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Sample records for laboratory rearing technique

  1. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations. PMID:16334318

  2. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  3. Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

  4. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  6. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  7. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  8. Rearing Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, I C; Message, D; Cruz, C D; Campos, L A O; Sousa-Majer, M J

    2009-01-01

    We developed a method for rearing larvae of Africanized bees under laboratory conditions to determine the amount of diet needed during larval development to obtain a worker bee. We started with larvae 18-24 h old, which were transferred to polyethylene cell cups and fed for five days. We found that the amount of diet needed for successful larval development was: 4, 15, 25, 50, and 70 microl during the first to fifth days, respectively. The survival rate to the adult stage was 88.6% when the larvae received the daily amount of diet divided into two feedings, and 80% when they received only one feeding per day. The adult weight obtained in the laboratory, when the larvae received the daily amount of diet in a single dose, did not differ from those that were developed under field conditions (our control). All adults that we obtained in laboratory appeared to be normal. This technique has the potential to facilitate studies on brood pathogens, resistance mechanisms to diseases and also might be useful to test the impacts of transgenic products on honey bee brood. PMID:19551650

  9. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  10. LIGHT INTENSITY AFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF ATTACKING PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) IN A LABORATORY REARING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution of attacking phorid flies (Pseudacteon curvatus Borgmeier) in a laboratory rearing system was tested for dependence on light intensity under 2 different light regimes. Light intensity (range, approx. 220-340 Lux) influenced fly distribution in light regime 1; in the second light regime...

  11. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  12. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains. PMID:26313993

  13. Laboratory rearing of wild Arctic cod Boreogadus saida from egg to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kent, D; Drost, H E; Fisher, J; Oyama, T; Farrell, A P

    2016-03-01

    The techniques and protocols used to successfully capture, transport and breed Arctic cod Boreogadus saida, as well as to rear their larvae through to adulthood are summarized. Breeding B. saida will increase the opportunity to study this fish species, which is a critical part of the Arctic food web. PMID:26832071

  14. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, M.; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  15. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  16. Toxic exposure to ethylene dibromide and mercuric chloride: effects on laboratory-reared octopuses.

    PubMed

    Adams, P M; Hanlon, R T; Forsythe, J W

    1988-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic exposure to either ethylene dibromide (EDB) or mercuric chloride (MC) were studied in laboratory-reared Octopus joubini, O. maya and O. bimaculoides. The advantages of using octopuses were that the responses were immediate, highly visible and sensitive. All species demonstrated signs of toxicity to acute and chronic exposure to EDB and to MC. A dosage-sensitive relationship for the loss and subsequent recovery of locomotor response and of chromatophore expansion was found for each species after acute exposure. For each species the LC50 for chronic exposure occurred within 12 hr at 100 mg/l for EDB and within 3 hr at 1,000 mg/l for MC. This study demonstrated the potential usefulness of laboratory-reared octopuses in evaluating the toxicity of marine environmental pollutants. PMID:3072470

  17. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  18. Selectivity of pesticides used on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to Trichogramma pretiosum reared on two laboratory-reared hosts.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Cristina S; de Almeida, Raul P; Suinaga, Fábio A

    2006-01-01

    The side-effects of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators) used on cotton were tested on adults and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley reared in the laboratory on two different hosts, the Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) and the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller)). The eggs of the host enclosing the parasitoid pupae received direct pesticide sprays, while the adults of the parasitoid were exposed to the pesticides through contact with residues on sprayed eggs offered to parasitism. Alpha-cypermethrin, carbosulfan, deltamethrin, endosulfan, profenofos and zeta-cypermethrin were highly noxious to the parasitoid, significantly reducing the percentage of emergence and parasitism of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella or S. cerealella eggs. However, the pupal stage of the parasitoid developing in S. cerealella eggs was less susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Lufenuron and metamidophos greatly reduced the percentage of adult emergence from eggs of both hosts, while novaluron only interfered on this variable when the wasps were developing in E. kuehniella eggs. However, lufenuron and monocrotophos had no effect on the parasitoid pupae of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella eggs. Chlorfluazuron, diafenthiuron, diflubenzuron, fentin hydroxide, mepiquat chloride, novaluron, thiacloprid and triflumuron did not affect T. pretiosum emergence when eggs of S. cerealella enclosing pupae of the wasps were surface treated. The pesticides azoxystrobin, carbendazin + thiram, mepiquat chloride and novaluron had no effect on the ability of the wasps to parasitise E. kuehniella eggs. However, only mepiquat chloride did not affect the percentage of F1 wasps emerging from E. kuehniella eggs. The remaining pesticides moderately reduced the percentage of emergence and parasitism of the wasps when they had contact with the chemicals during their pupal or adult stage. Thus there were

  19. Stable isotope markers differentiate between mass-reared and wild Lepidoptera in sterile insect technique programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this comprehensive study a number of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) target moth species were identified and the feasibility was assessed of using isotope signatures to distinguish mass reared from wild moth species as a marking tool. Large natural differences in the isotopic signatures of commer...

  20. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  1. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  2. Laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, and biomedical research potential of the Yucatan octopus (Octopus maya).

    PubMed

    Van Heukelem, W F

    1977-10-01

    Eggs of the Yucatan octopus, Octopus maya, were collected at Campeche, Mexico, transported to Hawaii, and incubated in glass funnels. Benthic juveniles hatched from the large (17-mm) eggs and were reared on a variety of live and frozen foods. As many as 200 animals were reared for the first month in a 20-liter aquarium. No disease or parasite problems were encountered and nearly all well-fed juveniles survived to sexual maturity. The species was reared through four generations in the laboratory. Animals weighed 0.1 g at hatching and within 8.5 months attained an average weight of 3231 g. Mating was promiscuous and sperm were stored in the oviducts until spawning. Spawning occurred at 8-9 months of age. Up to 5,000 eggs were laid by large females and nearly 100% of fertilized eggs developed to hatching. Females brooded eggs during the 45-day period of development but artificial was as successful as natural incubation by the mother. Pos-reproductive senescent decline of both males and females was rapid and average life span was 300 days from hatching. Areas of biomedical research in which O maya could be a useful model were suggested and included neurobiology, comparative psychology, ontogeny of behavior, immunology, endocrinology, and studies of aging. PMID:592733

  3. SIMILARITY IN RESPONSES OF LABORATORY-REARED ANED FIELD-COLLECTED LONE STAR TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE)NYMPHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field testing tick repellents intended for use on human skin can be difficult, particularly when multiple concentrations of multiple repellents must be tested. Therefore, laboratory tests using laboratory reared ticks have been important. To address concerns that test results obtained with laborator...

  4. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Catalá, S S; Maida, D M; Caro-Riaño, H; Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J

    2004-02-01

    We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long

  5. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  6. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  7. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  8. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  9. The Kibbutz as a Social Experiment as a Child-Rearing Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin; Rabin, Albert I.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the history of the kibbutz movement, kibbutz child-rearing practices, and the results of research in kibbutz socialization. The research indicates that the 'kibbutz personality' is essentially nonpathological and effective. Recent changes in child-rearing patterns in the kibbutz, and a return to traditional family child-rearing, are viewed…

  10. An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity. PMID:20945799

  11. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  12. Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the

  13. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution. PMID:17645823

  14. Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

  15. Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

    1992-09-01

    A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

  16. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  17. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  18. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  19. Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hapairai, Limb K; Marie, Jérôme; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2014-04-01

    Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males. PMID:24316237

  20. Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

  1. Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

  2. Laboratory Rearing of Thitarodes armoricanus and Thitarodes jianchuanensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Hosts of the Chinese Medicinal Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae).

    PubMed

    Tao, Zui; Cao, Li; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2016-02-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ophiocordycipitaceae) is an entomopathogenic fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, at elevations ranging between 3,000 and 5,000 m. The fungus-insect complex is useful in healthcare but limited in the field, so there is an urgent need to develop an artificial rearing system of both the fungus and its insect hosts. Large-scale artificial rearing of the Thitarodes insect hosts is crucial. This paper reports results of the artificial cultivation and complete life tables of two host species of O. sinensis, Thitarodes armoricanus and Thitarodes jianchuanensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), under low-altitude laboratory conditions. The larvae were reared on carrots in plastic containers at 9–13°C and 50–80% RH. Both experimental insect species had long and unusual life cycle; it took 263–494 and 443–780 d for T. jianchuanensis and T. armoricanus, respectively, to complete a developmental cycle, including egg, larval instars L1-L9, pupa, and adult. The larvae did develop into pupae from the L7, L8, or L9 instar larvae. Although the total survival rates of both insect species were low (12.0% for T. jianchuanensis and 1.6% for T. armoricanus), the experimental populations successfully developed into the next generation owing to high egg production by fertilized females (averages of 703 and 355 eggs per female in the Yunnan and Sichuan species, respectively). Successful artificial rearing of host insect species for O. sinensis under low temperature conditions will allow the cultivation of this important fungus-insect complex to ensure its protection as a bio-resource and for commercial supply. PMID:26567334

  3. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  4. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. PMID:26477981

  5. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  6. MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

  7. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae) reared in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, F A; Santiago, A P; Abrunhosa, J P

    2008-02-01

    The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L(-1). The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4) cell.mL(-1). Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1) solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports. PMID:18470395

  8. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  9. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  10. Introducing improvements in the mass rearing of the housefly: biological, morphometric and genetic characterization of laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Pastor, B; Martínez-Sánchez, A S; Ståhls, G A; Rojo, S

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the biology of the housefly (Musca domestica L.) is crucial for the development of mass-rearing protocols in order to use this insect as a degradation agent for livestock waste. In this study, the biological and genetic differences between different laboratory strains of M. domestica were analysed. Additionally, hybrids were obtained by mixing the strains and their biological parameters were also measured. The three strains of M. domestica presented differences in their biological and morphological parameters, the main differences were: size, egg production and developmental time. The strain A (specimens from Central Europe) had the best qualities to be used in mass-rearing conditions: it produced the largest quantities of eggs (5.77±0.38 eggs per female per day), the individuals were larger (12.62±0.22 mg) and its developmental time was shorter (15.22±0.21 days). However, the strain C (specimens from SW Europe) produced the fewest eggs (3.15±0.42 eggs per female per day) and needed 18.16±0.49 days to develop from larva to adult, whilst the females from strain B (from South America) produced 4.25±0.47 eggs per day and needed 17.11±0.36 days to complete its development. Genetic analysis of the original laboratory strains showed four different mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes. Statistical parsimony network analysis showed that the SW Europe and South-American strains shared haplotypes, whereas the Central Europe strain did not. Upon hybridizing the strains, variations in egg production and in developmental time were observed in between hybrids and pure strains, and when mixing Central European and South-American strains only males were obtained. PMID:24824066

  11. Point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown: Characterisation of a metallisation technique for the rear surface of a solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Western, Ned J. Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Wenham, Stuart R.; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2015-07-28

    Characterisation results are presented for ohmic contacts to passivated crystalline silicon, formed using the point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown technique. Self aligned contact is made between the metal and heavily doped surface regions through an intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layer. Local doping is provided by a laser using a standard technique identical to that for selective emitter formation. Our results for gate metals of Au, Al, and Ti show that the technique does not rely on reactivity between the dielectric and the metal, excluding metal induced crystallisation from the contacting process. Diffusion of the gate metal into the dielectric is observed in transmission electron microscope images suggesting high temperatures are present locally during the breakdown process. The technique is equally applicable to contacting of n and p-type silicon, making it a potential alternative for ohmic contacting to silicon to passivated rear surfaces.

  12. DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

  13. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

    2013-02-01

    The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms. PMID:23644800

  14. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

  15. Long-term efficacy of two cricket and two liver diets for rearing laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis Invicta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective diets are necessary for many kinds of laboratory studies of ants. We conducted a year-long study of imported fire ant colonies reared on either chicken liver, beef liver, banded crickets, or domestic crickets all with a sugar water supplement. Fire ant colonies thrived on diets of sugar ...

  16. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  17. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  18. Larval growth, development, and survival of laboratory-reared Aplysia californica: Effects of diet and veliger density*

    PubMed Central

    Capo, Thomas R.; Bardales, Ana T.; Gillette, Phillip R.; Lara, Monica R.; Schmale, Michael C.; Serafy, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the California sea hare, Aplysia californica, has played an increasingly important role as a model organism in the neurosciences. Since 1995, the National Resource for Aplysia has supported a growing research community by providing a consistent supply of laboratory-reared individuals of known age, reproductive status, and environmental history. The purpose of the present study was to resolve the key biological factors necessary for successful culture of large numbers of high quality larval Aplysia. Data from a sequence of five experiments demonstrated that algal diet, food concentration, and veliger density significantly affected growth, attainment of metamorphic competency, and survival of Aplysia larvae. The highest growth and survival were achieved with a mixed algal diet of 1:1 Isochrysis sp (TISO) and Chaetoceros muelleri (CHGRA) at a total concentration of 250 x 103 cells/mL and a larval density of 0.5 – 1.0 per mL. Rapid growth was always correlated with faster attainment of developmental milestones and increased survival, indicating that the more rapidly growing larvae were healthier. Trials conducted with our improved protocol resulted in larval growth rates of >14 μm/d, which yielded metamorphically competent animals within 21 days with survival rates in excess of 90%. These data indicate the important effects of biotic factors on the critical larval growth period in the laboratory and show the advantages of developing optimized protocols for culture of such marine invertebrates. PMID:19000779

  19. Susceptibility of laboratory-reared northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Crystal, M M; DeMilo, A B

    1988-07-01

    Toxicity was determined for 15 acaricides against a laboratory strain of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). Adult females were exposed to residues on filter paper for 24 h. Three organophosphorous compounds (monocrotophos, cythioate, and famphur) were more toxic to the northern fowl mite than was carbaryl, the most commonly used pesticide in the poultry industry. The other tested compounds were less toxic to the mite than was carbaryl. Four of these, not used previously for northern fowl mite control, had low LC50's for northern fowl mites:aldicarb (0.46); pirimiphos-methyl (0.73); exo, exo-2,8-dichloro-4-thiatricyclo[3.2.1.0.]octane-4-oxide (AI3-63182) (0.87); and diazinon (2.48). PMID:3168660

  20. SNPfisher: tools for probing genetic variation in laboratory-reared zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Matthew G.; Iben, James R.; Marsden, Kurt C.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Granato, Michael; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the benchmark molecular markers for modern genomics. Until recently, relatively few SNPs were known in the zebrafish genome. The use of next-generation sequencing for the positional cloning of zebrafish mutations has increased the number of known SNP positions dramatically. Still, the identified SNP variants remain under-utilized, owing to scant annotation of strain specificity and allele frequency. To address these limitations, we surveyed SNP variation in three common laboratory zebrafish strains using whole-genome sequencing. This survey identified an average of 5.04 million SNPs per strain compared with the Zv9 reference genome sequence. By comparing the three strains, 2.7 million variants were found to be strain specific, whereas the remaining variants were shared among all (2.3 million) or some of the strains. We also demonstrate the broad usefulness of our identified variants by validating most in independent populations of the same laboratory strains. We have made all of the identified SNPs accessible through ‘SNPfisher’, a searchable online database (snpfisher.nichd.nih.gov). The SNPfisher website includes the SNPfisher Variant Reporter tool, which provides the genomic position, alternate allele read frequency, strain specificity, restriction enzyme recognition site changes and flanking primers for all SNPs and Indels in a user-defined gene or region of the zebrafish genome. The SNPfisher site also contains links to display our SNP data in the UCSC genome browser. The SNPfisher tools will facilitate the use of SNP variation in zebrafish research as well as vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:25813542

  1. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  2. Larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards (Decapoda: Grapsidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montú, M.; Anger, K.; de Bakker, C.

    1996-06-01

    Larvae of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were reared in the laboratory from the time of hatching and through metamorphosis. Development normally consists of a Prezoea, 5 Zoea stages, and a Megalopa. Occasionally, an additional (stage VI) Zoea and, in one case, an additional Megalopa (transitional to the first crab stage) were observed. Detailed morphological descriptions of all larval and the first two juvenile instars are given, and larval morphology is compared with that of two closely related species, Eriocheir japonicus and Eriocheir rectus, descriptions of which have recently become available. The zoeal stages of these species can be distinguished by their different number of aesthetascs and setae on the antennules, and different setation of maxillipeds 1 and 2. The Megalopa shows differences in the shape of the rostrum and again in the morphology of the antennule. These and other morphological differences (mainly in setation and spinulation of the zoeal carapace) between E. sinensis and E. japonicus larvae suggest that they may be very closely related but separate species; this contradicts a recent study of adult morphometrics and molecular genetics (Li et al., 1993), suggesting that they are only varieties of a single species.

  3. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  4. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus is highly pathogenic for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Bradley, M.; Elder, N.; Meyers, T.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasi were reared in the laboratory from eggs and then challenged at 5, 9, and 13 months of age by waterborne exposure to low (101.5–2.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per milliliter), medium (103.5–4.5 PFU/mL), or high (105.5–6.5 PFU/mL) levels of a North American isolate of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The fish were extremely susceptible to the virus, showing clinical disease, mortality approaching 100%, and only a limited increase in resistance with age. Mortality began 4–6 d after exposure and peaked at approximately day 7 in fish exposed to high levels of virus. Whereas the mean time to death showed a significant dose response (P < 0.001), the percent mortality and virus titers in dead fish were generally high in all groups regardless of initial challenge dose. External signs of disease were usually limited to 1–2-mm hemorrhagic areas on the lower jaw and isthmus and around the eye, but 2 of 130 infected fish exhibited extensive cutaneous hemorrhaging. Histopathologic examination of tissues from moribund fish sampled at 2–8 d after exposure revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, diffuse necrosis of interstitial hematopoietic tissues in the kidney, diffuse necrosis of the spleen, epidermis, and subcutis, and occasional necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Virus titers in tissues of experimentally infected herring were first detected 48 h after exposure and peaked 6-8 d after exposure at 107.7 PFU/g. Fish began shedding virus at 48 h after exposure with titers in the flow-through aquaria reaching 102.5 PFU/mL at 4–5 d after exposure, just before peak mortality. When the water flow was turned off for 3 h, titers in the water rose to 103.5 PFU/mL, and the amount of virus shed by infected fish (on average, greater than 106.5 PFU/h per fish) appeared sufficient to sustain a natural epizootic among schooling herring. Taken together, these data suggest that VHSV could be a

  5. Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

  6. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  7. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  8. Laboratory diagnostic techniques for Entamoeba species.

    PubMed

    Fotedar, R; Stark, D; Beebe, N; Marriott, D; Ellis, J; Harkness, J

    2007-07-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  9. Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  10. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  11. Paternity analyses in wild-caught and laboratory-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Oneal, E; Knowles, L L

    2015-12-01

    Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. sanctaecrucis and contrast our findings with those obtained from females reared in a high-density laboratory environment. We find that female A. sanctaecrucis exercise control by mating multiple times (females mount males), but that male-male post-copulatory interactions may influence paternity success. Moreover, post-copulatory interactions that affect reproductive success of males are not independent of mating environment: clutches of wild-caught females exhibit higher sire diversity and lower paternity skew than clutches of laboratory-reared females. There was no strong evidence for last male precedence in either case. Most attempts at disentangling the contributions of male-male and male-female interactions towards post-copulatory sexual selection have been undertaken in a laboratory setting and may not capture the full context in which they take place--such as the relationship between premating and post-mating interactions. Our results reinforce the importance of designing studies that can capture the multifaceted nature of sexual selection for elucidating the role of post-copulatory sexual selection in driving the evolution of male and female reproductive traits, especially when different components (e.g. precopulatory and post-copulatory interactions) do not exert independent effects on reproductive outcomes. PMID:26348983

  12. Pathogenecity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  13. Use of PIT tags to assess individual heterogeneity of laboratory-reared juveniles of the endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) in a mark–recapture study

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Dan; Jiao, Yan; Neves, Richard; Jones, Jess

    2015-01-01

    The federally endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) was propagated and reared to taggable size (5–10 mm), and released to the Powell River, Tennessee, to augment a relict population. Methodology using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on these mussels greatly facilitated the detection process. The overall mean detection probability and survival rate of released individuals reached 97.8 to 98.4% and 99.7 to 99.9% (per month), respectively, during nine successive recapture occasions in the 2-year study period, regardless of seasonality. Nonhierarchical models and hierarchical models incorporating individual and seasonal variations through a Bayesian approach were compared and resulted in similar performance of prediction for detection probability and survival rate of mussels. This is the first study to apply the mark–recapture method to laboratory-reared mussels using PIT tags and stochastic models. Quantitative analyses for individual heterogeneity allowed examination of demographic variance and effects of heterogeneity on population dynamics, although the individual and seasonal variations were small in this study. Our results provide useful information in implementing conservation strategies of this faunal group and a framework for other species or similar studies. PMID:25798225

  14. Comparing the Use of Laboratory-Reared and Field-Collected Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae for Demonstrating Efficacy of Postharvest Cold Treatments in Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's export markets require postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit for phytosanitary risk mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to a standalone cold treatment may be a reduced intensity cold treatment as a step in a systems approach. For cold treatment trials, large numbers of larvae are required. Due to recent dramatic improvement of T. leucotreta control in the field, sufficient naturally infested citrus fruit are no longer available. Artificial infestation of fruit is not viable due to rapid decay of the fruit. Consequently, it is necessary to use laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet. In trials, field-collected larvae from the Eastern Cape were at least as cold-tolerant as those from other regions. Larvae in Navel oranges showed the median level of susceptibility in a range of citrus types evaluated at 6°C, and their use in trials was considered acceptable due to their greater natural susceptibility to T. leucotreta infestation. We demonstrated that larvae at high density in artificial diet were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae at lower densities. When exposed to 2°C for 18 d or longer, larvae in artificial diet as used in the trials were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae in fruit. Very few surviving larvae from fruit completed development, with no subsequent generation. Consequently, it is considered justifiable to conduct cold-treatment trials with laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet without risk of underestimating the effect of cold on feral larvae in citrus fruit. PMID:27341890

  15. Laboratory technique for coloring titanium abutments to improve esthetics.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur P K; O'Brien, Richard; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Titanium alloys are used for implant abutments onto which prostheses are attached. One major disadvantage of titanium abutments is their esthetics; the metallic gray color may show through the restorative material or through surrounding tissues. A laboratory technique using readily available household items is described that can alter the abutment color by anodization. PMID:26723096

  16. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  17. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  18. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  19. Complete larval development of Thor amboinensis (De Man, 1888) Decapoda: Thoridae) described from laboratory-reared material
    and identified by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Salabert, Joana; Santos, Antonina Dos

    2016-01-01

    Of the 12 species of Thor described until present date, only three (25%) have their complete larval development known. Present work describes the complete larval development of Thor amboinensis, based on laboratory-reared material. The spent females were identified through the analysis of the partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA barcode, also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the recently resurrected and recognized family Thoridae Kingsley, 1879. Eight zoeal stages and one decapodid complete this species larval development. In the genus Thor, the number of zoeal stages varies greatly from two (T. dobkini) to eight (T. amboinensis and T. floridanus). The larvae of T. ambionensis and T. floridanus are readily distinguished from each other by the ornamentation of the ventral margin of the carapace and the pereiopods development. The first zoeal stage of T. amboinensis described by Yang & Okuno (2004) and the one described in present study are very similar. A brief discussion on the morphological characters and on the number of zoeal stages of the genus, as well as of the previous larval descriptions is made. The phylogenetic analysis suggest cryptic speciation for geographical separated populations of T. amboinensis, paraphyly of the genus Eualus, and the reassignment of E. cranchii to a different genus. PMID:27395843

  20. Serum Clinical Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Ranges of Laboratory-Reared and Wild-Caught Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sabrina; Felt, Stephen; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Howard, Antwain; Behan, Colleen; Moorhead, Roberta; Green, Sherril

    2011-01-01

    The South African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis are fully aquatic amphibians and well-established animal models. Because genetically engineered laboratory Xenopus are now being produced, the establishment of normal reference ranges for serum biochemical and hematologic parameters is essential for phenotyping and as a diagnostic aide. We determined normal reference ranges for hematologic values from 3 populations of X. laevis: wild-caught frogs (n = 43) and frogs from 2 commercial sources (A, n = 166; B, n = 109). For serum biochemistry, we determined normal reference ranges for frogs from source A and wild-caught frogs divided by sex and season. Significant differences across populations were found in WBC and RBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. Among serum biochemical analytes, significant differences were found for albumin:globulin ratio, anion gap, and concentrations of albumin, globulin, total protein, lipase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; creatine phosphokinase; indirect, direct, and total bilirubin; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein lipase, carbon dioxide, glucose, lactacte dehydrogenase, calcium, chloride, and sodium. We hypothesize that these differences can be attributed to differences in water quality, habitat, ambient temperature, diet, sex, recent transport or shipment, and genetic background. However, testing that hypothesis is beyond the scope of the current study. In addition, clinical chemistry and hematologic reference range values Xenopus laevis are quite distinct from those for other species and are most consistent with the only values published for another fully aquatic amphibian, the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). PMID:22330708

  1. Laboratory techniques for investigating recovery in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Maini, B.; Sayegh, S.

    1983-01-01

    Although general guidelines have been published in the literature for selecting the most suitable tertiary recovery technique for a given reservoir, the actual design of a commercial enhanced recovery scheme is a time- consuming and expensive process requiring computer simulations, experimental field pilots, and extensive laboratory tests. The objective of this work is to review laboratory testing procedures related to heavy oil recovery and to provide reservoir and production engineers with an insight into such procedures so that they may better appreciate their potentials and limitations. The topics discussed include characterization of stock tank oils, phase behavior measurements of oil/gas systems, measurements of relative permeability, and its temperature dependence and core tests for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ stimulation. 22 references.

  2. A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ℃ for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ℃) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

  3. Laboratory evaluations of mechanical decontamination and descaling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.R.; Polentz, L.M.; Bateman, D.B.

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a number of nonchemical industrial techniques that have potential for use in decontamination of portions of the reactor coolant system at TMI-2. The basis for the evaluation was the performance of the technique in tubing/pipe with respect to: (1) removal of simulated loose fuel debris, (2) removal of a corrosion layer, (3) the condition of the cleaned surface, and (4) cleaning of 90/sup 0/ elbows. Testing of the techniques was accomplished by demonstrations conducted at vendor sites and by laboratory work at Quadrex. Corrosion layers were simulated by using 0.75 in. oxidized Inconel tubing and either painted or oxidized 3 in. type 304 stainless steel pipe. Loose fuel debris was simulated with a 50:50 mixture of one and five micron tungsten powder. The most useful techniques for removal of both loose debris and corrosion layers were a rotating brush-hone tipped with SiC and a rotating, expanding wire brush. Although high/ultrahigh-pressure water was demonstrated to remove both loose debris and a corrosion layer, the relative roughness of the surface produced may present a recontamination problem if the component is to be reused. Pigs with a variety of surface coverings very successfully removed loose debris but could not remove a corrosion layer in one pass.

  4. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

  5. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  6. Determination of meteor parameters using laboratory simulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Becker, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric entry of meteoritic bodies is conveniently and accurately simulated in the laboratory by techniques which employ the charging and electrostatic acceleration of macroscopic solid particles. Velocities from below 10 to above 50 km/s are achieved for particle materials which are elemental meteoroid constituents or mineral compounds with characteristics similar to those of meteoritic stone. The velocity, mass, and kinetic energy of each particle are measured nondestructively, after which the particle enters a target gas region. Because of the small particle size, free molecule flow is obtained. At typical operating pressures (0.1 to 0.5 torr), complete particle ablation occurs over distances of 25 to 50 cm; the spatial extent of the atmospheric interaction phenomena is correspondingly small. Procedures have been developed for measuring the spectrum of light from luminous trails and the values of fundamental quantities defined in meteor theory. It is shown that laboratory values for iron are in excellent agreement with those for 9 to 11 km/s artificial meteors produced by rocket injection of iron bodies into the atmosphere.

  7. Laboratory technique for simulation of projectile penetration into geological targets

    SciTech Connect

    Setchell, R.E.; Guzman, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new approach to laboratory-scale experiments on high-velocity penetration of projectiles into geological materials is demonstrated. This method utilizes a commercial accelerometer mounted within a small penetrator model that impacts a sample of target material. As in previous laboratory-scale experiments at high velocities, a compressed-gas gun is used in a reverse-ballistics configuration to accelerate a geological sample into an initially stationary penetrator. The present approach provides an acceleration history during the penetration, rather than displacement or velocity data as in these previous studies. Two experiments were conducted at each of two impact velocities using a conical-nosed penetrator and a simulated soft-sandstone target. The recorded accelerometer signals show high-frequency transducer resonances superimposed on the response expected for rigid-body acceleration. Direct numerical techniques are used to extract the rigid-body acceleration history. In addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach, the present results provide useful information on how peak penetrator forces vary with impact velocity during conical-nosed penetration into the simulated sandstone.

  8. Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Navarro-Marí, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection PMID:23248735

  9. Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (μl) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors.

  10. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  11. A Novel Experimental Technique to Simulate Pillar Burst in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M. C.; Zhao, F.; Cai, M.; Du, S.

    2015-09-01

    Pillar burst is one type of rockburst that occurs in underground mines. Simulating the stress change and obtaining insight into the pillar burst phenomenon under laboratory conditions are essential for studying the rock behavior during pillar burst in situ. To study the failure mechanism, a novel experimental technique was proposed and a series of tests were conducted on some granite specimens using a true-triaxial strainburst test system. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to monitor the rock fracturing process. The damage evolution process was investigated using techniques such as macro and micro fracture characteristics observation, AE energy evolution, and b value analysis and fractal dimension analysis of cracks on fragments. The obtained results indicate that stepped loading and unloading simulated the pillar burst phenomenon well. Four deformation stages are divided as initial stress state, unloading step I, unloading step II, and final burst. It is observed that AE energy has a sharp increase at the initial stress state, accumulates slowly at unloading steps I and II, and increases dramatically at peak stress. Meanwhile, the mean b values fluctuate around 3.50 for the first three deformation stages and then decrease to 2.86 at the final stage, indicating the generation of a large amount of macro fractures. Before the test, the fractal dimension values are discrete and mainly vary between 1.10 and 1.25, whereas after failure the values concentrate around 1.25-1.35.

  12. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  13. Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

  14. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  15. Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

  16. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  17. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  18. Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

  19. Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

  20. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  1. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Selvadurai, Paul A.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within −7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  2. Novel monitoring techniques for characterizing frictional interfaces in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Selvadurai, Paul A; Glaser, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within -7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  3. Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltinski, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)

  4. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  5. Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

    This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

  6. Laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, D; Thomas, B J

    1991-01-01

    Yolk-sac inoculation of embryonated eggs was superseded 25 years ago by the use of cell cultures (often McCoy) for the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Centrifugation of specimens onto the cell monolayers was shown to increase sensitivity, but little of late has further improved sensitivity which is at least ten-fold greater than that of eggs. However, culture is slow and labour intensive so that non-cultural techniques without these drawbacks have come to dominate. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests are rapid and have sensitivities that range from 70% to 100% for men and 68% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 87% to 99% for men and 82% to 100% for women; if the tests are read by competent observers the values are at the top end of the ranges. The detection rate may be enhanced even further by relatively low-speed centrifugation of specimens before staining. Skilled reading is not a feature of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) which according to the literature have sensitivities that range from 62% to 97% for men and 64% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 92% to 100% for men and 89% to 100% for women. However, comparison against poor reference tests is responsible for most of the higher values and the clinician should not be misled into believing that EIAs have excellent sensitivity; the lower values in the ranges are closer to reality. Furthermore, EIAs that are being designed for use by general practitioners should be regarded with the greatest caution since lack of sensitivity means that chlamydia-positive patients will go undetected. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not bedevilled by insensitivity but it is no more sensitive than the most sensitive cell culture or DFA tests. PCR is unsuitable for routine diagnosis but has a place as a research tool. For men, examination of "first-catch" urine samples by the best of the non-cultural procedures provides an acceptable non-invasive approach to diagnosis; for women, the

  7. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  8. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  9. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  10. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  11. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  12. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  13. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  17. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  18. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  19. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  20. 43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS LOOKING NORTH TO 19TH CENTURY ADDITION. Arch defines north wall of original house. - George A. Trenholm Mansion, 172 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  1. DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY TO SITTING ROOM. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING THE DOUBLE-BUNDLE TECHNIQUE – EVALUATION IN THE BIOMECHANICS LABORATORY

    PubMed Central

    D'Elia, Caio Oliveira; Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; Castropil, Wagner; Garofo, Antônio Guilherme Padovani; Cantuária, Anita Lopes; Orselli, Maria Isabel Veras; Luques, Isabela Ugo; Duarte, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the methodology of knee rotation analysis using biomechanics laboratory instruments and to present the preliminary results from a comparative study on patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the double-bundle technique. Methods: The protocol currently used in our laboratory was described. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis was performed and knee rotation amplitude was measured on eight normal patients (control group) and 12 patients who were operated using the double-bundle technique, by means of three tasks in the biomechanics laboratory. Results: No significant differences between operated and non-operated sides were shown in relation to the mean amplitudes of gait, gait with change in direction or gait with change in direction when going down stairs (p > 0.13). Conclusion: The preliminary results did not show any difference in the double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique in relation to the contralateral side and the control group. PMID:27027003

  4. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  5. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  6. Assessment of fracture-sampling techniques for laboratory tests on core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, G.R.; Boernge, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the site characterization work to be done at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, a candidate site for the first mined-geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, laboratory tests are proposed to evaluate fluid flow in single fractures. Laboratory and onsite tests were conducted to develop methods for collecting rock-core samples containing single fractures for the subsequent laboratory tests. Techniques for collecting rock cores with axial (parallel to the core axis) and radial (perpendicular to the core axis) fractures are discussed.

  7. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  8. TECHNIQUES OF TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

    PART ONE OF THIS BULLETIN PROVIDES HELP IN THE TWO CRITICAL AREAS OF MASTER TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION. SUPPLEMENTED BY NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT AND DUPLICATION TECHNIQUES, THE BULLETIN DESCRIBES MASTER PROGRAM DUPLICATION USING LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, A PROFESSIONAL MASS DUPLICATOR, A TAPE RECORDER, A RECORD…

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, MORONE SAXATILIS (WALBAUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the research undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) which can be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. For ea...

  10. Application of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique by Novice Teachers in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy…

  11. Effects of rearing density of survival, growth, and development of the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research focuses on developing cost- and space-efficient techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that survival decreases as rearing density increases ...

  12. Rear leit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Ferguson, A. J. L.; Walmsley, D. G.

    1982-11-01

    We have observed light emission from the rear of CaF 2-roughened Al-I-Au tunnel sandwiches. Like the forward emitted light, its spectral intensity shows a sharp drop at energies > 2.5 eV. We interpret the results in terms of both emissions being mediated by a common surface or interface plasmon; the plasmon is damped above 2.5 eV by excitation of an interband transition in Au.

  13. Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

    2001-12-01

    Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

  14. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  15. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  16. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  17. Repair of a fractured implant overdenture gold bar: A clinical and laboratory technique report

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Fahim; Al Fawaz, Amani

    2013-01-01

    This clinical report explains a convenient, efficient, yet effective alternative for management of fractured substructure cast bars for implant-retained overdentures. The technique allows the fracture to be repaired at low cost and short time without remaking the substructure and the denture and further allowing the patient to keep their denture. The report sketches the clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the repair. PMID:24926222

  18. Ultimate ceramic veneer: a laboratory-guided preparation technique for minimally invasive laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    De Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Hirata, Ronaldo; Celestrino, Marcos; Seto, Marcio; Siqueira, Sérgio; Nahas, Rodrigo

    2012-06-01

    Clinical success of ceramic laminate veneers depends on material selection, bonding procedures, controlled laboratory steps, and enamel preservation. Enamel preservation is the most critical because excessive tooth preparation can expose dentin reducing bond strength, which is a factor that can cause a decrease in long-term clinical success. The proposed technique based on carefully treatment planning developed between clinician and dental technician helps to maximize enamel preservation, which is an important element for clinical success. PMID:22856034

  19. Relevance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Ieven, M; Goossens, H

    1997-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly receiving requests to perform nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of a wide variety of infectious agents. In this paper, the efficiency of nucleic acid amplification techniques for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections is reviewed. In general, these techniques should be applied only for the detection of microorganisms for which available diagnostic techniques are markedly insensitive or nonexistent or when turnaround times for existing tests (e.g., viral culture) are much longer than those expected with amplification. This is the case for rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and hantaviruses causing a pulmonary syndrome, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii. For Legionella spp. and fungi, contamination originating from the environment is a limiting factor in interpretation of results, as is the difficulty in differentiating colonization and infection. Detection of these agents in urine or blood by amplification techniques remains to be evaluated. In the clinical setting, there is no need for molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. At present, amplification methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot replace the classical diagnostic techniques, due to their lack of sensitivity and the absence of specific internal controls for the detection of inhibitors of the reaction. Also, the results of interlaboratory comparisons are unsatisfactory. Furthermore, isolates are needed for susceptibility studies. Additional work remains to be done on sample preparation methods, comparison between different amplification methods, and analysis of results. The techniques can be useful for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis in particular circumstances, as well as the rapid detection of most rifampin-resistant isolates. The introduction of diagnostic amplification techniques into a clinical laboratory implies a level of proficiency for

  20. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Seck, Momar Talla; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Sall, Baba; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Sidibé, Issa; Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. Conclusions/Significance This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs. PMID:26901049

  1. 5. SOUTH CORNERShowing rear and alley (southeastern) side; the rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH CORNER--Showing rear and alley (southeastern) side; the rear of the building is obscured by the three-story hotel in the foreground. North - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  2. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Rear axle designed in oriented FRP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Using techniques of both synthesis and analysis, together with carefully defined goals, a team of investigators devised a major suspension member using oriented fiber reinforced plastic. A weight saving of 57% resulted for an innovative rear axle design estimate to increase cost about /1.20 per kilogram of weight saved. Only durability fell short of expectations, a factor which should improve with further refinements.

  5. Prospective trial using Virtual Vision as distraction technique in patients undergoing gastric laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Kozarek, R A; Raltz, S L; Neal, L; Wilbur, P; Stewart, S; Ragsdale, J

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether distraction techniques using Virtual Vision, an audiovisual system integrated into a modified pair of glasses, improves tolerance to routine gastric laboratory procedures, a prospective study of 50 patients was done. Patients were allowed to view/hear a travelogue tape during testing. Patients and registered nurses, who performed the procedure, were asked their interpretation of Virtual Vision as a device that improved patient tolerance, impaired the patient's ability to follow directions, or impaired the nurse's ability to perform the procedure. Patients graded the procedure from 1 (unbearable) to 5 (reasonably comfortable) and were asked whether they would use the device for a repeat procedure. For those who had undergone previous procedures, patients were queried regarding their preference for routine testing or Virtual Vision. Improved tolerance to procedures was noted in 82% of the patients as perceived by nurses and patients. Eighteen percent of the nurses and 8% of the patients thought that the auditory insert and glasses impaired the patient's ability to cooperate with the test, whereas 88% and 86%, respectively, thought that Virtual Vision was a valuable distraction technique. Using an ordinal scale for testing tolerance, patients graded their test at a mean of 3.8 (SD 1.25) and 82% expressed a desire to use the system in conjunction with future testing. Twenty-six of 33 patients (79%) who had undergone previous gastric laboratory testing preferred distraction techniques using Virtual Vision to conventional testing. Distraction techniques using a system such as Virtual Vision have the potential to improve patient tolerance to routine gastric laboratory studies. PMID:9136356

  6. Confirmation of the absence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the juveniles of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs in the laboratory using HILIC-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Chiba, Chikafumi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-07-01

    The tetrodotoxin (TTX) contents of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs to metamorphosed juveniles with a non-toxic diet for 70 weeks, as well as wild-caught juvenile newts, were investigated using a high-resolution hydrophilic interaction chromatography-LC-MS. TTX was detected in 0- to 22-week-old captive-reared juvenile newts but was not detected (<15 ng/g) in the 36- to 70-week-old newts, while significant levels of TTX (1.3-14 μg/g) were detected in the wild-caught juveniles. PMID:25986913

  7. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  9. Laboratory Analyses of Micron-Sized Solid Grains: Experimental Techniques and Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Bussoletti, E.

    1997-12-01

    The investigation of comets has proceded for long time on remote observations from ground. In 1986 several space missions towards comet Halley have allowed, for the first time, to have a close look to a comet (Encounters with comet Halley 1986). In particular, the GIOTTO mission by the European Space Agency (ESA) has provided "in situ" observations and measurements up to a distance of about 600 Km from the nucleus. Surface morphology and physical properties have been observed; plasma, gas and dust components in the coma have been analyzed. It is clear, however, that definite answers about the primordial nature of comets and their relation with interstellar material can be obtained only from direct analysis of cometary samples. Future space missions such as CRAF (NASA) and ROSETTA (ESA) have exactly this aim. In particular, the ambitious goal of Rosetta mission is to return to earth comet samples which can be analyzed carefully in laboratory. In preparation to this event a large effort must be placed both in the improvement of existing analytical techniques and in the development of new methods which will provide as much information as possible on "returned comet samples" (hereinafter RCSS). Handling of extra-terrestrial samples will require to operate in carefully controlled and extremely "inert" ambient conditions. In addition, working on a limited amount of "unique" cometary material will also impose to use analytical techniques which should not produce alteration, contamination or destruction of the sample. Many suggestions can come from people working in laboratory on "cosmic dust"; in fact, experimental methods which are applied to analyze: (a) interplanetary dust particles (IDPS) collected in stratosphere, (b) meteorites, and (c) laboratory produced cosmic dust analog samples, can be mutuated or properly improved in the future for specific application to RCSS. Since modern techniques used to analyze IDPs and meteorites are reviewed elsewhere in this workshop

  10. Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Kaňuchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2013-12-01

    grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

  11. Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Duran, A; Siguenza, M B; Franquelo, M L; Jimenez de Haro, M C; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

    2010-06-25

    This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR). The use of micro-XRD was necessary due to the poor results obtained with conventional XRD. In some cases, pigment identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques utilised in this study. PMID:20541637

  12. A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

  13. Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

    2015-01-01

    An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

  14. New developments of X-ray fluorescence imaging techniques in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Matsuno, Tsuyoshi; Takimoto, Yuki; Yamanashi, Masaki; Kometani, Noritsugu; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kato, Shuichi; Yamada, Takashi; Shoji, Takashi; Kawahara, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established analytical technique with a long research history. Many applications have been reported in various fields, such as in the environmental, archeological, biological, and forensic sciences as well as in industry. This is because XRF has a unique advantage of being a nondestructive analytical tool with good precision for quantitative analysis. Recent advances in XRF analysis have been realized by the development of new x-ray optics and x-ray detectors. Advanced x-ray focusing optics enables the making of a micro x-ray beam, leading to micro-XRF analysis and XRF imaging. A confocal micro-XRF technique has been applied for the visualization of elemental distributions inside the samples. This technique was applied for liquid samples and for monitoring chemical reactions such as the metal corrosion of steel samples in the NaCl solutions. In addition, a principal component analysis was applied for reducing the background intensity in XRF spectra obtained during XRF mapping, leading to improved spatial resolution of confocal micro-XRF images. In parallel, the authors have proposed a wavelength dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) imaging spectrometer for a fast elemental imaging. A new two dimensional x-ray detector, the Pilatus detector was applied for WD-XRF imaging. Fast XRF imaging in 1 s or even less was demonstrated for Euro coins and industrial samples. In this review paper, these recent advances in laboratory-based XRF imaging, especially in a laboratory setting, will be introduced.

  15. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  16. Sexual behavior and male volatile compounds in wild and mass-reared strains of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) held under different colony management regimes.

    PubMed

    Bosa, Carlos Felipe; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Valle-Mora, Javier; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    We compared the calling and mating behavior and volatile release of wild males Anastrepha ludens (Loew) with males from 4 mass-reared strains: (i) a standard mass-reared colony (control), (ii) a genetic sexing strain (Tap-7), (iii) a colony started from males selected on their survival and mating competitiveness abilities (selected), and (iv) a hybrid colony started by crossing wild males with control females. Selected and wild males were more competitive, achieving more matings under field cage conditions. Mass-reared strains showed higher percentages of pheromone calling males under field conditions except for Tap-7 males, which showed the highest percentages of pheromone calling males under laboratory cage conditions. For mature males of all strains, field-cage calling behavior increased during the last hour before sunset, with almost a 2 fold increase exhibited by wild males during the last half hour. The highest peak mating activity of the 4 mass-reared strains occurred 30 min earlier than for wild males. By means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) plus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition of volatiles released by males was analyzed and quantified. Wild males emitted significantly less amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene but emitted significantly more amounts of (E,E)-suspensolide as they aged than mass-reared males. Within the 4 mass-reared strains, Tap-7 released significantly more amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene and hybrid more of (E,E)-suspensolide. Differences in chemical composition could be explained by the intrinsic characteristics of the strains and the colony management regimes. Characterization of calling behavior and age changes of volatile composition between wild and mass-reared strains could explain the differences in mating competitiveness and may be useful for optimizing the sterile insect technique in A. ludens. PMID:25339372

  17. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2014-12-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert. PMID:25205526

  18. Application of the one-minute preceptor technique by novice teachers in the gross anatomy laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement in students' perceptions of their learning, probably because of the fact that the experienced teachers had already developed their own pedagogical approaches. In the current study, we examined the effects of training novice teachers with about four years of gross anatomy teaching experience, in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory, by surveying students to collect their views on their learning experiences, by observing the teachers' teaching behaviors before and after they were trained in OMP, and then by interviewing them. More students reported a better learning experience in the session after the teachers had been trained in the OMP than reported worse, in eight out of the nine items related to their learning experiences. The novice teachers were receptive to the OMP. After the OMP training, the novice teachers were observed to engage more in getting commitments from the students and in reinforcing what the students have done right, two of the five OMP microskills. They considered the OMP to be very useful for their development as anatomy teachers. PMID:25573139

  19. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  20. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  5. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Laboratory study of the cross-hole resistivity tomography: The Model Stacking (MOST) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontarakis, Konstantinos; Apostolopoulos, George V.

    2012-05-01

    Model experiments in the laboratory are used to find the optimal measuring and interpretation parameters that affect the quality of the results for the improved application of resistivity tomography between boreholes or between the surface and a tunnel. The experiments have shown that the detection ability of each crosshole electrode array is different and depends on the form of the sensitivity pattern. The bipole-bipole array, with current and potential pairs in different boreholes, has quite low signal and very good resolution of confined bodies in homogeneous half-spaces, but the resolution decreases as the half-space becomes more complex. The bipole-bipole array with the electrodes of each bipole in different boreholes produces a stronger signal, causing the models to be greatly influenced, even by the presence of small targets. However, the resolution quality is poor, mainly in the middle of the area between the boreholes. Pole-bipole array shows good resolution of the targets detection, but it is less accurate when conditions become noisier. The pole-tripole array has the best resolution, even when the environment becomes more complex or noisier, but the produced models have also many artifacts. The combined arrays' data inversion yields the greatest influence of the targets on resistivity models, usually with very good positioning or shape resolution, but with many more intense artifacts, since this method inevitably combines the advantages and disadvantages of each array. A new approach to improve the quality of resistivity models has been developed, based on a stacking technique, through the processing of different arrays' inverted models ("MOST" technique). The improvement of the MOST models' quality has been measured, comparing each final resistivity model with the corresponding real one, highlighting this way the efficiency of this technique, in contrary to the combined arrays' data inversion.

  11. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  12. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  13. A laboratory course for teaching laboratory techniques, experimental design, statistical analysis, and peer review process to undergraduate science students.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, C M; J Rosengren, R

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and written discussion of results. The laboratory practices were a guided inquiry based around retinol's ability to potentiate acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. To induce critical thinking, students were given a choice as to which assay they could use to determine how retinol affected acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Short summaries were handed in following each assay and formed the bases of the formative assessment. To complete the feedback loop, a summative assessment that consisted of all the graphs and concepts from the short summaries were combined into a manuscript. To give the students exposure to science communication, the manuscript had to be written in accordance to the submission guidelines for Toxicological Sciences. Evaluation of this course was determined by a student questionnaire using a Likert scale and students' responses were very favorable. While the subject matter was toxicological centric, the content could be easily modified to suit another subject matter in biochemistry and molecular biology. PMID:23166024

  14. Integrating Novel Field, Laboratory and Modelling Techniques to Upscale Estimates of Soil Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony; Cooper, James; Long, Edward; Hargrave, Graham; Kitchener, Ben; Hewett, Caspar; Onda, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Obana, Eiichiro; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Erosion is a particle-based phenomenon, yet most of current understanding and modelling of this process is based on bulk measurements rather than the movement of individual particles. Difficulties with measuring particle motions in dynamically changing conditions are being overcome with the application of two new technologies - particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and radio frequency identification (RFID). It is thus possible to evaluate the entrainment, transport and deposition of individual particles and these data can be used to parameterize and to test particle-based modelling of the particle-based process. Both PIV and RFID tagging have been used in laboratory experiments to evaluate the detachment process by raindrops on bare surfaces and in shallow flows using rainfall simulation. The results suggest that the processes are more complex than hitherto thought with multiple detachment and transfer mechanisms. Because both mechanisms affect travel distance, they affect the ways in which estimates of soil erosion can be scaled from plot to hillslope and catchment scales. To evaluate movements at larger scales, we have also used RFID-tagged particles in field settings to look at sediment transfers following the Fukushima accident in Japan, 2011. A marker-in-cell model (MAHLERAN-MiC) has been developed to enable the laboratory results to be upscaled and tested in a field setting. Markers (representing sediment particles), containing sediment-property information, are initially distributed on a cellular grid. A cellular model is used to set up the boundary conditions and determine the hydrology and hydraulics on the hillslope. The markers are then moved through the grid according to these properties. This technique combines the advantages of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods while avoiding the shortcomings of each (computational efficiency vs. accuracy). The model simulates all the processes of detachment and transport; raindrop detachment and transport, interrill

  15. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success. PMID:27056346

  16. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success. PMID:27056346

  17. Blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the laboratory mouse using corrosion and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Flesarova, Slavka; Mazensky, David; Teleky, Jana; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Supuka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80% of cases, as 8 pairs in 15% of cases and as 9 pairs in 5% of cases. The paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta were present as 5 pairs in all cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, we observed left-sided branches entering the ventral spinal artery in 64.2% and right-sided branches in 35.8% of cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, the branches entering the dorsal spinal arteries were left-sided in 60.8% of cases and right-sided in 39.2% of cases. We found some variations in the site of origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz and in the number of dorsal spinal arteries. Documenting the anatomical variations in spinal cord blood supply in the laboratory mouse will aid the planning of future experimental studies and in determining the clinical relevance of such studies. PMID:25636913

  18. Laboratory investigation of the catalytic reduction technique for measurement of atmospheric NO y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Daube, Bruce C.; Burley, Joel D.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1997-05-01

    We report laboratory studies of the detection scheme employed for in situ measurement of NOy in the atmosphere. In this technique, an air stream is passed over a hot metal (usually 24 karat (k) Au) catalyst in the presence of a reducing agent (usually CO), which converts the NOx compounds to NOx Using the NOy species NO, NO2, HNO3, and isopropyl nitrate and the potential interferences HCN, CH3CN, NH3, and N2O, we investigated: (1) conversion efficiencies as a function of pressure and catalyst temperature; (2) conversion efficiencies as a function of reducing-agent concentration with both H2 and CO; (3) the effect of humidity and O3 on conversion efficiency; (4) loss of NO in the catalyst; and (5) the efficacy and suitability as catalytic converters (or inlets) of several metals (24 k Au, 18k Au, Au with 1% Co, Ag, Pt, stainless steel) and quartz. The most significant results are the discovery of a gas-phase process that contributes to the conversion of HNO3 to NO and the identification of conditions under which HCN, CH3CN, and NH3 are converted to NO with high efficiency. We discuss the implications of these results for in situ measurement of atmospheric NOy.

  19. Establishment of a primary reference solar cell calibration technique in Korea: methods, results and comparison with WPVS qualified laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, SeungKyu; Ahn, SeJin; Yun, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Winter, Stefan; Igari, Sanekazu; Yoon, KyungHoon

    2014-06-01

    A primary reference solar cell calibration technique recently established at the Korea Institute of Energy Research in Korea is introduced. This calibration technique is an indoor method that uses a highly collimated continuous-type solar simulator and absolute cavity radiometer traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. The results obtained using this calibration technique are shown with a precise uncertainty analysis, and the system configuration and calibration procedures are introduced. The calibration technique avoids overestimating the short-circuit current of a reference solar cell due to multiple reflections of incident simulator light using a novel method. In addition, the uncertainty analysis indicates that the calibration technique has an expanded uncertainty of approximately 0.7% with a coverage factor of k = 2 for a c-Si reference cell calibration. In addition, the developed primary reference solar cell calibration technique was compared with other techniques established in the World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) qualified calibration laboratories to verify its validity and reliability.

  20. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  1. Laboratory investigation of the erosion of cohesive sediments under oscillatory flows using a synchronized imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, I.; Calantoni, J.; Reed, A. H.; Furukawa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A synchronized dual stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is used to examine the erosion process of a cohesive sediment core in the Small Oscillatory Flow Tunnel (S-OFT) in the Sediment Dynamics Laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS. The PIV system uses four cameras and a dual cavity Nd:YAG laser. The system allows for a pair of stereo PIV windows of about 10 cm by 10 cm each to be arbitrarily located within a single light sheet. Image pairs were acquired with all four cameras at 50 Hz for 50 consecutive seconds for each flow condition. The stereo PIV windows were positioned on either side of sediment cores inserted along the centerline of the S-OFT allowing for a total measurement window of about 20 cm long by 10 cm high with sub-millimeter spacing on resolved velocity vectors. The oscillatory flows are generated by two types of driving mechanism (scotch yoke and crank lever) for converting the rotational motion of the flywheel into the linear motion of a piston. The period of oscillation ranged from 2.86 to 6.12 seconds with constant semi-excursion amplitude in the test section of 9 cm. Two kinds of inorganic sediment samples were examined. One was a mixture of 50% kaolinite and 50% 500-micron sand under flows driven by the crank lever mechanism. Another sediment core was a mixture of 50% mud collected in Galveston Bay, TX, and 50% 250-micron sand under flows driven by the scotch-yoke mechanism. During the erosion process, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were observed as the flow accelerated in each direction and eventually were broken down when the flow reversed. An example of the instantaneous velocity field superimposed on the raw image is shown in Figure 1. The relative concentration of suspended sediments under different flow conditions was estimated using the intensity of light scattered from the sediment particles in suspension. By subtracting the initial light scattered from the mud core, the residual

  2. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  3. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  4. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Dipeptides: A Capstone Project That Employs Key Techniques in an Organic Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Louis; DeBoef, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary approach to the synthesis and purification of several UV-active dipeptides has been developed for the second-year organic laboratory. This experiment exposes students to the important technique of solution-phase peptide synthesis and allows an instructor to highlight the parallel between what they are accomplishing in the laboratory…

  5. Effectiveness of Student-Generated Video as a Teaching Tool for an Instrumental Technique in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jeremy T.; Box, Melinda C.; Eguren, Kristen E.; Parker, Thomas A.; Saraldi-Gallardo, Victoria M.; Wolfe, Michael I.; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia instruction has been shown to serve as an effective learning aid for chemistry students. In this study, the viability of student-generated video instruction for organic chemistry laboratory techniques and procedure was examined and its effectiveness compared to instruction provided by a teaching assistant (TA) was evaluated. After…

  6. Laboratory instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi-junction solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1995-01-01

    quantum efficiency at various voltage biases, including the voltage bias corresponding to the maximum-power point under AMO light bias. The details of the procedures to 'fit' the spectral irradiance to AMO will be discussed. An assessment of the role of the accuracy of the 'fit' of the spectral irradiance and probe beam intensity on measured cell characteristics will be presented. quantum efficiencies were measured with both spectral light bias and AMO light bias; the measurements show striking differences. Spectral irradiances were convoluted with cell quantum efficiencies to calculate cell currents as function of voltage. The calculated currents compare with measured currents at the 1% level. Measurements on a variety of multi-junction cells will be presented. The dependence of defects in junctions on cell quantum efficiencies measured under light and voltage bias conditions will be presented. Comments will be made on issues related to standards for calibration, and limitations of the instrumentation and techniques. Expeditious development of multi-junction solar cell technology for space presents challenges for cell characterization in the laboratory.

  7. Study of the gilding technique used in polychromed stones and ceramics by dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction and complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Duran, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L; Jimenez de Haro, M C

    2009-07-01

    This work describes the use of a new dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction system for detecting the phases present in cross-sections of artworks. As an example, the phases present in samples from gilding ceramics and stone sculptures from the heritage of Seville (Spain) were successfully detected using this new system, which takes advantage of various devices developed for synchrotron radiation, and is complemented by the information provided by other techniques. PMID:19468718

  8. Teaching Discrete and Programmable Logic Design Techniques Using a Single Laboratory Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debiec, P.; Byczuk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are used at many universities in introductory digital logic laboratories, where kits containing a single high-capacity PLD replace "standard" sets containing breadboards, wires, and small- or medium-scale integration (SSI/MSI) chips. From the pedagogical point of view, two problems arise in these laboratories.…

  9. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NO(SUB X) REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formatio...

  10. Basic Laboratory Techniques for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnette, A. K., Jr.; And Others

    This manual contains 24 self-study modules for basic laboratory procedures for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) laboratory analyses. Areas of study include safety, identification of equipment, handling solids and liquids, use of balances, and care and use of equipment. Evaluation tests and answers are provided for each…

  11. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  12. Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

  13. "Audibilization" in the Chemistry Laboratory: An Introduction to Correlation Techniques for Data Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovick, James W.; Murphy, Michael; Poler, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development and advantages of various correlation techniques that are used for data extraction and are integral to all modern instrumentation. The "Audibilization" of the electronic signals in such cases is found to be very essential for the technique.

  14. Performance of marking techniques in the field and laboratory for Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable marking technique was needed for a mark-release-recapture experiment with adults of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar). Four marking techniques, acrylic paint (spattered or brushed on the surface of the insect); and fluorescent pigments (dusted on surfaces or mixed with diet to produce an inges...

  15. A Framework for Laboratory Pre-Work Based on the Concepts, Tools and Techniques Questioning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntula, J.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Chitaree, R.

    2011-01-01

    Learning in the laboratory is different from learning in other contexts because students have to engage with various aspects of the practice of science. They have to use many skills and knowledge in parallel--not only to understand the concepts of physics but also to use the tools and analyse the data. The question arises, how to best guide…

  16. Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques…

  17. Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant flywheel evaluation laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the more advanced data analysis techniques applied to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high performance composite flywheels are presented. Real time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre and post test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

  18. Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

    1987-06-01

    A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

  19. Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

  20. GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

  1. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  2. Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

    2014-10-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable upscaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterise biogenic NO release from soil (i.e. net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterisation can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e. where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterise net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing airstream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of

  3. Immunological consequences of using three different clinical/laboratory techniques of emulsifying peptide-based vaccines in incomplete Freund's adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yi T; Higgins, Sean A; Weber, Jeffrey S; Kast, W Martin

    2006-01-01

    Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) serves as a carrier for water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) vaccines. The stability of such emulsions greatly affects vaccine safety and efficacy since continued presence of antigen depots at lymphoid organs releasing low-level antigens is known to stimulate a potent immune response and high-level systemic release of antigens can lead to tolerance. W/O emulsions for the purpose of clinical and laboratory peptide-based vaccinations have been prepared using the techniques of syringe extrusion, vortex or high-speed homogenization. There is no consensus in the field over which technique would be best to use and no immunological data are available that compare the three techniques. In this study, we compared the immune responses induced by a peptide-based vaccine prepared using vortex, syringe-extrusion and homogenization. The vaccination led to tumor rejection by mice vaccinated with the peptide-based vaccine prepared using all three techniques. The immunological data from the in vivo cytotoxicity assay showed a trend for lower responses and a higher variability and greater range in the immune responses induced by a vaccine that was emulsified by the vortex or homogenizer techniques as compared to the syringe-extrusion technique. There were statistically significant lower numbers of IFNgamma-secreting cells induced when the mice were vaccinated with a peptide-based vaccine emulsion prepared using the vortex compared to the syringe-extrusion technique. At a suboptimal vaccine dose, the mice vaccinated with a peptide-based vaccine emulsion prepared using the vortex technique had the largest tumors compared to the syringe-extrusion or the homogenizer technique. In the setting of a busy pharmacy that prepares peptide-based vaccine emulsions for clinical studies, the vortex technique can still be used but we urge investigators to take special care in their choice of mixing vessels for the vortex technique as that can influence the stability of the

  4. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  5. Laboratory procedures and data reduction techniques to determine rheologic properties of mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, R.R., Jr.; Huizinga, R.J.; Brown, S.M.; Jobson, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Determining the rheologic properties of coarse- grained mass flows is an important step to mathematically simulate potential inundation zones. Using the vertically rotating flume designed and built by the U.S. Geological Survey, laboratory procedures and subsequent data reduction have been developed to estimate shear stresses and strain rates of various flow materials. Although direct measurement of shear stress and strain rate currently (1992) are not possible in the vertically rotating flume, methods were derived to estimate these values from measurements of flow geometry, surface velocity, and flume velocity.

  6. ADAPTING WOODY SPECIES AND PLANTING TECHNIQUES TO LANDFILL CONDITIONS, FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to determine which tree species can best maintain themselves in a landfill environment; to investigate the feasibility of preventing landfill gas from penetrating the root zone of selected species by using gas-barrier techniques; and to identify the (those)...

  7. A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

  8. Low-cost foil metallization using arc discharge for passivated emitter and rear solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurimoto, Yuji; Yamasaki, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    For the cost reduction of passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC), we propose a new rear contact formation method, in which an aluminum foil and an arc discharge system are used. The arc discharge system consists of inexpensive parts and does not contain any sophisticated part such as a laser ablation apparatus. Therefore, this system can save the cost of the rear contact forming process. We applied this technique to a test production of PERC. It is found that the arc discharge system can provide a similar performance to that attained by a conventional PERC production method.

  9. A laboratory system for the investigation of rain fade compensation techniques for Ka-band satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/20 GHz occurs due to the carrier wavelength approaching the water droplet size. Rain in the downlink path lowers the signal power present at the receiver, resulting in a higher number of bit errors induced in the digital ground terminal. The laboratory simulation performed at NASA Lewis Research Center uses a programmable PIN diode attenuator to simulate 20 GHz satellite downlink geographic rain fade profiles. A computer based network control system monitors the downlink power and informs the network of any power threshold violations, which then prompts the network to issue commands that temporarily increase the gain of the satellite based traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier. After the rain subsides, the network returns the TWT to the normal energy conserving power mode. Bit error rate (BER) data taken at the receiving ground terminal serves as a measure of the severity of rain degradation, and also evaluates the extent to which the network can improve the faded channel.

  10. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  11. Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.

    This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and introduces a…

  12. The Demise of Child-Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winik, Lyric Wallwork

    2000-01-01

    Discusses child rearing and parenting in the US, suggesting that children are becoming more and more unseen and unheard while their parents go off to be entertained. The paper examines root causes and revolutionary changes; Locke's 17th-century child rearing beliefs; Wesley's tough love philosophy; Rousseau's natural goodness beliefs; other…

  13. MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

  14. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord of the child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, neck, and back of the child causing less injury. Therefore, the rear-facing position is recommended for as long as possible for ...

  15. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  16. Laboratory analysis of techniques for remote sensing of estuarine parameters using laser excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Houghton, W. M.; Esaias, W.; Harriss, R. C.; Farmer, F. H.; White, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical concepts underlying remote sensing of estuarine parameters using laser excitation are examined. The concepts are extended to include Mie scattering as a measure of the total suspended solids and to develop the water Raman signal as an internal standard. Experimental validation of the theory was performed using backscattered laser light from a laboratory tank to simulate a remote-sensing geometry. Artificially prepared sediments and biological cultures were employed to check specific aspects of the theory under controlled conditions. Natural samples gathered from a variety of water types were also analyzed in the tank to further enhance the simulation. The results indicate that it should be possible to remotely quantify total suspended solids, dissolved organics, attenuation coefficient, chlorophyll a, and phycoerythrin in estuarine water using laser excitation.

  17. Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Karesh, W B; del Campo, A; Braselton, W E; Puche, H; Cook, R A

    1997-12-01

    As part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern Peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. Thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. All but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical examination. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma vitamin and mineral levels were studied and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Positive antibody titers for Salmonella and psittacine herpesvirus were found. These diseases have the potential to affect wildlife population dynamics, and Salmonella may have public health significance. Serological tests for avian influenza, infectious laryngotracheitis, paramyxovirus-1, -2, -3, polyoma virus, chlamydiosis, and aspergillosis were negative. Differences in disease prevalence were found between rearing situations. PMID:9523629

  18. Comparison between ELISA and various stains techniques in laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Nabil S; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Abd El-Hafeez, Ekhlas; Abd Rabou, Reham A M

    2014-08-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. is an important parasitic protozoa causing diarrhea which is a severe life-threatening diarrhea especially in immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of detection of Cryptosporidium spp. copro-antigen from fecal specimens by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and comparing its sensitivity and specificity with some staining methods. The results revealed that Modified Acid-Fast stain is considered better than Giemsa in detecting Cryptosporidium species oocysts in faecal smears as their sensitivity were 67.5% and 53.75% respectively. On contrary, ELISA technique is considered the best method used for detection of cryptosporidial infection as its sensitivity is 90%. PMID:25597165

  19. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings☆

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  20. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-07-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  1. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield.

    PubMed

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  2. Using Elearning techniques to support problem based learning within a clinical simulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Charles; Hoy, Derek; Topp, Helena; Trinder, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the results of the first phase of a project that used eLearning to support students' learning within a simulated environment. The locus was a purpose built Clinical Simulation Laboratory (CSL) where the School's newly adopted philosophy of Problem Based Learning (PBL) was challenged through lecturers reverting to traditional teaching methods. The solution, a student-centred, problem-based approach to the acquisition of clinical skills was developed using learning objects embedded within web pages that substituted for lecturers providing instruction and demonstration. This allowed lecturers to retain their facilitator role, and encouraged students to explore, analyse and make decisions within the safety of a clinical simulation. Learning was enhanced through network communications and reflection on video performances of self and others. Evaluations were positive, students demonstrating increased satisfaction with PBL, improved performance in exams, and increased self-efficacy in the performance of nursing activities. These results indicate that an elearning approach can support PBL in delivering a student centred learning experience. PMID:15360935

  3. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield

    PubMed Central

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells’ forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  4. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  5. Laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, I T M A; Willemsen, I; Elberts, S; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W

    2011-02-01

    The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance. PMID:21123527

  6. Possible signatures of dissipation from time-series analysis techniques using a turbulent laboratory magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Rock, A. B.

    2016-05-01

    The frequency spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as measured on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment is broadband and exhibits a nearly Kolmogorov 5/3 scaling. It features a steepening region which is indicative of dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy similar to that observed in fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence systems. Two non-spectrum based time-series analysis techniques are implemented on this data set in order to seek other possible signatures of turbulent dissipation beyond just the steepening of fluctuation spectra. Presented here are results for the flatness, permutation entropy, and statistical complexity, each of which exhibits a particular character at spectral steepening scales which can then be compared to the behavior of the frequency spectrum.

  7. Laboratory techniques for determining the effects of pyridostigmine bromide. Interim report, May 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.R.; Barber, J.A.; Forster, E.M.; Whinnery, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    The USAF Surgeon General approved pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pretreatment for flying personnel as of 21 March 1986. However, specific side effects resulting from taking PB during high sustained + G/sub z/ stress, altitude stress, and periods of potential spatial disorientation had not yet been fully investigated. The USAF school of Aerospace Medicine (UASFSAM), Crew Technology Division, was therefore tasked with this clinical research effort. For effective investigation of these potential problem areas, rapid and accurate methods have had to be established for determining the blood plasma PB levels and the resultant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The basic purpose of this report is to describe in detail the analytical techniques used at USAFSAM to support the clinical research programs involving the physiological and performance aspects of USAF aircrews taking PB.

  8. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  9. Modeling of occupant dynamics during automobile rear-end impacts.

    PubMed

    Huang, S C; Chu, J Y; Chang, C H

    1999-01-01

    Procedures for studying the dynamic response of the occupant within a rear-end impacted vehicle are presented. Most of the researches in the impact analysis were performed by experimental approach and this costs a lot of time and money. Especially, the repeatability is very hard to produce in a destructive condition. Most of all, the analytic parameters can be investigated are limited by the experimental approach. By using numerical techniques, this research employs Kane's equation and Huston's method to develop a simulated system with visual graphic output to observe the rear-end impact response. According to the simulated results, at a constant seatback angle the maximum acceleration values of head and chest increased with the increasing of impact velocity. Furthermore, at a constant impact velocity the relative rotation angle of a passenger's head to chest decreased with the increasing of initial seatback angle. PMID:10822489

  10. Interlenticular opacification in piggyback AcrySof intraocular lenses: explantation technique and laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, H.; Marcantonio, J.; Duncan, G.; Liu, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Interlenticular opacification (ILO) is a recognised complication of piggyback intraocular lenses (IOLs). The aetiology, histopathology, and treatment are not clearly defined, however.
METHODS—Two pairs of AcrySof IOLs were explanted from a patient with bilateral ILO. The explantation technique and surgical challenges of IOL exchanges are described. The explanted IOL complexes and a sample of the anterior capsule were examined by phase, polarising, and immunofluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS—A 50 year old man developed ILO bilaterally after piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation. A central contact zone was surrounded by a homogeneous paracentral opacity possibly consisting of extracellular matrix previously laid down by proliferating lens epithelial cells (LECs). These opacities were in turn surrounded by interlenticular Elschnig pearl-type opacities contiguous with the same material filling the periphery of the capsular bag. The IOL complexes were very adherent to the capsular bag and they had to be separated with the help of high viscosity viscoelastic before a single one piece PMMA IOL implantation via large limbal incisions. The sample of anterior capsule showed a ridge configuration from the piling of LECs in the site of apposition with the anterior capsule and cells showing different characteristics on either side of the ridge.
CONCLUSION—Cellular proliferation, deposition of ECM from proliferating LECs, and capsular changes induced by cell metaplasia may lead to ILO formation in piggyback AcrySof IOLs. Careful separation of the AcrySof IOL complex from the capsule, meticulous clean up of the proliferating material, and implantation of single or dual in the bag PMMA IOLs through a large incision with capsulorrhexis enlargement may help in the prevention of recurrence of interface opacification.

 PMID:11423458

  11. Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2008-07-01

    Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

  12. A three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in laboratory and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Candice Rockell

    In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. The shielding and exposure of space travelers is controlled by the transport properties of the radiation through the spacecraft, its onboard systems and the bodies of the individuals themselves. Meeting the challenge of future space programs will therefore require accurate and efficient methods for performing radiation transport calculations to analyze and predict shielding requirements. One such method, which is developed in this dissertation, is based on a three dimensional Green's function solution technique for the transport of heavy ions in both laboratory and space.

  13. Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Galatà, A. Sattin, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Martini, D.; Facco, A.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Kulevoy, T.

    2014-02-15

    The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

  14. Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Sattin, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Martini, D.; Facco, A.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Kulevoy, T.

    2014-02-01

    The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

  15. Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

  16. Towards a green analytical laboratory: microextraction techniques as a useful tool for the monitoring of polluted soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernandez Cordoba, Manuel; Perez Sirvent, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Microextraction techniques are a valuable tool at the analytical laboratory since they allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of easily available instrumentation. There is a large number of such procedures involving miniaturized liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions with the common denominator of using very low amounts (only a few microliters) or even none of organic solvents. Since minimal amounts of reagents are involved, and the generation of residues is consequently minimized, the approach falls within the concept of Green Analytical Chemistry. This general methodology is useful both for inorganic and organic pollutants. Thus, low amounts of metallic ions can be measured without the need of using ICP-MS since this instrument can be replaced by a simple AAS spectrometer which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs. When dealing with organic pollutants, the microextracts obtained can be introduced into liquid or gas chromatographs equipped with common detectors and there is no need for the most sophisticated and expensive mass spectrometers. This communication reports an overview of the advantages of such a methodology, and gives examples for the determination of some particular contaminants in soil and water samples The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia , Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) for financial support

  17. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  18. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  19. Development of the DGT technique for Hg measurement in water: comparison of three different types of samplers in laboratory assays.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, C; Dimock, B; Hintelmann, H; Díez, S

    2011-11-01

    The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique is an operationally defined method to determine the dissolved fraction of trace elements in water. The aim of this study was to develop this technique for the measurement of the bioavailable mercury species in natural waters. For that purpose, three types of DGT units (commercial, manufactured with agarose diffusive gel (DG) and manufactured with polyacrylamide DG) were tested under controlled conditions using an Hg(II) solution both with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). An acid digestion method using aqua regia was optimised to efficiently digest the resin gel discs prior to analysis. A good performance was obtained for the three DGT types when deployed in a DOM-free mercury solution in the laboratory, and it was demonstrated that polyacrylamide gel can be used as diffusive layer for mercury sampling. However, when the DGT units were deployed in a mercury solution containing DOM, performance differences were observed. Furthermore, the mass of background mercury (blanks) varied among the different DGT types. In the light of the results, the devices manufactured with polyacrylamide DG seemed to be the best choice for dissolved mercury determination. PMID:21925697

  20. Observational and laboratory studies of optical properties of black and brown carbon particles in the atmosphere using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Light absorption and scattering by aerosols are as an important contributor to radiation balance in the atmosphere. Black carbon (BC) is considered to be the most potent light absorbing material in the visible region of the spectrum, although light absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon or BrC) and mineral dust may also act as sources of significant absorption, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) and shorter visible wavelength regions. The optical properties of such particles depend on wavelength, particle size and shape, morphology, coating, and complex refractive index (or chemical composition), and therefore accurate in situ measurements of the wavelength dependence of the optical properties of particles are needed. Recently, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) have been used for the direct measurements of extinction and absorption coefficients of particles suspended in air. We have applied these techniques to the observational studies of optical properties of BC and BrC in an urban site in Japan and to the laboratory studies of optical properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds and those of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). In the presentation, the basic principles of these techniques and the results obtained in our studies and in the recent literatures will be overviewed. References Guo, X. et al., Measurement of the light absorbing properties of diesel exhaust particles using a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer, Atmos. Environ., 94, 428-437 (2014). Nakayama, T. et al., Measurements of aerosol optical properties in central Tokyo during summertime using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Comparison with conventional techniques, Atmos. Environ., 44, 3034-3042 (2010). Nakayama, T. et al., Laboratory studies on optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated during the photooxidation of toluene and the ozonolysis of alpha

  1. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  2. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  3. Rearing optimization of two races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda feeding natural host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two ecological races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda were raised under laboratory conditions feeding on natural host plants (corn and bermuda grass). Three rearing containers were used: a plastic container and a vertical cylinder to test fitness when feeding gregariously, and individual ...

  4. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  5. Laboratory techniques and rhythmometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberg, F.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the procedures used for the analysis of rhythms are illustrated, notably as these apply to current medical and biological practice. For a quantitative approach to medical and broader socio-ecologic goals, the chronobiologist gathers numerical objective reference standards for rhythmic biophysical, biochemical, and behavioral variables. These biological reference standards can be derived by specialized computer analyses of largely self-measured (until eventually automatically recorded) time series (autorhythmometry). Objective numerical values for individual and population parameters of reproductive cycles can be obtained concomitantly with characteristics of about-yearly (circannual), about-daily (circadian) and other rhythms.

  6. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture.

    PubMed

    Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible. PMID:26466904

  7. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Eric W.; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible. PMID:26466904

  8. Physiological consequences of laboratory rearing of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several aspects of the basic biology of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, are poorly known despite of the economic importance of this species. Among these are the factors regulating the adult diapause. Recent studies questioned the validity of earlier reports of diapause in L...

  9. Evaluating high-throughput ab initio gene finders to discover proteins encoded in eukaryotic pathogen genomes missed by laboratory techniques.

    PubMed

    Goodswen, Stephen J; Kennedy, Paul J; Ellis, John T

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology is advancing genome sequencing at an unprecedented level. By unravelling the code within a pathogen's genome, every possible protein (prior to post-translational modifications) can theoretically be discovered, irrespective of life cycle stages and environmental stimuli. Now more than ever there is a great need for high-throughput ab initio gene finding. Ab initio gene finders use statistical models to predict genes and their exon-intron structures from the genome sequence alone. This paper evaluates whether existing ab initio gene finders can effectively predict genes to deduce proteins that have presently missed capture by laboratory techniques. An aim here is to identify possible patterns of prediction inaccuracies for gene finders as a whole irrespective of the target pathogen. All currently available ab initio gene finders are considered in the evaluation but only four fulfil high-throughput capability: AUGUSTUS, GeneMark_hmm, GlimmerHMM, and SNAP. These gene finders require training data specific to a target pathogen and consequently the evaluation results are inextricably linked to the availability and quality of the data. The pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, is used to illustrate the evaluation methods. The results support current opinion that predicted exons by ab initio gene finders are inaccurate in the absence of experimental evidence. However, the results reveal some patterns of inaccuracy that are common to all gene finders and these inaccuracies may provide a focus area for future gene finder developers. PMID:23226328

  10. Hand-Rearing Reduces Fear of Humans in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770