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1

Laboratory techniques for rearing the fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae and Pulicidae) of California ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) using a novel nest box.  

PubMed

Three species of fleas, Oropsylla montana (Baker), Hoplopsyllus anomalus (Baker), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood), occur seasonally on the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi (Richardson). Few studies have focused on the biology and ecology of these fleas despite their importance in the epidemiology of sylvatic plague. To best duplicate a natural parasite-host relationship in the laboratory, a novel nest box was developed that facilitated housing wild-caught S. beecheyi, was conducive to rearing fleas, and met modern standards for laboratory animal hygiene. This flexible system allowed adult fleas with different feeding strategies to be colonized successfully while providing sufficient flea eggs for both colony maintenance and biological research. The techniques described could be adapted to work with other species of rodents and their fleas. PMID:11372977

Metzger, M E; Rust, M K

2001-05-01

2

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis VICTOR CARL MASTRO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1973 Ma)or Sub)ect: Entomology LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis by VICTOR CARL MASTRO Approved as to style and conte by (Cha rman of Committee) Head De artment) (He er) ( mber) mber) August 1973...

Mastro, Victory Carl

1973-01-01

3

Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

2014-01-01

4

Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

1997-01-01

5

Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

1997-01-01

6

1996,52.529-537 Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish,  

E-print Network

. .fllim. B.-htlV, 1996,52.529-537 @ Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish, Sepiaofficinalis L. No evidenceof Insli- Cuttlefish are neither solitary, .as arc octo- lute, 301 UnivcrsilY Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555

Boal, Jean

7

Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

Nichols, S. Jerrine

1992-01-01

8

Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

2005-01-01

9

Development of laboratory-reared sheepshead,Archosargus  

E-print Network

, with notes on pigmentation and illustrations of mid- to late larvae and a juvenile. Rathbun (1892) reported. pigmentation. feeding, and growth for a series of sheeps- head reared from eggs to 67-day- old juveniles diameters ofthe yolk and oil globule were determined and vol- umes calculated for ten specimens of each age

10

Laboratory Technique Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of organic chemistry will find this website from the University of Alberta to be a most welcome find. Created by a team of educational experts at the University, the videos here demonstrate a variety of techniques that are commonly used in laboratory settings. There are a dozen videos here, and they include "Filtration", "Reflux", "Distillation", and "Using a Separatory Funnel". The films here are available in a number of different formats, including Quick Time and Windows Media. The site also includes an "Interactive Tutorials" section. Here visitors will find tutorials that will introduce them to spectroscopy, separation and isolation, and the rather amusing world of "Detective O-Chem", which asks the user to take on a fictional avian flu outbreak.

11

Chemistry Laboratory Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning to navigate the treacherous shoals of the chemistry laboratory is tricky business. Fortunately, interested parties can use this fine online course from MIT's OpenCourseWare to become more familiar with such matters. The course consists of "intensive practical training in basic chemistry lab techniques" and the site includes a host of instructional videos. The manual and materials for this course were prepared by Dr. Katherine J. Franze and Dr. Kevin M. Shea in collaboration with a number of their colleagues. Visitors can make their way through the syllabus, course calendar, labs, and the study materials. In the Study Materials area, visitors will find ten videos, including "Using a Balance," "Melting Point Determination," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Students of chemistry and educators will find this site most useful and will wish to share it widely with others.

12

LIGHT INTENSITY AFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF ATTACKING PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) IN A LABORATORY REARING SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distribution of attacking phorid flies (Pseudacteon curvatus Borgmeier) in a laboratory rearing system was tested for dependence on light intensity under 2 different light regimes. Light intensity (range, approx. 220-340 Lux) influenced fly distribution in light regime 1; in the second light regime...

13

[Occurrence of the mite Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae) in insect rearing in laboratory].  

PubMed

Pyemotidae mites have been reported as ectoparasites of a large number of arthropods, especially of insects. These mites are frequently found attacking insects in different habitats, including insect rearing. This paper reports the occurrence of Pyemotes sp., ventricosus group, in colonies of Tuta absoluta (Meyerick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the insect rearing laboratory of ESALQ-USP, in Piracicaba, State of Săo Paulo, provoking dematitis in those involved with the rearing. This is the first report of a Pyemotes species parasitizing T. absoluta and S. zeamais. Considering the capacity of Pyemotes to cause dermatitis in human beings, demonstrated by other authors, the direct use of the Pyemotes species found in this work for the control of the reported insect species may not be promising. PMID:17061810

da Cunha, Uemerson S; Silva, Edmilson S; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Vendramim, José D

2006-01-01

14

LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF BATHYNECTES SUPERBA (COSTA) REARED IN THE LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of several portunid species have now been described to varying extents by laboratory culture studies, including Portunus puber (egg to juvenile) , P. de purator (egg to Zoea III) , Carcinus maenas (egg to Zoea IV) by Lebour (1928), and Callinectes sapidus (egg to Zoea IV, Hopkins, 1943, 1944 ; egg to juvenile, Costlow and Bookhout, 1959) . The

MORRIS H. ROBERTS

15

Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, M.; Hereford, S.G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

1992-01-01

16

Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

1995-02-01

17

Selectivity of pesticides used on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to Trichogramma pretiosum reared on two laboratory-reared hosts.  

PubMed

The side-effects of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators) used on cotton were tested on adults and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley reared in the laboratory on two different hosts, the Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) and the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller)). The eggs of the host enclosing the parasitoid pupae received direct pesticide sprays, while the adults of the parasitoid were exposed to the pesticides through contact with residues on sprayed eggs offered to parasitism. Alpha-cypermethrin, carbosulfan, deltamethrin, endosulfan, profenofos and zeta-cypermethrin were highly noxious to the parasitoid, significantly reducing the percentage of emergence and parasitism of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella or S. cerealella eggs. However, the pupal stage of the parasitoid developing in S. cerealella eggs was less susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Lufenuron and metamidophos greatly reduced the percentage of adult emergence from eggs of both hosts, while novaluron only interfered on this variable when the wasps were developing in E. kuehniella eggs. However, lufenuron and monocrotophos had no effect on the parasitoid pupae of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella eggs. Chlorfluazuron, diafenthiuron, diflubenzuron, fentin hydroxide, mepiquat chloride, novaluron, thiacloprid and triflumuron did not affect T. pretiosum emergence when eggs of S. cerealella enclosing pupae of the wasps were surface treated. The pesticides azoxystrobin, carbendazin + thiram, mepiquat chloride and novaluron had no effect on the ability of the wasps to parasitise E. kuehniella eggs. However, only mepiquat chloride did not affect the percentage of F1 wasps emerging from E. kuehniella eggs. The remaining pesticides moderately reduced the percentage of emergence and parasitism of the wasps when they had contact with the chemicals during their pupal or adult stage. Thus there were differences in pesticide toxicity according to the host used for parasitoid development. These differences were hypothesised to occur because of differences in egg morphology and parasitoid performance. PMID:16308868

Bastos, Cristina S; de Almeida, Raul P; Suinaga, Fábio A

2006-01-01

18

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

19

Molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of the bombycid moth, Trilocha varians.  

PubMed

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day-degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

20

Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Laboratory, PO Box 748, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States); Styer, E.L. [University of Georgia, Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, PO Box 1389, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States)

2007-03-15

21

An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.  

PubMed

An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity. PMID:20945799

Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

2010-09-01

22

MASS MATING BEHAVIOR OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) MALES CAPTURED IN PHEROMONE TRAPS MATED WITH LABORATORY-REARED FEMALES: MEASURES OF REPRODUCTION, EGG PRODUCTION AND ADULT MORTALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing the offspring of field-captured bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) moths offers reliable indicators of their natural behavior and susceptibility to insecticides. In this study laboratory-reared females mass mated for one to five days with pheromone trap-captured (wild) or laboratory-reared males wer...

23

Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

24

Feeding, growth, and survival of Engraulis mordax larvae reared in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are described for the successful rearing of northern anchovy larvae (Engraulis mordaxGirard) on cultured foods. Larvae were fed successively on the unarmored dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens, the veliger of the gastropod Bulla gouldiana, and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Rearing containers ranging in capacity from 4.5 to 510 l were tested; the smaller ones were found to be

R. LASKEIr; H. M. Feder; G. H. Theilacker; R. C. May

1970-01-01

25

Response of intestinal flora of laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) to cold and fasting.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flora of the large intestine was examined in 35 laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) subjected to one of the following four treatments: (i) normal feeding at 21 degrees C (10 frogs); (ii) fasting for 2 weeks at 21 degrees C (8 frogs); (iii) chilling for 1 week at 4 degrees C (9 frogs); and (iv) simulated hibernation for 3 weeks at 4 degrees C (8 frogs). Bacteria from the intestinal contents and mucosa were counted microscopically and by colony counting after strictly anaerobic culturing. The predominant bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. Fasting for 2 weeks produced no significant changes in total counts or in the types of bacteria cultured. Chilling, whether rapid or in the course of simulated hibernation, was associated with a decrease in the numbers and variety of bacteria. Thus it appears that the lowering of temperature rather than the absence of food is the important factor in the reduction of bacterial flora seen in hibernating frogs. However, the bacteria showed some adaptation to the low temperature, as the longer the host had been at 4 degrees C, the higher the proportion of bacteria which could grow when cultured at that temperature. PMID:6982026

Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

1982-01-01

26

Laboratory rearing of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): a predator of pecan pest insects  

E-print Network

of rearing large number of C. rufilabris for field release demonstrated that C. rufilabris larvae could be reared on non-viable eggs of Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and C. rufilabris adults could.... carnea also showed promise for the biological control of the bollworm, Heliothis zea Boddie ( Lepidoptera: Nocluidae), and tobacco budworm H. virescens Fabricius ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton ( Lingren et al. 1968, Ridgway and Jones 1968, 1969...

Elkarmi, Lina Ali

1986-01-01

27

Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov., from the digestive tract of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris).  

PubMed

Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus were isolated from the digestive tracts of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris) using MRS agar under anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as undescribed members of the genus Lactobacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.9?%) to the uncharacterized bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. Mboho2r2 isolated from the stomach of a European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Lactobacillus tucceti was found to be the closest related species with a validly published name, with 92.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain. However, phylogenetic analyses based on different markers revealed that this species is phylogenetically very distant from the novel strains. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain BTLCH M1/2(T) is 37.8 mol%. The fatty acids C(19?:?1)?6c and/or C(19?:?0) cyclo ?10c/19?6, C(18?:?1)?9c and C(16?:?0) were predominant in all strains. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, seven glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids were detected in the novel strains. Growth was observed at 47 °C. The peptidoglycan type A4? L-Lys-D-Asp was determined for strain BTLCH M1/2(T). Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on the phylogenetic markers hsp60, pheS, rpoA and tuf as well as phenotypic characteristics and the results of chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the new isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BTLCH M1/2(T) (?=?DSM 26517(T)?=?CCM 8440(T)). PMID:24824637

Killer, J; Votavová, A; Valterová, I; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Hroncová, Z

2014-08-01

28

Laboratory Techniques for the Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

Tombaugh, Dorothy

1972-01-01

29

Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto  

PubMed Central

Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

2013-01-01

30

LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF LABORATORY-REARED ROSYLIP SCULPIN, ASCELICHTHYS RHODORUS (COTTIDAE)  

E-print Network

of A. rhodorus with notes on the development and behavior of the species in the aquarium environment Mont- lake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112. 2Vancouver Public Aquarium, P.O. Box 3232, Vancouver, B'1.. salinity at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. Only three tanks were available for rearing larvae, so some

31

VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

32

Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

2014-06-01

33

Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).  

PubMed

Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species. PMID:22312998

Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

2011-12-01

34

Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larvae and juveniles of the Laotioan indigenous cyprinid Hypsibarbus malcolmi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological development, including the pigmentation, body proportions, fins, and survival rate for 30 days after hatching,\\u000a of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Hypsibarbus malcolmi is described. Body lengths (BL) of larvae and juveniles were 2.0 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) mm at 1 h after hatching (day 0) and 9.2 ± 0.6 mm\\u000a on day 16, reaching 12.1 ± 0.9 mm on day 30. Yolk volume decreased linearly, with the yolk being

Yuka Ogata; Shinsuke Morioka; Kosuke Sano; Bounsong Vongvichith; Hiroki Eda; Hisashi Kurokura; Thongkhoun Khonglaliane

2010-01-01

35

A TECHNIQUE FOR LANGUAGE LABORATORY TESTING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A TECHNIQUE FOR ORAL TESTING IN THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS OUTLINED. TO PROPERLY TEST STUDENTS' ORAL ABILITY, THE TEST SHOULD BE PREPARED LIKE THE LESSONS--CUE OR QUESTION, STUDENT RESPONSE, CORRECT RESPONSE. SO AS NOT TO REQUIRE EXCESSIVE GRADING TIME ON THE TEACHER'S PART, THE LABORATORY SHOULD HAVE FACILITIES TO START AND STOP STUDENT TAPE…

RUDE, BEN D.

36

Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

JEAN GEARY BOAL

1996-01-01

37

Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

38

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

NAJAM, EDWARD W.

39

Introducing improvements in the mass rearing of the housefly: biological, morphometric and genetic characterization of laboratory strains.  

PubMed

Understanding the biology of the housefly (Musca domestica L.) is crucial for the development of mass-rearing protocols in order to use this insect as a degradation agent for livestock waste. In this study, the biological and genetic differences between different laboratory strains of M. domestica were analysed. Additionally, hybrids were obtained by mixing the strains and their biological parameters were also measured. The three strains of M. domestica presented differences in their biological and morphological parameters, the main differences were: size, egg production and developmental time. The strain A (specimens from Central Europe) had the best qualities to be used in mass-rearing conditions: it produced the largest quantities of eggs (5.77±0.38 eggs per female per day), the individuals were larger (12.62±0.22 mg) and its developmental time was shorter (15.22±0.21 days). However, the strain C (specimens from SW Europe) produced the fewest eggs (3.15±0.42 eggs per female per day) and needed 18.16±0.49 days to develop from larva to adult, whilst the females from strain B (from South America) produced 4.25±0.47 eggs per day and needed 17.11±0.36 days to complete its development. Genetic analysis of the original laboratory strains showed four different mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes. Statistical parsimony network analysis showed that the SW Europe and South-American strains shared haplotypes, whereas the Central Europe strain did not. Upon hybridizing the strains, variations in egg production and in developmental time were observed in between hybrids and pure strains, and when mixing Central European and South-American strains only males were obtained. PMID:24824066

Pastor, B; Martínez-Sánchez, A S; Stĺhls, G A; Rojo, S

2014-08-01

40

Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).  

PubMed

The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms. PMID:23644800

Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

2013-02-01

41

Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

Kundu, Nikhil K.

1994-01-01

42

Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

43

DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

44

The effect of stocking density on growth rate and maturation time in laboratory-reared california sea hares.  

PubMed

California sea hares (Aplysia californica) were reared from the late juvenile period (approximately day 100 posthatch) to senescence in a laboratory study of growth and maturation at different stocking densities. Temperature, light, and food were controlled, and other seawater parameters such as O2 concentration, pH, and salinity, although not controlled, were optimized by the flow-through design of seawater through the cages. Stocking densities evaluated were 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 animals per 16-liter cage. Food availability is likely to be a limiting factor to growth in wild populations of A. californica, but in our experiments, algal diet was ad libitum at all densities and presumably was not a controlling factor. The animals maintained at each of the various densities grew at different rates but reached sexual maturity (defined as the age at the appearance of the first egg mass) at approximately the same age, 204 +/- 4 days (mean +/- standard error), for densities higher than 2 animals per cage. Age at sexual maturity for 2 animals per cage was 274 days. Growth rates were highest in cages with the lowest stocking densities and lowest in high-density cages, ranging from 3.72 g live weight/day in animals housed individually to 1.06 g live weight/day for those housed 20 per cage during the period 100 to 200 days of age. Growth differed significantly among the various stocking densities beginning at 9 weeks of growth (age, 167 to 174 days). In summary, we show that stocking density has an important influence on growth and is a key factor for consistently rearing Aplysia as an animal model under hatchery conditions. PMID:12456154

Capo, Thomas R; Fieber, Lynne A; Stommes, Dustin L; Walsh, Patrick J

2002-11-01

45

Egg and larval development of laboratory?reared striped trumpeter latris lineata (forster in bloch and schneider 1801) (percoidei: Latridiidae) from Tasmanian waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata (Forster in Bloch and Schneider 1801)) eggs and larvae, previously described in summary only, is provided and illustrated from laboratory?reared material. Laboratory fertilised eggs are round, 1.26–1.44 mm diameter, with a single, pigmented oil globule 0.27–0.29 mm diameter in an unsegmented yolk. Early?stage embryos are pigmented on trunk and tail dorso?laterally, forming a dorsal

Dianne M. Furlani; Frances P. Ruwald

1999-01-01

46

Larval growth, development, and survival of laboratory-reared Aplysia californica: effects of diet and veliger density.  

PubMed

Over the last three decades, the California sea hare, Aplysia californica, has played an increasingly important role as a model organism in the neurosciences. Since 1995, the National Resource for Aplysia has supported a growing research community by providing a consistent supply of laboratory-reared individuals of known age, reproductive status, and environmental history. The purpose of the present study was to resolve the key biological factors necessary for successful culture of large numbers of high quality larval Aplysia. Data from a sequence of five experiments demonstrated that algal diet, food concentration, and veliger density significantly affected growth, attainment of metamorphic competency, and survival of Aplysia larvae. The highest growth and survival were achieved with a mixed algal diet of 1:1 Isochrysis sp (TISO) and Chaetoceros muelleri (CHGRA) at a total concentration of 250 x 10(3) cells/mL and a larval density of 0.5-1.0 per mL. Rapid growth was always correlated with faster attainment of developmental milestones and increased survival, indicating that the more rapidly growing larvae were healthier. Trials conducted with our improved protocol resulted in larval growth rates of >14 microm/day, which yielded metamorphically competent animals within 21 days with survival rates in excess of 90%. These data indicate the important effects of biotic factors on the critical larval growth period in the laboratory and show the advantages of developing optimized protocols for culture of such marine invertebrates. PMID:19000779

Capo, Thomas R; Bardales, Ana T; Gillette, Phillip R; Lara, Monica R; Schmale, Michael C; Serafy, Joseph E

2009-03-01

47

Larval growth, development, and survival of laboratory-reared Aplysia californica: Effects of diet and veliger density*  

PubMed Central

Over the last three decades, the California sea hare, Aplysia californica, has played an increasingly important role as a model organism in the neurosciences. Since 1995, the National Resource for Aplysia has supported a growing research community by providing a consistent supply of laboratory-reared individuals of known age, reproductive status, and environmental history. The purpose of the present study was to resolve the key biological factors necessary for successful culture of large numbers of high quality larval Aplysia. Data from a sequence of five experiments demonstrated that algal diet, food concentration, and veliger density significantly affected growth, attainment of metamorphic competency, and survival of Aplysia larvae. The highest growth and survival were achieved with a mixed algal diet of 1:1 Isochrysis sp (TISO) and Chaetoceros muelleri (CHGRA) at a total concentration of 250 x 103 cells/mL and a larval density of 0.5 – 1.0 per mL. Rapid growth was always correlated with faster attainment of developmental milestones and increased survival, indicating that the more rapidly growing larvae were healthier. Trials conducted with our improved protocol resulted in larval growth rates of >14 ?m/d, which yielded metamorphically competent animals within 21 days with survival rates in excess of 90%. These data indicate the important effects of biotic factors on the critical larval growth period in the laboratory and show the advantages of developing optimized protocols for culture of such marine invertebrates. PMID:19000779

Capo, Thomas R.; Bardales, Ana T.; Gillette, Phillip R.; Lara, Monica R.; Schmale, Michael C.; Serafy, Joseph E.

2009-01-01

48

Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

49

INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

50

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

51

Laboratory reared Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma variegatum ticks differ in their susceptibility to infection with Cowdria ruminantium.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility of laboratory reared Zimbabwean Amblyomma hebraeum and A. variegatum ticks to infection with geographically distinct Cowdria ruminantium strains was investigated by feeding both species simultaneously on individual sheep infected with one of the four strains (Crystal Springs [Zimbabwe], Ball 3 [South Africa], Gardel [Guadeloupe] and Nigeria [Nigeria]). A. hebraeum ticks demonstrated a high susceptibility to infection with all four C. ruminantium strains. In comparison, A. variegatum were less susceptible to infection with the Crystal Springs and Ball 3 strains (P < 0.001), but showed a similar susceptibility to the Gardel and Nigeria strains. The differences in susceptibility of A. variegatum to infection with the four strains of C. ruminantium correlated with the origin of these strains. The consistently higher susceptibility of A. hebraeum ticks to infection with geographically different C. ruminantium strains may be one explanation for the observation that heartwater is a more serious problem where A. hebraeum is the vector of the disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7589273

Mahan, S. M.; Peter, T. F.; Semu, S. M.; Simbi, B. H.; Norval, R. A.; Barbet, A. F.

1995-01-01

52

Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Resolve the Species, Gender, Age, and the Presence of Wolbachia Infection in Laboratory-Reared Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age, and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory-reared Drosophila. NIRS measures the absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model was developed for each study. An independent set with flies not involved in initial cross-validation was then used to validate the accuracy of each calibration model. Flies from the independent sets were correctly classified into Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans with 94% and 82% accuracy, respectively, whereas flies were successfully classified by gender with accuracy greater than 90%. In the age grading test, correlation plots of the actual and predicted age for males and females of D. melanogaster and D. simulans were shown to be overlapping between the adjacent age groups. It is, however, possible to predict the age of flies as less than 9 days of age with 62–88% accuracy and flies that are equal to or older than 9 days of age with 91–98% accuracy. Finally, we used NIRS to detect the presence of Wolbachia in flies. Flies from the independent sets were successfully identified as infected or not infected with Wolbachia with approximately 90% accuracy. These results suggest that NIRS has the potential to quantify the species, gender, and presence of Wolbachia in fly populations. However, additional optimization of the protocol may be necessary before the technique can reliably estimate fly age. PMID:22973543

Aw, Wen C.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Ballard, J. William O.

2012-01-01

53

SNPfisher: tools for probing genetic variation in laboratory-reared zebrafish.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the benchmark molecular markers for modern genomics. Until recently, relatively few SNPs were known in the zebrafish genome. The use of next-generation sequencing for the positional cloning of zebrafish mutations has increased the number of known SNP positions dramatically. Still, the identified SNP variants remain under-utilized, owing to scant annotation of strain specificity and allele frequency. To address these limitations, we surveyed SNP variation in three common laboratory zebrafish strains using whole-genome sequencing. This survey identified an average of 5.04 million SNPs per strain compared with the Zv9 reference genome sequence. By comparing the three strains, 2.7 million variants were found to be strain specific, whereas the remaining variants were shared among all (2.3 million) or some of the strains. We also demonstrate the broad usefulness of our identified variants by validating most in independent populations of the same laboratory strains. We have made all of the identified SNPs accessible through 'SNPfisher', a searchable online database (snpfisher.nichd.nih.gov). The SNPfisher website includes the SNPfisher Variant Reporter tool, which provides the genomic position, alternate allele read frequency, strain specificity, restriction enzyme recognition site changes and flanking primers for all SNPs and Indels in a user-defined gene or region of the zebrafish genome. The SNPfisher site also contains links to display our SNP data in the UCSC genome browser. The SNPfisher tools will facilitate the use of SNP variation in zebrafish research as well as vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:25813542

Butler, Matthew G; Iben, James R; Marsden, Kurt C; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granato, Michael; Weinstein, Brant M

2015-04-15

54

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

2013-10-01

55

Costly nutritious diets do not necessarily translate into better performance of artificaially reared fruit files (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1 and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique (SIT) program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adu...

56

Laboratory Testing of Volcanic Gas Sampling Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of laboratory experiments were performed designed to calibrate several commonly used methods for field measurement of volcanic gas composition. H2, CO2, SO2 and CHCl2F gases were mixed through carefully calibrated rotameters to form mixtures representative of the types of volcanic compositions encountered at Kilauea and Showa-Shinzan. Gas mixtures were passed through a horizontal furnace at 700oC to break down CHCl2F and form an equilibrium high-temperature mixture. With the exception of Giggenbach bottle samples, all gas sampling was performed adjacent to the furnace exit in order to roughly simulate the air-contaminated samples encountered in Nature. Giggenbach bottle samples were taken from just beyond the hot-spot 10cm down the furnace tube to minimize atmospheric contamination. Alkali-trap measurements were performed by passing gases over or bubbling gases through 6N KOH, NaOH or LiOH solution for 10 minutes. Results were highly variable with errors in measured S/Cl varying from +1600% to -19%. In general reduced Kilauea compositions showed smaller errors than the more oxidized Showa-Shinzan compositions. Results were not resolvably different in experiments where gas was bubbled through the alkaline solution. In a second set of experiments, 25mm circles of Whatman 42 filter paper were impregnated with NaHCO3or KHCO3 alkaline solutions stabilized with glycerol. Some filters also included Alizarin (5.6-7.2) and neutral red (6.8-8.0) Ph indicator to provide a visual monitor of gas absorption. Filters were mounted in individual holders and used in stacks of 3. Durations were adjusted to maximize reaction in the first filter in the stack and minimize reaction in the final filter. Errors in filter pack measurements were smaller and more systematic than the alkali trap measurements. S/Cl was overestimated in oxidized gas mixtures and underestimated in reduced mixtures. Alkali-trap methods allow extended unattended monitoring of volcanic gasses, but our results suggest that they are poor recorders of gas composition. Filter pack methods are somewhat better, but are more difficult to interpret than previously recognized. We suggest several refinements to the filter-pack technique that can improve accuracy. Giggenbach bottles remain the best method for volcanic gas sampling, despite the inherent difficulty and danger of obtaining samples in active volcanic environments. Relative merits of different alkali solutions and indicators are discussed.

Kress, V. C.; Green, R.; Ortiz, M.; Delmelle, P.; Fischer, T.

2003-12-01

57

[Mass rearing of the Pharoah's ant Monomorium pharaonis].  

PubMed

New techniques for the mass rearing of the Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis) are described. The basic idea in doing this is the enlargement of the surface of the rearing containers in order to guarantee the lapse of normal behaviour such as the search for food and recruitment. The rearing container is an aquarium inside of which a great number of levels of glass are located, which are connected with each other. The watering of the colonies is effected by wet cotton wool in petridishes in the lower parts of the rearing devices. A transposition of the colonies in intervals of 6 to 8 months is recommended. A dispersation method of great colonies to small and physiologically equal laboratory colonies is described. A further mass rearing device allowes a strong enlargement of the surface of normal rearing dishes of 20 to 30 cm in diameter. The basic principle consists in the setting into each other of separate dishes. To prevent an outbreak from these rearing containers the walls are prepared with residues of talcum powder. The methods and devices mentioned make it possible to produce great masses of experimental material under constant control of the developmental status at low costs and little need of space. PMID:7377629

Berndt, K P; Kremer, G

1980-02-01

58

Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

Michael Lehman

2008-06-01

59

Rearing Monarchs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a long-term project, you can rear monarch butterflies at home or in a classroom. This article contains practical tips on successfully rearing monarchs, and ways in which you can increase your chances of observing the changes that occur during their metamorphosis. Caretaking details are provided for every stage of the monarch butterfly's life: egg, larva, pupa, adult. This article contains information about many species of milkweed plants - the main food and habitat for monarchs. Also includes information and instructions for building cages for monarch butterflies.

2012-06-26

60

Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

2011-01-01

61

Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of about 43 52% in organic C, 9 10% in N, 6 9% H, 31 49% of AFW in protein, 3 10% in lipid, and <1% in carbohydrates. All these constituents showed, on the average, a decreasing tendency during the first two crab instars, whereas N remained fairly constant. It cannot be explained at present, what other elements and biochemical compounds, respectively, might replace these decreasing components of AFW. Decreasing tendencies during juvenile growth were observed also in the organic C/N and in the lipid/protein weight ratios, both indicating that the proportion of lipid decreased at a higher rate than that of protein. Changes were observed also in the composition of inorganic matter, with significantly lower inorganic C in early postmoult (2 4% of ash) than in later stages of the moult cycle (about 9%). This reflected probably an increase in the degree of calcification, i.e. in the calcium carbonate content of the exoskeleton. As a fraction of total C, inorganic C reached maximum values of 17 and 20% in the crab I and II instars, respectively. The energy content of juvenile spider crabs was estimated independently from organic C and biochemical constituents, with a significant correlation between these values. However, the former estimates of energy were, on the average, significantly lower than the latter (slope of the regression ?1). Since organic C should be a reliable integrator of organic substances, but the sum of protein, lipid, chitin, and carbohydrates amounted to only 60 91% of AFW, it is concluded that the observed discrepancy between these two estimates of energy was caused by energy from biochemical constituents that had not been determined in our analyses. Thus, energy values obtained from these biochemical fractions alone may underestimate the actual amount of organic matter and energy. Respiration per individual in juvenile spider crabs was higher than that in larval stages of the same species (previous studies), but their W-specific values of oxygen consumption (QO2) were lower than in conspecific larvae (0.6 2?g O2·[mg W]-1). QO2 showed a consiste

Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

1992-03-01

62

Use of PIT tags to assess individual heterogeneity of laboratory-reared juveniles of the endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) in a mark–recapture study  

PubMed Central

The federally endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) was propagated and reared to taggable size (5–10 mm), and released to the Powell River, Tennessee, to augment a relict population. Methodology using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on these mussels greatly facilitated the detection process. The overall mean detection probability and survival rate of released individuals reached 97.8 to 98.4% and 99.7 to 99.9% (per month), respectively, during nine successive recapture occasions in the 2-year study period, regardless of seasonality. Nonhierarchical models and hierarchical models incorporating individual and seasonal variations through a Bayesian approach were compared and resulted in similar performance of prediction for detection probability and survival rate of mussels. This is the first study to apply the mark–recapture method to laboratory-reared mussels using PIT tags and stochastic models. Quantitative analyses for individual heterogeneity allowed examination of demographic variance and effects of heterogeneity on population dynamics, although the individual and seasonal variations were small in this study. Our results provide useful information in implementing conservation strategies of this faunal group and a framework for other species or similar studies. PMID:25798225

Hua, Dan; Jiao, Yan; Neves, Richard; Jones, Jess

2015-01-01

63

Use of PIT tags to assess individual heterogeneity of laboratory-reared juveniles of the endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) in a mark-recapture study.  

PubMed

The federally endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) was propagated and reared to taggable size (5-10 mm), and released to the Powell River, Tennessee, to augment a relict population. Methodology using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on these mussels greatly facilitated the detection process. The overall mean detection probability and survival rate of released individuals reached 97.8 to 98.4% and 99.7 to 99.9% (per month), respectively, during nine successive recapture occasions in the 2-year study period, regardless of seasonality. Nonhierarchical models and hierarchical models incorporating individual and seasonal variations through a Bayesian approach were compared and resulted in similar performance of prediction for detection probability and survival rate of mussels. This is the first study to apply the mark-recapture method to laboratory-reared mussels using PIT tags and stochastic models. Quantitative analyses for individual heterogeneity allowed examination of demographic variance and effects of heterogeneity on population dynamics, although the individual and seasonal variations were small in this study. Our results provide useful information in implementing conservation strategies of this faunal group and a framework for other species or similar studies. PMID:25798225

Hua, Dan; Jiao, Yan; Neves, Richard; Jones, Jess

2015-03-01

64

Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species  

PubMed Central

The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

2007-01-01

65

Development of an improved laboratory production technique for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei , using fresh coffee berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of a mixture of plaster of Paris and charcoal as a means to regulate the moisture content of coffee berries and the relative humidity (moisture conditions) of the rearing environment and its impact on rearing the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was evaluated under laboratory conditions using two types of coffee. Coffee berries were

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Hans-Michael Poehling; Charles Kamonjo; Christian Borgemeister

2009-01-01

66

Design of a Portable Streamside Rearing Facility for Lake Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable streamside rearing facility was designed and used by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians during efforts to rehabilitate a remnant population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the Big Manistee River, Michigan, beginning in 2004. The streamside rearing facility facilitates rearing of wild-caught lake sturgeon larvae in their natal water. This rearing approach provides a cost-effective technique

J. Marty Holtgren; Stephanie A. Ogren; Aaron J. Paquet; Steve Fajfer

2007-01-01

67

INTERACTIONS AMONG SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND AGE ON GROWTH OF THE ESTUARINE MYSID MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA REARED IN THE LABORATORY THROUGH A COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE - I. BODY MASS AND AGE-SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities from 3 to 31 o/oo and temperatures from 19 to 31 degrees C) significantly influenced growth rates and subsequent biomass of the estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, reared in the laboratory from the first free juvenile st...

68

Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

69

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NOX REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of work to develop and demonstrate, in the laboratory, NOx reduction techniques that would be suited to petroleum refinery CO boilers. (Note: Most refineries have one or more CO boilers to incinerate off-gases from catalytic cracking. These devices constit...

70

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

71

Characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the laboratory rearing of the beet armyworm Spodoptera Exigua (HBN.) in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Polish laboratory culture), SeMNPV (P), morphologically similar to the viral bioinsecticide virus Spod-XR, was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis based on three conserved baculovirus genes, polh, lef-8 and pif-2, showed the highest homology of SeMNPV (P) to Mamestra brassicae (Mb) MNPV and M. configurata (Maco) MNPV, and much less to

A. K. Jakubowska; J. M. Vlak; J. Ziemnicka

2005-01-01

72

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

73

A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ? for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ?) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

Kosugi, Yukio

74

Serum Clinical Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Ranges of Laboratory-Reared and Wild-Caught Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

The South African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis are fully aquatic amphibians and well-established animal models. Because genetically engineered laboratory Xenopus are now being produced, the establishment of normal reference ranges for serum biochemical and hematologic parameters is essential for phenotyping and as a diagnostic aide. We determined normal reference ranges for hematologic values from 3 populations of X. laevis: wild-caught frogs (n = 43) and frogs from 2 commercial sources (A, n = 166; B, n = 109). For serum biochemistry, we determined normal reference ranges for frogs from source A and wild-caught frogs divided by sex and season. Significant differences across populations were found in WBC and RBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. Among serum biochemical analytes, significant differences were found for albumin:globulin ratio, anion gap, and concentrations of albumin, globulin, total protein, lipase, alanine transaminase, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase; creatine phosphokinase; indirect, direct, and total bilirubin; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein lipase, carbon dioxide, glucose, lactacte dehydrogenase, calcium, chloride, and sodium. We hypothesize that these differences can be attributed to differences in water quality, habitat, ambient temperature, diet, sex, recent transport or shipment, and genetic background. However, testing that hypothesis is beyond the scope of the current study. In addition, clinical chemistry and hematologic reference range values Xenopus laevis are quite distinct from those for other species and are most consistent with the only values published for another fully aquatic amphibian, the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). PMID:22330708

Wilson, Sabrina; Felt, Stephen; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Howard, Antwain; Behan, Colleen; Moorhead, Roberta; Green, Sherril

2011-01-01

75

Dioxin transfer from sediment to the infaunal surface deposit-feeding polychaete Perinereis nuntia in a laboratory-rearing experiment.  

PubMed

In the presented study a laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from environmentally contaminated marine sediment to an infaunal surface deposit-feeding polychaete, Perinereis nuntia. Polychaetes were exposed to contaminated sediment for 42 d, and elimination of these compounds was studied for an additional 28 d. The sediment uptake rate coefficients (ks), elimination rate constants (k2), and the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined for PCDDs, PCDFs (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like PCBs. Each of these compounds was transferred from sediment to polychaete except for hepta- and octachlorinated PCDD/Fs. The BSAFs for dioxin-like PCBs (0.13-2.2) were significantly higher than those for PCDD/Fs (0.00022-0.36). The BSAF, ks, and k2 values obtained in the present study indicate that the bioaccumulation characteristics of PCDD/Fs in polychaete are similar to those in fish, and depend on their physical and chemical properties such as hydrophobicity and size of molecules. The ks values for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs declined with an increase in their log KOW values, indicating a decrease in bioavailability. The negative exponential relationships of k2 versus KOW were observed for these compounds. The slope for the log-normalized regression of k2 versus KOW for the PCDD/Fs was smaller than that for the dioxin-like PCBs and that of ks versus KOW for the PCDD/Fs. Therefore, the negative exponential relationship of BSAF versus KOW was observed for PCDD/Fs, but not for dioxin-like PCBs. PMID:20821600

Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Jiro

2010-07-01

76

View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

77

Infrared band strengths: Laboratory techniques and applications to astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever an abundance measurement is derived by way of infrared spectroscopy, it will typically make use of a laboratory-obtained conversion factor between the size of an IR absorption feature and the (column) density of the molecule under study. This factor is usually called the "absolute absorption intensity" by a chemist or the "band strength" by a typical IR astronomer. Band strengths have been studied in chemistry since the 1950s, and the commonly quoted "accuracy to with a factor of ten" historically required of astronomical calculations has not required much new input into this area. Today, however, astronomical measurements require much higher precision, and it is time for IR astronomers to ask more of laboratory measurements and to understand when and why to use IR band strengths in a more appropriate manner. The history, interpretation, measurement, and common astrophysical applications of infrared band strengths will be discussed. The "secrets" of the laboratory techniques involved in their measurement are described, and a compilation of results from the literature is given along with some new results. Typical astrophysical applications and appropriate uses will also be discussed. Common misconceptions are confronted and two challenges are presented: (i) to the laboratory astrophysics community to produce and advertise accurate values with caveats when necessary, and (ii) to the observational community to use the most appropriate results for the environment under study.

Gerakines, P. A.

2002-09-01

78

Laboratory rearing of bed bugs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

79

Spawning and Rearing Atlantic Menhaden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20°C in a 2,100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the

William F. Hettler

1981-01-01

80

Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

81

Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques  

PubMed Central

Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection PMID:23248735

Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Navarro-Marí, José-María

2012-01-01

82

Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (?l) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors. ·Precisely and accurately set volumes on micropipettors. ·Know how to properly use the first and second stop on a micropipettor to aspirate and transfer correct volumes. PMID:22688118

Sanders, Erin R

2012-01-01

83

Effect of mass rearing on life history traits and inbreeding depression in the sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae).  

PubMed

Inadvertent selection is an important genetic process that frequently occurs during laboratory culture and maintenance of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms used in procedures such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). We investigated effects of mass rearing and inbreeding depression on life history traits (number of progeny emerging from host plants, body weight, developmental period, and starvation tolerance) in the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae). The effect of inbreeding was measured by comparing the results obtained from the full-sib crosses with those obtained from nonkin crosses in both wild and mass-reared strains. The mass-reared strain had more progeny than the wild strain. The developmental period of mass-reared strain was shorter than that of the wild strain. Other traits did not differ significantly between strains. We detected inbreeding depression effects on numbers of progeny, and the effects were more pronounced in the mass-reared strain. Hence, laboratory adaptation to mass rearing can produce changes in important biological attributes of sweetpotato weevils. PMID:20857721

Kuriwada, T; Kumano, N; Shiromoto, K; Haraguchi, D

2010-08-01

84

Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

85

Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden  

SciTech Connect

Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

Hettler, W.F.

1981-04-01

86

5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004  

E-print Network

This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

Tabacco, Sarah

2004-01-01

87

Laboratory technique for measurement of spectral induced polarization response of soil sampies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of soil samples are necessary to assess the effect of mineralogy, grain size distribution, moisture content, and electrolyte composition the resistivity spectrum of soil material. Laboratory results are also required for the interpretation of field data. Induced polarization phenomena in glacial soils are poorly understood and so far no convenient laboratory techniques are available for measurement. Coarse grain

Heikki Vanhala; Heikki Soininen

1995-01-01

88

CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

89

Maintenance of a laboratory colony of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) using an artificial feeding technique.  

PubMed

The in vitro maintenance technique described in this article has been used successfully to rear Cimex lectularius (L.) by feeding for >2 yr all nymphal stages and adults through parafilm "M" sealing film on different types of blood. Using this feeding technique, the subsequent egg production of female bedbugs was remarkably high. The blood was maintained at 37 degrees C to enhance the attachment of the bugs. The effect of anticoagulation methods for the blood meal was investigated, and heparinized blood was found the most suitable for feeding bugs. All stages of the bugs fed weekly on blood in the artificial feeding system remained attached for up to 0.5-1.0 h, until completion of their blood meals, and all reached engorged weights. More than 90% of the bugs fed artificially on whole blood, and they molted or laid eggs successfully. PMID:12144303

Montes, C; Cuadrillero, C; Vilella, D

2002-07-01

90

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

91

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

92

2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

93

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

94

14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

95

22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

96

A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes three discovery-based experiments geared toward the beginning organic chemistry laboratory student. Each experiment focuses on one of the following purification techniques: extraction, recrystallization, or distillation. Unlike traditional purification-focused experiments whose goal is mastery of technique or optimization of results, the goal of these three experiments is students discovering for themselves the fundamental principles that underlie each technique.

Gail Horowitz

2003-01-01

97

Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

1980-01-01

98

Adolescent Coping Styles and Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques

Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth

1994-01-01

99

Spatial repellency of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in a semi-field tunnel cage  

PubMed Central

Background Vapour phase spatial repellents deter mosquitoes from attacking one or more humans in a protected space. Simulation models indicate that high coverage of spatial repellents can enhance the impact of long - lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) where mosquito vectors commonly bite humans outdoors. Here we report a preliminary evaluation of an effective, user-friendly prototype product for delivering spatial repellents to protect against malaria vector mosquitoes. Findings Protective efficacy of a 4.0 × 0.3 m strip of hessian sacking treated with 10 ml of transfluthrin was evaluated in a 60 m × 2 m ×2.5 m netting tunnel with malaria-free insectary-reared Anopheles arabiensis Patton mosquitoes. Personal protection, in terms of proportional reduction of exposure to bites, was measured by comparing human landing catches of volunteers with treated and untreated strips. A freshly treated hessian strip reduced mosquito attack rate on human volunteers by > 99% and consistently conferred > 90% protective efficacy for a period of 6 months. Over the entire study period, only 22 out of 1400 released mosquitoes bit volunteers using the treated sacking strip while 894 out of 1400 mosquitoes released into cages containing volunteers using an untreated strip fed upon them. Conclusion Locally available natural fibers may be promising absorbent substrates for delivering spatial repellents, such as transfluthrin, to protect against mosquitoes in tropical settings. However, these observations relate to a single prototype specimen of this particular device, therefore, much more detailed, well replicated studies are essential to establish long-term efficacy, effectiveness, practicability and affordability. PMID:22433128

2012-01-01

100

Revitalizing pathology laboratories in a gastrointestinal pathophysiology course using multimedia and team-based learning techniques.  

PubMed

In 2008, we changed the gastrointestinal pathology laboratories in a gastrointestinal pathophysiology course to a more interactive format using modified team-based learning techniques and multimedia presentations. The results were remarkably positive and can be used as a model for pathology laboratory improvement in any organ system. Over a two-year period, engaging and interactive pathology laboratories were designed. The initial restructuring of the laboratories included new case material, Digital Atlas of Video Education Project videos, animations and overlays. Subsequent changes included USMLE board-style quizzes at the beginning of each laboratory, with individual readiness assessment testing and group readiness assessment testing, incorporation of a clinician as a co-teacher and role playing for the student groups. Student responses for pathology laboratory contribution to learning improved significantly compared to baseline. Increased voluntary attendance at pathology laboratories was observed. Spontaneous student comments noted the positive impact of the laboratories on their learning. Pathology laboratory innovations, including modified team-based learning techniques with individual and group self-assessment quizzes, multimedia presentations, and paired teaching by a pathologist and clinical gastroenterologist led to improvement in student perceptions of pathology laboratory contributions to their learning and better pathology faculty evaluations. These changes can be universally applied to other pathology laboratories to improve student satisfaction. PMID:22464153

Carbo, Alexander R; Blanco, Paola G; Graeme-Cooke, Fiona; Misdraji, Joseph; Kappler, Steven; Shaffer, Kitt; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Berzin, Tyler; Leffler, Daniel; Najarian, Robert; Sepe, Paul; Kaplan, Jennifer; Pitman, Martha; Goldman, Harvey; Pelletier, Stephen; Hayward, Jane N; Shields, Helen M

2012-05-15

101

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teachi

Sara Nottingham

2010-05-01

102

Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

1977-01-01

103

Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

104

Survey of Laboratory Scale Fabrication Techniques for Passive UHF RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Survey of Laboratory Scale Fabrication Techniques for Passive UHF RFID Tags Tamer Elsherbeni1 an overview of various RFID tag fabrication methods and briefly describes the advantages and disadvantages that can be applied for RFID fabrication purposes for laboratory scale experiments. This paper will present

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

105

A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

2011-01-01

106

Toward Communal Child Rearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

Sands, Rosalind M.

1973-01-01

107

Synchrotron and laboratory studies utilizing a new powder diffraction technique  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer that is much more efficient than existing methods. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument has an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3{degrees} to 4{degrees} instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers. Results are presented for fluorapatite Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a high-TC superconductor.

Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Jennings, G.; Engbretson, M.; Ramanathan, M.

1992-10-01

108

Synchrotron and laboratory studies utilizing a new powder diffraction technique  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer that is much more efficient than existing methods. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument has an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3[degrees] to 4[degrees] instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers. Results are presented for fluorapatite Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], and a high-TC superconductor.

Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Jennings, G.; Engbretson, M.; Ramanathan, M.

1992-10-01

109

Techniques to obtain orbital debris encounter speeds in the laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes in hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences such as orbital-debris impact on a debris shield. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be dominated by phase changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled, repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas guns. In this paper, techniques used to extend the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s are described. It is anticipated that this technology will be useful in testing, evaluating, and design of various debris shields proposed for many different spacecrafts.

Chhabildas, L.C.

1996-06-01

110

REARING METHODS FOR SPIDER S  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rearing method is reported which provides spiders with a continual supply of food and water . Using this method, spiders have been reared from egg to adult with low mortality . Other rearin g methods for spiders are reviewed . Rearing and maintaining spiders in captivity is often a rather laborious task, especiall y when large numbers are involved

Robert R. Jackson

111

Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes ( Grus americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances

Michael D. Kreger; Inma Estevez; Jeff S. Hatfield; George F. Gee

2004-01-01

112

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

2010-01-01

113

Development of inexpensive and globally available larval diet for rearing Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Success of sterile insect technique (SIT) is dependent upon the mass rearing and release of quality insects, the production of which is directly related to the suitability of the diet ingredients used. Commercial diets used for small-scale culture of mosquitoes are expensive and thus not feasible for mass production. Methods A series of low cost globally available diet ingredients including, wheat, rice, corn, chickpeas, and beans along with liver, were provided to 4?h larvae (L1) of Anopheles stephensi (Liston) to see their effect on fitness parameters including larval duration, percent emergence, survival, adult wing size and female fecundity. Different quantities of the candidate diet ingredients were then mixed together to work out a combination diet with a balanced nutritive value that can be used for efficient rearing of the mosquito larvae at relatively lower costs. Results Fastest larval and pupal development and highest survival rates were recorded using a combination diet of bean, corn, wheat, chickpea, rice, and bovine liver at 5?mg/day. The diet is easy to prepare, and much cheaper than the diets reported earlier. The estimated cost of the reported diet is 14.7 US$/ 1.3?kg for rearing one million larvae. Conclusions A combination diet with ingredients from cereals and legumes mixed with liver is a low cost balanced larval diet with the potential for use in both small scale laboratory rearing and mass production of Anopheles in SIT control programs. PMID:23570246

2013-01-01

114

Laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections.  

PubMed Central

Yolk-sac inoculation of embryonated eggs was superseded 25 years ago by the use of cell cultures (often McCoy) for the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Centrifugation of specimens onto the cell monolayers was shown to increase sensitivity, but little of late has further improved sensitivity which is at least ten-fold greater than that of eggs. However, culture is slow and labour intensive so that non-cultural techniques without these drawbacks have come to dominate. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests are rapid and have sensitivities that range from 70% to 100% for men and 68% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 87% to 99% for men and 82% to 100% for women; if the tests are read by competent observers the values are at the top end of the ranges. The detection rate may be enhanced even further by relatively low-speed centrifugation of specimens before staining. Skilled reading is not a feature of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) which according to the literature have sensitivities that range from 62% to 97% for men and 64% to 100% for women, and specificities that range from 92% to 100% for men and 89% to 100% for women. However, comparison against poor reference tests is responsible for most of the higher values and the clinician should not be misled into believing that EIAs have excellent sensitivity; the lower values in the ranges are closer to reality. Furthermore, EIAs that are being designed for use by general practitioners should be regarded with the greatest caution since lack of sensitivity means that chlamydia-positive patients will go undetected. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not bedevilled by insensitivity but it is no more sensitive than the most sensitive cell culture or DFA tests. PCR is unsuitable for routine diagnosis but has a place as a research tool. For men, examination of "first-catch" urine samples by the best of the non-cultural procedures provides an acceptable non-invasive approach to diagnosis; for women, the value of examining urine may be less, but needs to be thoroughly tested. However, there is little doubt that a Cytobrush used to obtain cervical specimens holds no practical advantage over a swab. Serological tests are reliant on the provision of paired sera for making a diagnosis; high antibody titres in single sera may be suggestive of an aetiological association in deep-seated chlamydial infections (epididymitis, arthritis, salpingitis, etc), but unequivocal interpretation is unusual, particularly in an individual case, since the distinction between a current and past infection is problematical. PMID:2071132

Taylor-Robinson, D; Thomas, B J

1991-01-01

115

Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

2001-12-01

116

Assessment of fracture-sampling techniques for laboratory tests on core  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the site characterization work to be done at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, a candidate site for the first mined-geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, laboratory tests are proposed to evaluate fluid flow in single fractures. Laboratory and onsite tests were conducted to develop methods for collecting rock-core samples containing single fractures for the subsequent laboratory tests. Techniques for collecting rock cores with axial (parallel to the core axis) and radial (perpendicular to the core axis) fractures are discussed.

Severson, G.R.; Boernge, J.M.

1991-01-01

117

Technique to measure the cosmic muon flux at the old Canfranc Underground Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique to measure the cosmic muon flux distribution has been developed in the old Canfranc Underground Laboratory (2450 m.w.e.).This technique can determine the muon direction and it allows to obtain a three-dimensional distribution of the muon intensity which could be correlated to the mountain profile, as well. The experimental set-up, which has been taking data since November 2008, consists

A. Rodríguez; J. M. Carmona; S. Cebrián; T. Dafni; J. Galán; I. G. Irastorza; H. Gómez; F. J. Iguaz; G. Luzón; J. Morales; J. Ruz; L. Seguí; A. Tomás

2010-01-01

118

An artificial diet for rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).  

PubMed

Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use secondary screwworms in our laboratory for preliminary experiments as a model for the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), which has been eradicated from the United States. C. macellaria larvae reared on animal tissues produced a putrid odor, an unfavorable condition in the laboratory, and variable pupal size and weight, bringing into question the validity of use as a model for C. hominivorax. Therefore, studies were conducted to develop a less odiferous artificial diet with reduced variability in resulting pupae by comparing three diets: 1) an artificial diet prepared from spray-dried blood, spray-dried poultry egg, dry milk substitute, and solidified with a polyacrylate polymer gel; 2) a fresh blood-based diet prepared similarly, except fresh bovine blood was used in place of spray-dried blood; and 3) a beef liver diet. Data from seven life-history parameters of resulting insects were collected and analyzed. Larval and pupal weights of C. macellaria reared on both the dry and fresh blood-based diets were significantly higher than those reared on the liver diet. Numbers of pupae and percentage of adult emergence were also significantly higher from both dry blood and fresh blood-based diets than those reared on the liver diet. Female flies developing from larvae reared on dry and fresh blood-based diets laid significantly more eggs than females developing from larvae reared on the liver diet. Results show that C. macellaria larvae developed and grew normally in the dry and fresh blood-based diets, indicating that an artificial diet can effectively replace the liver diet commonly used for rearing C. macellaria. PMID:24020312

Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

2013-08-01

119

Laboratory measurements of atmospheric temperature and backscatter ratio using a high-spectral-resolution lidar technique.  

PubMed

A narrow-band atomic blocking (bandstop) filter capable of high aerosol rejection has been developed for lidar applications. Using this filter, and our proposed new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique, laboratory measurementsof atmospheric temperature and backscatter ratio have been made, with an accuracy of 1 K and +/-3%, respectively. PMID:19738689

Lehmann, F J; Lee, S A; She, C Y

1986-09-01

120

An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

Duxbury, Mark

2004-01-01

121

Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques

MacDonald, Gina

2008-01-01

122

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY FOR THE LABORATORY CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' (WALBAUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was undertaken to develop laboratory culture techniques for striped bass (Morone saxatilis) that could be used to provide an adequate supply of various life stages of this important fish species for water quality and hazard evaluation testing. The work includes both...

123

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

124

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

125

Genetic Sexing Strains in Mediterranean Fruit Fly, an Example for Other Species Amenable to Large-Scale Rearing for the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species

G. Franz

126

Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

We administered the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) to 217 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic reared-together adult twin pairs and 44 monozygotic and 27 dizygotic reared-apart adult twin pairs. A four-parameter biometric model (incorporating genetic, additive versus nonadditive, shared family-environment, and unshared environment components) and five reduced models were fitted through maximum-likelihood techniques to data obtained with the 11 primary MPQ scales

Alike Tellegen; David T. Lykken; Thomas J. Bouchard; Kimerly J. Wilcox; Nancy L. Segal; Stephen Rich

1988-01-01

127

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

128

Rear Side Passivated Monocrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells with Laser Fired Contact Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) thin film solar cells based on transfer technique are promising for reduction of silicon material consumption and cost. In this paper, we present the rear passivated type 15-µm-thick c-Si thin film solar cells using the laser fired contact (LFC). After separation, the rear side process using transfer technique is maintained at below 200 °C. We applied NH3 plasma-treatment technique before SiNx deposition and LFC technique that fire through rear contact and passivation layers using laser irradiation to the rear surface of c-Si thin film solar cells. As a result, in the solar cell performance, VOC of 533 and 553 mV have been achieved for the rear non-passivated cell and the rear SiNx passivated cell, respectively. The rear surface passivation using NH3 plasma-treatment has an effect on the increasing of VOC. For the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results, the rear SiNx passivated cell increased by over 15% compared to the rear non-passivated cell in the long wavelength region. The high potential of rear passivated c-Si thin film solar cells have been illustrated in this study.

Takahashi, Yu; Hirata, Kenji; Ogane, Akiyoshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Fuyuki, Takashi

2008-08-01

129

Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

2004-01-01

130

Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

1963-01-01

131

A comparison of thermal and microwave palaeomagnetic techniques using lava containing laboratory induced remanence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of laboratory experiments has been carried out using lava from Hawaii and Australia containing laboratory induced remanence to compare thermal and microwave palaeomagnetic techniques. Three samples of Hawaiian lava containing a known laboratory induced thermal remanence (TRM) were subjected to microwave palaeointensity experiments (using the Liverpool 8.2 GHz microwave system). Conventional modified Thellier palaeointensity experiments were carried out on the same three lava samples, this time containing a known microwave induced thermoremanent magnetisation (TMRM). Both palaeointensity techniques produced the correct intensity value, demonstrating the equivalence of TRM and TMRM. No indications of alteration during the experiment were evident during the microwave experiments, whereas alteration was pronounced after heating to 350°C in the Thellier experiments demonstrating that alteration during microwave palaeointensity analysis is reduced when compared to thermal techniques. In a second set of experiments, six samples (three Hawaiian and three Australian lava samples) were given a laboratory induced full TRM and a secondary perpendicular partial TRM (pTRM) (at lower temperatures). Sister samples were then demagnetised using thermal and microwave methods. Analysis of the orthogonal vector plots (OVPs) revealed little difference in separating the two components for five out of the six samples. For one sample, microwave demagnetisation did not clearly distinguish between the two components with the primary component not being resolved until 74 per cent of the moment had been demagnetised compared to just 4 per cent with thermal demagnetisation. For this one sample, it appears that the microwave unblocking spectra is not equivalent to the thermal unblocking spectra, probably due to a combination of microwave demagnetisation processes occurring. Comparison of the intensity of magnetisation plots during demagnetisation shows that the relationship between temperature and microwave power appears more logarithmic than linear. This study demonstrates the validity of the microwave palaeointensity technique and, as long as the primary component of magnetisation can be isolated from multicomponent remanence, then the microwave palaeointensity technique can be applied.

Hill, Mimi J.; Gratton, Martin N.; Shaw, John

2002-10-01

132

STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research – Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in today’s video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

Janus Research Group

133

Technique to measure the cosmic muon flux at the old Canfranc Underground Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique to measure the cosmic muon flux distribution has been developed in the old Canfranc Underground Laboratory (2450 m.w.e.).This technique can determine the muon direction and it allows to obtain a three-dimensional distribution of the muon intensity which could be correlated to the mountain profile, as well. The experimental set-up, which has been taking data since November 2008, consists of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector and a veto system composed of two plastic scintillators.

Rodríguez, A.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Galán, J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Luzón, G.; Morales, J.; Ruz, J.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.

2010-01-01

134

Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

1981-01-01

135

Living carbocationic polymerization of isobutylene and synthesis of ABA block copolymers by conventional laboratory techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living polymerization of isobutylene (IB) and subsequent controlled synthesis of ABA block copolymers, such as poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (PSt-PIB-PSt) and poly(p-methylstyrene-b-isobutylene-b-p-methylstyrene) (PpMeSt-PIB-PpMeSt), have been carried out by a simple and inexpensive conventional laboratory technique. The homo- and block copolymers obtained by using this technique have exhibited excellent molecular weight control and low polydispersity indexes. The living nature of IB polymerization has been

Hanne Everland; Jřrgen Kops; Anders Nielsen; Béla Iván

1993-01-01

136

Development of a teaching laboratory aid for instruction of fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology technique.  

PubMed

Specialized training is required to obtain adequate cytology smears by needle aspiration biopsy. An educational method that would provide opportunity for numerous trainees to acquire needle aspiration biopsy and cytodiagnostic skills, and which would not result in the interruption of teaching hospital patient care nor result in the use or sacrifice of animals from laboratory animal resources was sought. An aspiration biopsy cytology teaching aid was developed by placing portions of fresh organ tissue from routine submissions to the necropsy laboratory into a specimen container partially filled with chilled normal saline solution. Specimens were stored immersed in saline at 4 degrees C for up to 48 hours. Prior to the cytopathology teaching laboratory period, the specimen container was removed from storage and covered with a latex diaphragm. Instructors responsible for teaching cytodiagnostic techniques used this ex vivo aspiration biopsy cytology device for instruction of fine needle aspiration biopsy, specimen processing, and microscopy. In the teaching laboratory, puncture of the diaphragm and aspiration of a tissue sample with hypodermic needle and syringe was instructed to, and practiced by, numerous trainees simultaneously using clinical operative technique without the need for live animals. Trainees prepared and stained cytology smears as well as evaluated and interpreted specimens in a single, realistic exercise. Such training experience may improve ability of trainees to procure diagnostic-quality biopsy specimens for cytodiagnosis of lesions from clinic patients. PMID:12671799

Simpson, R. Mark; Meuten, Donald J.

1992-01-01

137

Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

2015-01-01

138

Ephippia of Daphnia magna straus — A technique for their mass production and quick revival  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rearing technique ideally suitable for promoting either the parthenogenetic or the gametogenetic (ephippia) type of reproduction ofDaphnia magna in the laboratory is described. Airdrying and rehydration induces rapid hatching. Using this technique it is possible to measure the toxicity of chemicals to ephippia in an 8 day test procedure.

Sandor Doma

1979-01-01

139

A thermographic technique to characterize soil surface microrelief: application at the laboratory scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of soil surface microrelief with adequate resolution and precision can enhance the understanding of several hydrological processes (e.g. runoff, sediment transport, rill erosion, infiltration, evaporation, heat flux) and may provide detailed information required for their modelling. Despite the high resolution and precision of some of the measurement techniques used to estimate soil surface microrelief (e.g. laser techniques, photographic techniques), the presence of mulch covering the soil surface strongly affects the accuracy of the microrelief measurements. In fact, with high mulching covers, microrelief cannot be estimated by these techniques. The main goal of this study was to develop a thermographic technique that could be used to characterize soil surface microrelief in the presence of mulch cover (i.e. identify preferential flow paths, identify different microrelief elements), allowing to obtain a 3D model of the soil surface with a reasonable accuracy. Laboratory tests were conducted on surfaces with different morphologies and microrelief elements both in bare soil conditions and in the presence of different mulching surface cover densities. Heated water was used to create a temperature gradient on the soil surface that was recorded with a portable hand-held infrared camera. As the heated water flowed along the different studied surfaces, deeper topographic elements (e.g. rills, surface depressions) presented higher temperatures. The presence of higher mulching cover densities affected the performance of the technique. However, below densities of 4 ton/ha it was possible to visualize preferential flow paths and to identify different microrelief elements.

de Lima, Joăo L. M. P.; Abrantes, Joăo R. C. B.

2013-04-01

140

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

141

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

142

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

143

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

144

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

145

An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

146

3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

147

Assessing patterns of senescence in Drosophila mojavensis reared on  

E-print Network

by alternative mortality models or by a single one with different parameter values? Organism: Drosophila, but not in cactus-reared flies. Models commonly used in Drosophila laboratory studies may be inadequate plateaus were reported in Ceratitis capitata and Drosophila melanogaster (Carey et al., 1992; Curtsinger et

Etges, William J.

148

Hand-rearing Roe deer Capreolus capreolus : practice and research potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four , Roe deer Capreolus capreolus were hand-reared and released into a 10 ha enclosed natural habitat. This paper describes the hand-rearing procedure, nutrition and development, which we compare with other documented cases. We illustrate the handling techniques that enabled us to maintain a close relationship with the hand-reared Roe deer in their adulthood and study them under semi- free-ranging

A. WALLACH; M. INBAR; R. LAMBERT; S. COHEN; U. SHANAS

2007-01-01

149

Insect thermotolerance comparing host infestation methods: Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared in grapefruit or diet.  

PubMed

Research on insect control should be conducted in a manner that mimics as closely as is feasible its commercial application in all of its practicably conceivable forms. When significant deviations from commercial application are used in research, the effect of the deviations on efficacy should be evaluated. Pest control techniques are sometimes based on research that used untested assumptions about variables that might affect efficacy. For example, some phytosanitary treatments are based on research done with diet-reared larvae inserted into holes bored in fruits, although the effect of this manipulation has not been evaluated. This research compares this type of infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), third instars with a more natural infestation technique whereby females were allowed to oviposit on picked grapefruit in laboratory cages and third instars were reared inside the fruit. Although the results did not show statistically significant differences between infestation techniques, tendencies in the data caution against researchers making assumptions about efficacy without testing them when experimental techniques stray from more natural situations for which the research is designed. PMID:25195425

Hallman, Guy J

2014-08-01

150

Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter- and circumstellar ices comprise different molecules accreted on cold dust particles. These icy dust grains provide a molecule reservoir where particles can interact and react. As the grain acts as a third body, capable of absorbing energy, icy surfaces in space have a catalytic effect. Chemical reactions are triggered by a number of possible processes; (i) irradiation by light, typically UV photons from the interstellar radiation field and Ly- ? radiation emitted by excited hydrogen, but also X-rays, (ii) bombardment by particles, free atoms (most noticeably hydrogen, but also N, C, O and D-atoms), electrons, low energy ions and cosmic rays, and (iii) thermal processing. All these effects cause ices to (photo)desorb, induce fragmentation or ionization in the ice, and eventual recombination will make molecules to react and to form more and more complex species. The effects of this solid state astrochemistry are observed by astronomers; nearly 180 different molecules (not including isotopologues) have been unambiguously identified in the inter- and circumstellar medium, and the abundances of a substantial part of these species cannot be explained by gas phase reaction schemes only and must involve solid state chemistry. Icy dust grains in space experience different chemical stages. In the diffuse medium grains are barely covered by molecules, but upon gravitational collapse and darkening of the cloud, temperatures drop and dust grains start acting as micrometer sized cryopumps. More and more species accrete, until even the most volatile species are frozen. In parallel (non)energetic processing can take place, particularly during planet and star formation when radiation and particle fluxes are intense. The physical and chemical properties of ice clearly provide a snapshotroot to characterize the cosmological chemical evolution. In order to fully interpret the astronomical observations, therefore, dedicated laboratory experiments are needed that simulate dust grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

2013-12-01

151

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, S.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

2000-01-01

152

Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, S.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

2000-01-01

153

Laboratory technique for the measurement of thermal-emission spectra of greenhouse gases: CFC-12.  

PubMed

A new technique has been developed to make possible the laboratory study of the infrared-emission spectra of gases of atmospheric interest. The thermal-emission spectra are in local thermodynamic equilibrium, just as they are in the atmosphere, and are not chemiluminescent. Demonstration results obtained by the use of this new technique are presented for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) at a pressure of 0.5 Torr in a cell with a path length of 5 cm. The measured cell spectra have been compared with simulations with the FASCD3P radiation code. The measurements of the emission spectra of radiatively active gases may be important for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming. PMID:21085268

Evans, W F; Puckrin, E

1996-03-20

154

Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR). The use of micro-XRD was necessary due to the poor results obtained with conventional XRD. In some cases, pigment identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques utilised in this study. PMID:20541637

Duran, A; Siguenza, M B; Franquelo, M L; Jimenez de Haro, M C; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

2010-06-25

155

A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

2012-01-01

156

SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

157

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

158

Effects of artificial rearing on contractile properties of genioglossus muscle in Sprague-Dawley rat.  

PubMed

Mammals suckle from a nipple during the early neonatal period to obtain nourishment. The genioglossus muscle helps position and move the tongue for efficient suckling. The purpose of this study was to examine the contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype of the genioglossus following an early period of artificial rearing, which reduced nutritive suckling. Beginning at 3 days of age, rats were fed via gastric cannula until postnatal day 14 (P14). At P14, artificially reared rat pups were either allowed to grow to postnatal day 42 (P42) or anaesthetised and prepared for experimentation. Comparisons were made between artificially reared and dam reared groups at P14 and P42. At P14 maximum tetanic tension and fatigue index were lower in the artificially reared group than the dam reared group. By P42, artificially reared rats had a higher fatigue index and lower percentage of MHCIIa than dam reared rats. The artificial rearing technique employed in this study was adequate to produce chronic changes in fatigue resistance and MHC distribution in genioglossus muscle of rat; the changes observed here may be similar to changes that occur in premature human infants requiring early artificial feedings. PMID:17045955

Moore, Wayne A; Goldberg, Stephen J; Shall, Mary S

2007-02-01

159

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared salmon. After release, hatchery-reared fish are inefficient foragers and are often found with empty stomachs or stomachs filled with indigestible debris (Miller 1953, Hochachka 1961, Reimers 1963, Sosiak et al. 1979, Myers 1980, O'Grady 1983, Johnsen and Ugedal 1986). Their social behavior also differs, with hatchery-reared fish congregating at higher densities, being more aggressive, and displaying less territory fidelity than wild-reared fish (Fenderson et al. 1968, Bachman 1984, Swain and Riddell 1990). In the natural environment this results in hatchery-reared fish spending more time in high-risk aggressive behavior and less time in beneficial foraging behavior than their wild-reared counterparts. Hatchery-reared fish are also more surface oriented than wild-reared salmonids (Mason et al. 1967, Sosiak 1978). This increases their risk of being attacked by avian predators, such as kingfishers (Ceryle spp.), which search for fish near the surface. Although some of the differences between wild and hatchery-reared fish are innate (Reisenbichler and McIntyre 1977, Swain and Riddell 1990), many are conditioned and can be modified by altering the hatchery rearing environment. NATURES studies are aimed at developing a more natural salmon culture environment to prevent the development of these unnatural attributes in hatchery-reared fish. NATURES fish culture practices are already producing salmon with up to about 50% higher in-stream survival than conventionally-reared fish (Maynard et al. 1996b). When these techniques are incorporated into production releases, they should also translate into increased smolt-to-adult survival. Conservation and supplementation programs can use NATURES-reared salmonids to rebuild stocks currently listed as endangered and threatened into healthy self-sustaining runs more rapidly than traditional programs. Traditional production programs can also use high-survival NATURES-reared fish to reduce their impact on wild populations, while still meeting their adult mitigation goals.

Maynard, Desmond J.

2003-02-25

160

Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population

Christine Künzl; Sylvia Kaiser; Edda Meier; Norbert Sachser

2003-01-01

161

Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease. PMID:24569613

Cai, H Y; Caswell, J L; Prescott, J F

2014-03-01

162

Radiation Detection Laboratory The Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Lab is used to explore novel techniques for radiation  

E-print Network

NERS Radiation Detection Laboratory The Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Lab is used to explore novel techniques for radiation detection and characterization for nuclear nonproliferation); Development of TlBr wide band-gap semiconductor detectors (Radiation Monitoring Devices and DNDO of DHS

Kamat, Vineet R.

163

Drug Monitoring Techniques for the Biological Chemistry Laboratory: Determination of Drug Concentrations by Chromatographic and Immunochemical Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a series of experiments that integrate analytical techniques in order that students are able to compare, based on their laboratory results, the relative reliabilities of the most common therapeutic drug monitoring methods. Discusses materials, procedures, and results of three experiments on the determination of drug concentration by…

Corkill, Jeffrey A.

1988-01-01

164

Teaching laboratory rodent research techniques under the tenets of situated learning improves student confidence and promotes collaboration.  

PubMed

A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers' needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the 'tools at hand' (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

2014-07-01

165

Experimental evaluation of common spacecraft data analysis techniques for reconnection region analysis in a laboratory plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory plasma is utilized to assess the effectiveness of several prominent spacecraft data analysis techniques. These include minimum variance analysis on the magnetic field (MVAB) and various boundary-crossing time analyses (BCTA) such as the constant velocity approach (CVA), constant thickness approach (CTA), and minimum thickness variance (MTV). Magnetic field data from measurement points that resemble the formation of multispacecraft flying though a reconnecting current sheet is used to check MVAB and BCTA to deduce a proper normal vector. Results from each method are compared to the values measured by 2-D magnetic probe arrays. We examine discharges with a two-dimensional (2-D) X-line structure as well as cases in which a flux rope forms within the layer. All discharges are in a two-fluid regime in which electrons are magnetized but ions are not. We conclude that CVA with four sample measurement points forming a tetrahedron generates a reasonable unit normal vector

Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki

2012-12-01

166

Small Vertical Raceways for Rearing Juvenile Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a micro-vertical raceway, a small floating container, for rearing small populations of fish. The container is a 170.6-L polyethylene drum fitted to a controlled water supply. An array of these containers was used to rear juvenile salmon simultaneously in 60 groups (200 fish each) to 6.0-g size. We compared growth rates of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared

Ron Heintz; John Joyce

1992-01-01

167

Photon collection enhancement by white rear cover reflection and the design of reference cells for module performance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of rear cover sheet reflection in solar modules on cell performance was investigated by shading and light beam-induced current techniques. It was found that the photon collection enhancement was caused by the light reflection on the white rear cover sheet (white Tedlar) and that 12-13 percent of the incident photons on the white rear cover sheet were guided to the cell by total internal reflection. Also, it was confirmed from the spectral response measurement that a single cell package without surrounding cells and white rear cover sheet could be used as a reference cell for the evaluation of solar module performance.

Shimokawa, R.; Hayashi, Y.; Nagamine, F.

1986-03-01

168

Laboratory instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi-junction solar cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-junction solar cells are attractive for space applications because they can be designed to convert a larger fraction of AMO into electrical power at a lower cost than single-junction cells. The performance of multi-junction cells is much more sensitive to the spectral irradiance of the illuminating source than single-junction cells. The design of high efficiency multi-junction cells for space applications requires matching the optoelectronic properties of the junctions to AMO spectral irradiance. Unlike single-junction cells, it is not possible to carry out quantum efficiency measurements using only a monochromatic probe beam and determining the cell short-circuit current assuming linearity of the quantum efficiency. Additionally, current-voltage characteristics can not be calculated from measurements under non-AMO light sources using spectral-correction methods. There are reports in the literature on characterizing the performance of multi junction cells by measuring and convoluting the quantum efficiency of each junction with the spectral irradiance; the technique is of limited value for the characterization of cell performance under AMO power-generating conditions. We report the results of research to develop instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi junction solar cells for space . An integrated system is described which consists of a standard lamp, spectral radiometer, dual-source solar simulator, and personal computer based current-voltage and quantum efficiency equipment. The spectral radiometer is calibrated regularly using the tungsten-halogen standard lamp which has a calibration based on NIST scales. The solar simulator produces the light bias beam for current-voltage and cell quantum efficiency measurements. The calibrated spectral radiometer is used to 'fit' the spectral irradiance of the dual-source solar simulator to WRL AMO data. The quantum efficiency apparatus includes a monochromatic probe beam for measuring the absolute cell quantum efficiency at various voltage biases, including the voltage bias corresponding to the maximum-power point under AMO light bias. The details of the procedures to 'fit' the spectral irradiance to AMO will be discussed. An assessment of the role of the accuracy of the 'fit' of the spectral irradiance and probe beam intensity on measured cell characteristics will be presented. quantum efficiencies were measured with both spectral light bias and AMO light bias; the measurements show striking differences. Spectral irradiances were convoluted with cell quantum efficiencies to calculate cell currents as function of voltage. The calculated currents compare with measured currents at the 1% level. Measurements on a variety of multi-junction cells will be presented. The dependence of defects in junctions on cell quantum efficiencies measured under light and voltage bias conditions will be presented. Comments will be made on issues related to standards for calibration, and limitations of the instrumentation and techniques. Expeditious development of multi-junction solar cell technology for space presents challenges for cell characterization in the laboratory.

Woodyard, James R.

1995-01-01

169

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF NO(SUB X) REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR REFINERY CO BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a laboratory test program to investigate NOx emissions from refinery CO boilers. The program had three major objectives: (1) to simulate in the laboratory a full-scale refinery CO boiler, (2) to investigate the effects of operational variables on NOx formatio...

170

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

171

Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings.  

PubMed

Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2013-07-01

172

Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings?  

PubMed Central

Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

2013-01-01

173

Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and introduces a…

Holden, George W.

174

Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

175

Rear-facing car seat (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

176

Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up  

SciTech Connect

The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry, along with other modern analytical approaches, to develop routine analytical methods that significantly curtail waste but still maintain acceptable analytical figures of merit and achieve cost savings through reduced reagent consumption and reduced labor cost.

Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

1996-07-01

177

"Audibilization" in the Chemistry Laboratory: An Introduction to Correlation Techniques for Data Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study describes the development and advantages of various correlation techniques that are used for data extraction and are integral to all modern instrumentation. The "Audibilization" of the electronic signals in such cases is found to be very essential for the technique.

Hovick, James W.; Murphy, Michael; Poler, J. C.

2007-01-01

178

Performance of marking techniques in the field and laboratory for Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A reliable marking technique was needed for a mark-release-recapture experiment with adults of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar). Four marking techniques, acrylic paint (spattered or brushed on the surface of the insect); and fluorescent pigments (dusted on surfaces or mixed with diet to produce an inges...

179

Mass rearing of temperature sensitive genetic sexing strains in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata).  

PubMed

Genetic sexing strains (GSS) based on the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation are being used to produce sterile male medflies for large scale sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes for this pest. The use of male-only strains increases the overall efficiency of the technique. Currently more than 1.4 billion sterile male-only pupae are produced per week in different facilities around the world. Due to the mutations used to construct these strains, that is, translocations and selectable markers, they require different and more careful mass rearing procedures than do bisexual strains (BSS). The basic rearing technology has been developed and can be used to produce only males on a predictable basis to a level of 99.9% accuracy. If specific rearing procedures are followed, then tsl-based GSS has a rearing efficiency that is equal to that of a BSS and it is already know that males produced by the tsl-based GSS are of equal quality to males produced by BSS. Based on current rearing technology the cost of production of male pupae is about the same for both types of strain. This is due to the large colony that is required for the tsl-based GSS. This paper discusses the considerations that need to be taken into account during mass rearing of GSS and identifies the most efficient production processes that are currently available. PMID:12484530

Caceres, C

2002-09-01

180

Response of Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to its Natural Host After Ten Generations of Rearing on a Factitious Host, Callosobrucus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catolaccus grandis (Burks), an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandis (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was reared in laboratory conditions on the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), as a factitious host to reduce costs on a mass propagation system. Total fecundity, daily oviposition, net reproductive rate, and sex ratio were evaluated and compared among females reared on A. grandis and

M. G. ROJAS; J. A. MORALES-RAMOS; E. G. KING

181

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01

182

Characterization of pyrocarbon coated materials using laboratory based x-ray phase contrast imaging technique  

SciTech Connect

In-line x-ray phase contrast is an emerging x-ray imaging technique that promises to improve the contrast in x-ray imaging process. This technique is most suited for x-ray imaging of soft materials, low atomic number elements such as carbon composite fibers, very thin coatings, etc. We have used this new emerging technique for visualization and characterization of the pyrocarbon coated materials using a combination of microfocus x-ray source and x-ray charge coupled device detector. These studies are important for characterization of coating and optimization of various process parameters during deposition. These experiments will help us to exploit the potential of this technique for studies in other areas of material science such as characterization of carbon fibered structures and detection of cracks and flaws in materials. The characterization of the imaging system and optimization of some process parameters for carbon deposition are also described in detail.

Kashyap, Y. S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P. S.; Yadav, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar; Dasgupta, K.; Sathiyamoorthy, D. [Laser and Neutron Physics Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2007-08-15

183

Characterization of pyrocarbon coated materials using laboratory based x-ray phase contrast imaging technique.  

PubMed

In-line x-ray phase contrast is an emerging x-ray imaging technique that promises to improve the contrast in x-ray imaging process. This technique is most suited for x-ray imaging of soft materials, low atomic number elements such as carbon composite fibers, very thin coatings, etc. We have used this new emerging technique for visualization and characterization of the pyrocarbon coated materials using a combination of microfocus x-ray source and x-ray charge coupled device detector. These studies are important for characterization of coating and optimization of various process parameters during deposition. These experiments will help us to exploit the potential of this technique for studies in other areas of material science such as characterization of carbon fibered structures and detection of cracks and flaws in materials. The characterization of the imaging system and optimization of some process parameters for carbon deposition are also described in detail. PMID:17764325

Kashyap, Y S; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P S; Yadav, P S; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar; Dasgupta, K; Sathiyamoorthy, D

2007-08-01

184

GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

1997-01-01

185

Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

1975-01-01

186

Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary

A. Duran; M. B. Siguenza; M. L. Franquelo; M. C. Jimenez de Haro; A. Justo; J. L. Perez-Rodriguez

2010-01-01

187

Rear-end collision warning system on account of a rear-end monitoring camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to establish a rear-end collision warning system for an advance safety vehicle (ASV) by using a mounted rear-end monitoring camera. The paper attempted to analyze the driving environmental data and built up the rear-end collision warning logic on account of image processing. The main idea of the warning system is to prevent accidents caused

Tang-Hsien Chang; Chen-Ju Chou

2009-01-01

188

Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable upscaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterise biogenic NO release from soil (i.e. net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterisation can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e. where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterise net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing airstream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of inlet/outlet NO mixing ratios are sufficient to derive all necessary quantities. Soil samples from drylands exhibit particularly low NO production, but even lower NO consumption rates. However, with the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system those low levels can be quantified, as well as corresponding NO compensation point mixing ratios and respective Q10 values. It could be shown that the NO compensation point mixing ratio seems to be generally independent of gravimetric soil moisture content, but, particularly for dryland soils, strongly dependent on soil temperature. New facilities have been included into the improved system (e.g. for investigation of net release rates of other trace gases, namely CO2 and volatile organic compounds - VOCs). First, results are shown for net release rates of acetone (C3H6O), acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and CO2. This new system is thus able to simultaneously investigate potential mechanistic links between NO, multitudinous VOC and CO2.

Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

2014-10-01

189

Laboratory procedures and data reduction techniques to determine rheologic properties of mass flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining the rheologic properties of coarse- grained mass flows is an important step to mathematically simulate potential inundation zones. Using the vertically rotating flume designed and built by the U.S. Geological Survey, laboratory procedures and subsequent data reduction have been developed to estimate shear stresses and strain rates of various flow materials. Although direct measurement of shear stress and strain rate currently (1992) are not possible in the vertically rotating flume, methods were derived to estimate these values from measurements of flow geometry, surface velocity, and flume velocity.

Holmes, R.R., Jr.; Huizinga, R.J.; Brown, S.M.; Jobson, H.E.

1993-01-01

190

Rearing optimization of two races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda feeding natural host plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two ecological races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda were raised under laboratory conditions feeding on natural host plants (corn and bermuda grass). Three rearing containers were used: a plastic container and a vertical cylinder to test fitness when feeding gregariously, and individual ...

191

A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

192

AUTO-TUTORIAL AND MOBILE-TUTORIAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES IN NURSING EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

USE OF AN AUTOTUTORIAL PROGRAM IN A MATHEMATICS UNIT FOR DELTA COLLEGE NURSING STUDENTS RESULTED IN FAVORABLE STUDENT REACTION AND A HIGHER PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESS THAN IN A GROUP TAUGHT BY CONVENTIONAL METHODS. THIS SUCCESS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF 8-MILLIMETER FILMS, ACCOMPANIED BY AUDIO EXPLANATIONS ON TAPE, FOR DEMONSTRATING NURSING TECHNIQUES

LANGE, CRYSTAL M.

193

ADAPTING WOODY SPECIES AND PLANTING TECHNIQUES TO LANDFILL CONDITIONS, FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine which tree species can best maintain themselves in a landfill environment; to investigate the feasibility of preventing landfill gas from penetrating the root zone of selected species by using gas-barrier techniques; and to identify the (those)...

194

A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

Leonard, Jack E.

1981-01-01

195

Pr´ ecis: Research on Techniques and Tools for Computer Security: The COAST Project and Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the COAST project is to establish a long-term research program exploring new approaches to computer security and computer system management. The principal focus will be on techniques and tools for common, non-trusted (in the DoD TCSEC, \\

Eugene H. Spafford

1998-01-01

196

A laboratory system for the investigation of rain fade compensation techniques for Ka-band satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a rain fade simulation/counteraction system on a laboratory simulated 30/20 GHz, time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite communications testbed is evaluated. Severe rain attenuation of electromagnetic radiation at 30/20 GHz occurs due to the carrier wavelength approaching the water droplet size. Rain in the downlink path lowers the signal power present at the receiver, resulting in a higher number of bit errors induced in the digital ground terminal. The laboratory simulation performed at NASA Lewis Research Center uses a programmable PIN diode attenuator to simulate 20 GHz satellite downlink geographic rain fade profiles. A computer based network control system monitors the downlink power and informs the network of any power threshold violations, which then prompts the network to issue commands that temporarily increase the gain of the satellite based traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier. After the rain subsides, the network returns the TWT to the normal energy conserving power mode. Bit error rate (BER) data taken at the receiving ground terminal serves as a measure of the severity of rain degradation, and also evaluates the extent to which the network can improve the faded channel.

Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

1993-01-01

197

Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ?  

PubMed Central

The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles. PMID:21239551

Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

2011-01-01

198

Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

Adams, Amy Lynn

2011-01-01

199

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01

200

Influence of Rearing Temperature and Feeding Regime on Otolith Increment Deposition in Larval Ciscoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi were reared in the laboratory from eggs collected in Lake Superior to validate the use of otolith microstructure for estimating age in days. Throughout a 75-d period, water temperatures in two laboratory streams were increased progressively (from 5.6°C to 7.0°C and from 6.1°C to 12.3°C), mimicking the range larvae would probably experience in Lake Superior. Otolith

Jason K. Oyadomari; Nancy N. Auer

2007-01-01

201

GENETIC PARAMETERS AND EVALUATION OF REAR LEGS (REAR VIEW) FOR BROWN SWISS AND GUERNSEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters for rear legs/rear view (RLRV) and 15 current linear type traits in Brown Swiss (BS) and Guernsey (GU) dairy cattle were estimated. The BS Association began scoring RLRV in 2004 and the American GU Association began in 2002. For BS, 7,522 records were available on 6,896 cows in 37...

202

Personality and Coping: A Study of Twins Reared Apart and Twins Reared Together  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for stress coping styles, age and gender differences, and the relationship between coping styles and personality traits were assessed in middle-aged and older adult twins reared apart and reared together, as part of the ongoing Swedish Adoption\\/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). The Billings and Moos Coping Measure was administered to 1339 individual

Kenji Kato; Nancy L. Pedersen

2005-01-01

203

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

204

Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

2014-04-01

205

Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (?XRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

2008-07-01

206

Laboratory and model simulations of a LNAPL spill in a variably-saturated sand, 1. Laboratory experiment and image analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional, multiphase flow experiment was conducted in the laboratory. The saturation distribution of a lighter than water non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) as it migrated through a variably-saturated sand medium was determined using image analysis techniques. The pressures in the water and LNAPL phases were measured using hydrophilic and hydrophobic porous cups connected to a series of pressure transducers and a data acquisition system. The LNAPL inflow and water outflow were also recorded. A series of capillary pressure-saturation experiments were conducted for each two-phase system. The capillary pressures recorded by the pressure transducers were used to calculate the pphase saturations based on a fully hysteretic capillary pressure-saturation algorithm. The static equilibrium capillary pressure-saturation relationships proved to be invalid immediately ahead of the LNAPL front. The capillary pressure-saturation relationship appeared to be dynamic for short periods of time as the LNAPL front arrived at each transducer location. The presence of an entrapped air phase as the LNAPL migrated through the unsaturated zone clearly affected the migration of the LNAPL and the maximum LNAPL saturation reached in the sand medium.

Van Geel, P. J.; Sykes, J. F.

1994-11-01

207

Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

2005-01-01

208

The Role of Socio-Communicative Rearing Environments on the Development of Social and Physical Cognition in Apes  

PubMed Central

The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5 year old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (E. Herrmann, J. Call, M. V. Hernandez-Lloreda, B. Hare, & M. Tomasello, 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5 year old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. PMID:22010903

Russell, J. L.; Lyn, H.; Schaeffer, J. A.; Hopkins, W. D.

2011-01-01

209

Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

Sullivan, P.

2003-02-24

210

Validation of a dual cycle ethylene oxide treatment technique to remove DNA from consumables used in forensic laboratories.  

PubMed

Validation of a dual cycle ethylene oxide (EO) approach to removing DNA contamination from consumables has been undertaken. The limits of the technique were investigated resulting in evidence that the DNA from up to 50microl of blood and saliva can be removed to a level where the consumable can be considered DNA free. DNA from semen was more resilient and some allelic peaks remained that would have prevented the consumable being classed as suitable for use in low template DNA analysis. No residual effect on consumables resulting in inhibition of subsequent DNA analysis was noted. However, if consumables had been previously treated with gamma or electron beam irradiation then slight inhibition of the downstream STR process was observed. Dual cycle EO treatment was effective at removing recoverable DNA from swabs and stain cards and consideration should be given to the suitability of EO treatment for use on critical consumables used in the forensic laboratory. PMID:20457053

Archer, Emily; Allen, Heather; Hopwood, Andy; Rowlands, Diane

2010-07-01

211

Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

Galatŕ, A.; Sattin, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Martini, D.; Facco, A.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Kulevoy, T.

2014-02-01

212

Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL).  

PubMed

The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed. PMID:24593508

Galatŕ, A; Sattin, M; Manzolaro, M; Martini, D; Facco, A; Tinschert, K; Spaedtke, P; Lang, R; Kulevoy, T

2014-02-01

213

Measurement of salivary cortisol in 2012 - laboratory techniques and clinical indications.  

PubMed

The utility of measuring salivary cortisol has become increasingly appreciated since the early 1980s. Salivary cortisol is a measure of active free cortisol and follows the diurnal rhythm of serum or plasma cortisol. The saliva sample may be collected by drooling or through the use of absorbent swabs which are placed into the mouth until saturated. Salivary cortisol is therefore convenient for patients and research participants to collect noninvasively on an outpatient basis. Several assay techniques have been used to measure salivary cortisol, including radioimmunoassay and more recently liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical sensitivity varies between these assay methods, as does the potential for cross-reactivity with other steroids. The interpretation of salivary cortisol levels relies on rigorous standardization of sampling equipment, sampling protocols and assay technology with establishment of a local reference range. Clinically, the commonest use for salivary cortisol is measuring late-night salivary cortisol as a screening test for Cushing's syndrome. Several studies have shown diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of over 90%, which compares very favourably with other screening tests for Cushing's syndrome such as the 24-h urinary-free cortisol and the 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test. There are emerging roles for the use of salivary cortisol in diagnosing adrenal insufficiency, particularly in conditions associated with low cortisol-binding globulin levels, and in the monitoring of glucocorticoid replacement. Finally, salivary cortisol has been used extensively as a biomarker of stress in a research setting, especially in studies examining psychological stress with repeated measurements. PMID:22812714

Inder, Warrick J; Dimeski, Goce; Russell, Anthony

2012-11-01

214

Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy. PMID:23569725

Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

2011-01-01

215

Host-size-dependent sex ratio theory and improving mass-reared parasitoid sex ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although an effective parasitoid of agromyzid leafminers, Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an expensive biological control agent in terms of production costs. In part, these costs arise from the production of male-biased offspring sex ratios. Here, we present a mass-rearing technique that will increase the proportion of females produced and reduce the need for frequent releases in biocontrol programs.

Paul J. Ode; Kevin M. Heinz

2002-01-01

216

Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

217

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N =

Venditti; David A

2003-01-01

218

An experimental comparison of laboratory techniques in determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rocks; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Samples of tuffaceous rock were studied as part of the site characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. These efforts were scoping in nature, and their results, along with those of other investigations, are being used to develop suitable procedures for determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rock in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations. Comparisons were made between various sample preparation, handling, and measurement techniques for both zeolitized and nonzeolitized tuff in order to assess their effects on bulk property determinations. Laboratory tests included extensive drying regimes to evaluate dehydration behavior, the acquisition of data derived from both gas and water pycnometers to compare their suitability in determining grain densities, a comparison of particle size effects, and a set of experiments to evaluate whole core saturation methods. The results affirm the added complexity of these types of measurements where there is a zeolite component in the sample mineralogy. Absolute values for the bulk properties of zeolitized tuff are immeasurable due to the complex nature of their dehydration behavior. However, the results of the techniques that were investigated provide a basis for the development of preferred, consistent methods for determining the grain density, dry and saturated bulk densities, and porosity of tuffaceous rock, including zeolitic tuff in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations.

Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J. III [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). YMP Performance Assessment Applications Dept.

1994-04-01

219

4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND SWITCH RACK AT RIGHT REAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

220

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

221

Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

222

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

223

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

224

Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly ?-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A ?-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

Misra, N. L.

2014-11-01

225

Rear wheel suspension and steering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a rear wheel support and driving system. The system comprises a rack-type dead axle adapted to support a vehicle body thereupon through suitable spring means, a pair of wheels rotatably supported upon the dead axle, a differential drive mechanism adapted to be supported upon the vehicle body movable with the body relative to the

Ewen

1990-01-01

226

Information Processing Abilities in Twins Reared Apart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A battery of information processing measures and psychometric tests of specific and general cognitive abilities was administered to 34 monozygotic and 13 dizygotic reared apart twin pairs or triplets. Correlations between information processing parameters and psychometric abilities as well as twin resemblances for the information processing…

McGue, Matt; And Others

1984-01-01

227

Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

228

Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Laboratory and zoo housed non-human primates sometimes exhibit abnormal behaviors that are thought to reflect reduced wellbeing. Previous research attempted to identify risk factors to aid in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors, and focused on demographic (e.g. sex or age) and experience-related (e.g. single housing or nursery rearing) factors. However, not all animals that display abnormal behavior possess these risk factors and some individuals that possess a risk factor do not show behavioral abnormalities. We hypothesized that other aspects of early experience and individual characteristics might identify animals that were more likely to display one specific abnormal behavior, motor stereotypy (MS). Using logistic regression we explored the influence of early rearing (involving four different types of rearing conditions), and variation in temperament, on likelihood of displaying MS while controlling for previously identified risk factors. Analyses indicated that having a greater proportion of life lived indoors, a greater proportion of life-indoors singly-housed, and a greater number of anesthesias and blood draws significantly increased the risk of displaying MS (P < 0.001). Rearing condition failed to independently predict the display of MS; however significant interactions indicated that single housing had a greater impact on risk for indoor-reared animals versus outdoor-reared animals, and for indoor mother-reared animals versus nursery-reared animals. There were no main effects of temperament, although interactions with rearing were evident: scoring high on Gentle or Nervous was a risk factor for indoor-reared animals but not outdoor-reared animals. The final model accounted for approximately 69.3 % of the variance in the display of MS, and correctly classified 90.6% of animals. These results indicate that previously identified risk factors may impact animals differently depending on the individual’s early rearing condition. These results are also the first in non-human primates to demonstrate that individual difference factors, like temperament, could be additional tools to identify animals at highest risk for motor stereotypy. PMID:21537494

Vandeleest, Jessica J.; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John P.

2011-01-01

229

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2014-10-01

230

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2011-10-01

231

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2012-10-01

232

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2013-10-01

233

49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80...and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck...tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

2010-10-01

234

Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.  

PubMed

A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

2014-06-01

235

Evaluating high-throughput ab initio gene finders to discover proteins encoded in eukaryotic pathogen genomes missed by laboratory techniques.  

PubMed

Next generation sequencing technology is advancing genome sequencing at an unprecedented level. By unravelling the code within a pathogen's genome, every possible protein (prior to post-translational modifications) can theoretically be discovered, irrespective of life cycle stages and environmental stimuli. Now more than ever there is a great need for high-throughput ab initio gene finding. Ab initio gene finders use statistical models to predict genes and their exon-intron structures from the genome sequence alone. This paper evaluates whether existing ab initio gene finders can effectively predict genes to deduce proteins that have presently missed capture by laboratory techniques. An aim here is to identify possible patterns of prediction inaccuracies for gene finders as a whole irrespective of the target pathogen. All currently available ab initio gene finders are considered in the evaluation but only four fulfil high-throughput capability: AUGUSTUS, GeneMark_hmm, GlimmerHMM, and SNAP. These gene finders require training data specific to a target pathogen and consequently the evaluation results are inextricably linked to the availability and quality of the data. The pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, is used to illustrate the evaluation methods. The results support current opinion that predicted exons by ab initio gene finders are inaccurate in the absence of experimental evidence. However, the results reveal some patterns of inaccuracy that are common to all gene finders and these inaccuracies may provide a focus area for future gene finder developers. PMID:23226328

Goodswen, Stephen J; Kennedy, Paul J; Ellis, John T

2012-01-01

236

Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

1996-08-01

237

Responses of artificially reared cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835) to different mammalian bloods.  

PubMed

The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche, 1835) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), which is found worldwide and which parasitizes many species of wild and domestic animal, is a vector and/or reservoir of bacteria, protozoa and helminths. To aid in the study of the physiology and behaviour of fleas and of their transmission of pathogens, it would be of value to improve the laboratory rearing of pathogen-free fleas. The conditions under which artificially reared fleas at the University of Bristol (U.K.) and the Rickettsial Diseases Institute (France) are maintained were studied, with different ratios of male to female fleas per chamber (25?:?50, 50?:?100, 100?:?100, 200?:?200). The fleas were fed with bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine or human blood containing the anticoagulants sodium citrate or EDTA. Egg production was highest when fleas were kept in chambers with a ratio of 25 males to 100 females. In addition, the use of EDTA as an anticoagulant rather than sodium citrate resulted in a large increase in the number of eggs produced per female; however, the low percentage of eggs developing through to adult fleas was lower with EDTA. The modifications described in our rearing methods will improve the rearing of cat fleas for research. PMID:25604709

Kernif, T; Stafford, K; Coles, G C; Bitam, I; Papa, K; Chiaroni, J; Raoult, D; Parola, P

2015-06-01

238

Effects of temperature and lipid droplet adherence on mortality of hatchery-reared southern hake Merluccius australis larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of exogenous (water temperature) and endogenous (lipid droplet adherence) factors were experimentally tested on early survival of southern hake Merluccius australis reared under controlled conditions. Experiments to determine the effect of temperature (10, 12 and 14 °C) on larval growth rates and yolk-sac absorption rates of unfed southern hake were carried out under laboratory conditions. There was no significant differences

Claudia A. Bustos; Mauricio F. Landaeta; Enrique Bay-Schmith; Rodrigo Lewis; Ximena Moraga

2007-01-01

239

Improvements in rearing method for Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), considering sex allocation and sex determination theories used for Hymenoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved rearing method for the larval endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator was developed in the laboratory considering the single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) theory as well as other factors affecting sex ratio: (1) use of the preferred host of the parasitoid in nature; (2) appropriate host size (large enough to favor female development); (3) appropriate parasitoid age (experienced in parasitization);

Marcela Inés Schneider; Elisa Vińuela

2007-01-01

240

Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

241

Histological study of the effects of starvation on reared and wild-caught larval stone flounder, Kareius bicoloratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starvation tolerance of laboratory-reared larval stone flounder, Kareius bicoloratus, was examined at different temperatures and salinities during the winters of 1984, 1985 and 1986. Starvation tolerance decreased with increased temperature and exhibited low values with high salinities. The highest starvation tolerance observed at low salinity was just before the metamorphosis stage. Starvation tolerance showed little change until larvae were 11

Y. Oozeki; T. Ishii; R. Hirano

1989-01-01

242

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

2007-01-01

243

Hatchery-reared fish have less consistent behavioral pattern compared to wild individuals, exemplified by red tilefish studied using video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of wild and hatchery-reared red tilefish Branchiostegus japonicus was analyzed using two different methods: video observation and acoustic telemetry tracking. In the laboratory, digging and\\u000a swimming activity of seven wild and five hatchery-reared fish were recorded for 2–4 days in an experimental aquarium and related\\u000a to changes in light intensity. The activity of wild individuals increased with light intensity,

Takashi Yokota; Reiji Masuda; Nobuaki Arai; Hiromichi Mitamura; Yasushi Mitsunaga; Hiroyuki Takeuchi; Tatsuo Tsuzaki

244

Medial prefrontal cortex volume loss in rats with isolation rearing-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.  

PubMed

Rearing rats in isolation produces perturbations in behavior and brain neurochemistry suggested to resemble those of schizophrenia. In particular, isolation-reared rats display deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle that in humans are associated with disorders including schizophrenia and are interpreted as abnormalities in sensorimotor gating. The prefrontal cortex is considered important in the regulation of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and postmortem studies suggest that neuropil and total volume, but not total number of neurons, are decreased in this region of the brains of schizophrenic patients. In this study we used design-based stereological techniques to examine the brains of Lister Hooded rats, reared in isolation and which displayed prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle deficits, for changes in morphology compared with the brains of their socially-reared littermates. Pooled data from three batches of animals revealed a significant 7% volume loss of the medial prefrontal cortex of isolation-reared rats whereas neuron number in this region was unchanged. In contrast, volume and total neuron number were unaffected in the rostral caudate putamen. The robust reduction in prefrontal cortical volume observed in isolation-reared rats, in the absence of reductions in total neuron number, suggest that there is a loss of volume of the neuropil. These changes parallel those reported in schizophrenia patients and therefore support the construct validity of this model. PMID:16750891

Day-Wilson, K M; Jones, D N C; Southam, E; Cilia, J; Totterdell, S

2006-09-01

245

Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.  

PubMed

In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi-variable, method to compare the injury biomechanical data with actual accident cases. PMID:12724904

Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

2003-01-01

246

Combining impact sensor field and laboratory flume measurements with other techniques for studying fluvial bedload transport in steep mountain streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and rate of fluvial bedload transport are of central importance within sediment budget studies and in many applications in river science and engineering. During the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 detailed field measurements with portable impact sensors as a non-invasive technique for indirectly determining fluvial bedload transport intensity were conducted in two instrumented and supply-limited drainage basin systems (Erdalen and Břdalen) in the fjord landscape in western Norway. Additional field measurements with portable impact sensors were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in selected transport-limited fluvial systems in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. The collected impact sensor field data were calibrated with laboratory flume experiments. The data from the impact sensor field measurements in western Norway and the flume experiments were combined with field data from continuous discharge monitoring, repeated surveys of channel morphometry and sediment texture, particle tracer measurements, Helley-Smith samplings, underwater video filming and biofilm analyses. The combination of methods and techniques applied provides insights into the temporal variability and intensity of fluvial bedload transport in the selected mountain streams: (i) in the transport-limited systems with generally high bedload transport rates during high discharge and with bedload material moving in clusters over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (based on a 1 s measuring interval) provide the opportunity to detect the start and end of bedload transport, thus to identify discharge thresholds for sediment entrainment, and to roughly estimate the intensity and relative intensity of change of bedload transport during the measuring period; (ii) in the supply-limited systems with low bedload transport rates and bedload components moving separately (as single particles) over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (with a 1 s measuring interval) allow the detection of the start and end of transport of bedload components > 11.3 mm, thus the identification of discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles, the quantification of the number of particles > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period, the rough estimation of grain sizes of the particles moving separately over the impact sensor plates, and the calculation of the total mass of the bedload material > 11.3 mm moving over the impact sensor plates during the measuring period; (iii) when combined with other methods and techniques (Helley-Smith sampling, particle tracer measurements, biofilm analyses, underwater video filming) which provide information on the active bedload transport channel width, on discharge thresholds for possible entrainment of particles of different grain sizes, and on transport rates of bedload material < 11.3 mm, total rates of fluvial bedload transport, covering all given grain sizes of the bedload material, can be calculated for the supply-limited mountain streams with generally low bedload transport. The higher measured annual bedload yield in Břdalen (13.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) compared to Erdalen (2.6 t km- 2 yr- 1) reflects a higher level of slope-channel coupling in Břdalen than in Erdalen.

Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja

2014-08-01

247

Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

248

Rearing of flounder (Platichthys flesus) juveniles in semiextensive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-technology rearing system was implemented for rearing juvenile flounder for stock enhancement in a Danish fjord, the Limfjord. Each year during 1996–2002, between 13,000 and 153,000 juveniles were reared from the yolk-sac stage until metamorphosis in outdoor ponds relying on phyto- and zooplankton blooms as their main food source. In contrast to other similar systems, the blooms in this

Kirsten Engell-Sřrensen; Josianne G. Střttrup; Martin Holmstrup

2004-01-01

249

An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

2011-01-01

250

Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon  

PubMed Central

Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are capable of successful spawning, and can reproduce with wild-type fish from natural systems. PMID:25133780

Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

2014-01-01

251

7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

252

BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

253

GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

254

Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.  

PubMed

Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork. PMID:25276938

Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

2014-09-01

255

Fitness and field performance of a mass-reared biological control agent, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, has been mass reared with no infusion of new genetic material for 8-9 yr (at least 24-36 generations), while insects from the same genetic stock have been subject to field conditions in North America for that same period of time. Our main objective was to compare the laboratory population with the field population (and in 1 yr with a Chinese field population) to determine whether genetic changes had occurred, especially ones that may reduce the effectiveness of the laboratory population when released in the field. The laboratory insects laid more eggs and had reduced survival compared with field weevils in several comparisons, and had reduced responsiveness to cues that induce reproductive diapause. Exposure to older plants had the greatest effect on induction of reproductive diapause in both laboratory and field weevils, with effects of daylength and temperature less pronounced. At least a portion of the laboratory weevil population overwintered successfully. Results suggest that it is not necessary to add wild-type genetic material to the rearing colony at this time. PMID:25182614

Hough-Goldstein, J; Stout, A R; Schoenstein, J A

2014-08-01

256

Behavioural responses of hatchery-reared and wild cod Gadus morhua to mechano-acoustic predator signals.  

PubMed

The behavioural responses of wild (predator-experienced) and hatchery-reared (predator-naive) cod Gadus morhua to standardized mechano-acoustic (MA) stimuli were compared in the laboratory. Wild fish responded mainly with freezing and fast-start escapes away from the stimulus, whereas hatchery-reared fish often ignored or approached the stimulus. Wild fish also had stronger responses, turning faster during escapes and reducing activity immediately after the stimulus. Both fish types were less active on a 'risky' bare substratum after the stimulus. The antipredator responses of wild fish were consistent to repeated stimuli, whereas hatchery-reared fish that had generally only encountered harmless stimuli showed more variable responses with lower repeatability. This suggests that experience plays a role in shaping the behavioural response of fishes to MA stimuli. PMID:21539552

Meager, J J; Rodewald, P; Domenici, P; Fernö, A; Järvi, T; Skjaeraasen, J E; Sverdrup, G K

2011-05-01

257

Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Olsen, G.H.; Hereford, S.G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

2001-01-01

258

The Fundamentals of Flying: Simple and Inexpensive Strategies for Employing Drosophila Genetics in Neuroscience Teaching Laboratories  

PubMed Central

Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories. PMID:23493248

Pulver, Stefan R.; Berni, Jimena

2012-01-01

259

Perceived parental rearing practices and styles of coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the relation between parental rearing practices and coping dispositions, 75 females and 65 males completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the COPE, a measure of general coping dispositions. Those who reported their parents had an authoritative rearing style (warmth and nurturance coupled with close monitoring and age-appropriate demandingness) used more social support and

Julie Guay McIntyre; Jerome B. Dusek

1995-01-01

260

Perceived Parental Rearing Practices and Styles of Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the relationship between parental rearing practices and coping dispositions, 75 female and 65 male college freshmen completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the COPE instrument. Findings support the indirect influence of rearing style on coping dispositions through their impact on feelings of competence and…

McIntyre, Julie Guay; Dusek, Jerome B.

1995-01-01

261

DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE. CONTROL STATION AT LEFT REAR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE. CONTROL STATION AT LEFT REAR. UPSTREAM LOCK GATE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING WEST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

262

INTRODUCTION In birds, the quality of rearing conditions is a  

E-print Network

-TERM FITNESS CORRELATES OF REARING CONDITIONS IN BARN OWLS TYTO ALBA ALEXANDRE ROULIN Roulin A. 2002. Short- and long-term fitness correlates of rearing condi- tions in Barn Owls Tyto alba. Ardea 90(2): 259-267. During a 12-year study of the Barn Owl Tyto alba I investigated the short- and long-term fitness

Alvarez, Nadir

263

A Comparative Study of Synanon and Home Reared Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study comparing the development of children reared in a communal environment with that of children from upper-middle-class home environments. Variables considered were cognitive development and academic achievement. Subjects consisted of 39 children, 2 1/2 to 6 1/2 years of age, reared communally from birth, and 39…

Burke, Linda

264

Control of motorcycles by variable geometry rear suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cornering weave oscillations associated with high performance motorcycles operating at high speeds, can be reduced by controlling the geometry of the rear suspension. A conventional monoshock rear suspension arrangement is modified and extended in a way that variations of the leverage ratio between the spring damper unit and road wheel are possible by an actuator. The actuator varies the geometry

Simos A. Evangelou

2010-01-01

265

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

266

Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs - and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance. PMID:19917074

Benedict, Mark Q; Knols, Bart GJ; Bossin, Hervé C; Howell, Paul I; Mialhe, Eric; Caceres, Carlos; Robinson, Alan S

2009-01-01

267

COLONY MAINTENANCE AND MASS-REARING: USING COLD STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Implementation of area-wide pest control programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is fundamentally dependant on the ability to rear large numbers of insects and to precisely release them oftentimes at some distance from the production site. This process of producing purely biological age...

268

THE USE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT TRAINING TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE THE CARE, MANAGEMENT, AND WELFARE OF LABORATORY PRIMATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals in a laboratory setting have unique needs. They are handled frequently and subjected to a wide range of medical procedures that may be particularly invasive. To produce the most reliable research results and to protect and enhance the well-being of the animals, it is desirable to perform these procedures with as little stress for the animals as possible. Positive

Gail E. Laule; Mollie A. Bloomsmith; Steven J. Schapiro

269

Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

Tulviste, Tiia

2011-01-01

270

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

271

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

272

Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory  

SciTech Connect

We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup ?6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Degering, Detlev [Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e. V. (VKTA), D-01314 Dresden (Germany)] [Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e. V. (VKTA), D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Technische Universität Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Universität Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

2013-08-08

273

Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a 228Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed 228Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10-6. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of 3He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

Zimbal, Andreas; Degering, Detlev; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Zuber, Kai

2013-08-01

274

Lean Management and Six-Sigma yield big gains in hospital's immediate response laboratory. Quality improvement techniques save more than $400,000.  

PubMed

DSI Laboratories has used Lean and Six-Sigma methodologies to systematically eliminate waste and reduce variation in its hospital clinical laboratory. The net result was a savings of more than $400,000 in the first year. After mapping its process, the laboratory found that phlebotomists were submitting samples in large batches, which created an early-morning flood of specimens. Switching to single-piece workflow and distributing the workload more evenly allowed DSI to cover the same number of patients with two to three phlebotomists instead of 12. By establishing a more efficient workflow process within the laboratory, a single technologist could quickly move between stations and perform those tests that made up 80% of the work volume. New inventory management techniques reduced both excess inventory and the risk of shortages. Cost savings for the first year were: Reduced overtime spending by 60% ($78,000), Reassigned six phlebotomists for an annual savings of $160,000, 4.5 fewer technologist positions for a savings of $250,000. PMID:15493100

Sunyog, Martha

2004-01-01

275

Hand?rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.  

PubMed

Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range. PMID:24753001

Kenow, Kevin P; Meier, Melissa S; McColl, Laurie E; Hines, Randy K; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

2014-01-01

276

Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

2014-01-01

277

Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands  

SciTech Connect

The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el campo. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de la domesticacion en el laboratorio fue evaluado. Tres poblaciones naturales, una poblacion semi-natural y una poblacion criada en masa fueron evaluadas: las poblaciones natural de (1) Isla de Madeira (costa norte), (2) Isla de Madeira (costa sur) y (3) Isla de Porto Santo; (4) una poblacion semi-natural despues de 7 a 10 generaciones de domesticacion en el laboratorio (respectivamente, para el primero y segundo experimento); y (5) la raza para separar sexos geneticamente que es usada en el laboratorio de la mosca mediterranea de Madeira (VIENNA 7mix2000). Los experimentos usando jaulas en el campo mostraron que las poblaciones de diferentes origines fueron en su mayor parte compatibles. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad para competir sexualmente entre las poblaciones naturales. Los machos semi-naturales y los machos criados en masa mostraron un desempeno significativamente bajo en ambos experimentos que los machos naturales en el logro de copula con las hembras naturales. Este estudio indica que no hay un aislamiento significativo entre las razas probadas, aunque el desempeno en el apareamiento fue reducido en las moscas criadas en masa y semi-naturales despues de 7 a 10 generaciones en el laboratorio. (author)

Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L. [Programa Madeira-Med, Estrada Eng. Abel Vieira 262, 9135-260 Camacha, Madeira (Portugal)

2007-03-15

278

Life history of Milnesium tardigradum Doyčre (tardigrada) under a rearing environment.  

PubMed

A strain of carnivorous tardigrade, Milnesium tardigradum, was reared in water on agar plates at 25 degrees C. The monogonont rotifer Lecane inermis was presented as a food source. This rearing system permitted detailed observation of tardigrade behaviour. Daily measurements of body length allowed the growth rate and moulting cycle of this species to be determined. The life history of M. tardigradum raised under these conditions included up to seven periods of moult. The first and second moults occurred at intervals of 4-5 days, and individuals reached reproductive maturity at the 3rd-instar stage; the first period of egg laying accompanied the third moult. The most rapidly developing animal in the study population laid eggs 12 days after hatching. The egg-laying intervals or moulting intervals of adult animals were around 6-10 days. The mean clutch size was 6.9 eggs. All tardigrades in this laboratory population were female and reproduced by parthenogenesis. The duration of the embryonic stage ranged from 5-16 days. The most long-lived female survived for 58 days after hatching, and laid a total of 41 eggs in 5 separate clutches. The entire life cycle of tardigrades reared under these conditions was recorded and photographed. A brief description of the embryonic development of M. tardigradum was also reported. PMID:12560601

Suzuki, Atsushi C

2003-01-01

279

Control of the straw itch mite (Acari: Pyemotidae) with sulfur in an insect rearing facility.  

PubMed

The ectoparasitic mite Pyemotes tritici (Lagrčze-Fossat & Montané) (Acari: Pyemotidae) caused paralysis and reduced longevity in eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha semipunctata F., under laboratory rearing conditions. Application of dusting sulfur to logs that contained pupating borers greatly reduced densities of mites on emerging adult beetles and increased beetle survivorship. Uniform application to all logs in a glasshouse effectively eradicated the mite infestation. A bioassay showed that sulfur may physically impede the dispersal of immature mites by adhering to the cuticle, but sulfur vapor did not act as a toxin. PMID:1619104

Hanks, L M; McCelfresh, J S; Millar, J G; Paine, T D

1992-06-01

280

Color-specificity to enhance identification of rear lights.  

PubMed

30 male and 13 female licensed drivers were given a static reaction-time test for Donders Type B reactions to the onset of automotive rear lights. The lights were displayed as by conventional systems and by a new color-specific method referred to as the "Red Light Means Stop approach." When subjects were instructed to regard all red colored light as brake-signal light, both incidence of identification error and reaction time decreased. Results support the hypothesis that addition of color specificity to rear lighting might prevent some rear-end collisions which occur under adverse driving circumstances. PMID:7567393

Cameron, D L

1995-06-01

281

Efficiency of Fine-Needle Aspiration Compared with Other Sampling Techniques for Laboratory Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer Disease ?  

PubMed Central

In accordance with recent WHO recommendations, this study evaluates the sensitivities of PCR and microscopy for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) versus techniques involving swabs and punch biopsy specimens and suggests that FNA can replace punch biopsies for nonulcerative lesions and may serve as an alternative for ulcerative lesions in cases where scarred edges prevent the collection of swabs. PMID:20739480

Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Beissner, Marcus; Huber, Kristina; Awua-Boateng, Nana-Yaa; Nitschke, Jörg; Thompson, William; Klutse, Erasmus; Agbenorku, Pius; Assiobo, Awovi; Piten, Ebekalisai; Wiedemann, Franz; Fleischmann, Erna; Helfrich, Kerstin; Adjei, Ohene; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela

2010-01-01

282

Locally contacted rear surface passivated solar cells by inkjet printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inkjet printing of photoresist material may provide a new route for low-cost fabrication of patterned oxide passivation layer of solar cells that require fine patterning and simple process. However, printing by liquid-based, environmentally friendly ink and printing device required development efforts aimed at achieving a fine patterning and long used inkjet nozzles under corrosive influence. This work was demonstrated a concept for grooved silicon oxide patterning for rear localized contact of p-n junction solar cells by chemical etching after photoresist patterning obtained. This article reviews the silicon dioxide fabrication on p-Si substrate from sol-gel technique for oxide passivation layer of solar cells. The aluminium was deposited on the patterned oxide layer and then heated at its Al-Si eutectic temperature. Finally, an aluminium-induced solid-phase epitaxial growth of p+ forming into the openings of the oxide passivation layer was presented. The sheet resistance of n-emitter layer, carrier life-time and surface recombination velocity values are investigated. Photoconductive measurements were performed on the prepared samples after each thermal process to measure the effective lifetime of the minority carriers. Carrier lifetime up to 60 microseconds has been measured on c-Si wafer passivated by the opened SiO2 layer. It was shown that the patterned SiO2 passivation has obtained high passivation quality making by the proposed inkjet printing method.

Phiwpha, N.; Fangsuwannarak, T.; Sopitpan, S.

2014-06-01

283

Inbreeding avoidance or tolerance? Comparison of mating behavior between mass-reared and wild strains of the sweet potato weevil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadvertent selection is an important genetic process that frequently occurs during laboratory culture. The mass-reared strain\\u000a of the sweet potato weevil Cylas formicarius exhibits stronger inbreeding depression than the wild strain does. When inbreeding depression occurs in a population, mating\\u000a with a close relative is often considered maladaptive; however, in some contexts, the inclusive fitness benefits of inbreeding\\u000a may outweigh

Takashi Kuriwada; Norikuni Kumano; Keiko Shiromoto; Dai Haraguchi

2011-01-01

284

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

285

Oblique view of south and west (rear) sides, camera facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of south and west (rear) sides, camera facing northeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 4, Naval Station Treasure Island, 4 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

286

Oblique view of north and west (rear) sides, camera facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of north and west (rear) sides, camera facing southeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 4, Naval Station Treasure Island, 4 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

287

Interior, view of reception hall and rear entry doors, camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, view of reception hall and rear entry doors, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 1, Naval Station Treasure Island, 1 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

288

Oblique view of the east (rear) and south sides, camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of the east (rear) and south sides, camera facing northeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 6, Naval Station Treasure Island, 6 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

289

View of two story bay, showing rear entrance, camera facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of two story bay, showing rear entrance, camera facing northeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 1, Naval Station Treasure Island, 1 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

290

View of west (rear) side, showing two story bay, camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of west (rear) side, showing two story bay, camera facing east - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 1, Naval Station Treasure Island, 1 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

291

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

292

3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

293

11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REAR VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

294

11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

295

2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

296

PERSPECTIVE FROM REAR OF BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CONNECTING COVERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE FROM REAR OF BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CONNECTING COVERED WALKWAYS FROM ADJACENT BUILDINGS - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 33, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

297

9. Photocopy of September 29, 1914 photograph showing a rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of September 29, 1914 photograph showing a rear view of the freight station, courtesy of Philadelphia City Archives, City Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad, Freight Station, Fifteenth & Carpenter Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

298

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

299

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

300

View of rear bay in main first floor entry room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear bay in main first floor entry room with fireplace and wainscot detailing. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters I-T, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tenth & Walnut Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

301

4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

302

5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

303

5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

304

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

305

6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

306

5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

307

SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

308

WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

309

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

310

19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

311

4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE TRASH RACKS BELOW. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

312

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear...8.7 (knots), where W/S=wing loading at design maximum takeoff...aerodynamic data for the particular wing section used, or a value of...

2013-01-01

313

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear...8.7 (knots), where W/S=wing loading at design maximum takeoff...aerodynamic data for the particular wing section used, or a value of...

2011-01-01

314

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear...8.7 (knots), where W/S=wing loading at design maximum takeoff...aerodynamic data for the particular wing section used, or a value of...

2014-01-01

315

14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear...8.7 (knots), where W/S=wing loading at design maximum takeoff...aerodynamic data for the particular wing section used, or a value of...

2012-01-01

316

Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

NONE

1996-12-01

317

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

318

26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

319

NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

320

3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

321

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

322

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

323

6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. View to east. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

324

4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) elevation. View to south. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

325

5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

326

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

327

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

328

13. TYPE F, BUILDING #516730732 PEARSON ROAD, SOUTH REAR, SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. TYPE F, BUILDING #516-730-732 PEARSON ROAD, SOUTH REAR, SOUTHWEST CORNER, ROOF AND WALL DETAIL. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Brick Officers' Quarters, Types E & F, Area A, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

329

7. BUILDING 324, REAR YARD AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. BUILDING 324, REAR YARD AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET NORTHWEST OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF NORTH WING, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

330

4. BUILDING 324, REAR YARD AREA, FROM NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. BUILDING 324, REAR YARD AREA, FROM NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 323, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

331

7. West rear and south side of building. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. West rear and south side of building. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

332

6. West rear and north side of building. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. West rear and north side of building. View to southeast.' - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

333

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

334

2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of the garage, loading docks and rail spur, with Providence Fruit & Produce Building beyond. - Armour & Company Building, 100 Harris Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

335

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

336

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

337

5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

338

17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

339

16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

340

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

341

2. ROADLEVEL VIEW OF CROWN POINT VIADUCT AT REAR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ROAD-LEVEL VIEW OF CROWN POINT VIADUCT AT REAR OF VISTA HOUSE SHOWING SIDEWALK, ROADWAY, AND STAIRCASE IN RETAINING WALL. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Crown Point Viaduct, Encircling Vista House at Crown Point, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

342

East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

343

16. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

344

15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

345

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

346

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

347

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

348

7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND FLOOR, WITH PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

349

COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

350

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

351

North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

352

Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

353

North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

354

Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

355

Oblique view of the southwest rear, with the south Fire ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view of the southwest rear, with the south Fire House in the background - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quartermaster & Tailor Shop, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

356

3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

357

FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

358

2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN AND DENSE LANDSCAPE - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

359

6. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF REAR GABLED EXTENSION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF REAR GABLED EXTENSION, SHOWING PORCHED ENTRANCE TO KITCHEN - Camp Cleawox Organizational Tract, Lodge Building, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

360

Rear End Takes a Front Seat in Plastic Surgery Offices  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Rear End Takes a Front Seat in Plastic Surgery Offices Men also drove up overall number ... February 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breast Reconstruction Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay ...

361

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

362

DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF THE BUILDING. SHOWING THE PIVOTING METAL LOOP RECESSED INTO THE CONCRETE. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type A, 601 Boquet Boulevard, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

363

3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

364

6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

365

3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

366

South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

367

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

368

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

369

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

370

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

371

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

372

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

373

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

374

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

375

Sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus in Israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population.  

PubMed

Two pheromonal components were detected in airborne collections from the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) mass-reared on potato sprouts. The compounds were identified as (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) by GC and GC-MS by comparison with synthetic standards. Chiral GC analysis on a cyclodextrin column established their chirality. Compound I was identified recently as the sex pheromone of P. ficus in California. The attraction of vine mealybug males to both components I and II was demonstrated in a Petri dish bioassay and in a flight assay in the rearing chamber. Indoors, both compounds displayed a similar level of attractiveness to the mass-reared males. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that feral males were attracted only to compound I. Reanalysis of the airborne pheromone indicated that laboratory first generation daughters of females that were collected in the vineyard produce only (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I). The relative amount of (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) increased gradually in each subsequent generation of P. ficus reared on potatoes. These findings indicate that feral P. ficus mealybugs produce and respond only to (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I), whereas mealybugs that were reared in the laboratory on potato sprouts produce and respond to both (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II). PMID:12775156

Zada, A; Dunkelblum, E; Assael, F; Harel, M; Cojocaru, M; Mendel, Z

2003-04-01

376

Effects of restricted spectral rearing on the development of zebrafish retinal physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that rearing in abnormal lighting environments affects both visual behavior and retinal physiology in zebrafish larvae. These studies, however, used only constant dark and constant white light as the experimental rearing conditions. This study assessed the effects of rearing larvae in restricted spectral lighting environments on zebrafish retinal physiology. Larvae were reared in one of seven different

Lee J. Dixon; Angela L. McDowell; Jennifer D. Houchins; Joseph Bilotta

2004-01-01

377

Comparing Size, Movement, and Habitat Selection of Wild and Streamside-Reared Lake Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A streamside rearing facility (SRF) on the Big Manistee River, Michigan, was constructed for the purpose of rearing larval and age-0 lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Size, movement, and habitat selection were studied from 2007 to 2008 to determine whether there were differences between age-0 lake sturgeon reared in the streamside facility and natural cohorts. Lake sturgeon reared streamside showed no

Kevin A. Mann; J. Marty Holtgren; Nancy A. Auer; Stephanie A. Ogren

2011-01-01

378

Adolescent Coping Styles and Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To relate adolescent coping styles to parental rearing practices, 107 15-and 17-year-olds were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on perceptions of theirparents' rearing practices. Subjects completed the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, a measure of adolescents' general coping styles. Those in the indulgent and authoritative groups used more problem-focused coping; those in

Jerome B. Dusek; Maribeth Danko

1994-01-01

379

4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING SHED ADDITION FOR WELL-SERVICE VEHICLE, TOOLS, AND EQUIPMENT AND REAR ENTRANCE DOOR AND WINDOW INTO FACTORY. THE METAL OUTBUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SHOP-BUILT PRIVY ERECTED OVER A SANITARY SEWER. VISIBLE ON THE ROOF ARE TWO SKYLIGHT STRUCTURES AND FLUES FOR FORGE AND HEATING STOVE. THE BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS AN ADJACENT GROCERY STORE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

380

Rearing dover sole larvae on Tisbe and Artemia diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of the harpacticoid copepodTisbe holothuriae as a diet for larval and juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea) was assessed by rearing groups of sole for 42 days under a range of dietary regimes. Larval sole, approximately 1 week old,\\u000a were reared onTisbe, Artemia, or a mixedTisbe-Artemia diet for 13 days. No significant differences in length between sole larvae from

Philip L. Heath; Colin G. Moore

1997-01-01

381

Characterization of captive reared bobwhite quail for hunting resorts  

E-print Network

and to management factors. Flight con- ditioning and the use of large flight pens were unnecessary for good field performance. Isolation from people and animals, and limited handling were important for superior field performance of these captive reared quail...CHARACTERIZATION OF CAPTIVE REARED BOBWHITE QUAIL FOR HUNTING RESORTS A Thesis by PAUL EDWARD MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Moore, Paul Edward

1977-01-01

382

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

383

Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laboratory conditions, effects of rearing temperature and stocking density were examined on hatching of fertilized egg and growth of auricularia larvae of Apostichopus japonicus respectively. Data series like larval length and density, metamorphic time, and survival rate of the larvae were recorded. Statistics showed that for A. japonicus, survival rate (from fertilized egg to late auricularia) decreased significantly with the increasing rearing temperature ( P<0.05). At different temperatures SGR was statistically significant as well ( P<0.05) from day 1, and maximal SGR was found on day 9 at 24°C (159.26±3.28). This study clearly indicated that at low temperature (<24°C), metamorphic rate was remarkably higher than at higher temperature (>26°C). Hatching rate was significantly different between 0.2-5 ind./ml groups and 20-50 ind./ml groups. Rearing larvae at the higher density had the smaller maximal-length, whereas needed longer time to complete metamorphosis. This study suggested that 21°C and 0.4 ind./ml can be used as the most suitable rearing temperature and stocking density for large -scale artificial breeding of A. japonicus’s larvae.

Liu, Guangbin; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Shilin

2010-07-01

384

[The recovery and rearing of gnotobiotic lambs and their use in veterinary medicine].  

PubMed

Our own innovated method of the hysterectomy recovery of gnotobiotic lambs, modified equipment for gnotobiote rearing, management and tending techniques were tested in this study. A hysterectomy hood (Fig. 1) was made from plexiglass and it fully met the requirements for simple and rapid handling. Our own modified isolator for gnotobiotic lamb rearing (Fig. 2) made out of glass-reinforced plastic with plexiglass sight holes was used for group rearing. It was more resistant to mechanical damage in comparison with the isolators equipped with PVC sheet pouches. The use of an isolator for feed and material (Fig. 3) and of an isolator for waste material storage with a PVC sheet pouch was found to be very practical; these isolators were connected to the rearing isolator through piping. The ventilation system was sufficient enough. An emasculator was used for hysterectomy. The method is simple and rapid, reliable and it enabled to preserve lambing ewes for other experimental purposes. Gnotobiotic lambs were successfully fed a milk replacer for calves. Samples of biological material (blood, rumen fluid, droppings) were taken from lambs kept in the isolator. The isolators were sterilized with 2% solution of peracetic acid sprayed as aerosol. Milk, materials made of glass and metal were autoclaved at a temperature of 121 degrees C, pressure 1.2 atm, for 30 minutes, and the concentrate mixture was sterilized with an X-ray dose of 2.5 Mrad. All the used methods of sterilization were fully efficient. A modified method reliably detecting lamb and isolator contamination was used for microbiological monitoring.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8379101

Bomba, A; Králicek, L; Koniarová, I; Lesník, F; Posivák, J; Bucko, V; Zitnan, R

1993-01-01

385

Effect of Different Light Regimes on PreAdult Fitness in Drosophila melanogaster Populations Reared in Constant Light for over Six Hundred Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg to eclosion development time and survivorship were assayed on four laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster that had been reared for over 600 generations in continuous light (LL) and constant temperature. The assays were performed in three environments: continuous light (LL), peri- odically varying light\\/dark cycles (LD 12:12 hr), and continuous darkness (DD). Development time in LL was significantly less

V. Sheeba; V. Kumar Sharma; M. K. Chandrashekaran; A. Joshi

1999-01-01

386

Effect of Feeding Frequency on Feed Cconsumption, Growth, and Feed Efficiency in Aquarium-Reared Norris and NWAC103 Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 6 week feeding study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding frequency on growth rate of juvenile Norris and NWAC103 channel catfish reared under laboratory conditions. Four replicate groups of Norris and NWAC103 catfish (average weight of 4.0 +/- 0.2 g/fish) were fed to visual satiety a...

387

Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

388

Laboratory studies of the deposition of alkali sulfate vapors from combustion gases using a flash-evaporation technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple experimental technique is proposed and demonstrated for making measurements of absolute dewpoints and relative deposition rates from flowing combustion gases containing condensible inorganic vapors. The method involves first accumulating condensate on a Pt ribbon target maintained below the dewpoint and then flash-evaporating the condensate into the filament wake, where its alkali content is monitored by alkali-atom emission spectroscopy. The advantages of the method over others are demonstrated; in particular, the method can detect liquid condensate inventories which are small enough to be negligibly influenced by surface runoff produced by gas-side shear stress and liquid condensate surface tension gradients. Illustrative Na2SO4 and K2SO4 deposition rate data and corresponding dewpoint data obtained in a series of alkali-seeded propane/air atmospheric flames are presented and discussed.

Rosner, Daniel E.; Liang, Baishen

1986-01-01

389

Influence of water-desaturation technique and stress on laboratory measurement of hydraulic properties of tight sandstones  

SciTech Connect

Mercury porosimetry on unconfined sample chips and effective-gas-permeability measurements with evaporation used as the desaturating mechanism are two of the most common core-analysis measurements for tight sands. Data obtained with these two techniques have been compared with data on gas/water capillary pressure and effective gas permeability along a true drainage path at in-situ net confining stress. Results show that confining stress can have a significant effect on capillary pressure. Also, the use of evaporation to desaturate samples yields effective gas permeabilities much smaller than those obtained under true drainage conditions, suggesting that the evaporation method results in a pore-water distribution similar to that in an inhibition process.

Chowdiah, P.

1988-12-01

390

Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.  

PubMed

In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

2014-10-01

391

Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water  

PubMed Central

In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml?1 and CFU · g?1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

2014-01-01

392

Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 ?m-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

2014-11-01

393

Multicenter long-term validation of a minicourse in radiation-reducing techniques in the catheterization laboratory.  

PubMed

Patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology is considerable. We aimed to investigate, in a multicenter field study, the long-term efficacy of an educational 90-minute workshop in cardiac invasive techniques with reduced irradiation. Before and at a median period of 2.5 months and 2.0 years after the minicourse (periods I, II, and III, respectively) at 5 German cardiac centers, 18 interventionalists documented various radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies. The median patient dose area product (DAP) for periods I, II, and III amounted to 26.6, 12.2, and 9.6 Gy × cm(2), respectively. The short-term and long-term effects were related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 138, and 114 seconds), fewer radiographic frames (745, 553, and 417) because of fewer (11, 11, and 10) and shorter (64, 52, and 44 frames/run) runs, consistent collimation, and restriction to an adequate image quality; both radiographic DAP/frame (27.7, 17.3, and 18.4 mGy × cm(2)) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (26.6, 12.9, and 14.9 mGy × cm(2)) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis over time indicated increasing efficacy of the minicourse itself (-55% and -64%) and minor influence of interventionist experience (-4% and -3% per 1,000 coronary angiographies, performed lifelong until the minicourse and until period III). In conclusion, autonomous self-surveillance of various dose parameters and feedback on individual radiation safety efforts supported the efficacy of a 90-minute course program toward long-lasting and ongoing patient dose reduction. PMID:25579886

Kuon, Eberhard; Weitmann, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dörr, Marcus; Hummel, Astrid; Riad, Alexander; Busch, Mathias C; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus

2015-02-01

394

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

395

Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees.  

PubMed

Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities. PMID:17928165

Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2008-02-01

396

New laser-based approaches to improve the passivation and rear contact quality in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser processing has been the tool of choice last years to develop improved concepts in contact formation for high efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. New concepts based on standard laser fired contacts (LFC) or advanced laser doping (LD) techniques are optimal solutions for both the front and back contacts of a number of structures with growing interest in the c-Si PV industry. Nowadays, substantial efforts are underway to optimize these processes in order to be applied industrially in high efficiency concepts. However a critical issue in these devices is that, most of them, demand a very low thermal input during the fabrication sequence and a minimal damage of the structure during the laser irradiation process. Keeping these two objectives in mind, in this work we discuss the possibility of using laser-based processes to contact the rear side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells in an approach fully compatible with the low temperature processing associated to these devices. First we discuss the possibility of using standard LFC techniques in the fabrication of SHJ cells on p-type substrates, studying in detail the effect of the laser wavelength on the contact quality. Secondly, we present an alternative strategy bearing in mind that a real challenge in the rear contact formation is to reduce the damage induced by the laser irradiation. This new approach is based on local laser doping techniques previously developed by our groups, to contact the rear side of p-type c-Si solar cells by means of laser processing before rear metallization of dielectric stacks containing Al2O3. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using this new approach in SHJ cells with a distinct advantage over other standard LFC techniques.

Molpeceres, Carlos; Colina, Mónica; Muńoz-Martin, David; Martín, Isidro; Ortega, Pablo; Sánchez, Isabel; Morales, Miguel B.; Lauzurica, Sara; García-Ballesteros, Juan J.; Voz, Cristóbal; López, Gema; Morales, Ana-Belén.; Alcubilla, Ramón

2013-09-01

397

Power transmission system for rear wheels of a motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A power transmission system is described for a motor vehicle comprising: a rear drive shaft connected to a propeller shaft of the motor vehicle; final reduction gear means operatively connected to the rear drive shaft; a pair of oil hydraulic clutches for transmitting output of the final reduction gear to rear wheels of the motor vehicle respectively; hydraulic circuit means including passage means for applying pressurized oil to the clutches and control valve means for controlling pressure of the oil applied to each of the clutches; sensing means for sensing driving conditions of the vehicle at cornering and for producing signals representing sensed conditions; control unit responsive to the signals for operating the control valve means whereby controlling transmitting torque capacity of each clutch at cornering.

Oyama, F.; Takashashi, A.

1987-07-21

398

Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

399

An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

1976-01-01

400

EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON SURVIVAL OF LABORATORY CULTURED SUMMER FLOUNDER 'PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies are being conducted to determine standard laboratory culture conditions for rearing summer flounder larvae to be used in toxicological bioassays. Experiments were conducted using the type of container and physical conditions use in the long term chronic toxicological bioa...

401

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

402

Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

403

Handwashing Laboratory Activities: Bowl Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab (Activity #2 on page), learners compare bacteria growth on two petri dishes containing nutrient agar. Learners touch the doors, faucets, etc. in bathroom and then immerse their hands in 100 ml sterile water. They place 0.5 ml of this "dirty" water into one petri dish. They repeat this process again but wash their hands before immersing them in 100 ml sterile water. Learners incubate the plates for 24-48 hours and then score the results based on the bacteria growth they observe. Use this activity to emphasize the importance of hand-washing and the effectiveness of soap to disinfect.

2012-06-26

404

Enduring effects of post-weaning rearing condition on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and motor activity in male rats.  

PubMed

Environmental manipulation at early critical periods could have long-lasting effects. In spite of the great interest in the biological effects of the environmental condition so far, its long-lasting effects are less documented. This study looks at the enduring effects of rearing condition on tasks that measure affective responses and exploratory behavior in male Wistar rats. The animals were reared from weaning to adulthood in an enriched environment, standard laboratory condition, or isolated condition. Then, all rats were housed in standard laboratory cages to provide a common environment, and successively exposed to different tests between 0 and 11weeks post-manipulation. The open field test indicated a more efficient exploratory behavior in the enriched group, and an enhanced spontaneous motor activity in both standard and isolated groups. In addition, rats reared in standard condition showed heightened motor activity in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze. Forced swimming test showed an antidepressive-like effect in the enriched environment group by increased climbing behavior. In respect to the anxiety behavior, environmental enrichment improved threat detection ability. It is concluded that rearing condition from weaning to adulthood has important and long-lasting effects on depressive- and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors as well as motor activity. PMID:25666307

Mosaferi, Belal; Babri, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohaddes, Gisou

2015-04-01

405

A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~ -26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -26 and -18 °C. Only instruments making measurement techniques with wet suspended samples were able to measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -26 and -18 °C is discussed. In general, the seventeen immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within the range of about 7 °C in terms of temperature, by three orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency (i.e., ns) of illite NX particles is relatively independent on droplet size, particle mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature-dependence and weak time- and size-dependence of immersion freezing efficiency of illite-rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. We also characterized the ns (T) spectra, and identified a section with a steep slope between -20 and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 °C. A multiple exponential distribution fit is expressed as ns(T) = exp(23.82 × exp(-exp(0.16 × (T + 17.49))) + 1.39) based on the specific surface area and ns(T) = exp(25.75 × exp(-exp(0.13 × (T + 17.17))) + 3.34) based on the geometric area (ns and T in m-2 and °C, respectively). These new fits, constrained by using an identical reference samples, will help to compare IN measurement methods that are not included in the present study and, thereby, IN data from future IN instruments.

Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

2014-08-01

406

Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium Kd's at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium Kd's ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium Kd's were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium Kd's may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium Kd's.

Hemming, C.H.; Bunde, R.L.; Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Welhan, J.

1997-01-01

407

Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

2012-07-01

408

Selection of Rear Projection Screens for Learning Carrels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection of a rear projection screen for a learning carrel should take into account the viewing angle involved. In some carrels, the viewer can be seated in front of the screen (i.e., on the normal axis) since the screen is used primarily to present information. In these cases, where the screen will be viewed only from a restricted range, a…

Smith, Edgar A.

409

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

410

Mass Rearing of the Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

E-print Network

),was reared on modifications of a previously developed small lima bean diet Initial experiments showed that different types of beans substituted for lima beans produced similar yields of oriental fruit moth pupae, formulated diet, legume diet YOKOYAMAET AL (1987)developed a formulated diet using small lima beans

411

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

412

Kinship discrimination in queen rearing by honey bees ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apis mellifera workers are able to discriminate the degree of relatedness to themselves of larvae and to preferentially rear queens from related larvae. They employ cues of genetic, not environmental origin, and workers which have only experienced unrelated brood nonetheless prefer related (but novel) over unrelated (but familiar) larvae. Thus worker bees possess the sensory capabilities and behavioral responses that

P. Kirk Visscher

1986-01-01

413

CHAPTER TWELVE Resource Selection During Brood-Rearing  

E-print Network

in association with sagebrush for sage-grouse broods. Key Words: brood-rearing habitat, Centrocercus urophasianus of Greater Sage- Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage grouse) date back >90 years and continue management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha- sianus). Little

414

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

415

View of west or rear side of building with Quarters ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of west or rear side of building with Quarters 2, located on the right side of photograph, camera facing southeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 3, Naval Station Treasure Island, 3 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

416

View of west or rear side with terraced gardens in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of west or rear side with terraced gardens in the foreground camera facing east - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 2, Naval Station Treasure Island, 2 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

417

Detail of the rear entry that opens on to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of the rear entry that opens on to the fenced yard, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 7, Naval Station Treasure Island, 7 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

418

Rearing screwworms: from fresh meat to artificial diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research in development and continuous modification of screwworm larval diet for mass rearing is driven by various factors, including increase in cost of ingredients used, availability and supply of ingredients, amount of labor and time needed to prepare and feed the insects, and developing an envir...

419

21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, PAIRED NARROW 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT. OPEN DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

420

2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

421

9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. A VIEW ALONG WEST REAR WALL SHOWING CONFIGURATION FOR OBSERVATION MIRRORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

422

Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula; Franson, J.C.; Kilpi, Mikael

2005-01-01

423

6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

424

8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

425

2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

426

19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

427

View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

428

13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

429

7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

430

12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

431

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE LEFT. NOTE THE TERRACING OF THE YARD WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

432

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS OF THE LIVING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

433

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

434

VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND 507. CONDOMINIUM TOWERS CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

435

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

436

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR (NORTH) AND EAST SIDES OF GENERATOR HOUSE, DIESEL TANK IN FOREGROUND, LOCKTENDER'S HOUSE AND LEVEE ON RIGHT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE AND MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP ON LEFT - Moore Haven Lock, Generator House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

437

East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the left, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the right. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

438

13. ANGLED VIEW OF REAR FROM NE Copy photograph of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ANGLED VIEW OF REAR FROM NE Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-T-1736-206L. (5x7 NEG) - First Parish Church (Unitarian), Northwest corner of U.S. Route 1 & State Route 35, Kennebunk, York County, ME

439

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey April 1959 REAR (NORTH) ELEVATION FROM THE N. W. - Southeast Area Survey, 600-602 & 1100 G Street (House), 1002,1006 Eye Street (House), 808-810,812-814, & 1016 K Street (House), 817-819 L Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

440

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

441

2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

442

3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

443

5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

444

8. Detail of center section of west rear of building. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of center section of west rear of building. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

445

6. Rear of port complex, with INS residence at left ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Rear of port complex, with INS residence at left foreground. USCS residence at center background and main port building at right foreground. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

446

7. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left and INS residence at right. View to southeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

447

8. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Rear of port complex, with USCS residence at left and INS residence at right. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

448

View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 23, 25, 25, 27, and 39 from left to right. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

449

4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear of the main block and the courtyard between the E & W wings; looking S. Note structure 73, an air-conditioning unit, in the end of the courtyard. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

450

VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

451

Front elevation, note threestory addition to rear dating from 1915. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front elevation, note three-story addition to rear dating from 1915. In foreground is original two-story building of English bond brick. Openings on the street front have stone sills below each opening - Pioneer Building, 2679 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Wayne County, MI

452

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. CELLAR LOOKING NORTH (REAR SIDE OF BUILDING). AT LEFT ARE ORIGINAL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORTING BRICK PARTITIONS UPSTAIRS. AT CENTER IS BRICK PIER SUPPORTING MODERN SAFE. AT RIGHT IS BRICK PIER AND VAULT SUPPORTING ORIGINAL SAFE - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

453

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Theodore F. Dillon, photographer August 10, 1959 REAR VIEW, FROM NORTHWEST. AT FAR RIGHT IS KID-PHYSICK HOUSE AND ADJACENT TO IT IS KID-CHANDLER HOUSE - Kid-Chandler & Kid-Physick Houses, 323-325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

454

Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

455

Child Rearing and Compliance: Japanese and American Families in Houston.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the possibility that differences in compliance between Japanese and American children are the result of culturally distinct child-rearing practices. Child compliance with adult authority was positively associated with providing opportunities for appropriate behavior and negatively associated with reliance on physical discipline in both…

Kobayashi-Winata, Hiroko; Power, Thomas G.

1989-01-01

456

Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

2014-01-01

457

15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

458

9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House showing remains of original coal bunker. Area later was the location of an oil tank. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

459

View of open space and recreational area at rear of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of open space and recreational area at rear of Building No. 39. Note boulders as landscape design element. Buildings No. 41 and 23 from left to right. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

460

5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View from above and rear of room (facing corridor doorway) of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

461

4. View from rear of room of perimeter acquisition radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View from rear of room of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), showing fuel tanks - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

462

Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection…

Vlahos, Petro

1961-01-01

463

Object Construction and Imitation under Differing Conditions of Rearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the ages at which infants living under different conditions in two orphanges in Athens, Greece achieve levels of object construction and imitation, both verbal and gestural. Home-reared infants of the same age range were also examined using two of the Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Infant Psychological Development. (WY)

Paraskevopoulos, John; Hunt, J. McV.

1971-01-01

464

Pen Rearing Pacific Salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., in San Francisco Bay  

E-print Network

) Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center at its Manchester Field Station on Clam Bay in Puget Sound, Wash in Puget Sound beyond the time of their normal migration into the sea tended to remain in the SoundPen Rearing Pacific Salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., in San Francisco Bay WILLIAM S. LEET, ROGER E. GREEN

465

Positive Adjustment in Parents Rearing Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…

Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

2000-01-01

466

Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

467

A NUTRITIONAL BIOASSAY OF HONEYBEE BROOD-REARING POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

nutritional efficiency of pollens eaten by young honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) rearing brood from eggs small amounts of diets for their relative nutritional value. INTRODUCTION Honeybees (Apis mellifera L was followed. The following pollens were bioassayed : Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Saguaro

Boyer, Edmond

468

2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN CENTER AND NEWER ADDITIONS TO THIS STILL OPERATIONAL TEXTILE MILL. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

469

3. RIGHT SIDE OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RIGHT SIDE OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE BOILER STACK ON LEFT. THE FULLER E. CALLAWAY MEMORIAL CLOCK TOWER IS THE POINTED STRUCTURE IN THE DISTANCE TO THE RIGHT OF THE TELEPHONE POLE. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

470

Parents' Child-Rearing Style and Child's Sociometric Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships between parents' child-rearing style, the child's prosocial behavior, and the child's sociometric status. The sample consisted of 112 children (6–11 years of age) and both their parents. Parental behavior in the interaction with the child was observed at home when parents and child worked together in 2 structured tasks. Factor analyses of parental behavior revealed that

Maja Dekovi?; Jan M. A. M. Janssens

1992-01-01

471

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GASANDOIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GAS-AND-OIL HOUSE (BUILDING #2500), FACING SOUTHWEST. (NOTE: CANOPY STRUCTURE NEXT TO BUILDING FORMERLY COVERED GAS PUMPS; CANOPY BUILT IN 1930s BUT MOVED TO THIS LOCATION IN ABOUT 1970.) - Medford Service Center, Gas & Oil House, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

472

Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

473

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

474

Rearing temperature is inconsequential to broiler phosphorus excretion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A feeding trial was conducted to determine the influence of rearing temperature on phosphorus (P) excretion in male broilers. Experimental diets were formulated with three levels of dietary available phosphorus (aP): control at 0.38% aP, control less 20% or 0.304% aP, and control plus 20% or 0.456% ...

475

A novel method for rearing wild tephritid fruit flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We introduce a novel method for rearing wild tephritid fruit flies from field-collected fruit. This new protocol uses larval diet to control moisture and provide additional nutrition to developing larvae. We conducted two experiments to compare the new method with a standard approach using a fruit-h...

476

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

477

View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of structures at rear of parcel with 12' scale (in tenths). From right: edge of Round House, Pencil house, Shell House, edge of School House. Heart Shrine made from mortared car headlights at frame left. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

478

Fruit fly parasitoid mass rearing and release: challenges and achievements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mass-rearing and augmentative release of tephritid fruit fly parasitoids has great promise, particularly in conjunction with sterile males and in areas where insecticides cannot be widely applied. However there are challenges associated with its adoption. These include: 1) The choice of the prop...

479

3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door and position of kilns on the slope. This placement facilitated access to the upper door. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

480

9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

481

Application of the mechanical perturbation produced by traffic as a new approach of nonlinear acoustic technique for detecting microcracks in the concrete: A laboratory simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few nonlinear acoustics techniques are currently applied on real structures because their large scale implementation is difficult. Recently, a new method based on nonlinear acoustics has been proposed at the Université de Sherbrooke for the characterization of the damage associated with Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). This method consists in quantifying the influence of an external mechanical disturbance on the propagation of a continual ultrasonic wave that probes the material. In this method, the mechanical perturbation produced by an impact causes sudden opening of microcracks and, consequently, the velocity of the probe ultrasonic wave is suddenly reduced. Then it slowly and gradually returns to its initial level as the microcracks are closing. The objective of this study is: using waves generated by traffics in infrastructures in order to monitor microdefects due to damage mechanisms like ASR. This type of mechanical disturbance (by traffic loadings) is used as a source of low frequency-high amplitude waves for opening/closing of the microdefects in the bulk of concrete. This paper presents a laboratory set-up made of three large deep concrete slabs used to study the nonlinear behavior of concrete using the disturbance caused by simulated traffic. The traffic is simulated with a controlled high accuracy jack to produce a wave similar to that produced by traffic. Results obtained from this study will be used in the future to design an in-situ protocol for assessing ASR-affected structures.

Moradi-Marani, F.; Kodjo, S. A.; Rivard, P.; Lamarche, C. P.

2012-05-01

482

Rear Seat Occupant Thorax Protection in Near Side Impacts  

PubMed Central

Thoracic side-airbags (SAB) have proven to protect front seat occupants in side impacts. This benefit has not been evaluated for rear seat occupants who are typically small statured. The objective was to analyze field data from rear seat occupants in near side impacts, and evaluate the effect of a SAB in the rear seat, through full scale vehicle tests. A field study using the NASS-CDS database was performed to review rear seat crash characteristics, occupant injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3+, AIS3+) and injury sources. Full scale tests were performed with the side impact dummy SID-IIs at two different crash severities, with and without SAB in a midsize passenger car. Field data showed that of all AIS3+ injured restrained occupants 13 years and older, 59% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 38% had AIS3+ head injuries. The thoracic injuries were distributed to lungs (60%), skeletal fractures (38%) and injuries to arteries (1,26%) and heart (0,1%). For AIS3+ injured children, age 4–12, 51% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 54% had AIS3+ head injuries. Compared to adults, children sustained less fractures and more lung injuries. The rear side interior was the main injury source regardless of age group. In the full scale tests, the thoracic side-airbag reduced the average rib deflection by 50% and resulted in an AIS3+ injury risk reduction from 36% to 3%. At the higher impact speed, SAB reduced the injury risk from 93% to 24%. The full scale crash tests showed that SAB offer a significant potential for thoracic injury reduction in the crash severities causing the majority of serious injuries in real life crashes. PMID:20184828

Bohman, Katarina; Rosén, Erik; Sunnevang, Cecilia; Boström, Ola

2009-01-01

483

EFFECT OF MID-SEASON CHANGE IN DIET ON DIET CONSUMPTION AND BROOD REARING  

E-print Network

of brood rearing in free flying colonies was measured. After 12 weeks, bees offered pollen reared the most. Generally, diet consumption was greatest early in the study and decreased with time. The pollen-fed bees that honey and pollen flows are less important factors since the brood rearing pattern for caged bee colonies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

484

Predation by Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge on Minnows and Bluegills in Experimental Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy x male northern pike, E. lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow (Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in

Alan L. Gillen; Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline

1981-01-01

485

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Procedures for Approval of Rear End Marking Devices  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Procedures for Approval of Rear End Marking Devices A Appendix A to Part...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND...Part 221—Procedures for Approval of Rear End Marking Devices As provided in §...

2010-10-01

486

The effects of captive rearing on the behavior of newly-released whooping cranes ( Grus americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rearing treatments used in captivity to prepare animals for reintroduction to the wild may have a profound effect on behavior and, possibly, affect their survival after reintroduction. This study examined the behaviors of captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) upon their release in Florida to determine if rearing treatments may affect the behavior of the birds and how these affect their

Michael D. Kreger; Jeff S. Hatfield; Inma Estevez; George F. Gee; David A. Clugston

2005-01-01

487

Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1979, a continuing study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, separated in infancy and reared apart, has subjected more than 100 sets of reared-apart twins or triplets to a week of intensive psychological and physiological assessment. Like the prior, smaller studies of monozygotic twins reared apart, about 70% of the variance in IQ was found to be associated with genetic

Thomas J. Bouchard Jr.; David T. Lykken; Matthew McGue; Nancy L. Segal; Auke Tellegen

1990-01-01

488

Heritability of MMPI Personality Indicators of Psychopathology in Twins Reared Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) findings from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Dta from 65 unique pairs of monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA) and 54 unique pairs of dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA) were analyzed. As in other results from this sample, MZA twins evidenced substantial similarity, highlighting the influence of shared genes. Biometric modeling

David L. DiLalla; Gregory Carey; Irving I. Gottesman

1996-01-01

489

Increased Juvenile and Adult Body Weights in BALB/cByJ Mice Reared in a Communal Nest  

PubMed Central

Both wild and laboratory mice and rats preferentially rear their young in communal nests and indiscriminately nurse any of the young within the nest. In this study, BALBc/ByJ mice reared under communal nesting (CN) conditions (3 dams and their litters sharing a common nest) were compared with BALBc/ByJ mice raised in single (one dam with her litter) nests (SN) in body weight from birth into adulthood; food and water intake and body composition were compared between adult mice. Compared with SN female mice, female CN mice (measured only until weaning) exhibited significantly higher body weights at postnatal days 11 and 25. Male CN mice were significantly heavier than were male SN mice at postnatal day 25 and at 20, 26, and 30 wk of age. There were no differences between adult male mice from CN and SN groups in 48-h food and water intake or body composition (total lean:total fat ratio; measured by quantitative MRI). In conclusion, BALB/cByJ mice reared under communal nesting conditions showed more robust juvenile growth rates than did mice raised with a single dam and litter per cage. In addition, body weights of male CN mice remained higher than male SN mice into adulthood. PMID:21838976

Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Blizard, David A

2011-01-01

490

A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice-nucleating particles. However, an intercomparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nuclei Research Unit), we distributed an illite-rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. A total of 17 measurement methods were involved in the data intercomparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while 10 other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing data set was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density, ns, to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers 9 orders of magnitude in ns. In general, the 17 immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within a range of about 8 °C in terms of temperature, by 3 orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency expressed in ns of illite NX particles is relatively independent of droplet size, particle mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature dependence and weak time and size dependence of the immersion freezing efficiency of illite-rich clay mineral particles enabled the ns parameterization solely as a function of temperature. We also characterized the ns(T) spectra and identified a section with a steep slope between -20 and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 °C. While the agreement between different instruments was reasonable below ~ -27 °C, there seemed to be a different trend in the temperature-dependent ice nucleation activity from the suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust, in particular at higher temperatures. For instance, the ice nucleation activity expressed in ns was smaller for the average of the wet suspended samples and higher for the average of the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -27 and -18 °C. Only instruments making measurements with wet suspended samples were able to measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -27 and -18 °C is discussed. Multiple exponential distribution fits in both linear and log space for both specific surface area-based ns(T) and geometric surface area-based ns(T) are provided. These new fits, constrained by using identical reference samples, will help to compare IN measurement methods that are not included in the present study and IN data from future IN instruments.

Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

2015-03-01

491

Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo que la fecundidad es optima durante las tres primeras semanas de iniciada la oviposicion y que la fertilidad se mantiene constante durante ese periodo. Durante 2003-2004 se implementaron mejoras en el protocolo de cria existente lo que resulto en un incremento de la viabilidad larvaria, del peso de pupas y del porcentaje de emergencia de adultos. La produccion actual semanal es de un millon de huevos. Los mismos son utilizados para mantener la colonia y realizar distintos estudios de calidad de esta cepa. Por ultimo, se sugieren necesidades de investigacion para alcanzar mejores rendimientos. (author)

Vera, T. [Seccion Zoologia Agricola, Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, EEAOC, CC 9 (4101) Las Talitas, Tucuman and Member of Carrera de Investigador, CONICET (Argentina); Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E. [Seccion Zoologia Agricola, Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, EEAOC, CC 9 (4101) Las Talitas, Tucuman (Argentina)

2007-03-15

492

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

493

Residual binocular interactions in the striate cortex of monkeys reared with abnormal binocular vision.  

PubMed

We investigated the nature of residual binocular interactions in the striate cortex (V1) of monkey models for the two most common causes of visual dysfunction in young children, specifically anisometropia and strabismus. Infant rhesus monkeys were raised wearing either anisometropic spectacle lenses that optically defocused one eye or ophthalmic prisms that optically produced diplopia and binocular confusion. Earlier psychophysical investigations had demonstrated that all subjects exhibited permanent binocular vision deficits and, in some cases, amblyopia. When the monkeys were adults, the responses of individual V1 neurons were studied with the use of microelectrode recording techniques while the animals were anesthetized and paralyzed. The manner in which the signals from the two eyes were combined in individual cells was investigated by dichoptically stimulating both eyes simultaneously with drifting sine wave gratings. In both lens- and prism-reared monkeys, fewer neurons had balanced ocular dominances and greater numbers of neurons were excited by only one eye. However, many neurons that appeared to be monocular exhibited clear binocular interactions during dichoptic stimulation. For the surviving binocular neurons, the maximum binocular response amplitudes were lower than normal; fewer neurons, particularly complex cells, were sensitive to relative interocular spatial phase disparities; and the remaining disparity-sensitive neurons exhibited lower degrees of binocular interaction. In prism-reared monkeys, an unusually high proportion of complex cells exhibited binocular suppression during dichoptic stimulation. Binocular contrast summation experiments showed that for both cooperative and antagonistic binocular interactions, contrast signals from the two eyes were combined by individual neurons in a normal linear fashion in both lens- and prism-reared monkeys. The observed binocular deficits appear to reflect a reduction in functional inputs from one eye and/or spatial imprecision in the monocular receptive fields rather than an aberrant form of binocular interaction. In the prism-reared monkeys, the predominance of suppression suggests that inhibitory connections were, however, less susceptible to diplopia and confusion than excitatory connections. Overall, there were many parallels between V1 physiology in our monkey models and the residual vision of humans with anisometropia or strabismus. PMID:9310426

Smith, E L; Chino, Y M; Ni, J; Cheng, H; Crawford, M L; Harwerth, R S

1997-09-01

494

FULL-SCALE LABORATORY SIMULATION FACILITY TO TEST PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A THIRD WORLD RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION PROCESS. III. EVALUATIO OF A POTENTIAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM THE INDOOR, OPEN HEARTH COMBUSTION OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports controlled full-scale laboratory studies designed to determine if clay addition holds promise as a technique to control emissions from higher grade coals. NOTE: bnormally high rates of lung cancer are observed among persons in Xuan Wei County, China, who burn bi...

495

Simulative and experimental investigations on pressure-induced structural vibrations of a rear muffler.  

PubMed

The periodically blown out exhaust gas of a combustion engine may excite structural vibrations of the exhaust system. In addition to the noise of the orifice, these vibrations contribute to the overall noise radiation of the exhaust system. In this work, the excitation of structural vibrations of a rear muffler via the acoustic path is investigated both in experiments and simulations. In both cases transfer functions from the acoustic pressure at the inlet to the structural deflection on the surface of the rear muffler are determined and compared to each other. For the simulation an FE-FE (finite element) coupling is applied to account for the fluid-structure interaction. To efficiently predict the fluid-structure coupled behavior, a model reduction technique for the finite element method based on the Craig-Bampton method and the Rubin method is presented. In a last step, the sound radiation is evaluated by solving the exterior acoustic problem with the fast multipole boundary element method. For this purpose, the results of the FE computation are used as boundary datum. PMID:21110573

Junge, Michael; Brunner, Dominik; Walz, Nico-Philipp; Gaul, Lothar

2010-11-01

496

40 CFR 141.705 - Approved laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...laboratory certification program. (b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by...analysis under § 141.74 is approved for E. coli analysis under this subpart when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses for §...

2011-07-01

497

40 CFR 141.705 - Approved laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...laboratory certification program. (b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by...analysis under § 141.74 is approved for E. coli analysis under this subpart when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses for §...

2013-07-01

498

40 CFR 141.705 - Approved laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...laboratory certification program. (b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by...analysis under § 141.74 is approved for E. coli analysis under this subpart when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses for §...

2014-07-01

499

40 CFR 141.705 - Approved laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...laboratory certification program. (b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by...analysis under § 141.74 is approved for E. coli analysis under this subpart when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses for §...

2010-07-01

500

40 CFR 141.705 - Approved laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...laboratory certification program. (b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by...analysis under § 141.74 is approved for E. coli analysis under this subpart when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses for §...

2012-07-01