurement of a material response to an explosive blast  

E-print Network

Laboratory-scale techniques for the measurement of a material response to an explosive blast M Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9 June 2008: 81.70.Bt Keywords: Explosive Blast testing Laboratory-scale Plate deformation a b s t r a c

Settles, Gary S.

80

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

81

Synchrotron and laboratory studies utilizing a new powder diffraction technique  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer that is much more efficient than existing methods. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument has an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3[degrees] to 4[degrees] instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers. Results are presented for fluorapatite Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], and a high-TC superconductor.

Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Jennings, G.; Engbretson, M.; Ramanathan, M.

1992-10-01

82

Synchrotron and laboratory studies utilizing a new powder diffraction technique  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer that is much more efficient than existing methods. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument has an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3{degrees} to 4{degrees} instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers. Results are presented for fluorapatite Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a high-TC superconductor.

Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Jennings, G.; Engbretson, M.; Ramanathan, M.

1992-10-01

83

Social interactions of monkeys reared in a nuclear family environment versus monkeys reared with mothers and peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-year-old laboratory-born rhesus monkeys that had been reared in a nuclear family social environment consisting of mothers, fathers, siblings, peers, and other adults of both sexes were permitted to interact in various combinations with equal-aged monkeys that had been reared in an environment consisting of only mothers and peers. It was found that in most interaction sessions nuclear family subjects

Stephen J. Suomi

1974-01-01

84

Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).  

PubMed

The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

2002-07-01

85

REAR OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING OPEN GRASSY REAR YARD. VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING OPEN GRASSY REAR YARD. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

86

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

87

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

88

Genetic Sexing Strains in Mediterranean Fruit Fly, an Example for Other Species Amenable to Large-Scale Rearing for the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species

G. Franz

89

Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

1963-01-01

90

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

91

Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

We administered the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) to 217 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic reared-together adult twin pairs and 44 monozygotic and 27 dizygotic reared-apart adult twin pairs. A four-parameter biometric model (incorporating genetic, additive versus nonadditive, shared family-environment, and unshared environment components) and five reduced models were fitted through maximum-likelihood techniques to data obtained with the 11 primary MPQ scales

Alike Tellegen; David T. Lykken; Thomas J. Bouchard; Kimerly J. Wilcox; Nancy L. Segal; Stephen Rich

1988-01-01

92

Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques

MacDonald, Gina

2008-01-01

93

Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

2004-01-01

94

STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research – Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in today’s video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

Janus Research Group

95

[The development of techniques for liquid level detection in auto clinical laboratory analyzers].  

PubMed

Liquid level detection (LLD) is necessary for eliminating carry-over of needle's outside by limiting the depth the needle probes into liquid in auto clinical laboratory analyzers. This paper listed various demands of liquid-handling system under different situations; reviewed various LLD techniques, such as capacitive, air pressure, mechanical vibration, ultrasound, light reflection, CCD imaging etc.; briefly introduced the working principles, features, and limitation of the LLDs; and recapitulated the characteristics of contact and non-contact LLDs. Lastly, the next generation technique of LLD is prospected. PMID:20842879

Zhu, Xianfeng; Zhang, Kuo; Zeng, Sisi; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Wenhao; Wang, Mingshi

2010-08-01

96

49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

2013-10-01

97

49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

2012-10-01

98

49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

2010-10-01

99

49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear impact guards and rear end protection. 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.86 Rear impact guards and rear end protection. ...1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the requirements...

2011-10-01

100

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

101

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

102

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

103

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

104

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

105

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

106

3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

107

An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

108

2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

109

Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

Hofstra University (Hofstra University)

2012-01-06

110

A study of the growth of Octopus joubini Robson, 1929 reared in controlled closed seawater systems  

E-print Network

Octopodinae and Eledoninae, laboratory growth informa- tion is available for only eight species: Octopodinae ? Octopus cyanea, Octopus tetricus, Octopus oulgaris, Octopus briareus, Octopus J'oubini, Octopus maya, Bapalochlaena maculosa and Eledoninae...-span of laboratory reared Octopus maya and compared these findings with his work on 0. cyanea. Tranter and Augustine (1973) reared Papafochfaena maculosa through its life cycle and presented a growth curve based on the mantle length of the fastest growing indivi...

Forsythe, John Wentworth

2012-06-07

111

Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

2013-12-01

112

Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR). The use of micro-XRD was necessary due to the poor results obtained with conventional XRD. In some cases, pigment identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques utilised in this study. PMID:20541637

Duran, A; Siguenza, M B; Franquelo, M L; Jimenez de Haro, M C; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

2010-06-25

113

[Artificial diet for rearing Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), a predator of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].  

PubMed

A new technique involving an artificial diet and an artificial substrate for oviposition for the rearing of the predator Doru luteipes (Scudder) is suggested. Both adults and nymphs were maintained in petri dishes containing a transparent piece of soda straw filled with moistened cotton and the corresponding food for the biossays. The following treatments were tested: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); insect pupae meal (FPI); Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) commercial pollen (PC); FPI + PC, and FPI + cattail pollen [Typha angustifolia L. (Thyphaceae)]. Each treatment had 50 replicates, and food was offered in excess. Treatments consisting of insect pupae meal (FPI), FPI + commercial pollen (PC), and FPI + cattail pollen resulted in nymphal development of 32, 29, and 29 days, with 83, 90 and 100% survival, respectively, and were superior to the PC treatment, with values of 37 days and 67% survival observed for insects reared on commercial pollen. Treatments that included insect pupae flour, either alone or mixed with pollens, were similar to control (S. frugiperda eggs). We conclude that the artificial diets tested and rearing technique are suitable for the artificial rearing of D. luteipes in laboratory conditions. PMID:17607467

Pasini, Amarildo; Parra, José R P; Lopes, Janaína M

2007-01-01

114

A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

2012-01-01

115

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

116

Strategies for rearing of rabbit does  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is reached, that occurs around 14 to 16 weeks of age. Under current rearing,

J. M. Rommers

2003-01-01

117

Laboratory demonstration model: Active cleaning technique device. [for removal of contaminants from an optical surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.

Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

1974-01-01

118

Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.  

PubMed

In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert. PMID:25205526

Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

2014-12-01

119

A laboratory course for teaching laboratory techniques, experimental design, statistical analysis, and peer review process to undergraduate science students.  

PubMed

This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and written discussion of results. The laboratory practices were a guided inquiry based around retinol's ability to potentiate acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. To induce critical thinking, students were given a choice as to which assay they could use to determine how retinol affected acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Short summaries were handed in following each assay and formed the bases of the formative assessment. To complete the feedback loop, a summative assessment that consisted of all the graphs and concepts from the short summaries were combined into a manuscript. To give the students exposure to science communication, the manuscript had to be written in accordance to the submission guidelines for Toxicological Sciences. Evaluation of this course was determined by a student questionnaire using a Likert scale and students' responses were very favorable. While the subject matter was toxicological centric, the content could be easily modified to suit another subject matter in biochemistry and molecular biology. PMID:23166024

Gliddon, C M; J Rosengren, R

2012-01-01

120

Euthanasia by decapitation: evidence that this technique produces prompt, painless unconsciousness in laboratory rodents.  

PubMed

Rapid euthanasia of laboratory rodents without the use of anesthesia is a necessary research technique whenever there is the likelihood of anesthesia or stress interfering with the chemistry of the tissues under investigation. Decapitation has long been the procedure of choice under such circumstances. Recently, however, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) panel on euthanasia recommended that decapitation be avoided on the grounds that the decapitated head may be conscious and suffering for as much as 15 seconds. The panel further recommended that if decapitation was scientifically necessary, the decapitated head be immediately immersed in liquid nitrogen. These AVMA guidelines now enjoy regulatory status; the recommendation that decapitation be avoided has thus caused considerable difficulty for all research requiring rapid, anesthesia-free collection of tissues. The scientific validity of these recommendations is consequently a matter of great practical as well as theoretical importance. The decision to discourage decapitation appears to have been based on a single literature report claiming that the EEG of the decapitated head revealed conscious suffering for more than 10 seconds (Mikeska and Klemm 1976). This review carefully examines the scientific literature on this subject. It is concluded that the report by Mikeska and Klemm of EEG activation in the decapitated head is correct, but that this phenomenon is also seen when the decapitated head is under deep anesthesia, and in normal brains under ether anesthesia or during REM sleep. Hence these findings do not demonstrate either consciousness or the perception of pain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1522830

Holson, R R

1992-01-01

121

Application of non-intrusive geophysical techniques at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessment and remediation of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The Mixed Waste Landfill is an inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. The landfill contains disposal pits and trenches of questionable location and dimension. Non-intrusive geophysical techniques were utilized to provide an effective means

Jerry L. Peace; David A. Hyndman; Tim J. Goering

1996-01-01

122

Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration  

PubMed Central

A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

2014-01-01

123

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

124

Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region analysis in a laboratory plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory plasma is utilized to assess the effectiveness of several prominent spacecraft data analysis techniques. These include minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and various boundary-crossing time analyses (BCTA) such as the constant velocity approach (CVA), constant thickness approach (CTA), and minimum thickness variance (MTV). Magnetic field data from measurement points that resemble the formation of multispacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check MVAB and BCTA to deduce a proper normal vector. Results from each method are compared to the values measured by 2-D magnetic probe arrays. We examine discharges with a two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but ions are not. We conclude that CVA with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector

Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki

2012-12-01

125

Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru.  

PubMed

As part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern Peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. Thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. All but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical examination. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma vitamin and mineral levels were studied and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Positive antibody titers for Salmonella and psittacine herpesvirus were found. These diseases have the potential to affect wildlife population dynamics, and Salmonella may have public health significance. Serological tests for avian influenza, infectious laryngotracheitis, paramyxovirus-1, -2, -3, polyoma virus, chlamydiosis, and aspergillosis were negative. Differences in disease prevalence were found between rearing situations. PMID:9523629

Karesh, W B; del Campo, A; Braselton, W E; Puche, H; Cook, R A

1997-12-01

126

MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

127

Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

128

Clay identification and amount measured by laboratory techniques compared to well log responses: Application to tight gas sands and shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification and amount of clay in tight sands and shales calculated by downhole log interpretation techniques have been compared with those measured by a variety of analytical laboratory methods. The US DOE's Multiwell Experiment in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado has provided a wide selection of core and extensive logging data from the Mesaverde Formation. The samples were analyzed for clay content in the laboratory using all of the following methods: optical petrography, X-ray diffraction, bulk chemical, acetate method for cation exchange capacity, sedigraph, pipet, and centrifuge. Potassium, uranium, and thorium (KUT) concentrations were determined utilizing the following techniques: X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, neutron activation, gamma spectroscopy and alpha spectrometry. This multiple technique approach was used in order to corroborate laboratory data. The results clearly show that relying on one or two methods can result in significant error. Laboratory data point out that this small sampling of log-defined good sands and shales actually represents a variety of lithologies and compositions.

Heinze, D. M.

1985-03-01

129

Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings.  

PubMed

Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2013-07-01

130

The effects of rearing method on social behaviors of mentored, captive-reared juvenile California condors.  

PubMed

Puppet-reared and parent-reared captive-bred California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) juveniles were studied before their release into the wild. Behavioral data were collected during social interactions within two cohorts of juveniles (N = 11) and their adult mentors (N = 5). The purposes of this study were to (1) document the social behaviors of mentored juvenile California condors, and (2) compare social behaviors for two different rearing methods (puppet-reared versus parent-reared) during two phases of the mentoring process (San Diego Wild Animal Park versus release sites). Of the 17 behaviors examined by 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs), two significant interactions between the rearing method and mentoring phase were found: pulls feathers and feeds alone. For both behaviors, parent-reared condors engaged in these activities more often at the zoo and less often at the release pens than did the puppet-reared condors. The main effect of rearing was also significant for two behaviors: near others, and receives contact aggression from other. Parent-reared birds were more likely to be near another bird and receive contact aggression, regardless of mentoring phase, than puppet-reared birds. The effect size for 16 of the 17 behaviors was greater for the rearing method than for mentoring phase. Rearing method differences may persist long-term, as parent-reared adult mentors were significantly more aggressive than puppet-reared adult mentors. Dominance relations were examined for both cohorts, with the first cohort exhibiting a strong linear relationship (h' = 0.86, P = 0.018), whereas the second cohort exhibited a moderate but non-significant linear hierarchy (h' = 0.63, P = 0.21). The rearing method had no effect on dominance among the juveniles, but adults were probably dominant to juveniles (P = 0.052; the difference was nearly significant). Although social behaviors between the two rearing groups were similar in most respects, this study is the first to document measurable differences between puppet- and parent-reared captive-bred California condor juveniles. Zoo Biol 27:1-18, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360600

Utt, Amy C; Harvey, Nancy C; Hayes, William K; Carter, Ronald L

2008-01-01

131

Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up  

SciTech Connect

The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry, along with other modern analytical approaches, to develop routine analytical methods that significantly curtail waste but still maintain acceptable analytical figures of merit and achieve cost savings through reduced reagent consumption and reduced labor cost.

Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

1996-07-01

132

Performance of marking techniques in the field and laboratory for Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A reliable marking technique was needed for a mark-release-recapture experiment with adults of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar). Four marking techniques, acrylic paint (spattered or brushed on the surface of the insect); and fluorescent pigments (dusted on surfaces or mixed with diet to produce an inges...

133

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF A DYED FOOD MARKING TECHNIQUE FOR CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of marking adult Cx. quinquefasciatus by feeding the larvae commercial hog chow dyed with methylene blue, Giemsa, and crystal violet was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Of 243 mosquitoes fed the dyed food, 230 had visible marks (94.6 %). The dyed food did increase the development tim...

134

Comparison of field and laboratory collected midwave and longwave infrared emissivity spectra / data reduction techniques  

E-print Network

Comparison of field and laboratory collected midwave and longwave infrared emissivity spectra that have been around for decades? A number of temperature/emissivity separation algorithms on targets or when their nadir looking sensor is looking at a tilted target. Keywords: longwave, midwave

Salvaggio, Carl

135

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01

136

Characterization of pyrocarbon coated materials using laboratory based x-ray phase contrast imaging technique.  

PubMed

In-line x-ray phase contrast is an emerging x-ray imaging technique that promises to improve the contrast in x-ray imaging process. This technique is most suited for x-ray imaging of soft materials, low atomic number elements such as carbon composite fibers, very thin coatings, etc. We have used this new emerging technique for visualization and characterization of the pyrocarbon coated materials using a combination of microfocus x-ray source and x-ray charge coupled device detector. These studies are important for characterization of coating and optimization of various process parameters during deposition. These experiments will help us to exploit the potential of this technique for studies in other areas of material science such as characterization of carbon fibered structures and detection of cracks and flaws in materials. The characterization of the imaging system and optimization of some process parameters for carbon deposition are also described in detail. PMID:17764325

Kashyap, Y S; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P S; Yadav, P S; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar; Dasgupta, K; Sathiyamoorthy, D

2007-08-01

137

Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

1975-01-01

138

GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

1997-01-01

139

Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary

A. Duran; M. B. Siguenza; M. L. Franquelo; M. C. Jimenez de Haro; A. Justo; J. L. Perez-Rodriguez

2010-01-01

140

Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en masa. (author)

Barnes, B. [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J. [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

2007-03-15

141

Fatigue life simulation of a rear tow hook assembly of a passenger car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between laboratory test data on fatigue crack nucleation in a rear tow hook pin assembly of passenger vehicle and a computational methodology using commercial package software is presented. Fatigue damage is determined using local material response, measured during experimental tests. Experiments were performed simulating the actual conditions in the customer environment. Stress and strain were experimentally measured by

C. L. Petracconi; S. E. Ferreira; E. S. Palma

2010-01-01

142

A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

143

Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

1993-01-01

144

Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable upscaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterise biogenic NO release from soil (i.e. net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterisation can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e. where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterise net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing airstream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10 values. It could be shown that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and volatile organic compounds - VOCs). First, results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

2014-10-01

145

Characterisation of soil NO production and consumption by an improved laboratory technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable up-scaling. This study pre¬sents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterize biogenic NO release from soil (i.e., net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10-values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterization can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e., where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterize net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing air-stream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10-values. It could be shown, that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and VOCs). First results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, Thomas; Veres, Patrick; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Williams, Jonathan; Meixner, Franz

2014-05-01

146

Laboratory procedures and data reduction techniques to determine rheologic properties of mass flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining the rheologic properties of coarse- grained mass flows is an important step to mathematically simulate potential inundation zones. Using the vertically rotating flume designed and built by the U.S. Geological Survey, laboratory procedures and subsequent data reduction have been developed to estimate shear stresses and strain rates of various flow materials. Although direct measurement of shear stress and strain rate currently (1992) are not possible in the vertically rotating flume, methods were derived to estimate these values from measurements of flow geometry, surface velocity, and flume velocity.

Holmes, R.R., Jr.; Huizinga, R.J.; Brown, S.M.; Jobson, H.E.

1993-01-01

147

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

148

A laboratory system for the investigation of rain fade compensation techniques for Ka-band satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/20 GHz occurs due to the carrier wavelength approaching the water droplet size. Rain in the downlink path lowers the signal power present at the receiver, resulting in a higher number of bit errors induced in the digital ground terminal. The laboratory simulation performed at NASA Lewis Research Center uses a programmable PIN diode attenuator to simulate 20 GHz satellite downlink geographic rain fade profiles. A computer based network control system monitors the downlink power and informs the network of any power threshold violations, which then prompts the network to issue commands that temporarily increase the gain of the satellite based traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier. After the rain subsides, the network returns the TWT to the normal energy conserving power mode. Bit error rate (BER) data taken at the receiving ground terminal serves as a measure of the severity of rain degradation, and also evaluates the extent to which the network can improve the faded channel.

Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

1993-01-01

149

GENETIC PARAMETERS AND EVALUATION OF REAR LEGS (REAR VIEW) FOR BROWN SWISS AND GUERNSEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters for rear legs/rear view (RLRV) and 15 current linear type traits in Brown Swiss (BS) and Guernsey (GU) dairy cattle were estimated. The BS Association began scoring RLRV in 2004 and the American GU Association began in 2002. For BS, 7,522 records were available on 6,896 cows in 37...

150

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01

151

Influence of Rearing Temperature and Feeding Regime on Otolith Increment Deposition in Larval Ciscoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi were reared in the laboratory from eggs collected in Lake Superior to validate the use of otolith microstructure for estimating age in days. Throughout a 75-d period, water temperatures in two laboratory streams were increased progressively (from 5.6°C to 7.0°C and from 6.1°C to 12.3°C), mimicking the range larvae would probably experience in Lake Superior. Otolith

Jason K. Oyadomari; Nancy N. Auer

2007-01-01

152

A laboratory technique for investigation of diffusion and transformation of volatile organic compounds in low permeability media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory diffusion cell technique that permits spatial and temporal estimates of porewater concentrations over short intervals suitable for estimation of effective diffusion coefficients ( De) and degradation rate constants ( k) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saturated low permeability media is presented. The diffusion cell is a sealed cylinder containing vapour reservoirs for sampling, including a vapour reservoir source and an array of vapour-filled "mini-boreholes", which are maintained water- and sediment-free by slightly negative porewater pressures. The vapour reservoirs were sampled by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME), resulting in minimal disturbance to the experimental system. Porewater concentrations are estimated from the measured vapour concentrations. Experiments were conducted using a non-reactive medium and five VOCs with a range in partitioning properties. Calibration experiments showed that equilibrium partition coefficients could be used for calculating concentrations in the vapour reservoir source from concentrations in the SPME coating after a 1-min microextraction and that the reservoir concentration was insignificantly affected by sampling. However, equilibrium was not reached during the one-min extraction of the boreholes; the microextraction reduced the borehole vapour concentrations, leading to diffusion of VOCs from porewater into the vapour-filled borehole. Thus, empirical partitioning coefficients were required for the determination of porewater VOC concentrations. The experimental data and numerical modelling indicate masses extracted by SPME extraction are relatively small, with minimal perturbation on processes studied in diffusion experiments. This technique shows promise for laboratory investigation of diffusion and transformation processes in low permeability media.

Gordon, Sue; Mackay, Doug; Górecki, Tadeusz; Cherry, John A.; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2002-08-01

153

Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

Adams, Amy Lynn

2011-01-01

154

Hand-rearing reduces fear of humans in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.  

PubMed

Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2011-01-01

155

Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

2014-04-01

156

A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield  

PubMed Central

Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells’ forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

2014-01-01

157

A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield.  

PubMed

Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

2014-01-01

158

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

159

The Role of Socio-Communicative Rearing Environments on the Development of Social and Physical Cognition in Apes  

PubMed Central

The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5 year old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (E. Herrmann, J. Call, M. V. Hernandez-Lloreda, B. Hare, & M. Tomasello, 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5 year old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. PMID:22010903

Russell, J. L.; Lyn, H.; Schaeffer, J. A.; Hopkins, W. D.

2011-01-01

160

PCR-Based Techniques for Leprosy Diagnosis: From the Laboratory to the Clinic  

PubMed Central

In leprosy, classic diagnostic tools based on bacillary counts and histopathology have been facing hurdles, especially in distinguishing latent infection from active disease and diagnosing paucibacillary clinical forms. Serological tests and IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRA) that employ humoral and cellular immune parameters, respectively, are also being used, but recent results indicate that quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a key technique due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. In fact, advances concerning the structure and function of the Mycobacterium leprae genome led to the development of specific PCR-based gene amplification assays for leprosy diagnosis and monitoring of household contacts. Also, based on the validation of point-of-care technologies for M. tuberculosis DNA detection, it is clear that the same advantages of rapid DNA detection could be observed in respect to leprosy. So far, PCR has proven useful in the determination of transmission routes, M. leprae viability, and drug resistance in leprosy. However, PCR has been ascertained to be especially valuable in diagnosing difficult cases like pure neural leprosy (PNL), paucibacillary (PB), and patients with atypical clinical presentation and histopathological features compatible with leprosy. Also, the detection of M. leprae DNA in different samples of the household contacts of leprosy patients is very promising. Although a positive PCR result is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship with disease outcome, quantitation provided by qPCR is clearly capable of indicating increased risk of developing the disease and could alert clinicians to follow these contacts more closely or even define rules for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24722358

Martinez, Alejandra Nóbrega; Talhari, Carolina; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Talhari, Sinésio

2014-01-01

161

Experimental Evaluation of Multi-spacecraft Data Analysis Techniques in a Laboratory Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)[1] has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and boundary-crossing time analysis (BCTA). The neutral sheet is swept, or jogged, in a controlled manner with respect to the stationary probes by pulsed internal coil currents. Magnetic field data from measurement points resembling data from multi-spacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check both techniques to deduce a proper normal vector. We examine discharges with the two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but not ions. Boundary-crossing time analysis with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector and relative velocity along the normal vector for all of the tested cases. On the other hand, MVAB sometimes fails to predict a proper normal direction. This is because the X-line magnetic geometry is fundamentally 2-D or 3-D. However, the direction along the reconnecting field determined by MVAB does not deviate much from the real magnetic geometry documented by 2-D magnetic probe arrays and one additional probe at a different toroidal location. Based on these observations, we suggest a procedure for determining a local coordinate system for data from the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission when spacecraft passes through a reconnecting current sheet. The distance between measurement points on the order of the ion skin depth (c/{omega}{sub pi}) is pertinent to determination of the magnetic geometry.

Jongsoo Yoo and Masaaki Yamada

2012-03-27

162

Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy. PMID:23569725

Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

2011-01-01

163

Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL)  

SciTech Connect

The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

Galatà, A., E-mail: alessio.galata@lnl.infn.it; Sattin, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Martini, D.; Facco, A. [INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories, Legnaro (Pd) (Italy)] [INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories, Legnaro (Pd) (Italy); Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kulevoy, T. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2014-02-15

164

Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL).  

PubMed

The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed. PMID:24593508

Galatà, A; Sattin, M; Manzolaro, M; Martini, D; Facco, A; Tinschert, K; Spaedtke, P; Lang, R; Kulevoy, T

2014-02-01

165

Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

166

REARING AND DISTRIBUTING TROUT TO HELP MAINTAIN  

E-print Network

temperatures are rising. In hatcheries, domesticated rainbow brood trout spawn in the fall or winter. The brook widely distributed brown trout were introduced from Europe. Brook and brown trouts spawn in the fall, rearing; brook, brown, cutthroat, and rainbow trout, and some lake trout, as well as the landlocked

167

Raceway feeding photos Fish Rearing in Alaska  

E-print Network

Salmon, Kake Alaska #12;Kitoi Bay Hatchery Kodiak, Alaska #12;#12;#12;#12;The End #12;· Raceway feeding photos Fish Rearing in Alaska #12;ALASKAN OCEAN RANCHING · 1.8 Billion Eggs Taken in 2009 · 1.5 Billion Fish Released · Mostly Pink and Chum Salmon · Some Chinook, Coho, Sockeye · 26

168

Contributions to cooperative rearing in meerkats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vertebrate societies where young are reared communally, nonbreeding helpers are usually closely related to young but often vary widely in their contributions to feeding them. Evolutionary explanations of helping behaviour have focused on whether differences in the level of contributions between helpers are related to variation in kinship. We investigated the contribution of helpers in meerkats, Suricata suricatta. The

T. H. Clutton-Brock; P. N. M. Brotherton; M. J. O'Riain; A. S. Griffin; D. Gaynor; R. Kansky; L. Sharpe; G. M. McIlrath

2001-01-01

169

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING THE REAR LOADING DOCK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

170

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

171

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

172

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

173

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

174

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2012-10-01

175

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2014-10-01

176

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2010-10-01

177

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2011-10-01

178

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2013-10-01

179

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

180

Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.  

PubMed

A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

2014-06-01

181

Protocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae).  

PubMed

This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28 degrees C and approximately 80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults. PMID:18979019

Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

2007-01-01

182

Methods of reducing Ascogregarina chagasi parasitaemia in laboratory colonies of Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

PubMed

Ascogregarina chagasi is an aseptate gregarine parasite found naturally in populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Under intensive rearing conditions in the laboratory, the parasite is known to reduce longevity and egg production, therefore, it is thought to be a major contributing factor to the phenomenon of colony crashes. A study is described to test egg cleansing techniques, with a view to controlling this parasite in laboratory colonies. Methods used include washing eggs with formol, benzalkonium chloride and irradiating with ultraviolet light. It was concluded that cleansing with 0.1% formol solution was the most efficient method of controlling A. chagasi. PMID:1841206

Dougherty, M J; Ward, R D

1991-12-01

183

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

1996-08-01

184

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process

Eyal Ben Ami; Boaz Yuval; Edouard Jurkevitch

2010-01-01

185

Helminths of pond-reared walleye from Wisconsin.  

PubMed

One hundred extended growth walleye fingerlings, Sander vitreus (Percidae), collected on 6 October 2004, from 1 rearing pond at the Lake Mills State Fish Hatchery in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, were examined for parasites. Diplostomum sp. (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae), and Proteocephalus sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) were the only parasites found. The first 3 species occurred as larval stages. Diplostomum sp. and Contracaecum sp. had similar prevalences, mean intensities, and mean abundances (72%, 2.2, and 1.6 and 71%, 2.1, 1.5, respectively) in walleye fingerlings. A headlamp technique used by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources personnel generated a prevalence of Diplostomum sp. in the lens that overestimated the prevalence of Diplostomum sp. found in a random subsample of 100 fingerlings examined with a microscope. Proteocephalus sp. and B. cuspidatus infected 14 and 12 fingerlings, respectively. PMID:16729707

Muzzall, Patrick M; Eggold, Bradley T; Fahey, Robert J

2006-04-01

186

Factors associated with the incidence of bacterial gill disease in salmonid lots reared in Ontario, Canada government hatcheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial gill disease (BGD) (causative agent: Flavobacterium branchiophilum) has been a persistent problem in early-rearing salmonids in the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) fish hatchery system. Retrospective epidemiological investigations of BGD diagnoses and treatments in OMNR fish hatcheries during the period 1991–2001 were conducted using University of Guelph Fish Health Laboratory and OMNR central office data. All investigations were

Christopher M. Good; Margaret A. Thorburn; Roselynn M. W. Stevenson

2008-01-01

187

Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

188

Assessment of Load and Energy Reduction Techniques (ALERT) Retrocommissioning Case Study of Two National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Sites  

E-print Network

, could account for an additional 1% energy and cost savings. INTRODUCTION This report presents the draft results of the ALERT RCx evaluation performed on several of the NREL buildings located at the South Table Mountain (STM) site... measures: o STM ? Field Test Laboratory Building (FTLB): 117,800 SF. Consists of laboratory spaces and office spaces. o STM ? Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF): 117,200 SF. Consists of laboratory spaces and office spaces. o STM ? Shipping...

Luskay, L.; Haasl, T.; Schwab, J.; Beattie, D.

2003-01-01

189

View from left rear theater looking towards stage National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from left rear theater looking towards stage - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

190

GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

191

7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

192

Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon  

PubMed Central

Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are capable of successful spawning, and can reproduce with wild-type fish from natural systems. PMID:25133780

Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

2014-01-01

193

An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

2011-01-01

194

Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.  

PubMed

The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

Miniats, O P; Jol, D

1978-10-01

195

Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.  

PubMed

Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork. PMID:25276938

Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

2014-09-01

196

A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consume?s right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianji?s pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

197

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

198

How Things Work: Front and Rear Bicycle Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from How Things Work, by Lou Bloomfield, provides an explanation of why it can be hard to stop a bike with the rear brakes alone. The site contains a description of how friction and torque produce a rotation of the bicycle that makes the rear brakes ineffective.

2006-11-08

199

DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE. CONTROL STATION AT LEFT REAR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE. CONTROL STATION AT LEFT REAR. UPSTREAM LOCK GATE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING WEST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

200

Rear wheel suspension and steering system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a rear wheel support and driving system. The system comprises a rack-type dead axle adapted to support a vehicle body thereupon through suitable spring means, a pair of wheels rotatably supported upon the dead axle, a differential drive mechanism adapted to be supported upon the vehicle body movable with the body relative to the dead axle, the differential mechanism including a power input shaft and power output shafts, a pair of live axles drivingly connecting the output shafts with the wheels. The dead axle being generally rectilinear in shape and having a first pair of longitudinal beams respectively transversely spaced outboard of the differential mechanism, a second pair of cross beams respectively spaced fore and aft of the differential mechanism and secured to the first pair of beams.

Ewen, J.G.

1990-07-17

201

Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for

M. Hendrichs; V. Wornoayporn; J. Hendrichs; B. Katsoyannos

2007-01-01

202

NESTING AND BROOD-REARING SUCCESS AND RESOURCE SELECTION OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

NESTING AND BROOD-REARING SUCCESS AND RESOURCE SELECTION OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE IN NORTHWESTERN to conduct research on sage-grouse, and other upland game species. The past three years have provided me to thank Tony Apa for showing me my first sage-grouse, and the techniques to capture and radio- mark them

203

Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

204

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

205

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

206

Effects of Training Experienced Teachers in the Use of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year,…

Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

2014-01-01

207

Effects of Enhanced Laboratory Instructional Technique on Senior Secondary Students' Attitude toward Chemistry in Oyo Township, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effect of supplementing laboratory instruction with problem solving strategy and or practical skills teaching on students' attitude toward chemistry. A total of 286 senior secondary class II students (145 males and 141 females) drawn from four local government areas in Oyo township in Oyo state, Nigeria, took part in the…

Adesoji, Francis Adewumi; Raimi, Sikiru Morakinyo

2004-01-01

208

Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

2014-01-01

209

Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands  

SciTech Connect

The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el campo. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de la domesticacion en el laboratorio fue evaluado. Tres poblaciones naturales, una poblacion semi-natural y una poblacion criada en masa fueron evaluadas: las poblaciones natural de (1) Isla de Madeira (costa norte), (2) Isla de Madeira (costa sur) y (3) Isla de Porto Santo; (4) una poblacion semi-natural despues de 7 a 10 generaciones de domesticacion en el laboratorio (respectivamente, para el primero y segundo experimento); y (5) la raza para separar sexos geneticamente que es usada en el laboratorio de la mosca mediterranea de Madeira (VIENNA 7mix2000). Los experimentos usando jaulas en el campo mostraron que las poblaciones de diferentes origines fueron en su mayor parte compatibles. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad para competir sexualmente entre las poblaciones naturales. Los machos semi-naturales y los machos criados en masa mostraron un desempeno significativamente bajo en ambos experimentos que los machos naturales en el logro de copula con las hembras naturales. Este estudio indica que no hay un aislamiento significativo entre las razas probadas, aunque el desempeno en el apareamiento fue reducido en las moscas criadas en masa y semi-naturales despues de 7 a 10 generaciones en el laboratorio. (author)

Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L. [Programa Madeira-Med, Estrada Eng. Abel Vieira 262, 9135-260 Camacha, Madeira (Portugal)

2007-03-15

210

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

1995-01-27

211

Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a 228Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed 228Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10-6. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of 3He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

Zimbal, Andreas; Degering, Detlev; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Zuber, Kai

2013-08-01

212

An inter-laboratory comparison demonstrates that [1H]-NMR metabolite fingerprinting is a robust technique for collaborative plant metabolomic data collection  

PubMed Central

In any metabolomics experiment, robustness and reproducibility of data collection is of vital importance. These become more important in collaborative studies where data is to be collected on multiple instruments. With minimisation of variance in sample preparation and instrument performance it is possible to elucidate even subtle differences in metabolite fingerprints due to genotype or biological treatment. In this paper we report on an inter laboratory comparison of plant derived samples by [1H]-NMR spectroscopy across five different sites and within those sites utilising instruments with different probes and magnetic field strengths of 9.4 T (400 MHz), 11.7 T (500 MHz) and 14.1 T (600 MHz). Whilst the focus of the study is on consistent data collection across laboratories, aspects of sample stability and the requirement for sample rotation within the NMR magnet are also discussed. Comparability of the datasets from participating laboratories was exceptionally good and the data were amenable to comparative analysis by multivariate statistics. Field strength differences can be adjusted for in the data pre-processing and multivariate analysis demonstrating that [1H]-NMR fingerprinting is the ideal technique for large scale plant metabolomics data collection requiring the participation of multiple laboratories. PMID:20526352

Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.; Miller, Sonia J.; Deborde, Catherine; Maucourt, Mickael; Biais, Benoit; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Moco, Sofia; Vervoort, Jacques; Lommen, Arjen; Schäfer, Hartmut; Humpfer, Eberhard

2010-01-01

213

Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory  

SciTech Connect

We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup ?6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Degering, Detlev [Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e. V. (VKTA), D-01314 Dresden (Germany)] [Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e. V. (VKTA), D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Technische Universität Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Universität Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

2013-08-08

214

4. NORTH REAR, AFTER REMOVAL OF CINDER BLOCK ADDITION (NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR, AFTER REMOVAL OF CINDER BLOCK ADDITION (NOTE WINDOW WHICH WAS CONVERTED INTO DOOR AND CHANGES IN STONE WALL DELINEATING OUTLINE OF ORIGINAL ADDITION) - Beard Tavern, 2805 East Market Street, York, York County, PA

215

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

216

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

217

OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

218

OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING 792 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

219

DETAILS, EAVES AND WINDOWS OF THE EAST (REAR) FACADE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAILS, EAVES AND WINDOWS OF THE EAST (REAR) FACADE, LOOKING NORTH - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

220

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

221

Interior bay with door to rear lanai double doors, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior bay with door to rear lanai double doors, view facing north-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint & Oil Storehouse, Avenue D near Seventh Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

222

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

223

View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

224

22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ROOF PLAN AND CANOPY DETAIL, AND ELEVATIONS OF NEW TOILETS - U. S. Post Office, Custom House & Courthouse, 401 Center Street, Fernandina Beach, Nassau County, FL

225

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

226

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

227

15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

228

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

229

VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

230

3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

231

South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

232

20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

233

19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

234

68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

235

63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SOUTHEAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

236

EARTHCOVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EARTH-COVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ON TOP, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, ARMCO Hut, Hamilton Road between Moffett & Harrison Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

237

NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Instrument Landing System (ILS) Middle Marker, Off Perimeter Road at North end of Runway, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

238

3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

239

SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING WOODEN STAIRS AND RAILROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING WOODEN STAIRS AND RAILROAD TIE BARRICADE. Looking northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, VIP Viewing Stand, Southwest of Station "50" area, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

240

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

241

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

242

Rear (north side), showing vehicle entrances and connecting twostory sections ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rear (north side), showing vehicle entrances and connecting two-story sections from west roof deck - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

243

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

244

4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

245

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

246

14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

247

Perspective view to show rear (west) elevation (Note background skyline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view to show rear (west) elevation (Note background skyline of ca. 2000 buildings & construction cranes across Glebe Road from the dealership) - Bob Peck Chevrolet, 800 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

248

2. REAR ELEVATION PRIOR TO RELOCATION AND RESTORATION. (The discrepant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. REAR ELEVATION PRIOR TO RELOCATION AND RESTORATION. (The discrepant section of clapboarding shows where a tower was added in a mid-1880s alteration.) - Quaker Meetinghouse, Downey Street, Wapsinono Creek Vicinity, West Branch, Cedar County, IA

249

9. NORTH (REAR) SIDE, ENTRY AND STAIRHALL DORMER. This dormer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NORTH (REAR) SIDE, ENTRY AND STAIRHALL DORMER. This dormer not original with house; note Flemish bond brickwork v.s. English bond brickwork of front and side elevations. - Mulberry, Cooper River, West Branch, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC

250

EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hospital Point, Quarters for Officer in Charge of Radio Station, 1 Ford Island Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

251

EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hospital Point, Quarters for Officer in Charge of Radio Station, 1 Ford Island Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

252

East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near the Greek theater. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

253

7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS OF SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING SIMPLE GREEK REVIVAL MANTLE. LOOKING WEST; TAKEN FROM FRONT ROOM. - Manlius Thomas House, 125 North Mulberry Street, Georgetown, Scott County, KY

254

FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

255

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

256

View from underneath umbrella shed at rear of Train Shed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from underneath umbrella shed at rear of Train Shed looking W. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

257

19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

258

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

259

6. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF REAR GABLED EXTENSION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF REAR GABLED EXTENSION, SHOWING PORCHED ENTRANCE TO KITCHEN - Camp Cleawox Organizational Tract, Lodge Building, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

260

2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN AND DENSE LANDSCAPE - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

261

5. VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTHWEST. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

262

4. VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTHWEST. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

263

11. VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION, BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION, BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTHWEST. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

264

10. VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION YARD, FACING SOUTHWEST. New ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION YARD, FACING SOUTHWEST. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

265

9. VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION, BUILDING 2, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION, BUILDING 2, FACING SOUTHWEST. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

266

26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

267

2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. Sept. 12, 1940. Photo by Stanly P. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

268

CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

269

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

270

View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

271

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

272

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

273

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

274

EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 190 FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Warehouse & Cold Storage Building, North corner of Pokomoke Street & Hornet Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

275

EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 190 FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Warehouse & Cold Storage Building, North corner of Pokomoke Street & Hornet Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

276

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

277

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

278

6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

279

6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

280

6. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ODDLY PROPORTIONED CLASSIC REVIVAL MANTLE IN FRONT ROOM; LOOKING WEST. - Manlius Thomas House, 125 North Mulberry Street, Georgetown, Scott County, KY

281

4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

282

14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

283

VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

284

VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

285

4. Northeast portion of rear wall of main section of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Northeast portion of rear wall of main section of roundhouse. View to southwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

286

3. Southeast end and part of rear wall of main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Southeast end and part of rear wall of main section of roundhouse. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

287

4. CLOSEUP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSE-UP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR GABLE AND ROUGH STUCCO FINISH. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Operations Building No. 1, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

288

SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

289

WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

290

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

291

6. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH SHOWING THE PINS, REAR SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH SHOWING THE PINS, REAR SIDE OF THE GUARD RAIL, UTILITY CONDUITS AND A PORTION OF THE CENTRAL PIER. - Wabash County Bridge No. 509, Spanning Wabash River at Carroll & Smith Streets, Wabash, Wabash County, IN

292

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

293

Cholinesterase Levels in Hand-Reared and Suckling Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats which had been hand-reared on boiled cow's milk during the first 2 days of life showed the same increase in serum cholinesterase activity as litter-mates which had been left with their mothers. Rats hand-reared between 7 and 11 days of age, when the level of serum cholinesterase remains constant in the normal rat, had the same levels of activity

R. Halliday; Radmila Mihailovic

1961-01-01

294

EFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY PRODUCED BY CAGED HONEY Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA SUMMARY There were no significant differences in the pH of worker jelly produced by caged bees offered a pollen substitute ranging in pH from 4.1-8.0. Over 80 % of all jelly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Nondestructive techniques for detection of delamination in ceramic tile: a laboratory comparison between IR thermal cameras and laser Doppler vibrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ceramic tile industry, delamination is one of the more important and difficult problems to detect. Among all the general non-destructive evaluation methods, optical inspection technique seem to be particularly suitable. A method based on acquisition and processing of IR thermal images is proposed. Measurements have been performed by artificial heating by an IR quartz lamp. The performance of the technique has been evaluated experimentally and results show that the examine defects in the measured samples have been correctly detected. Another proposed technique for detection of delaminations and voids in structures is vibration monitoring by a scanning laser doppler vibrometer (SLDV). The basic idea is that a defected area will show as a higher velocity one. Structure excitation may be performed by acoustic means, thus allowing for a remote contactless measurement system. Our tests put in evidence that IR thermal images provide a very fast defect detection method appropriate for on line applications, while SLDV results show a better geometrical definition of defects shapes.

De Andrade, Roberto M.; Esposito, Enrico; Paone, Nicola; Revel, Gian M.

1999-02-01

296

Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laboratory conditions, effects of rearing temperature and stocking density were examined on hatching of fertilized egg and growth of auricularia larvae of Apostichopus japonicus respectively. Data series like larval length and density, metamorphic time, and survival rate of the larvae were recorded. Statistics showed that for A. japonicus, survival rate (from fertilized egg to late auricularia) decreased significantly with the increasing rearing temperature ( P<0.05). At different temperatures SGR was statistically significant as well ( P<0.05) from day 1, and maximal SGR was found on day 9 at 24°C (159.26±3.28). This study clearly indicated that at low temperature (<24°C), metamorphic rate was remarkably higher than at higher temperature (>26°C). Hatching rate was significantly different between 0.2-5 ind./ml groups and 20-50 ind./ml groups. Rearing larvae at the higher density had the smaller maximal-length, whereas needed longer time to complete metamorphosis. This study suggested that 21°C and 0.4 ind./ml can be used as the most suitable rearing temperature and stocking density for large -scale artificial breeding of A. japonicus’s larvae.

Liu, Guangbin; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Shilin

2010-07-01

297

Flight characteristics of pen-reared and wild prairie-chickens and an evaluation of a greenhouse to rear prairie-chickens  

E-print Network

that post-release survival of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) reared in a natural environment increased significantly. Chicks need exposure to the natural environment during the rearing process (Powell et al. 1997), this can be provided...

Hess, Marc Frederick

2004-09-30

298

Kinship ecology of competition: size hierarchies in kin and nonkin laboratory cohorts of tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an experimental test of the ecological significance of kinship in competitive interactions among individuals. Tadpoles of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina variegata (Anura, Discoglossidae) reared in the laboratory in a high density of siblings grew better and developed faster than when they were reared with similar densities of nonrelatives. Kinship-based genotypic uniformity may therefore be advantageous: it can

M. Jasiefiski

1988-01-01

299

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

2002-02-25

300

Parasitoids reared from predators of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), and the hymenopterous parasitoid community on western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

In western North America, infestations of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), are common on orchard, ornamental, and roadside western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent. However, these infestations rarely cause T. heterophylla mortality. Host tolerance and presence of endemic predators may be contributing to the relatively low levels of injury to T. heterophylla caused by A. tsugae. Field surveys of the arthropod community associated with A. tsugae infestations on 116 T. heterophylla at 16 sites in Oregon and Washington were conducted every 4-6 wk from January 2005 through November 2006. Fourteen uninfested T. heterophylla were also surveyed across 5 of the 16 sites. Immature A. tsugae predators collected in the field were brought to the laboratory for rearing. Eight species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from pupae of predators of A. tsugae in the laboratory. Two Pachyneuron spp. (Pteromalidae) and a Melanips sp. (Figitidae) were reared from Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) puparia. Syrphoctonus pallipes (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae), Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae), Syrphophagus sp. (Encyrtidae), and Pachyneuron albutius Walker were reared from Syrphidae (Diptera) puparia. A Helorus sp. (Heloridae) was reared from a Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) cocoon. Laboratory rearing did not show any direct association between parasitoids and A. tsugae. In the field survey, a total of 509 adult parasitic Hymenoptera representing 19 families and at least 57 genera were collected from T. heterophylla. Nonparametric analysis of community structure showed Pachyneuron spp. were strongly correlated to abundance of their Leucopis spp. hosts and to A. tsugae population score in the field. The possible impact of parasitism on Leucopis spp., potential A. tsugae biological control candidates for the eastern United States, is discussed. PMID:19161691

Kohler, G R; Stiefel, V L; Wallin, K F; Ross, D W

2008-12-01

301

Localized ohmic contact through a passivation dielectric for solar cell rear surface design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the demonstration of a method for forming localized ohmic contact through dielectric passivation layers, via a laser doped region, with no etching prior to metal deposition. A simple bench top voltage source contacted to the gate and bulk of a test Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor device facilitates localized heating leading to ohmic contact formation. The surface passivation qualities of the dielectrics are preserved away from the contact region using this method, as hard dielectric breakdown is restricted to the laser doped region. This is a potential technique for precisely contacting rear surface of high efficiency solar cells.

Western, Ned J.; Sung, Andrew; Wenham, Stuart R.; Bremner, Stephen P.

2013-06-01

302

Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.  

PubMed

In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

2014-10-01

303

Different rearing systems for fattening rabbits: Performance and carcass characteristics.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of different rearing systems and sex on productive performance and carcass composition and quality, 80 rabbits (40 males and 40 females) of Carmagnola breed were reared from 9 to 16 weeks of age in individual California type cages (0.12m(2)) or in group ground pens (0.25m(2)/head). The animals were kept in standard and uniform environmental conditions and fed the same ad libitum pellet feed. Data on live weight and feed intake were recorded. At the end of the fattening period 10 animals per group were slaughtered and data provided in the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA) standard method were collected, as well as pH and meat colour. Animals reared in ground pens showed lower productive performances, while, as to slaughtering performances, rabbits reared in cages showed the highest slaughtering weight and also the highest weights for most body parts. Gender slightly affected productive and slaughtering performances: females showed higher feed consumption and higher perirenal fat weight than males. Meat colour parameters showed significant differences in Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris due to housing systems and gender effects. In both muscle, rearing system affected pH only 24h after slaughter. PMID:20416760

Lazzaroni, Carla; Biagini, Davide; Lussiana, Carola

2009-06-01

304

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

305

Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 ?m-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

2014-11-01

306

Multicenter long-term validation of a minicourse in radiation-reducing techniques in the catheterization laboratory.  

PubMed

Patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology is considerable. We aimed to investigate, in a multicenter field study, the long-term efficacy of an educational 90-minute workshop in cardiac invasive techniques with reduced irradiation. Before and at a median period of 2.5 months and 2.0 years after the minicourse (periods I, II, and III, respectively) at 5 German cardiac centers, 18 interventionalists documented various radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies. The median patient dose area product (DAP) for periods I, II, and III amounted to 26.6, 12.2, and 9.6 Gy × cm(2), respectively. The short-term and long-term effects were related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 138, and 114 seconds), fewer radiographic frames (745, 553, and 417) because of fewer (11, 11, and 10) and shorter (64, 52, and 44 frames/run) runs, consistent collimation, and restriction to an adequate image quality; both radiographic DAP/frame (27.7, 17.3, and 18.4 mGy × cm(2)) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (26.6, 12.9, and 14.9 mGy × cm(2)) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis over time indicated increasing efficacy of the minicourse itself (-55% and -64%) and minor influence of interventionist experience (-4% and -3% per 1,000 coronary angiographies, performed lifelong until the minicourse and until period III). In conclusion, autonomous self-surveillance of various dose parameters and feedback on individual radiation safety efforts supported the efficacy of a 90-minute course program toward long-lasting and ongoing patient dose reduction. PMID:25579886

Kuon, Eberhard; Weitmann, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dörr, Marcus; Hummel, Astrid; Riad, Alexander; Busch, Mathias C; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus

2015-02-01

307

Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees.  

PubMed

Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities. PMID:17928165

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2008-02-01

308

Closeup of rear of LASRE pod  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this interaction. The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on one of NASA's SR-71s, which were at that time on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use the information gained from the LASRE and X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator Projects to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin were partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement. The goal of that program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote creation and delivery of new space services and activities to improve the United States's economic competitiveness. In March 2001, however, NASA cancelled the X-33 program.

1996-01-01

309

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

310

Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

311

Analytical techniques: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

1975-01-01

312

INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM AND ENCLOSED REAR LANAI, WITH KITCHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM AND ENCLOSED REAR LANAI, WITH KITCHEN DOOR TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Senior Officers' Quarters Type A, 37 Makalapa Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

313

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

314

FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING REAR OF CARPORT STORAGE AREA. VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING REAR OF CARPORT STORAGE AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

315

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM ACROSS THE COMMON AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM ACROSS THE COMMON AREA WITH AN ADJACENT HOUSE VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

316

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTHEAST SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTHEAST SIDE - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

317

UTILITY ROOM SHOWING THE JALOUSIE PANEL REAR DOOR. VIEW FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UTILITY ROOM SHOWING THE JALOUSIE PANEL REAR DOOR. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

318

Updated 6-10 Jim Beebe, Rear Admiral  

E-print Network

responsibilities included the management of 8 submarine and surface ship tenders/repair ships and 7 Shore of Submarine Maintenance and Fleet Maintenance Business/Financial Manager. #12;Updated 6-10 Conjunctively with his Civil Service career Rear Admiral Beebe served as a nuclear submarine officer on two ballistic

319

REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

320

VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

321

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

322

East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the left, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the right. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

323

Child Rearing Practices and the Development of Competence. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a pilot project which involved the development and evaluation of an experimental treatment (training program) suitable for a longitudinal study in which the effects of child rearing practices on general competence in young children are being studied. Eleven families participated in the pilot training program which…

White, Burton L.; And Others

324

4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear of the main block and the courtyard between the E & W wings; looking S. Note structure 73, an air-conditioning unit, in the end of the courtyard. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

325

Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula; Franson, J.C.; Kilpi, M.

2005-01-01

326

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

327

21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, PAIRED NARROW 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT. OPEN DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

328

CHAPTER TWELVE Resource Selection During Brood-Rearing  

E-print Network

CHAPTER TWELVE Resource Selection During Brood-Rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse Nicholas W. Kaczor management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha- sianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection

329

View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

330

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

331

View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 23, 25, 25, 27, and 39 from left to right. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

332

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GASANDOIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GAS-AND-OIL HOUSE (BUILDING #2500), FACING SOUTHWEST. (NOTE: CANOPY STRUCTURE NEXT TO BUILDING FORMERLY COVERED GAS PUMPS; CANOPY BUILT IN 1930s BUT MOVED TO THIS LOCATION IN ABOUT 1970.) - Medford Service Center, Gas & Oil House, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

333

15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

334

15. View of rear entrance and yard at west end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. View of rear entrance and yard at west end of Building E-1, facing west towards Luckie Street. Replicates historic view at GA-2309-5. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

335

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS OF THE LIVING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

336

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

337

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE LEFT. NOTE THE TERRACING OF THE YARD WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

338

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

339

VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND 507. CONDOMINIUM TOWERS CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

340

CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW FROM UNDER REAR OF HULETTS LOOKING OUT INTO THE ORE YARD FILLED WITH ORE, SHOWING SELF-UNLOADING SHIP BOOM IN ACTION. LOOKING EAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

341

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

342

9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

343

3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door and position of kilns on the slope. This placement facilitated access to the upper door. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

344

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

345

Distance Perception of Vehicle Rear Lights in Fog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptual difficulty is one of the main explanations given for the behavioral modifications and high accident rate associated with driving in fog. The present study investigates how fog and the characteristics of vehicle rear lights affect distance perception. Two experiments in a fog chamber (meteorological visibility range of 5-15 m) were run under conditions simulating nighttime fog. The participants gave

Viola Cavallo; Michèle Colomb; Jocelyne Doré

2001-01-01

346

Child rearing knowledge and practice scales for women with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Comprehensive instruments to evaluate the child rearing knowledge and practice are not readily available for clinical research. Materials and Methods: We have designed in two phases a new instrument to evaluate the child rearing knowledge and practice under the four major domains of child rearing. Twenty-five subject experts from the field of Paediatrics, Obstetrics, Neurology and Nursing elicited the content validity of the instrument. The test retest reliability was evaluated by 25 young mothers who completed the CRKS at an interval of two weeks. Results: The Content Validity Ratio (CVR) of individual items ranged between 0.6 to 1. The reliability was tested for the 20 individual items of the CRKS using Kappa coefficient. The measurement of agreement Kappa ranged from 0.51 to 1. The total knowledge scores and sub scores data were analysed for correlation using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A significant Pearson’s correlation indicated that the total scores were consistent over time (r = 0.89). The sub scores on feeding (6 items), Growth and development (4 items), protection (7 items), and infant stimulation (3 items) were found to have reliability of 0.91, 0.76, 0.84, and 0.89 respectively using Pearson’s correlation. Conclusion: The instrument is found to be valid and reliable and can be used to measure child rearing knowledge and practice in early infancy. PMID:21085526

Saramma, P. P.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.

2010-01-01

347

Evaluation of Artificial Diets for Rearing Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Artificial aphid diets have been previously developed for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The ability to rear aphids on an artificial diet allows for selectively adding or subtracting compounds from an aphid's food source to determine the effect on fec...

348

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

349

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OPEN SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL, KACHESS RESERVOIR TO REAR, FROM BERM OVER START OF BURIED CONDUIT SEGMENT OF INLET CHANNEL (6/96), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

350

Front elevation, note threestory addition to rear dating from 1915. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front elevation, note three-story addition to rear dating from 1915. In foreground is original two-story building of English bond brick. Openings on the street front have stone sills below each opening - Pioneer Building, 2679 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Wayne County, MI

351

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

352

Driving gear for front and rear wheels of automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A driving gear is described for front and rear wheels of an automobile, comprising an engine with a crank shaft disposed in a direction of width of a body of the automobile, a transmission supported on an engine case at one side axially of the crank shaft, and a clutch provided between the engine and the transmission. The driving gear

N. Ashikawa; S. Sakuma

1986-01-01

353

2. North side and west rear. Main section of roundhouse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. North side and west rear. Main section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) in background at left. Top of sand tower (MN-99-E) visible above main roundhouse section. Machne shop section of roundhouse in background at right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Office, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

354

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

355

Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection…

Vlahos, Petro

1961-01-01

356

Child-Rearing Practices of Two Generations of Punjabi Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…

Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.

1997-01-01

357

Oblique view of the northwest side and southwest rear, Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of the northwest side and southwest rear, Building 936 is visible on the far right, and the Guard House and Barracks (Building 930) is visible in the background, far left - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Canteen & Brig, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

358

Handwashing Laboratory Activities: Bowl Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab (Activity #2 on page), learners compare bacteria growth on two petri dishes containing nutrient agar. Learners touch the doors, faucets, etc. in bathroom and then immerse their hands in 100 ml sterile water. They place 0.5 ml of this "dirty" water into one petri dish. They repeat this process again but wash their hands before immersing them in 100 ml sterile water. Learners incubate the plates for 24-48 hours and then score the results based on the bacteria growth they observe. Use this activity to emphasize the importance of hand-washing and the effectiveness of soap to disinfect.

Christine L. Case, Ed D.

2009-01-01

359

Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates  

PubMed Central

Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12–28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2–5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12–28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy. PMID:20184618

Inman, C F; Haverson, K; Konstantinov, S R; Jones, P H; Harris, C; Smidt, H; Miller, B; Bailey, M; Stokes, C

2010-01-01

360

The effect of irradiation and mass rearing on the anti-predator behaviour of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies. PMID:24345386

Rao, D; Aguilar-Argüello, S; Montoya, P; Díaz-Fleischer, F

2014-04-01

361

Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1979, a continuing study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, separated in infancy and reared apart, has subjected more than 100 sets of reared-apart twins or triplets to a week of intensive psychological and physiological assessment. Like the prior, smaller studies of monozygotic twins reared apart, about 70% of the variance in IQ was found to be associated with genetic

Thomas J. Bouchard Jr.; David T. Lykken; Matthew McGue; Nancy L. Segal; Auke Tellegen

1990-01-01

362

Exploratory behavior and activity of infant monkeys during nutritional and rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diminished exploration and activity were found in cebus monkeys during a period of protein or calorie restriction or isolated rearing imposed from 8 to 26 weeks of age. Calorie restriction reduced activity somewhat. Rearing aff'ected exploratory behavior more than did diet, but double restriction in protein and rearing produced particularly severe im- pairment. Am. J. cliii. Nutr. 27: 45 8-463,

Marjorie F. Elias; Kenneth W. Samonds

363

Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae

R. R. Dawirs

1982-01-01

364

Predation by Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge on Minnows and Bluegills in Experimental Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy x male northern pike, E. lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow (Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in

Alan L. Gillen; Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline

1981-01-01

365

49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411 Section...Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be...

2010-10-01

366

Improving the Speed of Virtual Rear Projection: A GPU-Centric Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection is the only viable way to produce very large displays. Rear projection of large-scale upright displays is often preferred over front projection because of the lack of shadows that occlude the projected image. However, rear projection is not always a feasible option for space and cost reasons. Recent research suggests that many of the desirable features of rear projection,

Matthew Flagg; Jay Summet; James M. Rehg

2005-01-01

367

Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium Kd's at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium Kd's ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium Kd's were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium Kd's may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium Kd's.

Hemming, C.H.; Bunde, R.L.; Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Welhan, J.

1997-01-01

368

Optimal conditions for rearing the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca:Triopsidae), a biological control agent against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Tadpole shrimp (TPS) were reared at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C in the laboratory. Size of TPS was temperature and age dependent with more rapid development at warmer temperatures. Survivorship was inversely related to rearing temperature. Mean age at death was 24.2, 19.2, 14.3, and 11.8 days at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Rearing temperature (excluding 15 degrees C) did not affect lifetime fecundity, but larger TPS laid more eggs than smaller ones. Tadpole shrimp began ovipositing earlier at higher temperatures, and at a smaller size than their counterparts in lower temperatures. Mean age at reproductive maturity was 18.8, 13.1, and 10.2 days and mean carapace length was 10.8, 11.0, and 10.3 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Embryogenesis required a minimum of 3 days for completion. Hatching rates during the first hydration decreased with increasing egg batch number produced by individuals, ranging from a mean of 74% for the first batch to 31% for the 5th batch. Cumulative hatching rates of eggs after 2 hydrations were consistent across temperatures and egg batches (79 +/- 2%). PMID:8887224

Fry-O'Brien, L L; Mulla, M S

1996-09-01

369

Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes fish culture and research activities conducted from December 1991 to October 1992 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on the Redfish Lake (Idaho) sockeye salmon captive broodstock study. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded restoration efforts for Redfish Lake sockeye salmon. Snake River sockeye salmon, now represented only by the Redfish Lake population, were formally listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the NMFS in December 1991. Restoration is being coordinated through the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee. Participation by state and federal agencies and private groups involved in sockeye salmon restoration efforts in Idaho. Our efforts since then have focused on rearing of 1991-brood Redfish Lake sockeye salmon at the NMFS/BPA Stock Restoration Laboratory at the NWFSC (Seattle, Washington), and on research to refine captive-broodstock methodology.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1993-04-01

370

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

371

Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo que la fecundidad es optima durante las tres primeras semanas de iniciada la oviposicion y que la fertilidad se mantiene constante durante ese periodo. Durante 2003-2004 se implementaron mejoras en el protocolo de cria existente lo que resulto en un incremento de la viabilidad larvaria, del peso de pupas y del porcentaje de emergencia de adultos. La produccion actual semanal es de un millon de huevos. Los mismos son utilizados para mantener la colonia y realizar distintos estudios de calidad de esta cepa. Por ultimo, se sugieren necesidades de investigacion para alcanzar mejores rendimientos. (author)

Vera, T. [Seccion Zoologia Agricola, Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, EEAOC, CC 9 (4101) Las Talitas, Tucuman and Member of Carrera de Investigador, CONICET (Argentina); Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E. [Seccion Zoologia Agricola, Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, EEAOC, CC 9 (4101) Las Talitas, Tucuman (Argentina)

2007-03-15

372

Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. PMID:22633252

Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

2013-01-01

373

Growth and blood chemistry of ducklings reared on acidified wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid deposition is one factor that may be responsible for the decline of some waterfowl populations. Growth and physiological condition were monitored in captive-reared black ducks (Anas rubripes) exposed for 10-day trials (day 11-20 of life) on control (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 5.0) man-made emergent wetlands. Impaired growth (body weight, culmen and tarsus length) and increased mortality (50%) were apparent in broods (hen + 4 ducklings) reared on acidified wetIands. Ducklings exbibiting poor growth had reduced hematocrit, plasma protein and cholesterol levels. This subset of birds had elevated plasma uric acid concentration and creatine kinase activity (perhaps due to enhanced protein and nucleotide catabolism). and elevated pIasma K+ levels. Based upon overt appearance, growth and blood chemistry, ducklings exposed to acidified wetlands were concluded to be in poorer condittion than those exposed on circumneutral pH wetlands.

Rattner, B.A.; Haramis, G.; Linder, G.; Chu, D.

1985-01-01

374

4. Main Control Switchboard (south end rear), view to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Main Control Switchboard (south end rear), view to the north, with item 2 (the load frequency control panel) visible in right foreground, through item 7 (generator Unit 4 control panel) obliquely visible on left side of the photograph. Part of item 1 (the synchronization monitor) is visible behind the phone on right side of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

375

Environmental rearing effects on impulsivity and reward sensitivity.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that rearing in an enriched environment may promote self-control in an impulsive choice task. To further assess the effects of rearing environment on impulsivity, 2 experiments examined locomotor activity, impulsive action, impulsive choice, and different aspects of reward sensitivity and discrimination. In Experiment 1, rats reared in isolated or enriched conditions were tested on an impulsive choice procedure with a smaller-sooner versus a larger-later reward, revealing that the isolated rats valued the smaller-sooner reward more than the enriched rats. A subsequent reward challenge was presented in which the delay to the 2 rewards was the same but the magnitude difference remained. The enriched rats did not choose the larger reward as often as the isolated rats, reflecting poorer reward discrimination. Impulsive action was assessed using a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate task, which revealed deficits in the enriched rats. In Experiment 2, rats reared in isolated, standard, or enriched conditions were tested on reward contrast and reward magnitude sensitivity procedures. The rats were presented with 2 levers that delivered different magnitudes of food on variable interval 30-s schedules. Across all tests, the enriched and social rats displayed more generalized responding to the small-reward lever, but a similar response to the large-reward lever, compared with the isolated rats. This confirmed the results of Experiment 1, indicating poorer reward discrimination in the enriched condition compared with the isolated condition. The results suggest that enrichment may moderate reward generalization/discrimination processes through alterations in incentive motivational processes. PMID:24128360

Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T; Clarke, Jacob; Cain, Mary E

2013-10-01

376

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE GABLE VENT AND CONCRETE SLAB OF THE CARPORT (TO THE RIGHT OF UNIT B). VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

377

2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Operating Floor Rear (west) Corridor, view to the south. Note the cooling and service water take-off pipes for Unit 4 visible in left foreground of photograph. The deck plating that covers the oil pipes is also visible in the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

378

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

379

Environmental Rearing Effects on Impulsivity and Reward Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Previous research has indicated that rearing in an enriched environment may promote self-control in an impulsive choice task. To further assess the effects of rearing environment on impulsivity, 2 experiments examined locomotor activity, impulsive action, impulsive choice, and different aspects of reward sensitivity and discrimination. In Experiment 1, rats reared in isolated or enriched conditions were tested on an impulsive choice procedure with a smaller-sooner versus a larger-later reward, revealing that the isolated rats valued the smaller-sooner reward more than the enriched rats. A subsequent reward challenge was presented in which the delay to the 2 rewards was the same but the magnitude difference remained. The enriched rats did not choose the larger reward as often as the isolated rats, reflecting poorer reward discrimination. Impulsive action was assessed using a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate task, which revealed deficits in the enriched rats. In Experiment 2, rats reared in isolated, standard, or enriched conditions were tested on reward contrast and reward magnitude sensitivity procedures. The rats were presented with 2 levers that delivered different magnitudes of food on variable interval 30-s schedules. Across all tests, the enriched and social rats displayed more generalized responding to the small-reward lever, but a similar response to the large-reward lever, compared with the isolated rats. This confirmed the results of Experiment 1, indicating poorer reward discrimination in the enriched condition compared with the isolated condition. The results suggest that enrichment may moderate reward generalization/discrimination processes through alterations in incentive motivational processes. PMID:24128360

Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T.; Clarke, Jacob; Cain, Mary E.

2014-01-01

380

93. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF REAR OF THE SWITCHBOARD, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. Photocopied August 1978. VIEW OF REAR OF THE SWITCHBOARD, AUGUST 11, 1914, SHOWING BUS BARS. THE BUS BARS WERE MOVED TO A POINT ABOVE THE SWITCHBOARD PANELS A FEW YEARS LATER. THE PLANT WAS EQUIPPED WITH FOUR SETS OF BUS BARS, TWO FOR THE EAST END, TWO FOR THE WEST END, SO THAT ONLY A QUARTER OF THE PLANT COULD BE SHORTED OUT AT ANY ONE TIME. (914) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

381

FULL-SCALE LABORATORY SIMULATION FACILITY TO TEST PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A THIRD WORLD RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION PROCESS. III. EVALUATIO OF A POTENTIAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM THE INDOOR, OPEN HEARTH COMBUSTION OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. NOTE: bnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bi...

382

Generalized nonlinear models for rear-end crash risk analysis.  

PubMed

A generalized nonlinear model (GNM)-based approach for modeling highway rear-end crash risk is formulated using Washington State traffic safety data. Previous studies majorly focused on causal factor identification and crash risk modeling using Generalized linear Models (GLMs), such as Poisson regression, Logistic regression, etc. However, their basic assumption of a generalized linear relationship between the dependent variable (for example, crash rate) and independent variables (for example, contribute factors to crashes) established via a link function can be often violated in reality. Consequently, the GLM-based modeling results could provide biased findings and conclusions. In this research, a GNM-based approach is developed to utilize a nonlinear regression function to better elaborate non-monotonic relationships between the independent and dependent variables using the rear end accident data collected from 10 highway routes from 2002 through 2006. The results show for example that truck percentage and grade have a parabolic impact: they increase crash risks initially, but decrease them after the certain thresholds. Such non-monotonic relationships cannot be captured by regular GLMs which further demonstrate the flexibility of GNM-based approaches in the nonlinear relationship among data and providing more reasonable explanations. The superior GNM-based model interpretations help better understand the parabolic impacts of some specific contributing factors for selecting and evaluating rear-end crash safety improvement plans. PMID:24125803

Lao, Yunteng; Zhang, Guohui; Wang, Yinhai; Milton, John

2014-01-01

383

Driving gear for front and rear wheels of automobile  

SciTech Connect

A driving gear is described for front and rear wheels of an automobile, comprising an engine with a crank shaft disposed in a direction of width of a body of the automobile, a transmission supported on an engine case at one side axially of the crank shaft, and a clutch provided between the engine and the transmission. The driving gear includes a first differential gear of a planetary gear type coupled to the transmission via a reduction gear, a second differential gear of a bevel gear type transmission an output of the first differential gear to left and right front wheels of the automobile, and a third differential gear transmitting an output of the first differential gear to left and right rear wheels of the automobile. The first differential gear is disposed adjacent to the reduction gear and comprises a sun gear, a ring gear and planet gears engaging with the sun and ring gears. The planet gears are pivoted directly on and driven by the reduction gear; the first and second differential gears are provided on opposite sides of a plane perpendicular to the crankshaft and including the clutch. The first and second differential gears also lie along a common axis parallel to the crank shaft. The sun gear and the ring gear are coupled individually to the front and rear wheels respectively.

Ashikawa, N.; Sakuma, S.

1986-10-21

384

Microbial Associates of the Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Different Rearing Conditions.  

PubMed

Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined. PMID:25135816

Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

2015-01-01

385

Ontogeny of anti-predator behavior in hatchery-reared jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus larvae and juveniles: patchiness formation, swimming capability, and interaction with jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations of larval and juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus were conducted to elucidate their life-history traits with emphasis on the interaction with the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Jack mackerel were raised from naturally spawned fertilized eggs and they attained 10.3±0.7 (mean±standard deviation) mm\\u000a in body length (BL) by 30 days post hatching (dph) and 26.6±1.8 mm

Reiji Masuda

2006-01-01

386

40 CFR 141.705 - Approved laboratories.  

...laboratory certification program. (b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by...analysis under § 141.74 is approved for E. coli analysis under this subpart when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses for §...

2014-07-01

387

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

2003-11-01

388

Formulated sediment for bioassays and rearing of Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera) and other benthic invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Independent studies of sediment toxicity and contaminant transfer are often not comparable because standardized reference sediments and test animals are unavailable. The authors developed a formulated reference sediment (42:42:16 w/w silica sand:clay:potting soil [9% organic matter]) especially suited for rapid growth of Hexagenia larvae. Sand (2 parts 90--180 {mu}m, 1 part 180--250 {mu}m), clay (kaolin or Lewiscraft{reg_sign} Sculptor`s clay) and soil (sieved, air-dried Garden Treat{reg_sign} All Purpose Potting Soil [All Treat Farms, Ltd., Arthur, ON] < 1.00 mm) are dry-mixed, wetted to 40% moisture, air-dried, ground to <2 mm and autoclaved. Rewetted sediment (40% moisture) is allowed to age (1 wk) in water-filled bioassay containers with aeration. Replenished water maintained an oxygen concentration of 4.9 mg L-1 after 48h at 20 C without continuous aeration. First-instar Hexagenia larvae, reared to near emergence within 3 mo, had minimal body burdens of organic contaminants and trace metals when fed a yeast/alfalfa/Tetramin mixture biweekly. Chironomus larvae also grow in this sediment, although more slowly than in silica sand medium. The sediment is especially useful in dilution series experiments with field-collected contaminated sediments. The authors have determined 21-d LC{sub 50} for Hexagenia with bulk Detroit R., MI and creosote-contaminated sediments. They recommend this sediment for laboratory rearing and for negative controls in sediment toxicity studies with zoobenthos.

Hanes, E.C.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Corkum, L.D.; Hudson, L.A. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31

389

Flash Diffusivity Technique Applied to Individual Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variant of the flash diffusivity technique has been devised for determining the thermal diffusivities, and thus the thermal conductivities, of individual aligned fibers. The technique is intended especially for application to nanocomposite fibers, made from narrower fibers of polyphenylene benzobisthiazole (PBZT) and carbon nanotubes. These highly aligned nanocomposite fibers could exploit the high thermal conductivities of carbon nanotubes for thermal-management applications. In the flash diffusivity technique as practiced heretofore, one or more heat pulse(s) is (are) applied to the front face of a plate or disk material specimen and the resulting time-varying temperature on the rear face is measured. Usually, the heat pulse is generated by use of a xenon flash lamp, and the variation of temperature on the rear face is measured by use of an infrared detector. The flash energy is made large enough to produce a usefully high temperature rise on the rear face, but not so large as to significantly alter the specimen material. Once the measurement has been completed, the thermal diffusivity of the specimen is computed from the thickness of the specimen and the time dependence of the temperature variation on the rear face. Heretofore, the infrared detector used in the flash diffusivity technique has been a single-point detector, which responds to a spatial average of the thermal radiation from the rear specimen surface. Such a detector cannot distinguish among regions of differing diffusivity within the specimen. Moreover, two basic assumptions of the thermaldiffusivity technique as practiced heretofore are that the specimen is homogeneous and that heat flows one-dimensionally from the front to the rear face. These assumptions are not valid for an inhomogeneous (composite) material.

Mayeaux, Brian; Yowell, Leonard; Wang, Hsin

2007-01-01

390

In situ fluorimetry: A powerful non-invasive diagnostic technique for natural dyes used in artefacts. Part I. Spectral characterization of orcein in solution, on silk and wool laboratory-standards and a fragment of Renaissance tapestry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the potentialities of spectrophotometric and fluorimetric techniques for identifying the materials used in artistic textiles are investigated. A portable non-destructive instrument suitable to record fluorescence spectra on surfaces was set up and successfully experienced. A naturally occurring dye, orcein, which was widely used in antiquity for textile dyeing, has been spectrally characterized in both solution and powder. Laboratory samples of wool and silk orcein-dyed threads were analysed before and after ageing. An original fragment of Renaissance tapestry was also analysed. The textile (wool) and the colourant (orcein) were recognised by comparison with the data from the laboratory samples.

Clementi, C.; Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Favaro, G.

2006-07-01

391

Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

Hendrichs, M. [Department for Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Katsoyannos, B. [Laboratory of Applied Zoology and Parasitology, Department of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2007-03-15

392

Effects of monocular strobe rearing on kitten striate cortex.  

PubMed

Monocular deprivation in kittens does not lead to an ocular dominance shift in striate cortex if the visual stimuli do not contain contours. In the present study we sought to find out whether an ocular dominance shift is produced if the visual environment does contain contours but is devoid of motion. Six kittens were reared with one eye occluded in a visual environment that was lit only by the light of a stroboscope (2 flashes per sec). Exposure was started at 5-6 weeks of age after dark-rearing from birth and extended until 8-12 weeks of age for 8 h per day. The rest of the time was spent in total darkness. Thus, the animals were completely deprived of vision in one eye, while the other eye experienced only stationary flashing contours. Single units in area 17 of these animals were studied and compared to normally reared cats. In all six animals ocular dominance was clearly shifted towards the eye with strobe experience. The ocular dominance shift showed, however, the following interdependencies with other parameters: neurones that responded to stationary flashing test stimuli were nearly always dominated by the strobe eye; neurones that responded only to moving bars or edges remained binocular. In the normal control animals the ocular dominance distribution was similar for both groups of cells. Track analysis according to cortical lamination revealed that neurones in infragranular layers consistently showed a weaker OD shift towards the strobe eye than neurones in supragranular layers (including layer 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3691724

Rauschecker, J P; Schrader, W

1987-01-01

393

1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Pipe Floor Rear Corridor, view to the southeast. The wall of Unit 2 turbine pit is visible in the right foreground. The pipe and valve cluster in the right foreground is part of the blow down valve for Unit 2. This valve allows the water in the draft chest to be lowered (i.e., 'blown down') so that the unit can be motored (i.e., run like an electric motor rather than an electric power generator). - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

394

Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells  

SciTech Connect

We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50{+-}0.06) {mu}m/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

Urrejola, Elias [International Solar Energy Research Center (ISC)-Konstanz, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 15, D-78467 Konstanz (Germany); Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar [Sunways AG, Macairestrasse 3-5, D-78467 Konstanz (Germany)

2011-04-11

395

17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear corridor between Units 3 and 4, view to the west. The compressor motor is located just right of center in photograph. The pressure tank on the right side of the photograph is a reserve pressure tank for governor system. The pressure tank on the left side of the photograph is the original instrument air pressure tank. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

396

Pilot Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Rearing Facility in Tunisia: Constraints and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) mass-rearing facility, located at the Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucléaires, Sidi Thabet, northern\\u000a part of Tunisia, was specifically designed for rearing genetic sexing strains of this species. Rearing operations were initiated\\u000a in 2004 to supply sterile males for a pilot project to control the Mediterranean fruit fly in 5800 hectares of

M. M'saad Guerfali; A. Raies; H. Ben Salah; F. Loussaief; C. Cáceres

397

Cats Reared in Stroboscopic Illumination: Effects on Receptive Fields in Visual Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats were reared in a light-tight box in which the only source of illumination was a 9-mu sec strobe flash every 2 sec. This allowed them to experience visual form but they did not experience visual movement. Receptive-field properties of single units in area 17 of the visual cortex of cats reared in stroboscopic illumination (strobe-reared) were compared with properties

M. Cynader; N. Berman; A. Hein

1973-01-01

398

Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dark-reared, neonatal turtle retinas, ganglion cell receptive fields and dendritic trees grow faster than normal. As a result, their areas may become, on average, up to twice as large as in control retinas. This raises the question of whether the coverage factor of dark-reared ganglion cells is larger than normal. Alternatively, dark rearing may lead to smaller-than-normal cell densities

Eun-Jin Lee; David K. Merwine; Laura B. Mann; Norberto M. Grzywacz

2005-01-01

399

Structure and properties of silk from the African wild silkmoth Gonometa postica reared indoors.  

PubMed

African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and ir-reversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed.The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. posticaare discussed. PMID:25373183

Teshome, Addis; Raina, S K; Vollrath, Fritz

2014-01-01

400

Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended maximum for the rearing conditions encountered In the off-station rearing sites. Costs of rearing fish are dramatically affected by densities. Alternate rearing facilities, including polyethylene and wooden walkway framing, are initially a higher investment, but may prove to be more desirable than the aluminum frames tested during this study.

Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

1987-12-01

401

Injury Potential at Center Rear Seating Positions in Rear-Facing Child Restraint Systems in Side Impacts  

PubMed Central

Head injuries occur to occupants of rear-facing child restraint systems in side impacts. This study examined the head injury potential of center-seated occupants using sled tests at change in velocities of 35, 29 and 24 km/h. Other parameters included combinations of with and without a simulated door. A twelve-month-old child dummy was used in combination, convertible and infant rear-facing child restraint systems. Head excursions and head injury criteria (HIC) were obtained. In 35 km/h tests without simulated door, head excursions ranged from 568 to 655 mm, exceeding the simulated door intrusion plane. HIC ranged from 87 to 157, below the 390 limit. At this velocity but with the simulated door, HIC ranged from 804 to 1297. Head excursions ranged from 424 to 480 mm. In 29 and 24 km/h tests, the dummy and child restraint system impacted the simulated door. HIC ranged from 275 to 604 and 141 to 314, and head excursions ranged from 388 to 470 mm and 365 to 460 mm, respectively. Far-side belt loads were 2.4–3.2 kN and 1.7–2.3 kN for the 35 km/h tests without and with the simulated door, and 1.5–2.1 kN and 1.0–1.6 kN for 29 and 24 km/h tests with the simulated door. These findings indicate that occupants in the center seating position in smaller/medium-size vehicles may impact an intruding door and sustain head injuries. A need exists for better protection/attachment methods for center positioned rear-facing child restraint systems to reduce the injury potential in side impacts at velocities greater than 29 km/h. PMID:24406965

Hauschild, Hans W.; Humm, John R.; Yoganandan, Narayan

2013-01-01

402

Gut bacteria associated with different diets in reared Nephrops norvegicus.  

PubMed

The impact of different diets on the gut microbiota of reared Nephrops norvegicus was investigated based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity. Specimens were collected from Pagasitikos Gulf (Greece) and kept in experimental rearing tanks, under in situ conditions, for 6months. Treatments included three diets: frozen natural (mussel) food (M), dry formulated pellet (P) and starvation (S). Gut samples were collected at the initiation of the experiment, and after 3 and 6months. Tank water and diet samples were also analyzed for bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity. Statistical analysis separated the two groups fed or starved (M and P vs. S samples). Most gut bacteria were not related to the water or diet bacteria, while bacterial diversity was higher in the starvation samples. M and P samples were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria and Tenericutes. Phylotypes clustering in Photobacterium leiognathi, Shewanella sp. and Entomoplasmatales had high frequencies in the M and P samples but low sequence frequencies in S samples. The study showed that feeding resulted in the selection of specific species, which also occurs in the natural population, and might be associated with the animal's nutrition. PMID:23040460

Meziti, Alexandra; Mente, Eleni; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

2012-10-01

403

Post-Teneral Protein Feeding Improves Sexual Competitiveness But Reduces Longevity of Mass-Reared Sterile Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique is gaining an increasing role in the control of Mediter- ranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), populations. In the current study, we examine how post-teneral nutrition during the first 4—8 d after adult emergence affects performance and copu- latory success in leks of mass-reared sterile (TSL strain) males. We found that protein and sugar fed males

Roy Kaspi; Boaz Yuval

2000-01-01

404

MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN LABORATORY REARINGS OF GYPSY MOTH PARASITOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Male-biased sex ratios in populations of parasitic wasps used in biological control are undesirable, because a low ratio of females can prevent the establishment of introduced species or hinder commercial production of species used for augmentative control. This problem has arisen in the culture of...

405

Preferential feeding success of laboratory reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes according to ABO blood group status.  

PubMed

Recent epidemiological evidences revealed a higher rate of O blood group in the residents of malaria-endemic areas suggesting that groups A, B, and AB associated with a higher disease severity and fatality. Also recent data showed the low prevalence of AB group within the malaria-endemic residents in south of Iran and India. The aim of this study was to determine the ABO blood groups preference of Anopheles stephensi which is the main malaria vector in Iran, southwest Asia, and India. An. stephensi mosquitoes were fed either artificially on A/B/O/AB membrane blood feeders or directly on human volunteer hands and forearms of A/B/O/AB groups in a cage under lab conditions. Phenotype and genotype analyzes of 450-blood-fed mosquito specimens using agglutination and multiplex-allele-specific PCR revealed a significant blood preference of An. stephensi to AB group (40%) than other groups of A (24%), B (21%), and O (15%) in combination of both experiments. High preference of An. stephensi to AB group might increase malaria infection and fatality in this blood group and resulted in low frequency of AB group in the residents of malaria endemic areas. The data suggested that malaria vectors, like parasites may have selection pressure on human genotypes. PMID:25151045

Anjomruz, Mehdi; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pourfatollah, Ali A; Sedaghat, Mohammad M; Raeisi, Ahmad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Khamesipour, Ali; Abai, Mohammad R; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafie, Fatemeh; Besharati, Mahdiyeh

2014-12-01

406

Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology  

E-print Network

. deposited in a oluster& 5Xe==eggs ov~eiaD-'4a-a ~xmsr similar- to- Chat oX-soaXe5, , ?, , ;:, :, ~. , ' ?. ":;:. ?; 1 on a fish. mach oiuster usually oontatns less thea $0 eggs, The average number of eggs laid Der female is P00, " The eggs (of... ~deroiaa o ttsllroilles (L ) Bosh Riley (1882) reported that dipterous larvae were found hest~ 8 pupa of the rice stalk . borer, but Chey apparently served mox'e as scavengers rathex than parasites. ingram (1/27) stated, Chat the eggs of xioe stalk box...

Supharngkasen, Phaisal

2012-06-07

407

EFFECTS OF HEPTACHLOR AND TOXAPHENE ON LABORATORY-REARED EMBRYOS AND FRY OF THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through seawater bioassays of 28-days duration were conducted with the organochlorine pesticides heptachlor and toxaphene to determine their toxicity to and bioconcentration by embryos and fry of the sheepshead minnow (Cyprindon variegatus). At technical heptachlor measured ...

408

A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry  

EPA Science Inventory

We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

409

Flight characteristics of pen-reared and wild prairie-chickens and an evaluation of a greenhouse to rear prairie-chickens.  

E-print Network

??The introduction of pen-reared Attwater's prairie-chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) into the wild to supplement existing populations has met with marginal success. Flight characteristics, predator… (more)

Hess, Marc Frederick

2004-01-01

410

Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.  

PubMed

Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192

Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John

2009-06-01

411

Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are

Deborah A. Frost; W. Carlin McAuley; Desmond J. Maynard

2002-01-01

412

Vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic nystagmus in adult cats reared in stroboscopic illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats reared in stroboscopic illumination (strobe reared cats) have been found to have abnormal eye movements. Visual and vestibular evoked compensatory eye movements were inefficient. Vestibuloocular reflex in the dark had a maximum gain of 0.6 (1.0 in normal animals). Optokinetic nystagmus had a mean gain which approached unity only at stimulus velocities around 7 °\\/s (up to 30 °\\/s

H. Kennedy; J. H. Courjon; J. M. Flandrin

1982-01-01

413

Tectonic wedging along the rear of the offshore Taiwan accretionary prism  

E-print Network

Tectonic wedging along the rear of the offshore Taiwan accretionary prism Wu-Cheng Chia,b,*, Donald the rear of the offshore Taiwan accretionary prism were studied using seismic reflection profiling and gravity modeling. Deformation between the offshore prism and forearc basin at the point of incipient

Chi, Wu-Cheng

414

Research Report Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas  

E-print Network

Research Report Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas Eun-Jin Lee, David 2005 Abstract In dark-reared, neonatal turtle retinas, ganglion cell receptive fields and dendritic on densities and soma sizes of turtle retinal ganglion cells. For this purpose, we marked these cells using

Grzywacz, Norberto

415

Life History Parameters of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Reared on Liquid Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A liquid diet for rearing Ceratitis capitata was developed. Several yeasts were evaluated and a combination of whole cell yeast (LBI2240) and hydrolyzed yeast (such as FNILS65 and FNI200) in 1:1 to 3:1 ratio was selected for use in the study. Larvae reared in a liquid diet with LBI2240:LS65 (either ...

416

Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida  

E-print Network

bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus Un resumen en espan~ol se incluye detra´s del texto principal de for many fish species, Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides flor- idanus (LeSeuer), reared in the skull morphology of hatchery-reared Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Ecology

Motta, Philip J.

417

Isolation rearing-induced deficits in contextual fear learning do not require CRF 2 receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-weaning social isolation of rodents is used to model developmental stressors linked to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia as well as anxiety and mood disorders. Isolation rearing produces alterations in emotional memory and hippocampal neuropathology. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling has recently been shown to be involved in behavioral effects of isolation rearing. Activation of the CRF2 receptor is linked to

Jodi E. Gresack; Victoria B. Risbrough; Christine N. Scott; Sarah Coste; Mary Stenzel-Poore; Mark A. Geyer; Susan B. Powell

2010-01-01

418

Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

2002-01-01

419

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2011-01-01

420

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2011-01-01

421

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2010-01-01

422

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2011-01-01

423

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2010-01-01

424

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2010-01-01

425

Interactive Effects of Rearing Temperature and Oxygen on the Development of Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

reared from egg to adult in hyperoxic (40%), hypoxic (10%), and normoxic (21%) conditions time to eclosion. Relative to normoxia, flies reared in hypoxic conditions were generally smaller (mass%­300% (Hunter 1964; Withers 1992), while the dif- fusive rate of oxygen increases by only about 4% in air (Brown

426

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2012-01-01

427

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2014-01-01

428

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2012-01-01

429

14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2013-01-01

430

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2012-01-01

431

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2013-01-01

432

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2013-01-01

433

14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2014-01-01

434

14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.  

...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in...overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. No position light intensity...

2014-01-01

435

Impact of Haemophilia on Child-rearing Practices and Parental Co-operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The parents of eight 3-5-year-old hemophilic boys and 3-5-year-old nonhemophilic boys were interviewed to explore (a) extent to which the rearing practices and cooperation between the parents of a hemophilic child differ from the parents of a nonhemophilic child and (b) differences between rearing practices and parental cooperation in families…

Markova, Ivana; And Others

1980-01-01

436

Evaluation of waste artificial larval rearing media as oviposition attractant for New World screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The waste artificial larval rearing media of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness as oviposition attractants. Various concentrations of waste larval media resulting from rearing screwworm larvae in gel and cellulose fiber-based ...

437

Costs and benefits of communal rearing to female prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communal rearing of offspring may help mothers maximize their investment in offspring at a reduced cost to their own bodily condition, thus maximizing their potential for reproductive success. The objective of this study was to quantify the costs and benefits of communal rearing to prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster) pups and mothers. Mothers were assigned to one of three social

Loren Donald Hayes; Nancy Gail Solomon

2004-01-01

438

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ADULTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SIXTEEN INSECT REPELLENTS IN AEROSOL SPRAYS AGAINST THREE MOSQUITO SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixteen commercial insect repellents (six natural and 10 chemical products) in spray formulations were evaluated in the laboratory for adult knockdown (KD) and mortality of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. All tested products produced significa...

439

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2010-01-01

440

Existence of anticorrelations for local field potentials recorded from mice reared in standard condition and environmental enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we analyze local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the secondary motor cortex (M2) and primary visual cortex (V1) of freely moving mice reared in environmental enrichment (EE) and standard condition (SC). We focus on the scaling properties of the signals by using an integrated approach combining three different techniques: the Higuchi method, detrended fluctuation analysis, and power spectrum. Each technique provides direct or indirect estimations of the Hurst exponent H and this prevents spurious identification of scaling properties in time-series analysis. It is well known that the power spectrum of an LFP signal scales as 1 /f? with ? >0 . Our results indicate the existence of a particular power spectrum scaling law 1 /f? with ? <0 for low frequencies (f <4 Hz) for both SC and EE rearing conditions. This type of scaling behavior is associated to the presence of anticorrelation in the corresponding LFP signals. Moreover, since EE is an experimental protocol based on the enhancement of sensorimotor stimulation, we study the possible effects of EE on the scaling properties of secondary motor cortex (M2) and primary visual cortex (V1). Notably, the difference between Hurst's exponents in EE and SC for individual cortical regions (M2) and (V1) is not statistically significant. On the other hand, using the detrended cross-correlation coefficient, we find that EE significantly reduces the functional coupling between secondary motor cortex (M2) and visual cortex (V1).

Vallone, F.; Cintio, A.; Mainardi, M.; Caleo, M.; Di Garbo, A.

2015-01-01

441

Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1994-11-01

442

Factors associated with the incidence of bacterial gill disease in salmonid lots reared in Ontario, Canada government hatcheries.  

PubMed

Bacterial gill disease (BGD) (causative agent: Flavobacterium branchiophilum) has been a persistent problem in early-rearing salmonids in the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) fish hatchery system. Retrospective epidemiological investigations of BGD diagnoses and treatments in OMNR fish hatcheries during the period 1991-2001 were conducted using University of Guelph Fish Health Laboratory and OMNR central office data. All investigations were conducted at the lot-level, which is the major within-hatchery-level of population aggregation. Survivorship of BGD diagnosis in early-rearing lots within seven individual hatcheries ranged from 84.2 to 100%; within individual species groups, survivorship was lowest (84.6%) in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) lots. Annual risk percentages (cumulative incidence) for BGD diagnosis within hatchery and species groups varied considerably among years. Multivariable proportional hazards survival analysis indicated that the species brook trout, and the Spring (March-May) season, were significantly associated with treatment for BGD. Combined, these results emphasize the importance of hatchery, species, and time on the development of BGD. Future observational research on this disease must consider these factors in their design and analysis. PMID:17945368

Good, Christopher M; Thorburn, Margaret A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

2008-03-17

443

Variation in freshwater growth and development among five New England Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations reared in a common environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined phenotypic variation in growth and development from the eyed-egg stage to the age-1+ smolt stage among five New England populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: East Machias, Narraguagus, Sheepscot, Penobscot, Connecticut) reared in a common laboratory environment. Study populations originated from rivers varying in size, latitude, and level of hatchery supplementation and included one reintroduced population (Connecticut was a recipient of Penobscot origin stock). Phenotypic trait differences were found among populations, and the degree of stock variation depended on ontogeny. Eggs were smaller and hatched sooner in the Penobscot (a northern, intensively managed population), but no stock differences were detected in size or growth efficiency from the onset of exogenous feeding to age 0+ summer. Differences again emerged in age 0+ autumn, with the degree of bimodality in length-frequency distributions differing among stocks; the Connecticut had the highest proportion of upper-mode fish and, ultimately, age-1+ smolts. Although genetic effects could not be entirely separated from maternal effects for egg size variation, it is likely that differences in hatch timing and smolt age had a genetic basis. Early emphasis on age-1+ hatchery-reared smolts in the Connecticut may have led to divergence in smolt age between the Penobscot and Connecticut populations in less than eight generations. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

Obedzinski, M.; Letcher, B.H.

2004-01-01

444

Rearing of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, embryos in distilled water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.

Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.

1969-01-01

445

Development of an x-ray fluorescence microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory: Early results: Comparison with data from other techniques  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical predictions for the detection levels in x-ray fluorescence analysis with a synchrotron storage ring are being achieved experimentally at several laboratories. This paper is deliberately restricted to the state of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory/University of Chicago instruments. Analyses at the parts per million (ppM) level are being made using white light apertured to 20 ..mu..m and an energy dispersive system. This system is particularly useful for elements with Z > 20 in materials dominated by elements with Z < 20. Diffraction causes an interference for crystalline materials. Development of a focusing microprobe for tunable monochromatic x-rays and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) is delayed by problems in shaping an 8:1 focusing mirror to the required accuracy. Reconnaissance analyses with a wiggler source on the CHESS synchrotron have been made in the K spectrum up to Z = 80.

Smith, J.V.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Gordon, B.M.

1986-01-01

446

Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal or “broad-range” PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27\\/30 (90%) of total

Yuriko Nagano; Jim Walker; Anne Loughrey; Cherie Millar; Colin Goldsmith; Paul Rooney; Stuart Elborn; John Moore

2009-01-01

447

New technique: Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

2010-10-01

448

Phenotypic differences between hatchery-reared and wild mud crabs, Scylla Serrata , and the effects of conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatchery-reared animals for stock enhancement should be competent to survive and grow at rates equivalent to those of wild\\u000a conspecifics. However, morphological differences are often observed, and pre-conditioning steps may be required to improve\\u000a the fitness of hatchery-reared juveniles prior to release. In the present study, hatchery-reared Scylla serrata juveniles were reared either individually (HR-solitary) or groups in tanks (HR-communal),

Lee Parkes; Emilia T. Quinitio; Lewis Le Vay

2011-01-01

449

Annulus formation on scales of four species of coregonids reared under artificial conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scales from known-age coregonids reared in the laboratory were examined to determine when annuli formed and to learn possible factors of their formation. Scales were taken monthly from marked fish for periods up to 21 months. Scales were also examined from fish that died and from preserved specimens of young-of-the-year for each species. Two marks formed on almost all scales each calender year. The stronger formed during March-April and the weaker in October-November. Both marks had all the usual characteristics of an annulus but the spring mark was considered the annulus and the fall mark an accessory check. The annulus formed during a period of constant temperatures and of little change in growth or increasing growth. The accessory check formed during a period of declining temperatures (1-5 degrees F, or 0.6-2.8 degrees C, per month) and of little change in growth or declining growth. Most fish grew throughout the winter; the only exceptions were one bloater (Coregonus hoyi) and several of the largest lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis). Fish were always given all the food they would eat to eliminate availability of food as a factor of mark formation. The temperature of the water during the winter (50 ±. 0.3 F; 10.0 ±. 0.2 C) did not arrest metabolic activity. The growth rate was related more closely to day length than to other variables examined.

Hogman, Walter J.

1968-01-01

450

Releases of insectary-reared Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in commercial apple orchards.  

PubMed

Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) orchards in Washington from 2010 to 2012. Releases of up to 50,000 mites per acre did not lead to an increase in populations of predatory mites or to a decrease in populations of pest mites. Assessments of mite numbers in shipments and quality (survival and fecundity) of those mites indicated that the commercial insectary was correctly estimating the number of predatory mites in their shipments, and that predator quality was not different than a laboratory colony. Finally, a predator-prey model that used the intrinsic rates of increase of tetranychid prey and the prey consumption rate of the predator indicated that the density of G. occidentalis required to control the prey at the action threshold was not economically feasible. We conclude that G. occidentalis cannot be used to bring about short-term control via inundative releases in crops such as apple with large canopy volumes. PMID:24224240

Schmidt, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H; Unruh, Thomas R; Horton, David R

2013-10-01

451

Utilization of nondestructive electrochemical techniques in characterizing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of API-5L X65 carbon linepipe steel: Laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) corrosion of API 5L X65 linepipe steel. These techniques included Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (Rp). OCP trend showed anodic polarization of 67 mV between the biotic media with reference to abiotic media. These shifts were attributed to the cathodic side reactions produced by the metabolic activity of SRB. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the real time interactions between the electrode, biofilm and solution interfaces.

Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

2012-05-01

452

Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, A.N.

1998-01-01

453

Potential Use of In Vitro-Reared Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Biological Control of the Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological characteristics of the ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandis (Burks) were evaluated after 1, 2, 5, and 10 generations of in vitro-rearing and compared with parasitoids reared on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, larvae. Pupal weight of females was not significantly affected after 10 generations of in vitro-reared wasps. Fecundity of C. grandis was not significantly reduced after 5 generations

J. A. MORALES-RAMOS; M. G. ROJAS; R. J. COLEMAN; E. G. KING

454

Temperament of Low Birth Weight Infants and Child-Rearing Stress: Comparison with Full-Term Healthy Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied infant temperament in low birth weight (LBW) and full-term (FT) healthy infants in relation to infant temperament and child-rearing stress. Found that although differences between child-rearing stress scores were not significant between mothers of LBW and FT infants, a higher proportion of child-rearing stress could be explained by the…

Honjo, Shuji; Mizuno, Rie; Jechiyama, Haya; Sasaki, Yasuko; Kaneko, Hitoshi; Nishide, Takonori; Nagata, Masako; Sobajima, Hisanori; Nagai, Yukiyo; Ando, Tsunesaburo; Nishide, Yumie

2002-01-01

455

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R2) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R2 of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R2 of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C.; Holmberg, Charles A.; Smith, Bradford P.

2013-01-01

456

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R (2) ) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R (2) of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R (2) of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C; Holmberg, Charles A; Smith, Bradford P

2013-04-01

457

In-product environmental protection: evaluation of chemical emissions from the spot welding joining technique in the automobile industry Part II. Laboratory pyrolysis measurements with a welding chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this series we introduced the aim of this work and the methods used for evaluation of chemical emission when using the combined joining technique of weld bonding. In this part of the publication we give detailed information of the influence of some parameters on the formation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), PAH (polycyclic

G. Lörinci; I. Gebefügi; G. Kötting; W. Hilla; A. Kettrup

1995-01-01

458

Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

Dawirs, R. R.

1982-12-01

459

18.5% efficient AlOx/SiNy rear passivated industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the trend toward thinner and higher efficient crystalline silicon solar cells, excellent rear surface passivation and internal optical reflectance have become more and more important. Aluminum oxide (AlOx) capped with silicon nitride (SiNy), which is considered as one of the most promising candidates to achieve superior rear passivation and internal reflectance, has to date been mostly used for the rear side of p-type monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. In this paper, we have optimized rear AlOx/SiNy stacks deposited by industrial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC). Sufficient passivation activation effect from industrial fast-firing process and SiNy deposition process have been demonstrated, so the samples were not subjected to additional thermal treatment process in the cell fabrication flow. For rear AlOx/SiNy stack, it is shown that when PECVD AlOx is thicker than 40 nm, apparent blisters in fired AlOx deteriorate the cell performance, and the appropriate SiNy capping is N-rich SiNy with thickness of at least 180 nm. After process optimization with the least additional process steps, independently confirmed efficiency of 18.5% for Pluto-PERC with PECVD AlOx/SiNy rear passivation on standard 156 mm × 156 mm p-type mc-Si wafers has been achieved.

Qiao, Qi; Lu, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Xi, Xi; Chen, Rulong; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jingbing; Shi, Zhengrong; Chu, Junhao

2014-06-01

460

Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. PMID:21429043

Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

2012-04-01

461

Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

1985-05-01

462

A TECHNIQUE FOR YEAR-ROUND REARING OF BOMBUS TERRESTRIS (APIDAE, BOMBINI)  

E-print Network

SUMMARY CO2-narcosis induces egg-formation in bumblebee queens prior to hibernation as well' as after hibernation. Most of the treated queens started egg-laying within one week after being introduced!I.DE, 1981). Young queens which emerge during summer and autumn synthesize the reserves for hibernation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants.  

PubMed

Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14-18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

2014-06-01

464

Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants  

PubMed Central

Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14–18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

2014-01-01

465

Hand-rearing wild caribou calves for studies of nutritional ecology.  

PubMed

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are considered difficult to hand-rear in captivity because they are sensitive to the composition and volume of formulated milks. We used a strict feeding schedule and a commercial milk formula designed specifically for caribou to bottle-feed neonates captured from five wild caribou herds in Alaska. Under a feeding protocol adjusted for age and mass, the growth rates and body mass of 26 hand-reared caribou calves to weaning were similar to those of three maternally nursed caribou. This protocol allows caretakers to hand-rear caribou that are as representative as possible of maternally raised neonates. PMID:22968786

Parker, Katherine L; Barboza, Perry S

2013-03-01

466

The effects of captive rearing on the behavior of newly-released whooping cranes (Grus americana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rearing treatments used in captivity to prepare animals for reintroduction to the wild may have a profound effect on behavior and, possibly, affect their survival after reintroduction. This study examined the behaviors of captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) upon their release in Florida to determine if rearing treatments may affect the behavior of the birds and how these affect their chances of survival in the wild. Individually tagged birds were observed at the rearing facility, the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, from hatch to 20 weeks of age and at the release site in Central Florida for up to 6 weeks post release. The rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Observations at the rearing facility are described in a previous paper. At the release site, each bird was observed for 5 min every morning (0700?1000 h) and late afternoon (1500?1800 h) during the 6-week study period. Our results indicated that most of the time, the n = 34 birds were foraging (46.03 ? 1.48%), followed by nonvigilant (20.89 ? 0.73%), vigilant (19.21 ? 0.72%), or performing comfort behaviors (11.61 ? 1.28%). Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. PR birds were found in larger groups than HR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and greater than HR and HRE birds afterwards. This may be interpreted as an antipredator strategy for birds that relied on parental guidance during rearing. HR and HRE birds foraged more than PR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and PR birds were more vigilant during the first 2 weeks post release. Across rearing treatments, the percentages of time spent foraging and engaged in vigilant behaviors during rearing were positively correlated with their behavior upon release. If any of these behaviors can be demonstrated to have relevance for the survival of the whooping cranes after release then it may be possible to establish behavioral interventions to increase the frequencies of such behavior, so that they are perpetuated after release.

Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

2005-01-01

467

Relative toxicity of lead and five proposed substitute shot types to pen-reared mallards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 30-day toxicity test was made to determine the relative toxicity of lead, a tin-lead alloy, zinc, nickel, teflon-coated steel, and tin, all in shot form, to pen-reared mallard drakes. All of the 15 ducks dosed \\vith lead died. Twenty-seven percent of 15 dosed with alloy, and 20 percent of 15 dosed with zinc also died. Ten of the remaining zinc-dosed ducks showed signs of distress, including losses of muscular control and body weight. There were no deaths among 15 ducks dosed with nickel, 15 dosed with teflon-coated steel, and 15 dosed with tin. Seventy-three percent of those dosed with nickel shot eliininated all shot before the end of the 30-day period. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of mallards dosed with commercial lead shot, or with tin-lead alloy shot, but not in the kidneys of birds given nickel, tin, or teflon-coated steel shot. Atypical, pale, acid-fast bodies were found in kidneys of 1 of 15 birds dosed with zinc. An iron-containing pigment, which stained positive with the Prussian blue technique, was present in variable amounts in almost all livers. Zinc-dosed ducks that died or were killed while still showing signs of zinc intoxication had higher iron levels in the liver than ducks that had recovered from zinc intoxication.

Grandy, J.W.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

1968-01-01

468

Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, T.M.; Amundson, T.E.

1988-01-01

469

3. EXTERIOR, SOUTH REAR VIEW OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY GARTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR, SOUTH REAR VIEW OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY GARTON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY AND NIELSEN, GEHRKE AND HANSEN CLOTHING STORE - East Locust Street Commercial District, 521-529 East Locust Street, Des Moines, Polk County, IA

470

SYSTEMIC HEXAMITID (PROTOZOA: DIPLOMONADIDA) INFECTION IN SEAWATER PEN-REARED CHINOOK SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS TSSHAWYTSCHA  

EPA Science Inventory

A systemic infection with a diplomonad flagellate resembling Hexamita salmonis caused high mortality in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, reared at a seawater netpen farm in British Columbia, Canada. ffected fish were anemic and had swollen abdomens containing serosanguin...

471

Toto the Robot Figure 1. Toto, front view. Figure 2. Toto, rear view.  

E-print Network

Toto the Robot Figure 1. Toto, front view. Figure 2. Toto, rear view. Toto the Robot was created so a robot, helps account for his lack of verbal charm. Second, some younger children may recognize in Toto

Indiana University

472

Design and manufacture of a rear driveline package including limited slip differential for Formula SAE applications  

E-print Network

This document describes the design and manufacture of a lightweight rear driveline package for a Formula SAE race car. The design focuses on all components needed to transfer power from the chain driven Honda CBR600 F4i ...

Yazicioglu, Tolga T

2008-01-01

473

2. REAR AND NORTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. MQ39 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. REAR AND NORTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. MQ39 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ammunitions Explosive Maintenance Building, West Loch,Third Street near D Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

474

The effect of rear-seat overloading in a car crash: pathological and kinematics evidences.  

PubMed

Seat belts have been shown to decrease the incidence of lethal lesions to the head, chest, and abdomen. Since the introduction of seat belts, it is reported that the incidence of traumatic lesions in these body parts is reduced. In the meantime, the characteristic lesions to the chest and abdomen caused by the use of seat belts are described (J Trauma. 2007;62(6):1473-1480).Reported is a peculiar case of an oblique front-to-rear car collision, in which overloading of the rear seat with packages pushed forward the passenger front seat in an abnormal way, causing fatal thoracic and abdominal lesions.The authors underline that the seat belt protection device is defeated if front seats are damaged by heavy unanchored bags on the rear seat or on the rear parcel shelf of a motor vehicle. PMID:23756417

Luchini, Duccio; Sammicheli, Michele; Cortucci, Cristiano

2013-09-01

475

8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of AlexanderAlmon ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of Alexander-Almon House with cement block outbuilding to far left, facing north. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

476

Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12??C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8??C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12??C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8??C was greater than that of the 12??C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12??C compared to the fish reared at 8??C. Fish reared at 12??C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8??C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8??C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12??C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic decreases in complement activity and lymphocyte numbers. This study was unique in its scope because it was the first quantitative assessment of salmon immune functions for an entire life-cycle. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Alcorn, S.W.; Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.

2002-01-01

477

Mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, on semi artificial diets.  

PubMed

The effect of two different semi-artificial diets (S.A.D1 and S.A.D2) as well as a natural corn diet on the biology and bionomics of the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica was studied under laboratory conditions. The insect was successfully mass reared for ten successive generations at the conditions of 27 +/- 2 C degrees and 60-80% R.H. In addition, a photoperiod of 0:24 (L:D) for larvae and 12:12 (L:D) in concern to the other stages, respectively. ALong the ten successive generations, there were no significant differences between the larval periods for both the artificial diets. The S.A.D2 induced the shortest (24.0 days) larval period compared with the natural diet (27.5 days) and S.A.D1 (31.5 days). Rearing larvae on the natural diets revealed a pupal period of 11.0 days, while it was 10.0 days and 8.5 days for the artificial diets (S.A.D1) and in (S.A.D2), in respect. Moth longevity (pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods), to a certain extent, was affected by the larval diets. The maximal moth longevity (13.0 days) was observed for larva reared on corn plants (4, 8 and 1 days). On the other hand, the shortest period (10.5 days) of moth longevity was noticed in SAD2 (1, 9 and 0.5 days). S.A.D1 showed 11.0 days moth longevity (3,7 and 1 days). The longest oviposition period (9.0 days) was recorded in the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was only 7.0 days in the artificial diet S.A.D1 compared with 8.0 days in case of the natural diet. The number of deposited eggs increased with the progress of the 10 successive generations (G1:G10) from 150 to 265 and from 384 eggs to 564 eggs / female for the S.A.D1 and S.A.D2, in sequence. The highest mean number of deposited eggs per female (564) was for the derived females from larvae fed on the artificial diet in G10 of S.A.D2. The rate of the deposited eggs in S.A.D2 was gradually increased (from 9.70 to 61.14% increase) more than those reared on the natural diet throughout the ten generations. The highest significant percent hatchability (92.69%) has been resulted from the artificial diet SAD2. But, it has been decreased to 85.59% in the artificial diet S.A.D1 in comparison to 65.71% in the natural diet. In addition, the significant shortest total generation period was 44.0 days resulted from the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was 53.5 and 54.0 days for corn plants and the artificial diet S.A.D1, consequently. In short, results indicated that the S.A.D2 could be considered as a suitable artificial diet for a feasible mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica led. The S.A.D2 showed the shortest larval, pupal and life span for the generation periods. Moreover, it induced the longest oviposition period and the highest mean number of deposited eggs per female and the highest significant percent of eggs hatchability/fertility. The utilization of this artificial diet (S.A.D2) would supply the researchers with high-quality insects in adequate numbers, at specified times and specific stages of development for the bioassay, toxicological and biological studies. PMID:21539247

Masoud, M A; Saad, A S S; Mourad, A K; Ghorab, M A S

2010-01-01

478

Growth of Juvenile Lake Sturgeon Reared in Tanks at Three Densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile (106-d-old) lake sturgeon Acipen- ser fulvescens were reared at three densities, 150, 300, and 450 fish\\/m 2 (1.35, 2.5, and 3.75 kg\\/m2), for 5 weeks to determine if rearing density affected growth. Feeding rates of fish fed on chironomid larvae (72%, wet weight), brine shrimp Artemia sp. (8%), and euphausiids (krill, 20%) ranged from 15% to 34% body weight

Steve Fajfer; Lee Meyers; Guy Willman; Terry Carpenter; Michael J. Hansen

1999-01-01

479

Selected Life-History Traits of Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Reared on Three Artificial Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermetia illucens (L.) was reared on three larval diets to determine their effects on preimaginal development and selected adult life-history traits. Prepupal and adult characteristics were examined for individuals reared on each diet and compared with Þeld-collected prepupae and corresponding emergent adults. Diet did not signiÞcantly inßuence development or survivorship to the prepupal stage. However, adult emergence for all diets

Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

2002-01-01

480

Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12°C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements

Stewart W. Alcorn; Anthony L. Murray; Ronald J. Pascho

2002-01-01

481

Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions  

SciTech Connect

The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), la mosca sudamericana de la fruta, es una de las plagas mas destructivas en la region que infesta a los principales cultivos de frutas. La implementacion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) como parte de un manejo integrado en areas extensivas contra esta especie requiere ensayos que demuestren que los insectos producidos en forma masiva y esterilizados son capaces de sobrevivir en el campo y aparearse con las hembras silvestres. Se comparo la supervivencia de individuos de una linea de laboratorio, tanto irradiados como no irradiados con la de individuos de una poblacion natural. Los dos tratamientos de moscas de laboratorio sobrevivieron mas tiempo que las salvajes durante los 8 dias y en las condiciones ensayadas. La dosis de radiacion (70 Gy.) no afecto la supervivencia de las moscas criadas en laboratorio. Nuestros resultados mejoran las perspectivas de integrar la TIE en el control de las poblaciones argentinas de A. fraterculus. (author)

Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J. [Depto. Ecologia, Genetica y Evolucion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Segura, D.; Cladera, J. [Instituto de Genetica, INTA Castelar, CC25, (1712), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allinghi, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-03-15

482

Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.  

PubMed

Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

2013-04-01

483

Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for ??18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for ??18 O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (??18 O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the ??18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5,IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the delta;18 O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing ??18 O and ??2 H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Brand, W.A.; Coplen, T.B.; Aerts-Bijma, A. T.; Böhlke, J.K.; Gehre, M.; Geilmann, H.; Groning, M.; Jansen, H.G.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Qi, H.; Soergel, K.; Stuart-Williams, H.; Weise, S.M.; Werner, R.A.

2009-01-01

484

Untying a Gordian knot: the domestication and laboratory maintenance of a Gordian worm, Paragordius varius (Nematomorpha: Gordiida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one sand field crickets (Gryllus firmus) were infected with naturally collected cysts of the Gordian worm, Paragordius varius (Nematomorpha: Gordiida). The life cycle was completed by infecting laboratory-reared paratenic hosts with P. varius larvae. The life cycle has been maintained subsequently in the laboratory for numerous generations. This is the first time the life cycle of a member of the

B. Hanelt; J. Janovy Jr

2004-01-01

485

Nestling rearing is antioxidant demanding in female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica).  

PubMed

Reproduction is a demanding activity, since organisms must produce and, in some cases, protect and provision their progeny. Hence, a central tenet of life-history theory predicts that parents have to trade parental care against body maintenance. One physiological cost thought to be particularly important as a modulator of such trade-offs is oxidative stress. However, evidence in favour of the hypothesis of an oxidative cost of reproduction is contradictory. In this study, we manipulated the brood size of wild barn swallows Hirundo rustica soon after hatching of their nestlings to test whether an increase in nestling rearing effort translates into an increased oxidative damage and a decreased antioxidant protection at the end of the nestling rearing period. We found that, while plasma oxidative damage was unaffected by brood size enlargement, females rearing enlarged broods showed a decrease in plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants during the nestling rearing period. This was not the case among females rearing reduced broods and among males assigned to either treatment. Moreover, individuals with higher plasma oxidative damage soon after the brood size manipulation had lower plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants at the end of the nestling rearing period, suggesting that non-enzymatic antioxidants were depleted to buffer the negative effects of high oxidative damage. Our findings point to antioxidant depletion as a potential mechanism mediating the cost of reproduction among female birds. PMID:24890700

Costantini, David; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

2014-07-01

486

Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

2015-01-01

487

Nestling rearing is antioxidant demanding in female barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reproduction is a demanding activity, since organisms must produce and, in some cases, protect and provision their progeny. Hence, a central tenet of life-history theory predicts that parents have to trade parental care against body maintenance. One physiological cost thought to be particularly important as a modulator of such trade-offs is oxidative stress. However, evidence in favour of the hypothesis of an oxidative cost of reproduction is contradictory. In this study, we manipulated the brood size of wild barn swallows Hirundo rustica soon after hatching of their nestlings to test whether an increase in nestling rearing effort translates into an increased oxidative damage and a decreased antioxidant protection at the end of the nestling rearing period. We found that, while plasma oxidative damage was unaffected by brood size enlargement, females rearing enlarged broods showed a decrease in plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants during the nestling rearing period. This was not the case among females rearing reduced broods and among males assigned to either treatment. Moreover, individuals with higher plasma oxidative damage soon after the brood size manipulation had lower plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants at the end of the nestling rearing period, suggesting that non-enzymatic antioxidants were depleted to buffer the negative effects of high oxidative damage. Our findings point to antioxidant depletion as a potential mechanism mediating the cost of reproduction among female birds.

Costantini, David; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

2014-07-01

488

Don/Doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future space-craft, lunar or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protruding lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suit. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

Kosmo, Joseph J. (Inventor); Tri, Terry O. (Inventor); Spenny, William E. (Inventor); West, Philip R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

489

Don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A don/doff support stand for use with rear entry space suits is disclosed. The support stand is designed for use in one-g environments; however, certain features of the stand can be used on future spacecraft, lunar, or planetary bases. The present invention has a retainer which receives a protrucing lug fixed on the torso section of the space suit. When the lug is locked in the retainer, the space suit is held in a generally upright position. In a one-g environment a portable ladder is positioned adjacent to the rear entry of the space suit supported by the stand. The astronaut climbs up the ladder and grasps a hand bar assembly positioned above the rear entry. The astronaut then slips his legs through the open rear entry and down into the abdominal portion of the suite. The astronaut then lowers himself fully into the suit. The portable ladder is then removed and the astronaut can close the rear entry door. The lug is then disengaged from the retainer and the astronaut is free to engage in training exercises in the suit. When suit use is over, the astronaut returns to the stand and inserts the lug into the retainer. A technician repositions the ladder. The astronaut opens the rear entry door, grasps the hand bar assembly and does a chin-up to extricate himself from the suit. The astronaut climbs down the movable ladder while the suit is supported by the stand.

Kosmo, Joseph J. (inventor); Tri, Terry O. (inventor); Spenny, William E. (inventor); West, Philip R. (inventor)

1988-01-01

490

Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for d18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

IAEA-602 benzoic acid +71.28?±?0.36‰ USGS35 sodium nitrate +56.81?±?0.31‰ IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate +25.32?±?0.29‰ IAEA-601 benzoic acid +23.14?±?0.19‰ IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate +12.13?±?0.33‰ NBS 127 barium sulfate +8.59?±?0.26‰ VSMOW2 water 0‰ IAEA-600 caffeine -3.48?±?0.53‰ IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate -11.35?±?0.31‰ USGS34 potassium nitrate -27.78?±?0.37‰ SLAP water -55.5‰ The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for d18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (d18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the d18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the d18O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing d18O and d2H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible."

Coplen, Tyler B.; Bohlke, Johnkarl F.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Brand, Willi A.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred

2009-01-01

491

Volatiles from waste larval rearing media attract gravid screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit.  

PubMed

Gravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are attracted to the volatiles from waste larval rearing media to deposit eggs. Studies were conducted to identify volatile chemicals from the waste larval media and determine their effectiveness to attract gravid flies to oviposit. Volatiles were collected using solid-phase microextraction method, and five active chemicals, namely, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In electroantennography studies, antennae ofgravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), responded positively to each of the identified compounds. A synthetic blend of these five compounds in the ratio of 335:200:57:1:12 was prepared and tested for its effectiveness to attract both C. hominivorax and C. macellaria using laboratory bioassay methods. Significantly more gravid C. macellaria were attracted to and landed on substrates treated with 10-fold diluted blends compared with those landed on substrates treated with ethanol only (as control). Only a few young females and young and old males were attracted to the substrates treated with the synthetic blend. The C. hominivorax females laid significantly more eggs on substrates treated with waste media, 10-fold diluted blend, and 100-fold diluted blend than on substrates with undiluted blend or ethanol. Similarly, C. macellaria deposited significantly more eggs on substrates treated with waste media, 10-fold diluted blend, and 100-fold diluted blend compared with substrates with undiluted blend or ethanol. C. macellaria females deposited significantly less amount of eggs than did C. hominivorax females. These results indicate that the synthetic blend of five compounds identified may serve as an oviposition attractant for C. hominivorax as well as for C. macellaria. PMID:24897851

Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Sagel, A; Chen, H; Skoda, S R

2014-05-01

492

Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators?  

PubMed Central

The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the ‘ecosystem services’ they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, ‘Colony Collapse Disorder’); yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s) of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen ‘spillover’ from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of C. bombi infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35–100% of wild Bombus, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of C. bombi near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed C. bombi to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild Bombus in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even eliminate pathogen spillover. PMID:18648661

Otterstatter, Michael C.; Thomson, James D.

2008-01-01

493

Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?  

PubMed

The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the 'ecosystem services' they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, 'Colony Collapse Disorder'); yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s) of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen 'spillover' from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of C. bombi infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35-100% of wild Bombus, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of C. bombi near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed C. bombi to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild Bombus in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even eliminate pathogen spillover. PMID:18648661

Otterstatter, Michael C; Thomson, James D

2008-01-01

494

[Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)].  

PubMed

Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 +/- 0.5 masculineC, 88 +/- 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a finite rate of increase of 1.11 (l). The net reproductive rate (R0) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days.