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1

In Vivo Effects of Bisphenol A in Laboratory Rodent Studies  

PubMed Central

Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/kg/day, in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10 to 1,000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low-dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long-lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system. PMID:17683900

Richter, Catherine A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Farabollini, Francesca; Newbold, Retha R.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

2007-01-01

2

Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents  

PubMed Central

Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared with fresh bedding. When 14-wk-old mice were bred, litter size and total number of weaned pups showed no significant differences between animals raised on recycled or fresh bedding. Because bedding type influences the environment within cages and animal rooms, we evaluated particulate and ammonia data from cages and animal rooms. Values were significantly lower from cages and rooms that used recycled bedding than from those using fresh bedding, thus indicating that recycled bedding has the potential to improve the environment within both cages and animal rooms. Overall, this study revealed that recycled bedding is an excellent material for use in housing laboratory rodents. Specifically, recycled bedding may reduce medical waste and maintain healthy environments within cages and animal rooms. PMID:19653951

Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

2009-01-01

3

Field and laboratory studies provide insights into the meaning of day-time activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.  

PubMed

South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti), commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD) conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD). However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12:12) with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker. PMID:22649565

Tomotani, Barbara M; Flores, Danilo E F L; Tachinardi, Patrícia; Paliza, José D; Oda, Gisele A; Valentinuzzi, Verônica S

2012-01-01

4

Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.  

PubMed

Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual differences in aggression, using the so-called forward genetics approach. PMID:24318936

Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

2014-01-01

5

Enrichment Strategies Rodents in the Laboratory  

E-print Network

a compromised immune system when compared to socially housed mice (Schwartz et al., 1974). Moreover, mice-regulated species, e.g., rats, mice, birds, and other laboratory animals, continues to receive attention from

Bandettini, Peter A.

6

Historical histopathological control data for laboratory rodents: valuable treasure or worthless trash?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The reasons for variation in longevity and disease incidence in untreated control animals in chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in laboratory rodents are reviewed and discussed. Genetic drift, dietary composition, caloric intake, age of animals at the termination of studies, the skill, experience and diligence of the pathologist, the. diagnostic criteria used and the appropriateness of statistical procedures are

F. J. C. Roe

1994-01-01

7

Environmental Enrichment of Laboratory Rodents: The Answer Depends on the Question  

PubMed Central

Efforts to refine the care and use of animals in research have been ongoing for many years and have led to general standardization of rodent models, particularly with regard to animal housing, genetics, and health status. Concurrently, numerous informal practices and recommendations have been promulgated with the laudable intent of promoting general animal wellbeing through so-called enrichment of the cage environment. However, the variety of housing conditions fostered by efforts at environmental enrichment (EE) complicates the goal of establishing standardized or even defined environments for laboratory rodents. Many studies over the years have sought to determine whether or how various enrichment strategies affect the behavior and physiology of laboratory rodents. The findings, conclusions, and interpretations of these studies are mixed, particularly with regard to their application across rodent species, strains, genders, and ages; whether or how they affect the animals and the science; and, in some cases, whether the effects are positive, negative, or neutral in terms of animal wellbeing. Crucial issues related to the application of EE in research settings include its poorly defined effect on the animals, the potential for increased variability in the data, poor definition across labs and in publications, and potential for animal or scientific harm. The complexities, uncertainties, interpretational conundrums, varying conclusions, and lack of consensus in the EE literature warrant careful assessment of the benefits and liabilities associated with implementing such interventions. Reliance on evidence, professional judgment, and performance standards are crucial in the development of EE strategies. PMID:22330246

Toth, Linda A; Kregel, Kevin; Leon, Lisa; Musch, Timothy I

2011-01-01

8

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. NASA established the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, LADTAG has recommended investigating its toxicity in the lungs of laboratory animals. After receiving this recommendation, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in exposed rodents. The rodent pulmonary toxicity studies proposed here are the same as those proposed by the LADTAG. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal instillation (ITI). This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. We succeeded in completing an ITI study on JSC-1 lunar dust simulant in mice (Lam et al., Inhalation Toxicology 14:901-916, 2002, and Inhalation Toxicology 14: 917-928, 2002), and have conducted a pilot ITI study to examine the acute toxicity of an Apollo lunar (highland) dust sample. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies have been planned to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The ITI results will also be useful for choosing an exposure concentration for the animal inhalation study on a selected lunar dust sample, which is included as a part of this proposal. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The simulant exposure will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of ITI and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Taylor, Larry

2008-01-01

9

Human and laboratory rodent low response to alcohol: Is better consilience possible?  

PubMed Central

If people are brought into the laboratory and given alcohol, there are pronounced differences among individuals in many responses to the drug. Some participants in alcohol challenge protocols show a cluster of “low level of responses to alcohol,” determined by observing post-drinking related changes in subjective, motor and physiological effects at a given dose level. Those individuals characterized as having low Level of Response (LR) to alcohol have been shown to be at increased risk for a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD), and this relationship between low LR and AD appears to be in part genetic. LR to alcohol is an area where achieving greater consilience between the human and rodent phenotypes would seem to be highly likely. However, despite extensive data from both human and rodent studies, few attempts have been made to evaluate the human and animal data systematically in order to understand which aspects of LR appear to be most directly comparable across species and thus the most promising for further study. We review four general aspects of LR that could be compared between humans and laboratory animals: 1) behavioral measures of subjective intoxication; 2) body sway; 3) endocrine responses; and 4) stimulant, autonomic and electrophysiological responses. None of these aspects of LR provide completely face-valid direct comparisons across species. Nevertheless, one of the most replicated findings in humans is the low subjective response, but, as it may reflect either aversively-valenced and/or positively-valenced responses to alcohol as usually assessed, it is unclear which rodent responses are analogous. Stimulated heart rate appears to be consistent in animal and human studies, although at-risk subjects appear to be more, rather than less sensitive to alcohol using this measure. The hormone and electrophysiological data offer strong possibilities of understanding the neurobiological mechanisms, but the rodent data in particular are rather sparse and unsystematic. Therefore, we suggest that more effort is still needed to collect data using refined measures designed to be more directly comparable in humans and animals. Additionally, the genetically mediated mechanisms underlying this endophenotype need to be characterized further across species. PMID:20148776

Crabbe, John C.; Bell, Richard L.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

2010-01-01

10

Diffusion MRI of Rodent Glioma at 21T National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

E-print Network

Diffusion MRI of Rodent Glioma at 21T National High Magnetic Field Laboratory NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging Facility User Program, Florida State University In-vivo sodium and proton diffusion demonstrate with corresponding alterations of tumors' water diffusion is attracting particular attention in the efforts

Weston, Ken

11

Reciprocal chromosome painting between three laboratory rodent species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory mouse (Mus musculus, 2n = 40), the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus, 2n = 22), and the golden (Syrian) hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, 2n = 44) are common laboratory animals, extensively used in biomedical research. In contrast with the mouse genome, which was\\u000a sequenced and well characterized, the hamster species has been set aside. We constructed a chromosome paint set

Svetlana A. Romanenko; Polina L. Perelman; Natalya A. Serdukova; Vladimir A. Trifonov; Larisa S. Biltueva; Jinhuan Wang; Tangliang Li; Wenhui Nie; Patricia C. M. O’Brien; Vitaly T. Volobouev; Roscoe Stanyon; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith; Fengtang Yang; Alexander S. Graphodatsky

2006-01-01

12

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

2009-01-01

13

Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers  

PubMed Central

After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

2008-01-01

14

Collection and preparation of rodent embryonic samples for transcriptome study.  

PubMed

The need for large-scale collection of rodent embryos and individual embryonic tissues for genomic and proteomic studies requires modification of traditional practices of embryo necropsy. The sample intended for transcriptome study should be rapidly dissected and stabilized to preserve its molecular integrity. The retrieval of high-quality RNA, DNA, and proteins from the target tissue is crucial for informative molecular analysis (e.g., gene profiling on microarray platform). We present a reliable method of collection and preparation of rodent embryos for genomic studies supported by detailed protocols and RNA extraction results for different stages of mouse embryonic development. PMID:24318829

Golubeva, Yelena; Symer, David

2014-01-01

15

A Bead-Based Multiplex Assay for the Detection of DNA Viruses Infecting Laboratory Rodents  

PubMed Central

The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association (FELASA) recommends screening of laboratory rodents and biological materials for a broad variety of bacterial agents, viruses, and parasites. Methods commonly used to date for pathogen detection are neither cost-effective nor time- and animal-efficient or uniform. However, an infection even if silent alters experimental results through changing the animals’ physiology and increases inter-individual variability. As a consequence higher numbers of animals and experiments are needed for valid and significant results. We developed a novel high-throughput multiplex assay, called rodent DNA virus finder (rDVF) for the simultaneous identification of 24 DNA viruses infecting mice and rats. We detected all 24 DNA viruses with high specificity and reproducibility. Detection limits for the different DNA viruses varied between 10 and 1000 copies per PCR. The validation of rDVF was done with DNA isolated from homogenised organs amplified by pathogen specific primers in one multiplex PCR. The biotinylated amplicons were detected via hybridisation to specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to spectrally distinct sets of fluorescent Luminex beads. In conclusion, rDVF may have the potential to replace conventional testing and may simplify and improve routine detection of DNA viruses infecting rodents. PMID:24835244

Hofler, Daniela; Nicklas, Werner; Mauter, Petra; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

2014-01-01

16

CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

17

Effect of Weak Acid Hypochlorous Solution on Selected Viruses and Bacteria of Laboratory Rodents  

PubMed Central

Weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) is known to have efficacy for inactivating pathogens and to be relatively safe with respect to the live body. Based on these advantages, many animal facilities have recently been introducing WAHS for daily cleaning of animal houses. In this study, we determined the effect of WAHS in inactivating specific pathogens of laboratory rodents and pathogens of opportunistic infection. WAHS with an actual chloride concentration of 60 ppm and a pH value of 6.0 was generated using purpose-built equipment. One volume of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with 9 or 99 volumes of WAHS (×10 and ×100 reaction) for various periods (0.5, 1, and 5 min) at 25°C. After incubation, the remaining infectious viruses and live bacteria were determined by plaque assay or culture. In the ×100 reaction mixture, infectious viruses and live bacteria could not be detected for any of the pathogens examined even with the 0.5-min incubation. However, the effects for MHV, B. bronchiseptica, and P. aeruginosa were variable in the ×10 reaction mixture with the 0.5- and 1-min incubations. Sufficient effects were obtained by elongation of the reaction time to 5 min. In the case of MHV, reducing organic substances in the virus stock resulted in the WAHS being completely effective. WAHS is recommended for daily cleaning in animal facilities but should be used properly in order to obtain a sufficient effect, which includes such things as using a large enough volume to reduce effects of organic substances. PMID:24770639

Taharaguchi, Motoko; Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Yamada, Yasuko K.

2014-01-01

18

Transmission Study of Andes Hantavirus Infection in Wild Sigmodontine Rodents†  

PubMed Central

Our study was designed to contribute to an understanding of the timing and conditions under which transmission of Andes hantavirus in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus reservoir populations takes place. Mice were caged in test habitats consisting of steel drums containing holding cages, where seronegative rodents were exposed to wild seropositive individuals by freely sharing the same cage or being separated by a wire mesh. Tests were also performed for potential viral transmission to mice from excrement-tainted bedding in the cages. Andes virus transmitted efficiently; from 130 attempts with direct contact, 12.3% resulted in virus transmission. However, if we consider only those rodents that proved to be infectious, from 93 attempts we obtained 16 infected animals (17.2%). Twelve of them resulted from intraspecies O. longicaudatus encounters where male mice were differentially affected and 4 resulted from O. longicaudatus to Abrothrix olivaceus. Experiments using Abrothrix longipilis as receptors were not successful. Transmission was not observed between wire mesh-separated animals, and mice were not infected from excrement-tainted bedding. Bites seemed not to be a requisite for oral transmission. Genomic viral RNA was amplified in two out of three saliva samples from seropositive rodents, but it was not detected in urine samples obtained by vesicle puncture from two other infected rodents. Immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against Andes (AND) hantavirus proteins, revealed strong reactions in the lung and salivary glands, supporting the possibility of oral transmission. Our study suggests that AND hantavirus may be principally transmitted via saliva or saliva aerosols rather than via feces and urine. PMID:15479837

Padula, P.; Figueroa, R.; Navarrete, M.; Pizarro, E.; Cadiz, R.; Bellomo, C.; Jofre, C.; Zaror, L.; Rodriguez, E.; Murua, R.

2004-01-01

19

Genetic structure and inter-generic relationship of closed colony of laboratory rodents based on RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic analysis was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three commonly used laboratory bred rodent genera viz. mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as sampled from the breeding colony maintained at the Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow. In this study, 60 samples, 20 from each genus, were analyzed for evaluation of genetic structure of rodent stocks based on polymorphic bands using RAPD markers. Thirty five random primers were assessed for RAPD analysis. Out of 35, only 20 primers generated a total of 56.88 % polymorphic bands among mice, rats and guinea pigs. The results revealed significantly variant and distinct fingerprint patterns specific to each of the genus. Within-genera analysis, the highest (89.0 %) amount of genetic homogeneity was observed in mice samples and the least (79.3 %) were observed in guinea pig samples. The amount of genetic homogeneity was observed very high within all genera. The average genetic diversity index observed was low (0.045) for mice and high (0.094) for guinea pigs. The inter-generic distances were maximum (0.8775) between mice and guinea pigs; and the minimum (0.5143) between rats and mice. The study proved that the RAPD markers are useful as genetic markers for assessment of genetic structure as well as inter-generic variability assessments. PMID:25074272

Kumar, Mahadeo; Kumar, Sharad

2014-11-01

20

Ecologic studies of rodent reservoirs: their relevance for human health.  

PubMed Central

Within the past few years, the number of "new" human diseases associated with small-mammal reservoirs has increased dramatically, stimulating renewed interest in reservoir ecology research. A consistent, integrative approach to such research allows direct comparisons between studies, contributes to the efficient use of resources and data, and increases investigator safety. We outline steps directed toward understanding vertebrate host ecology as it relates to human disease and illustrate the relevance of each step by using examples from studies of hosts associated with rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses. PMID:9866729

Mills, J. N.; Childs, J. E.

1998-01-01

21

Studying Autism in Rodent Models: Reconciling Endophenotypes with Comorbidities  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients commonly exhibit a variety of comorbid traits including seizures, anxiety, aggressive behavior, gastrointestinal problems, motor deficits, abnormal sensory processing, and sleep disturbances for which the cause is unknown. These features impact negatively on daily life and can exaggerate the effects of the core diagnostic traits (social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors). Studying endophenotypes relevant to both core and comorbid features of ASD in rodent models can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we review the characterization of endophenotypes in a selection of environmental, genetic, and behavioral rodent models of ASD. In addition to exhibiting core ASD-like behaviors, each of these animal models display one or more endophenotypes relevant to comorbid features including altered sensory processing, seizure susceptibility, anxiety-like behavior, and disturbed motor functions, suggesting that these traits are indicators of altered biological pathways in ASD. However, the study of behaviors paralleling comorbid traits in animal models of ASD is an emerging field and further research is needed to assess altered gastrointestinal function, aggression, and disorders of sleep onset across models. Future studies should include investigation of these endophenotypes in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of this complex disorder. PMID:23898259

Argyropoulos, Andrew; Gilby, Krista L.; Hill-Yardin, Elisa L.

2013-01-01

22

16S ribosomal DNA sequence-based identification of bacteria in laboratory rodents: a practical approach in laboratory animal bacteriology diagnostics.  

PubMed

Correct identification of bacteria is crucial for the management of rodent colonies. Some bacteria are difficult to identify phenotypically outside reference laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing as a means of identifying a collection of 30 isolates of rodent origin which are conventionally difficult to identify. Sequence analysis of the first approximate 720 to 880?bp of the 5'- end of 16S rDNA identified 25 isolates (83.33%) with ?99% similarity to a sequence of a type strain, whereas three isolates (10%) displayed a sequence similarity ?97% but <99% to the type strain sequences. These similarity scores were used to define identification to species and genus levels, respectively. Two of the 30 isolates (6.67%) displayed a sequence similarity of ?95 but <97% to the reference strains and were thus allocated to a family. This technique allowed us to document the association of mice with bacteria relevant for the colonies management such as Pasteurellaceae, Bordetella hinzii or Streptococcus danieliae. In addition, human potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Paracoccus yeei or others not yet reported in mouse bacterial species such as Leucobacter chironomi, Neisseria perflava and Pantoea dispersa were observed. In conclusion, the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, with higher performance characteristics than the classical phenotypic methods, for identification of laboratory animal bacteria. For the first time this method allowed us to document the association of certain bacterial species with the laboratory mouse. PMID:24876090

Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Köhrer, Karl; Gougoula, Christina; Sager, Martin

2014-10-01

23

Rodent treadmill for inhalation toxicological studies and respirometry  

SciTech Connect

A 10-runway treadmill was enclosed for inhalation toxicological studies of rodents under exercise exposure to environmental pollutants. The exposure system was lined with sheet stainless steel to minimize scrubbing of charged particles and reactive gases. Average metabolic gas exchange of exercising animals was derived from measurements of inlet or outlet airflow and data from an O/sub 2/ analyzer in conjunction with either a CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/ analyzer. An airflow rate of 400 l x min-1 ensured a response time of 1 min to reach 95% of a step change in metabolic rate and held scrubbing losses of an O/sub 3/ test atmosphere to less than 2% of treadmill inlet concentration. Gas exchange averaged for 10 rats during incremental exercise up to their highest collective performance was similar to published data for rats tested individually.

Mautz, W.J.; Phalen, R.F.; McClure, T.R.; Bufalino, C.

1985-02-01

24

STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL AND BEHAVIORAL TOXICOLOGY OF SUBSTITUTE CHEMICALS IN MICROTINE RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute oral LD50 and 30-day dietary subacute LC50 studies of 10 selected pesticides were evaluated in microtine rodents. As a means to developing new animal model systems, four species of microtine rodents including Microtus ochrogaster (MO), Microtus canicaudus (MC), Microtus pen...

25

Seed choice by rodents: learning or inheritance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning plays a central role in animal life, and it has received special attention in the context of foraging. In this study,\\u000a we have tested whether learning operates in seed choices by rodents using the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus) and Holm oak (Quercus ilex) acorns as a model. At the laboratory, those rodents captured in the field during the acorn

Alberto Muñoz; Raúl Bonal

2008-01-01

26

OCT-aided anastomosis platform study in the rodent model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.

Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

2014-02-01

27

Comparative study of pig-rodent somatic cell hybrids.  

PubMed

The pig chromosome complement of six different types of pig-rodent hybrid cell lines was examined by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with a porcine SINE probe. The cell lines were obtained by fusing pig lymphocytes with cells of the Chinese hamster cell lines wg3h, BK14-150 and E36, and of the mouse cell lines NSO, PU and LMTK-. The hybrids were analysed with respect to: (1) the number of pig chromosomes, (2) the type of pig chromosomes, (3) the occurrence of pig-rodent chromosome translocations, and (4) the presence of pig chromosome fragments. The results show that the number of pig chromosomes varied within and among hybrid cell lines. The pig-hamster hybrids mainly retained nontelocentric pig chromosomes, whereas the pig-mouse hybrids also retained telocentric pig chromosomes. Pig-rodent chromosome translocations were found in all types of hybrids, but the incidence was in general low. Chromosome fragments were abundant in BK14-150 hybrids, and rare in most other hybrid cell lines. It is concluded that the SINE probe is a useful tool to make a preliminary characterization of the porcine chromosome complement of pig-rodent somatic cell hybrids. The results of this characterization can be used to select hybrids for further cytogenetic analysis. Furthermore, our data show that different rodent cell lines will have to be used as fusion partners for the production of hybrids when constructing a panel informative for all pig chromosomes. PMID:7818166

Zijlstra, C; Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A

1994-10-01

28

Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals.  

PubMed Central

Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed using laboratory rodents offered diets containing fish caught in polluted waters. Induced cancers in rodents would corroborate field observations in fish; positive results from these studies would provide further evidence about potential human health hazards from eating substantial amounts of chemically contaminated fish. Nonetheless, fish and aquatic organisms should be viewed as environmental biological monitors of pollution or of potential human health hazards, and authorities responsible for assuring clean and safe rivers, bodies of water, and biota should give more attention to these valid biological indicators or sentinels of environmental pollution. Consequently, fish and other sea creatures alone should serve as alarms regarding whether water areas constitute public health hazards. PMID:2050050

Huff, J; Bucher, J; Yang, R

1991-01-01

29

Lung function measurements in rodents in safety pharmacology studies.  

PubMed

The ICH guideline S7A requires safety pharmacology tests including measurements of pulmonary function. In the first step - as part of the "core battery" - lung function tests in conscious animals are requested. If potential adverse effects raise concern for human safety, these should be explored in a second step as a "follow-up study." For these two stages of safety pharmacology testing, both non-invasive and invasive techniques are needed which should be as precise and reliable as possible. A short overview of typical in vivo measurement techniques is given, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and out of these the non-invasive head-out body plethysmography and the invasive but repeatable body plethysmography in orotracheally intubated rodents are presented in detail. For validation purposes the changes in the respective parameters such as tidal midexpiratory flow (EF(50)) or lung resistance have been recorded in the same animals in typical bronchoconstriction models and compared. In addition, the technique of head-out body plethysmography has been shown to be useful to measure lung function in juvenile rats starting from day two of age. This allows safety pharmacology testing and toxicological studies in juvenile animals as a model for the young developing organism as requested by the regulatory authorities (e.g., EMEA Guideline 1/2008). It is concluded that both invasive and non-invasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting effects and alterations on the respiratory system with different selectivity and area of operation. The use of both techniques in a large number of studies in mice and rats in the last years have demonstrated that they provide useful and reliable information on pulmonary mechanics in safety pharmacology and toxicology testing, in investigations of respiratory disorders, and in pharmacological efficacy studies. PMID:22973226

Hoymann, Heinz Gerd

2012-01-01

30

Lung Function Measurements in Rodents in Safety Pharmacology Studies  

PubMed Central

The ICH guideline S7A requires safety pharmacology tests including measurements of pulmonary function. In the first step – as part of the “core battery” – lung function tests in conscious animals are requested. If potential adverse effects raise concern for human safety, these should be explored in a second step as a “follow-up study”. For these two stages of safety pharmacology testing, both non-invasive and invasive techniques are needed which should be as precise and reliable as possible. A short overview of typical in vivo measurement techniques is given, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and out of these the non-invasive head-out body plethysmography and the invasive but repeatable body plethysmography in orotracheally intubated rodents are presented in detail. For validation purposes the changes in the respective parameters such as tidal midexpiratory flow (EF50) or lung resistance have been recorded in the same animals in typical bronchoconstriction models and compared. In addition, the technique of head-out body plethysmography has been shown to be useful to measure lung function in juvenile rats starting from day two of age. This allows safety pharmacology testing and toxicological studies in juvenile animals as a model for the young developing organism as requested by the regulatory authorities (e.g., EMEA Guideline 1/2008). It is concluded that both invasive and non-invasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting effects and alterations on the respiratory system with different selectivity and area of operation. The use of both techniques in a large number of studies in mice and rats in the last years have demonstrated that they provide useful and reliable information on pulmonary mechanics in safety pharmacology and toxicology testing, in investigations of respiratory disorders, and in pharmacological efficacy studies. PMID:22973226

Hoymann, Heinz Gerd

2012-01-01

31

Electromechanical design of a body weight support system for a therapeutic robot for rodent studies  

E-print Network

As part of an ongoing effort to better understand and treat locomotor disorders, an over-ground therapeutic robot prototype to study recovery of locomotion after spinal cord injury in rodents is under development. One key ...

Mayalu, Michaëlle Ntala

2010-01-01

32

Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rodents to study the neurobiology of motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become increasingly important to assess mood states in laboratory animals. Tests that reflect reward, reduced ability to experience reward (anhedonia) and aversion (dysphoria) are in high demand because many psychiatric conditions that are currently intractable in humans (e.g., major depression, bipolar disorder, addiction) are characterized by dysregulated motivation. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) can be utilized in rodents (rats, mice)

Elena H Chartoff; William A Carlezon

2007-01-01

33

Cryptosporidium spp. in Wild, Laboratory, and Pet Rodents in China: Prevalence and Molecular Characterization? †  

PubMed Central

To understand the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in rodents in China and to assess the potential role of rodents as a source for human cryptosporidiosis, 723 specimens from 18 rodent species were collected from four provinces of China and examined between August 2007 and December 2008 by microscopy after using Sheather's sugar flotation and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 83 specimens, with an overall prevalence of 11.5%. Phodopus sungorus, Phodopus campbelli, and Rattus tanezumi were new reported hosts of Cryptosporidium. The genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium strains in microscopy-positive specimens were further identified by PCR and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA and the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes. In addition to Cryptosporidium parvum, C. muris, C. andersoni, C. wrairi, ferret genotype, and mouse genotype I, four new Cryptosporidium genotypes were identified, including the hamster genotype, chipmunk genotype III, and rat genotypes II and III. Mixed Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were found in 10.8% of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens. Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene showed that C. parvum strains in pet Siberian chipmunks and hamsters were all of the subtype IIdA15G1, which was found previously in a human isolate in The Netherlands and lambs in Spain. The gp60 sequences of C. wrairi and the Cryptosporidium ferret genotype and mouse genotype I were also obtained. These findings suggest that pet rodents may be potential reservoirs of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes. PMID:19820152

Lv, Chaochao; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen; Wang, Helei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Xinwei; Ren, Xupeng; Qi, Meng; Xiao, Lihua

2009-01-01

34

Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity  

PubMed Central

According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the recommended 60 min/day of physical activity and 92% of adolescents fail to achieve this goal [Troiano et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 40, 2008]. Nonetheless, invasive mechanistic studies in children linking diminished physical activity with metabolic maladies are lacking for obvious ethical reasons. The rodent wheel lock (WL) model was adopted by our laboratory and others to study how different organ systems of juvenile rats respond to a cessation of daily physical activity. Our WL model houses rats in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels starting at 28 days of age. After a certain period of voluntary running (3 to 6 wk), the wheels are locked, thus preventing the rats' primary source of physical activity. The studies discussed herein suggest that obesity-associated maladies including skeletal muscle insulin resistance, hypothalamic leptin resistance, fatty acid oxidation impairments in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and endothelial dysfunction are initiated in juvenile animals that are restrained from voluntary exercise via WL. The use of the juvenile rodent WL or other inactivity models will continue to provide a powerful clinical translational tool that can be used for primordial prevention of human childhood obesity. PMID:22696577

Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold

2012-01-01

35

AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet.  

PubMed

For sixteen years, the American Institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets, AIN-76 and AIN-76A, have been used extensively around the world. Because of numerous nutritional and technical problems encountered with the diet during this period, it was revised. Two new formulations were derived: AIN-93G for growth, pregnancy and lactation, and AIN-93M for adult maintenance. Some major differences in the new formulation of AIN-93G compared with AIN-76A are as follows: 7 g soybean oil/100 g diet was substituted for 5 g corn oil/100 g diet to increase the amount of linolenic acid; cornstarch was substituted for sucrose; the amount of phosphorus was reduced to help eliminate the problem of kidney calcification in female rats; L-cystine was substituted for DL-methionine as the amino acid supplement for casein, known to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids; manganese concentration was lowered to one-fifth the amount in the old diet; the amounts of vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin B-12 were increased; and molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium were added to the mineral mix. For the AIN-93M maintenance diet, the amount of fat was lowered to 40 g/kg diet from 70 g/kg diet, and the amount of casein to 140 g/kg from 200 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet. Because of a better balance of essential nutrients, the AIN-93 diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents. PMID:8229312

Reeves, P G; Nielsen, F H; Fahey, G C

1993-11-01

36

Seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in California.  

PubMed Central

A total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to Sin Nombre virus. All nonrodent species were antibody negative. Among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. Of 1,921 Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. The highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among P. maniculatus on Santa Cruz Island, off the southern California coast. Prevalence of antibodies among deer mice trapped near sites of human cases (26.8% of 164) was significantly higher than that of mice from other sites (odds ratio = 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 11.6). Antibody prevalence increased with rising elevation (> 1,200 meters) and correlated with a spatial cluster of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the Sierra Nevada. PMID:9204301

Jay, M.; Ascher, M. S.; Chomel, B. B.; Madon, M.; Sesline, D.; Enge, B. A.; Hjelle, B.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E.; Kass, P. H.; Reilly, K.

1997-01-01

37

Why Can't Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study  

PubMed Central

The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

2013-01-01

38

Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.  

PubMed

The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

2013-01-01

39

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Astronauts on the Moon will go in and out of the base for various activities, and will inevitably bring some dust into the living quarters. Depressurizing the airlock so that astronauts can exit for outdoor activities could also bring dust inside the airlock to the habitable area. Concerned about the potential health effects on astronauts exposed to airborne lunar dust, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust. The toxicity data also will be needed by toxicologists to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts residing in the lunar habitat and by environmental engineers to design an appropriate dust mitigation strategy. We conducted a study to examine biomarkers of toxicity (inflammation and cytotoxicity) in lung lavage fluids from mice intrapharyngeally instilled with lunar dust samples; we also collected lung tissue from the mice for histopathological examination 3 months after the dust instillation. Reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) having known toxicities and industrial exposure limits were studied in parallel with lunar dust so that the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. A 6-month histopathology study has been planned. These instillation experiments will be followed by inhalation studies, which are more labor intensive and technologically difficult. The animal inhalation studies will be conducted first with an appropriate lunar dust simulant to ensure that the exposure techniques to be used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of these studies collectively will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and enable us to establish exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Taylor, L.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.

2009-01-01

40

Rodent-repellent studies. III. Advanced studies in the evaluation of chemical repellents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to bridge the gap between preliminary screening of chemicals for potential rodent repellency and the application ofthese compounds to paper cartons, more advanced studies in the evaluation ofpromising materials have been carried out. These studies have resulted in: (1) a modification of the food acceptance technique which eliminates doubtful compounds and also provides a closer analogy to the ultimate goal, and (2) a method for rapidly testing chemicals incorporated in paper. When the results of these latter tests are expressed as a function of time, it can be shown that a distinct correlation exists between the deterrency exhibited by treated paper and the repellency of treated food.

Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

1949-01-01

41

Chimeric rodents with humanized liver: bridging the preclinical/clinical trial gap in ADME/toxicity studies.  

PubMed

1. Immunocompromised mice with humanized livers were developed in the mid-1990s to allow the study of human hepatotropic viruses, which normally replicate only in higher primates. The production of the uPA/SCID mouse was the vanguard of these models and remains the most widely worked upon model for an ever increasing range of applications. 2. Since toxicology is conducted in laboratory animal species with the implicit intent of predicting the outcome of accidental, or intentional, human exposure, the potential for using an in vivo model with a humanised metabolism opens up the possibility of better predicting the human response following exposure to drugs and industrial chemicals. Chimeric humanised mice provide the tool for bridging between the non-clinical laboratory safety and metabolism studies, carried out in rodent and non-rodent species, and the first in man clinical trials. 3. Chimeric mice carrying a human liver have now been validated against a wide range of different drugs and chemical classes, and have been shown to clearly differentiate metabolically from the recipient mouse, and to show metabolic pathways more similar to those expected from human liver. 4. This review critically appraises the available animal models carrying human livers and where future developments would improve the existing systems. PMID:24320885

Foster, John R; Lund, Garry; Sapelnikova, Svetlana; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Kneteman, Norman M

2014-01-01

42

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

43

Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls  

EPA Science Inventory

Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

44

Selecting the Appropriate Rodent Diet for Endocrine Disruptor Research and Testing Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting the optimum diet for endocrine disruptor (ED) research and testing studies in rodents is critical because the diet may determine the sensitivity to detect or properly evaluate an ED compound. Dietary estrogens can pro- foundly influence many molecular and cellular event ac- tions on estrogen receptors and estrogen-sensitive genes. The source, concentration, relative potency, and signifi- cance of dietary

Julius E. Thigpen; Kenneth D. R. Setchell; H. E. Saunders; J. K. Haseman; M. G. Grant; D. B. Forsythe

2004-01-01

45

LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT RODENT COMMUNITY: 13 YEARS OF COMPETITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

De11arrr)letzt of Blo\\/ogj I nrrersrri of \\\\ert Zleuco -Ilbi(querque \\\\el$ Mekrco 57131 C S,4 d4hstract. An experimental study of competition between kangaroo rats (Dipodornys spp.) and other sympatric desert rodents using exclosures with \\

EDWARD J HESKE; JAMES H BROWN; SHAHROUKH MISTRY

1994-01-01

46

Draft Genome Sequences of Eight Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species Isolated from Both Laboratory and Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequences of eight enterohepatic Helicobacter species, H. muridarum, H. trogontum, H. typhlonius, and five unnamed helicobacters, are presented here. Using laboratory mice pervasively infected with helicobacters, we characterized the presence of known virulence factors. PMID:25428971

Sheh, Alexander; Shen, Zeli

2014-01-01

47

Issues in the Design and Interpretation of Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies in Rodents: Approaches to Dose Selection  

EPA Science Inventory

For more than three decades chronic studies in rodents have been the benchmark for assessing the potential long-term toxicity, and particularly the carcinogenicity, of chemicals. With doses typically administered for about 2 years (18 months to lifetime), the rodent bioassay has ...

48

Thirteen week rodent feeding study with processed fractions from herbicide tolerant (DP-Ø73496-4) canola.  

PubMed

The potential health effects of meal and oil processed from seed of genetically modified (GM) canola plants (OECD unique identifier: DP-Ø73496-4; hereafter referred to as 73496 canola) containing an insert that expresses the GAT4621 protein conferring tolerance to nonselective herbicidal ingredient glyphosate were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were administered diets containing dehulled, defatted toasted canola meal (DH meal) and refined/bleached/deodorized canola oil (RBD oil) processed from seed of plants that were untreated (73496), sprayed in-field with glyphosate (73496GLY), the non-transgenic near-isogenic (091; control), or one of four commercially available non-GM reference canola varieties (45H72, 45H73, 46A65, 44A89). All diets were formulated as a modification of the standard laboratory chow PMI® Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet® 5002 (PMI® 5002). DH canola meal and RBD canola oil replaced all commodity soybean fractions typically incorporated in PMI® 5002. No toxicologically significant differences were observed between the test and control groups in this study. The results reported herein support the conclusion that DH meal and RBD oil processed from seed of 73496 canola are as safe and nutritious as DH meal and RBD oil processed from seed of non-GM canola. PMID:24491265

Delaney, Bryan; Appenzeller, Laura M; Roper, Jason M; Mukerji, Pushkor; Hoban, Denise; Sykes, Greg P

2014-04-01

49

Methods for studying rodent intestinal lipoprotein production and metabolism  

PubMed Central

Lipid absorption begins with the digestion of dietary triacylglycerol and ultimately results in the secretion of triacylglycerol in chylomicrons into the lymphatics. Additionally, the intestine also secretes numerous proteins and peptides involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in response to food. Ultimately, chylomicrons and these proteins, peptides, and hormones are found in lymph. The lymph fistula rat model has traditionally been used to study this intestinal absorption of nutrients, especially lipids, but recently, this model has also been used for studying the secretion of hormones by the small intestine. The protocols described in this article include the lymph fistula rat and mouse model, as well as in vivo chylomicron metabolism studies. These experimental models are helpful for the study of metabolic phenotypes, the characterization of intestinal lipid absorption and transport, and determining peripheral metabolism of intestinally derived lipoproteins. PMID:23024926

Kohan, Alison B.; Howles, Philip N.; Tso, Patrick

2012-01-01

50

Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers  

Microsoft Academic Search

After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research\\u000a has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and\\u000a rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal\\u000a is to further extend the

Vera Gorbunova; Michael J. Bozzella; Andrei Seluanov

2008-01-01

51

Sublingual vein injection in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A simple and rapid technique for intravenous IllJection into the sub- lingual veins of common laboratory rodents is described. No prior pre- paration other than light anaesthesia is required and repeated injections can be made into the same vein. 35 The major problem associated with intravenous administration in common laboratory rodents is the inaccessibility of the veins. In most

H. B. Waynforth; R. Parkin

1969-01-01

52

Field Studies versus Laboratory Studies, Degradation Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of laboratory biodegradation half-lives to predict rates of degradation in the field has been studied in several recent publications. In general, laboratory studies are not accurate predictors of field degradation rates. The reasons for this have included: changes to the soil during preparation steps or storage of the soil, the static conditions of the laboratory study versus dynamic

Philip Howard

53

Precocial rodents as new experimental model to study the effects of altered gravitational conditions on fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far the experiments in altered gravitational conditions on the prenatal development have used altricial rodent species.\\u000a The aim of this study is to explore the differences in the intrauterine development of locomotor system in precocial (guinea\\u000a pig, spiny mouse) and altricial (rat, mouse, and golden hamster) rodent species and to determine which of these mammalian\\u000a groups represent a better

Slobodan Sekuli?; Ksenija Boži?; Aleksandar Bozi?; Jelena Borota; Milka ?uli?

2006-01-01

54

Laboratory studies of volcanic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the fluid dynamics volcanic eruptions by laboratory experiment is described, and the important fluid-dynamic processes that can be examined in laboratory models are discussed in detail. In preliminary experiments, pure gases are erupted from small reservoirs. The gases used are Freon 12 and Freon 22, two gases of high molecular weight and high density that are good

Susan Werner Kieffer; Bradford Sturtevant

1984-01-01

55

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

56

Activity of and effect of subcutaneous treatment with the broad-spectrum antiviral lectin griffithsin in two laboratory rodent models.  

PubMed

Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red-alga-derived lectin that binds the terminal mannose residues of N-linked glycans found on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and other enveloped viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Ebola virus. GRFT displays no human T-cell mitogenic activity and does not induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in treated human cell lines. However, despite the growing evidence showing the broad-spectrum nanomolar or better antiviral activity of GRFT, no study has reported a comprehensive assessment of GRFT safety as a potential systemic antiviral treatment. The results presented in this work show that minimal toxicity was induced by a range of single and repeated daily subcutaneous doses of GRFT in two rodent species, although we noted treatment-associated increases in spleen and liver mass suggestive of an antidrug immune response. The drug is systemically distributed, accumulating to high levels in the serum and plasma after subcutaneous delivery. Further, we showed that serum from GRFT-treated animals retained antiviral activity against HIV-1-enveloped pseudoviruses in a cell-based neutralization assay. Overall, our data presented here show that GRFT accumulates to relevant therapeutic concentrations which are tolerated with minimal toxicity. These studies support further development of GRFT as a systemic antiviral therapeutic agent against enveloped viruses, although deimmunizing the molecule may be necessary if it is to be used in long-term treatment of chronic viral infections. PMID:24145548

Barton, Christopher; Kouokam, J Calvin; Lasnik, Amanda B; Foreman, Oded; Cambon, Alexander; Brock, Guy; Montefiori, David C; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; McCormick, Alison A; O'Keefe, Barry R; Palmer, Kenneth E

2014-01-01

57

Optimal decision-making in mammals: insights from a robot study of rodent texture discrimination.  

PubMed

Texture perception is studied here in a physical model of the rat whisker system consisting of a robot equipped with a biomimetic vibrissal sensor. Investigations of whisker motion in rodents have led to several explanations for texture discrimination, such as resonance or stick-slips. Meanwhile, electrophysiological studies of decision-making in monkeys have suggested a neural mechanism of evidence accumulation to threshold for competing percepts, described by a probabilistic model of Bayesian sequential analysis. For our robot whisker data, we find that variable reaction-time decision-making with sequential analysis performs better than the fixed response-time maximum-likelihood estimation. These probabilistic classifiers also use whatever available features of the whisker signals aid the discrimination, giving improved performance over a single-feature strategy, such as matching the peak power spectra of whisker vibrations. These results cast new light on how the various proposals for texture discrimination in rodents depend on the whisker contact mechanics and suggest the possibility of a common account of decision-making across mammalian species. PMID:22279155

Lepora, Nathan F; Fox, Charles W; Evans, Mathew H; Diamond, Mathew E; Gurney, Kevin; Prescott, Tony J

2012-07-01

58

Linking human behaviour to environmental effects using a case study of urban rodent control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control is common in many land use activities and can affect non?target species. Our objectives were to evaluate, among chemical rodent control product (rodenticide) users, awareness of non?target effects on wildlife and willingness to change rodent control behaviour given knowledge of possible local non?target effects. Approximately half of respondents to a resident survey in California (USA) practised rodent control;

Anita T. Morzillo; Angela G. Mertig

2011-01-01

59

A Study on the Glycan Specificity of Natural Antibody Repertoires in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Inbred strains of mice and rats are widely used in preclinical investigations evaluating the effectiveness of glycan-based biomecines, however, the glycan specificity repertoires of serum Abs in rodents have not been fully characterized. In the present study, serum antibodies in naïve mice and rats of different inbred strains were analyzed for specificity against 4 representative carbohydrate structures including PGA (1,4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acids), ?-glucan, mannan and ?-glucan (dextran). Mannan was not recognized by serum Abs from any of the mouse and rat strains. Serum IgM in naïve F344, BN and Lewis rats recognized PGA and ?-glucan and, less strongly, dextran. High titer circulating IgM against PGA were found in mice of BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/NeH and BXSB strains. C3H/NeH was the only strain which also produced low titer IgM against ?-glucan and dextran. Age-related production of high titer IgM, IgA and IgG Abs against ?-glucan was observed in BXSB mice. Intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with ?-glucan elicited strong IgM responses, while immunization with PGA also led to an increase of anti-PGA IgM Ab titers. These results provide useful information on the characteristics of glycan-specific natural antibody repertoires in rodents. PMID:20003821

Dai, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

2009-01-01

60

Studies on the immunobiology of infections with the metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents.  

E-print Network

??The relationships among parasite growth, responses to infection and host genetic factors were examined in rodents infected with Echinococcus multilocularis. Mongolian gerbils, cotton rats and… (more)

Kroeze, Wesley Kars

1987-01-01

61

The structure of rodent faunas associated with arenaviral infections  

PubMed Central

The biogeographical examination of rodent faunas associated with arenaviruses reveals two distinct patterns. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus is associated primarily with a single murid species, Mus musculus, although it is also known to cause laboratory infections in other species. On the other hand, the arenaviruses from the Western hemisphere are associated exclusively with a large and diverse group of cricetid rodents. Studies to date, although limited, have not demonstrated their association with any other rodent groups, although in South America alone at least twelve other rodent families are known. Evidence at the present time indicates that Lassa virus is only associated with a common African rodent, Mastomys natalensis. From this limited evidence it is as yet difficult to determine whether Lassa virus will follow the pattern of the South American arenaviruses, most of which are known from several species of rodents, or that of LCM virus, which appears to be associated with only a single rodent species. In this paper, the history and structure of South American, Eurasian, and African rodent faunas are described. PMID:182403

Arata, A. A.; Gratz, N. G.

1975-01-01

62

Rodent repellent studies. IV. Preparation and properties of trinitrobenzene-aryl amine complexes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are presented on methods of preparation, chemical arid physical characteristics, toxicity, and repellency to rodents of complexes of symmetrical trinitrohenzene with various aromatic amines: When applied in suitable carriers or incorporated in plastic .films, members of this series ofmaterials were shown to offer significant increases in time required by wild rodents to damage common packaging materials.

DeWitt, J.B.; Bellack, E.; Welch, J.F.

1953-01-01

63

A Review of the Methods of Studies on Infant Ultrasound Production and Maternal Retrieval in Small Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic vocalizations or calls produced by young rodents have been associated with aspects of maternal behavior, in particular retrieving. We reviewed the methods of study used by investigators on each topic, focusing on intrinsic or subject variables and extrinsic or experimental variables. Intrinsic variables included the species studied, genotypes employed, number and sex composition of the litters, and the ages

Martin E. Hahn; Maria J. Lavooy

2005-01-01

64

Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO{sub 2}-enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe [Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Z.A. des Suhards, 53940 Le Genest-Saint-Isle (France); Picard, Sandra, E-mail: spicard@porsolt.co [Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Z.A. des Suhards, 53940 Le Genest-Saint-Isle (France)

2010-09-15

65

Laboratory studies of volcanic jets.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory experiments to study the fluid dynamics of violent volcanic eruptions employed pure gases erupted from small reservoirs. The gases used were Freon 12 and Freon 22, both of high molecular weight and high density, to model heavy, particulate- laden volcanic gases; nitrogen, a moderate molecular weight and density gas with well known thermodynamic properties; and He, a low molecular weight and density gas used as an analogue of steam, the dominant gas of most volcanic eruptions.-W.H.B.

Kieffer, S.W.; Sturtevant, B.

1984-01-01

66

[Serologic studies of domestic cats for potential human pathogenic virus infections from wild rodents].  

PubMed

For several viral infections a reservoir in wild rodents has been demonstrated. Some of the agents are known or suspected to be pathogenic for humans. Because improvements in hygiene have reduced direct human contact with rodents, domestic cats could be acting as active transmitters of these viruses from rodents to man. We selected 4 such pathogens--ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis viruses--which, in different ways, may lead to serious human illness: Ortho- and parapoxvirus infections may cause localized pox lesions following direct skin contact. In general, the lesions heal without complications; in immunosuppressed or -deficient individuals, however, infection may generalize and take a dramatic course. Hantaviruses exist in various serotypes with different pathogenicity for human beings, varying from asymptomatic infection to highly fatal disease. In central and northern Europe the Puumala serotype is predominant causing influenza-like symptoms and renal dysfunction. Human infections arise from inhalation of aerosolized excreta of persistently infected rodents. Infections of man associated with encephalomyocarditis virus were demonstrated sporadically in cases of encephalitis and meningitis. In the present study, we investigated in 200 feline serum samples the prevalence of antibodies to ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis virus. All serum samples were from cats that had been allowed to roam outside and to hunt. They were submitted from all parts of Austria for routine diagnosis in 1993. Four per cent of cats showed antibodies to orthopoxviruses with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres of 16-512; because of extensive cross-reactivity, positive samples reacted with all investigated orthopoxviruses (a feline orthopoxvirus recently isolated in Vienna, the reference strain of cowpox virus, Brighton, and vaccinia virus, strain IHD), only varying in titre. The specificity of the results was confirmed by virus neutralisation (VN) test, in which the same sera showed titres of 4-32. These data imply that, at least in Austria, unrecognized or subclinical orthopoxvirus infection in cats is more common than previously thought. In contrast to orthopoxviruses, all serum samples proved negative to parapoxvirus (parapoxvirus bovis 1) in VN test. In the same 200 samples, a seroprevalence of 5% was found to hantavirus (immunofluorescence antibody assay), indicating that domestic cats are susceptible to this virus and that infection is not uncommon in cat populations. Because higher titres were obtained against the Puumala serotype compared to the more pathogenic serotype Hantaan, it is most likely that the cats had experienced Puumala infections. Using HI test, antibodies to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) were demonstrated in only 1.5% of the feline serum samples; although the antibody titres were low (16 and 32, respectively) we consider them specific, because these sera proved positive in VN test as well. Nevertheless, EMCV infection in domestic cats seems to be of low importance. The serological results presented in this paper, together with virological and epidemiological data, indicate that the domestic cat plays an important role only in the transmission of orthopoxviruses to human beings, but not in the case of parapox-, hanta-, and encephalomyocarditis virus. PMID:9409901

Nowotny, N

1996-05-01

67

A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

68

Dietary administration in rodent studies distorts the tissue deposition profile of lanthanum carbonate; brain deposition is a contamination artefact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lanthanum carbonate is a non-calcium phosphate binder used to control hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are undergoing dialysis. Ultrastructurally, lanthanum ions are too large to traverse the tight junctions in the blood–brain barrier, yet tissue distribution studies using dietary administration have reported low concentrations in rodent brain, raising concern about accumulation. To investigate this, tissue lanthanum concentrations

Stephen J. P. Damment; Alan G. Cox; Roger Secker

2009-01-01

69

Comparative studies of diurnal and nocturnal rodents: differences in lifestyle result in alterations in cortical field size and number.  

PubMed

In this study we examine and describe the neuroanatomical organization of sensory cortex in four rodents: laboratory Norway rats (Long Evans; Rattus norvegicus), wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), wild-caught California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), and wild-caught Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). Specifically, we examined the myeloarchitecture and cytochrome oxidase reactivity for several well-identified areas in visual cortex (areas 17, 18, and 19), somatosensory cortex (areas S1, S2 and PV), and auditory cortex [areas A1+AAF (R) and TA] and compared the percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to each of these areas. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have a larger mean percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to visual areas than rats. The difference is due to the greater percentage of cortex devoted to known areas such as area 17 and area 18 and not simply to a difference in the number of visual areas, which ultimately makes this distinction even more pronounced. Furthermore, both rat groups have a larger percentage of the dorsolateral cortex devoted to somatosensory and auditory cortical areas. Differences within groups were also observed. The arboreal squirrel had a larger mean percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to areas 17 and 18 compared with the terrestrial squirrel. The laboratory Norway rat had a larger percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to both somatosensory and auditory areas than the wild-caught Norway rat. Our results indicate that differences in sensory apparatus, use of sensory systems, and niche are reflected in the organization and size of cortical areas. PMID:20886618

Campi, Katharine L; Krubitzer, Leah

2010-11-15

70

An Experimental Approach for Selecting Appropriate Rodent Diets for Research Studies on Metabolic Disorders  

PubMed Central

Diverse high energy diets have been utilized to precipitate obesity and related metabolic disorders in rodent models, though the dietary intervention has not absolutely been standardized. The present study established usage of a customized semipurified normal control diet (NCD) and high fat diet (HFD), for research studies on diet-induced metabolic disorders in albino rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with normal pellet diet (NPD) or customized NCDs I, II, III or HFDs I, II, III for 12 weeks and parameters, namely, body weight, visceral adiposity, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and glucose were evaluated to select an appropriate NCD and HFD. The selected HFD was further evaluated for induction of fatty liver, whilst type 2 diabetes (T2D) induction was confirmed in HFD and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes model in Wistar rats. Amongst different diets tested, NCD-I and HFD-I were selected, since NCD-I exhibited close resemblance to NPD, whereas HFD-I induced metabolic alterations, particularly obesity and dyslipidemia consistently. Moreover, HFD-I elevated terminal hepatic lipids, while HFD-I/STZ treatment augmented insulin resistance index and serum glucose levels significantly indicating effective induction of fatty liver and T2D, respectively. Therefore, customized semipurified NCD-I and HFD-I can be recommended for research studies on diet-induced metabolic disorders in albino Wistar rats. PMID:24151620

Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Ariyattu Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair; Agarwal, Amit

2013-01-01

71

Exercise, Obesity, and Cutaneous Wound Healing: Evidence from Rodent and Human Studies  

PubMed Central

Significance: Impaired cutaneous wound healing is a major health concern. Obesity has been shown in a number of studies to impair wound healing, and chronic nonhealing wounds in obesity and diabetes are a major cause of limb amputations in the United States. Recent Advances: Recent evidence indicates that aberrant wound site inflammation may be an underlying cause for delayed healing. Obesity, diabetes, and other conditions such as stress and aging can result in a chronic low-level inflammatory state, thereby potentially affecting wound healing negatively. Critical Issues: Interventions which can speed the healing rate in individuals with slowly healing or nonhealing wounds are of critical importance. Recently, physical exercise training has been shown to speed healing in both aged and obese mice and in older adults. Exercise is a relatively low-cost intervention strategy which may be able to be used clinically to prevent or treat impairments in the wound-healing process. Future Directions: Little is known about the mechanisms by which exercise speeds healing. Future translational studies should address potential mechanisms for these exercise effects. Additionally, clinical studies in obese humans are necessary to determine if findings in obese rodent models translate to the human population. PMID:24761347

Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

72

A longitudinal study of Junin virus activity in the rodent reservoir of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

We monitored Junin virus (JV) activity in rodent populations for 30 months at seven mark-recapture grids located in agricultural fields and adjacent roadsides and fence lines in endemic and nonendemic areas of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Blood and oral swabs taken from rodents captured at five-week intervals were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for JV antigen (Ag). Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were the most frequently captured rodents, making up 47% and 22% of captures, respectively. Of 41 Ag-positive captures, 37 were C. musculinus and four were C. laucha; 34 were from two trapping grids in the same locality. Antigen-positive Calomys were more frequently male (76%), and were found significantly more frequently among the oldest animals and the largest body mass classes. These patterns, combined with the greater mobility and higher frequencies of wounds among males than females, implicated horizontal transmission as the primary route of JV transmission between rodents. Seasonal maximum levels in JV prevalence (up to 25% of captured Ag-positive C. musculinus) occurred during periods of maximal population densities of Calomys. Spatial distribution of Ag-positive rodents reflected habitat preferences; most Ag-positive C. musculinus were captured from border habitats (roadsides and fence lines), and all Ag-positive C. laucha were captured in crop fields. These distinct, but previously undocumented, habitat preferences suggest that the disease in humans may be related to exposures to the primary reservoir species, C. musculinus, in border habitats rather than in crop fields. PMID:1335214

Mills, J N; Ellis, B A; McKee, K T; Calderon, G E; Maiztegui, J I; Nelson, G O; Ksiazek, T G; Peters, C J; Childs, J E

1992-12-01

73

Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

1994-01-01

74

75 FR 80011 - Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include additional specific responsibilities of sponsors of nonclinical laboratory studies. 5. Animal Welfare In the United States, the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C 2131-2159) governs the treatment and use of [[Page 80013

2010-12-21

75

Novel Rodent Models for Macular Research  

PubMed Central

Background Many disabling human retinal disorders involve the central retina, particularly the macula. However, the commonly used rodent models in research, mouse and rat, do not possess a macula. The purpose of this study was to identify small laboratory rodents with a significant central region as potential new models for macular research. Methodology/Principal Findings Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli, laboratory rodents less commonly used in retinal research, were subjected to confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using standard equipment (Heidelberg Engineering HRA1 and Spectralis™) adapted to small rodent eyes. The existence of a visual streak-like pattern was assessed on the basis of vascular topography, retinal thickness, and the topography of retinal ganglion cells and cone photoreceptors. All three species examined showed evidence of a significant horizontal streak-like specialization. cSLO angiography and retinal wholemounts revealed that superficial retinal blood vessels typically ramify and narrow into a sparse capillary net at the border of the respective area located dorsal to the optic nerve. Similar to the macular region, there was an absence of larger blood vessels in the streak region. Furthermore, the thickness of the photoreceptor layer and the population density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer were markedly increased in the visual streak region. Conclusions/Significance The retinal specializations of Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli resemble features of the primate macula. Hence, the rodents reported here may serve to study aspects of macular development and diseases like age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema, and the preclinical assessment of therapeutic strategies. PMID:20976212

Huber, Gesine; Heynen, Severin; Imsand, Coni; vom Hagen, Franziska; Muehlfriedel, Regine; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Feng, Yuxi; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Grimm, Christian; Peichl, Leo; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Beck, Susanne C.

2010-01-01

76

CAVEATS REGARDING THE USE OF THE LABORATORY RATS AS A MODEL FOR ACUTE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES: MODULATION OF THE TOXIC RESPONSE VIA PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The rodent, specifically the inbred laboratory rat, is the primary experimental animal used in toxicology testing. Despite its popularity, recent studies from our laboratory and others raise a number of questions concerning the rat's appropriateness as an animal model for toxicol...

77

LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development for AMG 900: resolution of an isobaric interference in rodent in vivo studies.  

PubMed

AMG 900 is an orally available small molecule that is a highly potent and selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of advanced human cancers. A co-eluting, isobaric interference was discovered in preliminary LC-MS/MS analyses of rodent in vivo pharmacokinetic samples during preclinical evaluation of AMG 900. The interference was identified as a major circulating N-oxide metabolite which partially converted to an [M+H-O](+) ion under the conditions of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. A selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of AMG 900 and its N-oxide metabolite in plasma was developed and successfully applied for the bioanalysis of discovery stage preclinical rodent pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23245248

Be, Xuhai; Moore, Earl S; Zhao, Zhiyang; Wells, Mary C

2013-02-23

78

Rodent-repellent studies. I. Method for the evaluation of chemical repellents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A biological assay procedure and a method for the numerical expression of results have been devised for the determination of the repellency to rodents of different chemical compounds. The procedure is based upon the degree of acceptability of foods containing the candidate repellents,. and has been shown. to offer a rapid, reliable measure of repellent activIty.

Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

1949-01-01

79

The use of cystometry in small rodents: a study of bladder chemosensation.  

PubMed

The lower urinary tract (LUT) functions as a dynamic reservoir that is able to store urine and to efficiently expel it at a convenient time. While storing urine, however, the bladder is exposed for prolonged periods to waste products. By acting as a tight barrier, the epithelial lining of the LUT, the urothelium, avoids re-absorption of harmful substances. Moreover, noxious chemicals stimulate the bladder's nociceptive innervation and initiate voiding contractions that expel the bladder's contents. Interestingly, the bladder's sensitivity to noxious chemicals has been used successfully in clinical practice, by intravesically infusing the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin to treat neurogenic bladder overactivity. This underscores the advantage of viewing the bladder as a chemosensory organ and prompts for further clinical research. However, ethical issues severely limit the possibilities to perform, in human subjects, the invasive measurements that are necessary to unravel the molecular bases of LUT clinical pharmacology. A way to overcome this limitation is the use of several animal models. Here we describe the implementation of cystometry in mice and rats, a technique that allows measuring the intravesical pressure in conditions of controlled bladder perfusion. After laparotomy, a catheter is implanted in the bladder dome and tunneled subcutaneously to the interscapular region. Then the bladder can be filled at a controlled rate, while the urethra is left free for micturition. During the repetitive cycles of filling and voiding, intravesical pressure can be measured via the implanted catheter. As such, the pressure changes can be quantified and analyzed. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of the voided volume allows distinguishing voiding contractions from non-voiding contractions. Importantly, due to the differences in micturition control between rodents and humans, cystometric measurements in these animals have only limited translational value. Nevertheless, they are quite instrumental in the study of bladder pathophysiology and pharmacology in experimental pre-clinical settings. Recent research using this technique has revealed the key role of novel molecular players in the mechano- and chemo-sensory properties of the bladder. PMID:22929055

Uvin, Pieter; Everaerts, Wouter; Pinto, Silvia; Alpízar, Yeranddy A; Boudes, Mathieu; Gevaert, Thomas; Voets, Thomas; Nilius, Bernd; Talavera, Karel; De Ridder, Dirk

2012-01-01

80

Octodon degus: A Diurnal, Social, and Long-lived Rodent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Octodon degus is a moderate-sized, precocious, but slowly maturing, hystricomorph rodent from central Chile. We have used this species to study a variety of questions about circadian rhythms in a diurnal mammal that readily adapts to most laboratory settings. In collaboration with others, we have found that a number of fundamental features of circa- dian function differ in this diurnal

Theresa M. Lee

81

Evaluation of NASA Foodbars as a Standard Diet for Use in Short-Term Rodent Space Flight Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard rodent diet for space flight must meet the unique conditions imposed by the space environment and must be nutritionally adequate since diet can influence the outcome of experiments. This paper evaluates the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Foodbars as a standard space flight diet for rats. The Foodbar's semi-purified formulation permits criteria such as nutrient consistency, high nutrient bioavailability and flexibility of formulation to be met. Extrusion of the semi-purified diet produces Foodbars with the proper texture and a non-crumbing solid form for use in space. Treatment of Foodbar with 0.1% potassium sorbate prevents mold growth. Irradiation (15-25 kGy) prevents bacterial growth and in combination with sorbate-treatment provides added protection against mold for shelf-stability. However, during the development process, nutrient analyses indicated that extrusion and irradiation produced nutrient losses. Nutrients were adjusted accordingly to compensate for processing losses. Nutrient analysis of Foodbars continues to be performed routinely to monitor nutrient levels. It is important that the standard rodent diet provide nutrients that will prevent deficiency but also avoid excess that may mask physiological changes produced by space flight. All vitamins levels in the Foodbars, except for vitamin K conformed to or exceeded the current NRC (1995) recommendations. All indispensable amino acids in Foodbar conformed to or exceeded the NRC nutrient recommendation for mice growth and rat maintenance. However, some indispensable amino acids were slightly below recommendations for rat reproduction/growth. Short-term (18-20 d) animal feeding studies indicated that Foodbars were palatable, supported growth and maintained health in rats. Results indicated that NASA rodent Foodbars meet both the physical and nutritional criteria required to support rodents in the space environment and thus, may be used successfully as a standard diet for short-term space flight studies. However, nutritional adequacy of NASA Rodent Foodbars as a standard diet on longer duration (>20 d) space flight missions remains to be determined.

Tou, Janet; Grindeland, Richard; Barrett, Joyce; Dalton, Bonnie; Mandel, Adrian; Wade, Charles

2003-01-01

82

Meal-feeding rodents and toxicology research.  

PubMed

Most laboratory rodents used for toxicology studies are fed ad libitum, with unlimited access to food. As a result, ad libitum-fed rodents tend to overeat. Research demonstrates that ad libitum-fed rodents are physiologically and metabolically different from rodents fed controlled amounts of food at scheduled times (meal-fed). Ad libitum-fed rodents can develop hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diet-induced obesity, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and thyroid tumors, conditions likely to affect the results of toxicology research studies. In contrast, meal-feeding synchronizes biological rhythms and leads to a longer life span, lower body weight, lower body temperature, hypertrophy of the small intestine, and synchronization of hepatic and digestive enzymes. The circadian rhythms present in nearly all living organisms are entrained by light intensity and food intake, and peripheral clocks in all organs of the body, especially the GI tract and liver, are particularly sensitive to food intake. Feeding schedule has been demonstrated to alter the toxicity and metabolism of drugs including sodium valproate, chloral hydrate, acetaminophen, gentamicin, and methotrexate. Feeding schedule alters the expression of genes that code for Phase I, II, and III proteins, thereby altering the rate and amplitude of drug disposition. Rhythms of plasma insulin and glucagon that fluctuate with food ingestion are also altered by feeding schedule; ad libitum feeding promotes hyperinsulinemia which is a precursor for developing diabetes. The emerging field of chronopharmacology, the interaction of biological rhythms and drugs, will lead to optimizing the design and delivery of drugs in a manner that matches biological rhythms, but it is wise for toxicology researchers to consider feeding schedule when designing these experiments. It has been 10 years since the Society for Toxicologic Pathology voiced its position that feeding schedule is an important variable that should be controlled in toxicology experiments, and research continues to underscore this position. PMID:22642213

Carey, Gale B; Merrill, Lisa C

2012-08-20

83

Determination of intracranial tumor volumes in a rodent brain using magnetic resonance imaging, Evans blue, and histology: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The measurement of tumor volumes is a practical and objective method of assessing the efficacy of a therapeutic agent. However, the relative accuracy of different methods of assessing tumor volume has been unclear. Using T1-weighted, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance Imaging (T1-MRI), Evans Blue infusion and histology we measured intracranial tumor volumes in a rodent brain tumor model (RT2) at days 10, 16 and 18 after implantation of cells in the caudate putamen. There is a good correlation between tumor volumes comparing T1-MRI and Evans Blue (r2 = 0.99), T1-MRI and Histology (r2 = 0.98) and histology and Evans Blue (r2 = 0.93). Each of these methods is reliable in estimating tumor volumes in laboratory animals. There was significant uptake of gadolinium and Evans Blue in the tumor suggesting a wide disruption of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:10721633

Prabhu, S S; Broaddus, W C; Oveissi, C; Berr, S S; Gillies, G T

2000-02-01

84

The Estrogenic Content of Rodent Diets, Bedding, Cages, and Water Bottles and Its Effect on Bisphenol A Studies  

PubMed Central

The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 µg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans. PMID:23562095

Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth DR; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luisa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary

2013-01-01

85

Behavioral aspects of competition in a three-species rodent guild of coastal southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of vole cycles on the demography, spatial organization, and abundance of potential rodent competitors was studied in three California rodents in the laboratory and in the field. Population densities ofMicrotus californicus were inversely correlated with reproductive success in two potential competitors (Reithrodontomys megalotis andMus musculus). Additionally, high-density vole populations forced these species into suboptimal habitats. During low-density vole

Andrew R. Blaustein

1980-01-01

86

Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.  

PubMed Central

The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced tumors in the same site observed in humans. Structural classes of chemicals having a propensity for certain organs can be easily identified from these data. Sex-species responders to particular induced cancers become clearly evident, such as in the ovary of female mice or in the kidney of male rats. PMID:1773796

Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

1991-01-01

87

Studies on the ectoparasites (fleas and lice) on rodents in Riyadh and its surroundings, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted on rodents from the Riyadh City and surroundings. Two species of fleas, Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides felis felis together with Polyplax spinulosa were collected. The highest infestation rate by both fleas occurred on Rattus rattus followed by Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. Females of R. rattus and R. norvegicus were more infested by fleas than males. On the other hand, Meriones spp., Gerbillus spp., Jaculus jaculus and Acomys dimidiatus were infested with X. cheopis and C.f. felis. The highest infestation rate by fleas occurred on Gerbillus spp. followed by Meriones spp. PMID:8308348

el Bahrawy, A A; al Dakhil, M A

1993-12-01

88

Ectoparasites of Rodents Captured in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Rodents play important role as host of ectoparasites and reservoir of different zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to asses the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in Bandar Abbas, a port city located in the northern part of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Methods: Rodents were captured using live traps during the study period in year 2007. After transferring the rodents to the laboratory, they were identified and then their ectoparasites were collected and mounted for species identification using appropriate systematic keys. Results: A total of 77 rodents were identified including Rattus norvegicus (74%), R. rattus (16.9%), Mus musculus (7.8%) and one hamster. Among all rodents, 40.3% were found infested with ectoparasites. A total of 69 ectoparasites were collected comprising flea, lice, mite and tick. Two species of fleas; Xenopsylla cheopis and X. astia were identified with higher index of X. astia. Two genera of ticks including Hyalomma sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. were identified. Laelaps nuttalli was the only mite found. The Polyplax spinulosa was considered as lice ectoparasite. Conclusion: Among all arthropods collected, flea and lice had the most and the least frequency, respectively. Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla. These fleas are important due to their role in plague and murine typhus transmission. Ticks are important due to their role in CCHF (Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever), theileriosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis transmission .Monitoring of ectoparaiste infestation is important for preparedness and early warning preparation for possible control of arthropod-borne diseases. PMID:22808381

Kia, EB; Moghddas-Sani, H; Hassanpoor, H; Vatandoost, H; Zahabiun, F; Akhavan, AA; Hanafi-Bojd, AA; Telmadarraiy, Z

2009-01-01

89

The allometry of rodent intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon\\u000a and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects\\u000a associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents.

Barry G. Lovegrove

2010-01-01

90

Laboratory Studies of DIB Carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic studies of the following potential diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers are reviewed: unspecified organics, carbon chains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fullerenes and derivatives, as well as porphyrins and related material. An assessment of each is given, along with suggestions for further experimental studies needed to fully test each candidate. Of the experimental techniques in common use matrix isolation spectroscopy with neon matrices is the most appropriate for the DIBs. The low vapor pressure and high reactivity of these materials preclude gas phase studies on many of these species. At this point, given the type and quality of published data available, carbon chains and PARs are the most promising candidates for a number of the DIBs.

Allamandola, L. J.

1995-01-01

91

Photographic laboratory studies of explosions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a series of cinematographic studies of explosions made with a high-speed rotating-mirror streak camera which uses a high-frequency stroboscopic ruby laser as the light source. The results obtained mainly concern explosions initiated by focused laser irradiation from a pulsed neodymium laser in a detonating gas consisting essentially of an equimolar mixture of acetylene and oxygen at an initial pressure of 100 torr at room temperature. Among the most significant observations were observations of a spherical blast wave preceded by a Chapman-Jouguet detonation which is stabilized immediately after initiation, the merging of a spherical flame with a shock front of the blast wave in which the flame is propagating, the division of a spherical detonation front into a shock wave and flame, and the generation of shock waves by a network of spherical flames.

Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1973-01-01

92

Characterization and laboratory weathering studies  

SciTech Connect

Characterization studies of PFBC by-products were initiated to provide baseline information need to predict the behavior and suitability of PFBC by-products for beneficial uses. The chemical composition of the by-products was dominated by Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al, and Si. All samples were highly alkaline with paste pH values ranging from 9.9 to 12.3. All of the PFBC materials met the criteria for pollutant ceiling concentrations for land application of sewage sludge for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn. Arsenic exceeded the concentration ceiling level in only one sample. XRD results showed that the cyclone ashes consisted primarily of dolomite, anhydrite, periclase, and calcite. PFBC bed ashes were similar in composition but contained less unspent sorbent and more, anhydrite and periclase. The artificial weathering study examined water soluble ions and reaction products of two mine spoils and one cyclone ash mixed at four rates. The spoils were mixed with PFBC by-products to yield mixtures containing 0, 10, 20, and 40 weight percent by-product. Leachate composition was mostly a function of rate of application and equilibration time. In general, the addition of PFBC by-product increased pH, conductivity, and the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Mo, Na, S, and Sr. The concentrations of Al, Fe, and Mn decreased. Six metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, and Pb) regulated by the Resource Conservation Recovery Act were below concentration levels defined for drinking water standards (Hg and Se not available). All application rates of the PFBC by-product increased the solution pH significantly. A pH of 7.8 or greater was attained in all PFBC-spoil mixtures after 132 days. Changes in solid phase composition were independent of the spoil. The final reaction products were more directly influenced by the characteristics of the PFBC by-product.

Beeghly, J.H.; Dick, W.A.; Fowler, R.K. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

93

The chemotherapy of rodent malaria. LI. Studies on a new 8-aminoquinoline, WR 238,605.  

PubMed

WR 238,605, a novel 3-phenoxy-substituted 8-aminoquinoline, possesses causal prophylactic, blood schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activity against rodent malaria parasites. Against the asexual, intra-erythrocytic stages of drug-sensitive Plasmodium berghei N strain, it is about nine times as active as primaquine (PQ). It is from four to 100 times as active as PQ against lines of P. berghei or P. yoelii that are resistant to currently used antimalarials. WR 238,605 is three times as active as PQ against the pre-erythrocytic stages of P. y. nigeriensis but it has very poor gametocytocidal action and no sporontocidal activity against this parasite. In combination with chloroquine (CQ), WR 238,605 and PQ display a synergistic or 'resistance-reversing' action against CQ-resistant P. yoelii NS parasites. No such effects are seen when WR 238,605 is deployed with mefloquine against a mefloquine-resistant line or with artemisinin against an artemisinin-resistant line and it appears to be antagonistic to halofantrine against a halofantrine-resistant parasite. It is suggested that WR 238,605 is a good candidate compound for clinical trials against polyresistant P. falciparum, possibly in combination with CQ. PMID:8122915

Peters, W; Robinson, B L; Milhous, W K

1993-12-01

94

Novel technology for modulating locomotor activity as an operant response in the mouse: implications for neuroscience studies involving "exercise" in rodents  

PubMed Central

We have developed a novel, low-cost device designed to monitor and modulate locomotor activity in murine subjects. This technology has immediate application to the study of effects of physical exercise on various neurobiological endpoints, and will also likely be useful in the study of psychomotor sensitization and drug addiction. Here we demonstrate the capacity of these devices to establish locomotor activity as an operant response reinforced by food pellet presentations, and show that schedules of reinforcement can reliably control this behavior. Importantly, these data show that varying degrees of increased locomotor activity (in other words, “exercise”) can be elicited and maintained in mice by manipulating the schedule of reinforcement. Our findings argue that the present technology might reduce the imposition of stress and motivational bias inherent in more traditional procedures for establishing exercise in laboratory rodents, while allowing for true random assignment to experimental groups. As interest in physical exercise as a modulating factor in numerous clinical conditions continues to grow, technologies like the one proposed here are likely to become critical in conducting future experiments along these lines. PMID:23164960

Fantegrossi, William E.; Xiao, Wenjie; Zimmerman, Sarah M.

2012-01-01

95

A Survey of Peptides with Effective Therapeutic Potential in Alzheimer’s Disease Rodent Models or in Human Clinical Studies  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. Today, only palliative therapies are available. The pathological hallmarks of AD are the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, mainly composed of the amyloid-? peptide (A?), in the brains of the patients. Several lines of evidence suggest that the increased production and/or decreased cleavage of A? and subsequent accumulation of A? oligomers and aggregates play a fundamental role in the disease progress. Therefore, substances which bind to A? and influence aggregation thereof are of great interest. A wide range of A? binding peptides were investigated to date for therapeutic purposes. Only very few were shown to be effective in rodent AD models or in clinical studies. Here, we review those peptides and discuss their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:22303971

Sun, N; Funke, SA; Willbold, D

2012-01-01

96

Vasovagal Syncope Case Study/Laboratory Supplement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study emphasizing neural control of the cardiovascular system. This study was designed to be completed during an undergraduate anatomy and physiology laboratory period on the study of blood pressure and hemodynamics. This case study involves guided student exploration in understanding of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate, total peripheral resistance, cardiac output, blood pressure, and autoregulatory range. This study also includes an optional section on cardiovascular responses in pregnancy.

PhD Jan Foster (North Greenville University Biology)

2012-05-01

97

Does Nocturnality Drive Binocular Vision? Octodontine Rodents as a Case Study  

PubMed Central

Binocular vision is a visual property that allows fine discrimination of in-depth distance (stereopsis), as well as enhanced light and contrast sensitivity. In mammals enhanced binocular vision is structurally associated with a large degree of frontal binocular overlap, the presence of a corresponding retinal specialization containing a fovea or an area centralis, and well-developed ipsilateral retinal projections to the lateral thalamus (GLd). We compared these visual traits in two visually active species of the genus Octodon that exhibit contrasting visual habits: the diurnal Octodon degus, and the nocturnal Octodon lunatus. The O. lunatus visual field has a prominent 100° frontal binocular overlap, much larger than the 50° of overlap found in O. degus. Cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer were 40% fewer in O. lunatus (180,000) than in O. degus (300,000). O. lunatus has a poorly developed visual streak, but a well developed area centralis, located centrally near the optic disk (peak density of 4,352 cells/mm2). O. degus has a highly developed visual streak, and an area centralis located more temporally (peak density of 6,384 cells/mm2). The volumes of the contralateral GLd and superior colliculus (SC) are 15% larger in O. degus compared to O. lunatus. However, the ipsilateral projections to GLd and SC are 500% larger in O. lunatus than in O. degus. Other retinorecipient structures related to ocular movements and circadian activity showed no statistical differences between species. Our findings strongly suggest that nocturnal visual behavior leads to an enhancement of the structures associated with binocular vision, at least in the case of these rodents. Expansion of the binocular visual field in nocturnal species may have a beneficial effect in light and contrast sensitivity, but not necessarily in stereopsis. We discuss whether these conclusions can be extended to other mammalian and non-mammalian amniotes. PMID:24391911

Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Medina, Felipe S.; Fredes, Felipe; Zuniga, Claudio; Severin, Daniel; Palacios, Adrian G.; Karten, Harvey J.; Mpodozis, Jorge

2013-01-01

98

Does nocturnality drive binocular vision? Octodontine rodents as a case study.  

PubMed

Binocular vision is a visual property that allows fine discrimination of in-depth distance (stereopsis), as well as enhanced light and contrast sensitivity. In mammals enhanced binocular vision is structurally associated with a large degree of frontal binocular overlap, the presence of a corresponding retinal specialization containing a fovea or an area centralis, and well-developed ipsilateral retinal projections to the lateral thalamus (GLd). We compared these visual traits in two visually active species of the genus Octodon that exhibit contrasting visual habits: the diurnal Octodon degus, and the nocturnal Octodon lunatus. The O. lunatus visual field has a prominent 100° frontal binocular overlap, much larger than the 50° of overlap found in O. degus. Cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer were 40% fewer in O. lunatus (180,000) than in O. degus (300,000). O. lunatus has a poorly developed visual streak, but a well developed area centralis, located centrally near the optic disk (peak density of 4,352 cells/mm(2)). O. degus has a highly developed visual streak, and an area centralis located more temporally (peak density of 6,384 cells/mm(2)). The volumes of the contralateral GLd and superior colliculus (SC) are 15% larger in O. degus compared to O. lunatus. However, the ipsilateral projections to GLd and SC are 500% larger in O. lunatus than in O. degus. Other retinorecipient structures related to ocular movements and circadian activity showed no statistical differences between species. Our findings strongly suggest that nocturnal visual behavior leads to an enhancement of the structures associated with binocular vision, at least in the case of these rodents. Expansion of the binocular visual field in nocturnal species may have a beneficial effect in light and contrast sensitivity, but not necessarily in stereopsis. We discuss whether these conclusions can be extended to other mammalian and non-mammalian amniotes. PMID:24391911

Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Medina, Felipe S; Fredes, Felipe; Zuniga, Claudio; Severín, Daniel; Palacios, Adrián G; Karten, Harvey J; Mpodozis, Jorge

2013-01-01

99

Spatial Segregation between Invasive and Native Commensal Rodents in an Urban Environment: A Case Study in Niamey, Niger  

PubMed Central

Invasive rodents have been responsible for the diffusion worldwide of many zoonotic agents, thus representing major threats for public health. Cities are important hubs for people and goods exchange and are thus expected to play a pivotal role in invasive commensal rodent dissemination. Yet, data about urban rodents' ecology, especially invasive vs. native species interactions, are dramatically scarce. Here, we provide results of an extensive survey of urban rodents conducted in Niamey, Niger, depicting the early stages of rodent bioinvasions within a city. We explore the species-specific spatial distributions throughout the city using contrasted approaches, namely field sampling, co-occurrence analysis, occupancy modelling and indicator geostatistics. We show that (i) two species (i.e. rural-like vs. truly commensal) assemblages can be identified, and that (ii) within commensal rodents, invasive (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) and native (Mastomys natalensis) species are spatially segregated. Moreover, several pieces of arguments tend to suggest that these exclusive distributions reflect an ongoing native-to-invasive species turn over. The underlying processes as well as the possible consequences for humans are discussed. PMID:25379785

Garba, Madougou; Dalecky, Ambroise; Kadaoure, Ibrahima; Kane, Mamadou; Hima, Karmadine; Veran, Sophie; Gagare, Sama; Gauthier, Philippe; Tatard, Caroline; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Dobigny, Gauthier

2014-01-01

100

Spatial Segregation between Invasive and Native Commensal Rodents in an Urban Environment: A Case Study in Niamey, Niger.  

PubMed

Invasive rodents have been responsible for the diffusion worldwide of many zoonotic agents, thus representing major threats for public health. Cities are important hubs for people and goods exchange and are thus expected to play a pivotal role in invasive commensal rodent dissemination. Yet, data about urban rodents' ecology, especially invasive vs. native species interactions, are dramatically scarce. Here, we provide results of an extensive survey of urban rodents conducted in Niamey, Niger, depicting the early stages of rodent bioinvasions within a city. We explore the species-specific spatial distributions throughout the city using contrasted approaches, namely field sampling, co-occurrence analysis, occupancy modelling and indicator geostatistics. We show that (i) two species (i.e. rural-like vs. truly commensal) assemblages can be identified, and that (ii) within commensal rodents, invasive (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) and native (Mastomys natalensis) species are spatially segregated. Moreover, several pieces of arguments tend to suggest that these exclusive distributions reflect an ongoing native-to-invasive species turn over. The underlying processes as well as the possible consequences for humans are discussed. PMID:25379785

Garba, Madougou; Dalecky, Ambroise; Kadaoure, Ibrahima; Kane, Mamadou; Hima, Karmadine; Veran, Sophie; Gagare, Sama; Gauthier, Philippe; Tatard, Caroline; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Dobigny, Gauthier

2014-01-01

101

Rodent Research-1 Validation of Rodent Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To achieve novel science objectives, validation of a rodent habitat on ISS will enable - In-flight analyses during long duration spaceflight- Use of genetically altered animals- Application of modern analytical techniques (e.g. genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics)

Globus, Ruth; Beegle, Janet

2013-01-01

102

Recent Laboratory and Numerical Trailing Vortex Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from two laboratory studies and two numerical studies are presented. In the first laboratory study, measurements of the strength of vortices from a three-dimensional (3-D) model wing are presented. The measurements follow the vortices as they evolve in time from a two-dimensional (2-D) line vortex pair to the development and migration of 3-D vortex rings. It is shown that the resulting vortex rings can contain up to 40 percent of the initial vortex circulation. Thus, the formation of vortex rings may not necessarily signal the end of the wake hazard to following aircraft. In the second laboratory study, we present the results of an experiment which shows how the spanwise drag distribution affects wake-vortex evolution. In this experiment, we modified the spanwise drag distribution on a model wing while keeping the total lift and drag constant. The results show that adding drag on or near the centerline of the wing has a larger effect than adding drag at or near the wingtips. These measurements complement the results of NASA studies in the 1970s. In the first numerical study, results of 3-D numerical calculations are presented which show that the vortex Reynolds number has a significant influence on the evolution and migration of wake vortices. When the Reynolds number is large, 3-D vortex rings evolve from the initially 2-D line vortex pairs. These vortex rings then migrate vertically. When the Reynolds number is lower, the transition of vorticity from 2-D to 3-D is delayed. When the Reynolds number is very low, the vortices never transition to 3-D, and the vertical migration is significantly reduced. It is suggested that this effect may have been important in previous laboratory wake-evolution studies. A second numerical study shows the influence that vertical wind shear can have on trailing vortex evolution.

Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.; Robins, Robert E.; Singh, Raminder

1996-01-01

103

Rodent-Vegetation Relationships in Southeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant communities of southeastern Montana were surveyed for rodents over a two year period. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were the most abundant rodent species found on the study area. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), sagebrush voles (Lagurus curtatus), Wyoming pocket mice (Perognathus fasciatus), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), least chipmunks (Eutamias minimus), and eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus

Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

104

Laboratory Animal Science Issues in the Design and Conduct of Studies with Endocrine-active Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of rodent models for research and testing on endo- crine-active compounds necessitates an awareness of a number of laboratory animal science issues to standardize bioassay methods and facilitate reproducibility of results between laboratories. These issues are not unique to endo- crine research but are particularly important in this field due to the complexities and interdependencies of the endocrine

Jeffrey I. Everitt; Paul M. D. Foster

2004-01-01

105

Probing perceptual decisions in rodents  

PubMed Central

The study of perceptual decision-making offers insight into how the brain uses complex, sometimes ambiguous information to guide actions. Understanding the underlying processes and their neural bases requires that one pair recordings and manipulations of neural activity with rigorous psychophysics. Though this research has been traditionally performed in primates, it seems increasingly promising to pursue it at least partly in mice and rats. However, rigorous psychophysical methods are not yet as developed for these rodents as they are for primates. Here we give a brief overview of the sensory capabilities of rodents and of their cortical areas devoted to sensation and decision. We then review methods of psychophysics, focusing on the technical issues that arise in their implementation in rodents. These methods represent a rich set of challenges and opportunities. PMID:23799475

Carandini, Matteo; Churchland, Anne K

2014-01-01

106

Modeling panic disorder in rodents.  

PubMed

Panic disorder (PD) is a subtype of anxiety disorder in which the core phenomenon is the spontaneous occurrence of panic attacks. Although studies with laboratory animals have been instrumental for the understanding of its neurobiology and treatment, few review articles have focused on the validity of the currently used animal models for studying this psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to discuss the strengths and limits of these models in terms of face, construct and predictive validity. Based on the hypothesis that panic attacks are related to defensive responses elicited by proximal threat, most animal models measure the escape responses induced by specific stimuli. Some apply electrical or chemical stimulation to brain regions proposed to modulate fear and panic responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal grey or the medial hypothalamus. Other models focus on the behavioural consequences caused by the exposure of rodents to ultrasound or natural predators. Finally, the elevated T-maze associates a one-way escape response from an open arm with panic attacks. Despite some limitations, animal models are essential for a better understanding of the neurobiology and pharmacology of PD and for discovering more effective treatments. PMID:23584609

Moreira, Fabrício A; Gobira, Pedro H; Viana, Thércia G; Vicente, Maria A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

2013-10-01

107

Laboratory studies in ultraviolet solar physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activity comprised the measurement of basic atomic processes and parameters which relate directly to the interpretation of solar ultraviolet observations and to the development of comprehensive models of the component structures of the solar atmosphere. The research was specifically directed towards providing the relevant atomic data needed to perform and to improve solar diagnostic techniques which probe active and quiet portions of the solar chromosphere, the transition zone, the inner corona, and the solar wind acceleration regions of the extended corona. The accuracy with which the physical conditions in these structures can be determined depends directly on the accuracy and completeness of the atomic and molecular data. These laboratory data are used to support the analysis programs of past and current solar observations (e.g., the Orbiting solar Observatories, the Solar Maximum Mission, the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount, and the Naval Research Laboratory's rocket-borne High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph). In addition, we attempted to anticipate the needs of future space-borne solar studies such as from the joint ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Our laboratory activities stressed two categories of study: (1) the measurement of absolute rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination and electron impact excitation; and (2) the measurement of atomic transition probabilities for solar density diagnostics. A brief summary of the research activity is provided.

Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.; Gardner, L. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Smith, P. L.

1991-01-01

108

Field studies on dominant rodents and the efficacy of certain insecticides to their fleas in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of domestic rodent and the efficacy of bendiocarb, diazinon and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides to their fleas were carried out in Dakahlia Governorates (Aga, Meet-Ghamr, El-Senbellawen, Temi El-Amded, Beni-Abed, Dekernes, Nabarow, Talkha, Menia El-Nasr and El-Kordy). Rodent index (number of rodent/trap) and percentage frequency of drodent species were recorded from October 2010 to May 2011. The main rodent species found were the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, R. rattus alexandrinus, the white-bellied rat, R. r. frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus musculus. The rodent index at Beni-Abed, Nabarow, Meet-Ghamr, Dekernes and El-Kordy centers showed 0.46, 0.39, 0.34, 0.33 & 0.33, respectively, while Menia El-Nasr center showed the lowest (0.08). Aga, Talkha, El-Senbellawen, and Temi El-Amded centers showed moderate (0.25, 0.21, 0.2 & 0.16, respectively). The commonest flea species was the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, the mouse flea, Leptopsylla segnis, the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis and the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea. The highest number of fleas was on R. norvegicus (Flea index=10.9) while lowest number was on Mus musculus (Flea index=0.1). X. cheopis was the highest frequency distributed for all domestic rodent species (60.9%), while, C. canis was the lowest (1.6%). The results showed that bendiocarb was effective (Lc50=0.389%) than diazinon (Lc50=1.039%) and pirimiphosmethyl (Lc50=2.056 %). PMID:21980770

Soliman, Mohamed Ismail; Mikhail, Micheal William

2011-08-01

109

Clinical laboratory studies of disinfection with Sporicidin.  

PubMed Central

The clinical microbiology laboratory evaluation of disinfectants can serve as a guide for their application to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The use of Sporicidin, a glutaraldehyde-phenol formulation, was evaluated by the application of modified MIC and MBC determinations for standard organisms. In addition, the effect of this formulation on bacteria that may proliferate in water at ambient temperatures was studied. This investigation indicated that such studies can help the clinical microbiologist to guide the use of disinfectants and sterilants for the maintenance of a safe hospital environment. PMID:3932457

Isenberg, H D

1985-01-01

110

Laboratory Studies of Interstellar PAH Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

111

Rodent-borne diseases in Thailand: targeting rodent carriers and risky habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative analysis, which aims at investigating ecological and evolutionary patterns among species, may help at targeting reservoirs of zoonotic diseases particularly in countries presenting high biodiversity. Here, we developed a simple method to target rodent reservoirs using published studies screening microparasite infections. Methods We compiled surveys of microparasites investigated in rodents trapped in Thailand. The data comprise a total of 17,358 rodents from 18 species that have been investigated for a total of 10 microparasites (viruses, bacteria and protozoans). We used residual variation of microparasite richness controlled for both rodent sample size and pathogens’ screening effort to identify major rodent reservoirs and potential risky habitats. Results Microparasite species richness was positively related to rodent sample size and pathogens’ screening effort. The investigation of the residual variations of microparasite species richness showed that several rodent species harboured more pathogens than expected by the regression model. Similarly, higher pathogen richness than expected was observed in rodents living in non-flooded lands, forests and paddy fields. Conclusion Our results suggest to target some rodent species that are not commonly investigated for pathogen screening or surveillance such as R. adamanensis or B. savilei, and that non-flooded lands and forests should be more taken into caution, whereas much surveys focused on paddy rice fields and households. PMID:22957129

Herbreteau, Vincent; Bordes, Frederic; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Supputamongkol, Yupin; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

112

Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present laboratory studies of scaled occulting starshades for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). A deep reactive ion etched silicon starshade has been fabricated by NIST, designed to cover the same number of Fresnel zones as in the proposed mission. The broadband shadow is mapped with a photometer in a dark vacuum tunnel fed by a heliostat at HAO. CCD images provide direct contrast measurements of different features around the starshade. Preliminary measurements reach 5x10 -6 suppression in the center of the shadow at the focal plane. The two-dimensional structure of the starshade diffraction pattern is compared to that produced by the Fresnel integral.

Schindhelm, E.; Shipley, A.; Oakley, P.; Leviton, D.; Cash, W.; Card, G.

2007-09-01

113

Environmental factors associated with rodent infestations in Argentine poultry farms.  

PubMed

1. Seasonal variations in rodent infestations were studied at poultry farms in central Argentina as well as the environmental factors associated with rodent infestations at poultry farms. 2. During the summer and winter of 1998 rodent infestation was monitored at 10 poultry farms by means of tracking stations, and 21 environmental variables were selected that a priori could be related with the extent of rodent infestation. 3. There was a higher rodent infestation in winter than in summer. 4. Species detected by rodent sightings at the poultry farms included Akodon azarae, Calomys spp. (C. laucha and possibly C. musculinus) and Mus musculus. 5. In summer, rodent infestation was positively associated with the perimeter of the farm, whereas there was an inverse relationship with the maintenance conditions of the sheds. In winter, rodent infestation was positively associated with the percentage of the borders of the farm covered with vegetation, and with the amount of plant cover, especially the amount of plant cover which was above 20 cm in height. 6. There was no significant relationship between rodent infestation and the time lag since the last application of rodenticide (first-generation anticoagulant) at the farms. 7. These results suggest that strategies for controlling rodents based solely on chemical methods may not be good enough for efficient rodent control. Farms which are properly managed, with a better control of vegetation growth at both the perimeter and within the internal area, in addition to a higher maintenance of sheds have appreciably lower rodent infestations. PMID:11469547

Villafane IEG; Bilenca, D N; Cavia, R; Miño, M H; Cittadino, E A; Busch, M

2001-07-01

114

Two new rodent models for actinide toxicity studies. [²³⁷Pu, ²⁴¹Am  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), have tenacious and high retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution. Liver retention of Pu and Am in the grasshopper mouse is higher than liver retention in the deer mouse. Both of

G. N. Taylor; C. W. Jones; P. A. Gardner; R. D. Lloyd; C. W. Mays; K. E. Charrier

1981-01-01

115

Preliminary studies on model development for rodent toxicity and its interspecies correlation with aquatic toxicities of pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Environmental toxicity due to pharmaceuticals has been an issue of serious concern for long time. Development of chemometric models with reliable predictive power has been considered as an effective tool for the design of new drug agents with reduced or without ecotoxic potential. Considering a higher degree of similarity in genetic homology towards drug receptor with mammals, we have used a dataset of 194 compounds with reported rodent, fish, daphnia and algae toxicity data for extrapolation of their toxicity towards humans. Allowing for rodents as the most surrogate to human physiology, attempts have also been made to develop interspecies correlation models keeping rodent toxicity as dependent variable so that any drug without reported rodent toxicity can be predicted using fish, daphnia or algae toxicity data which can be consequently extrapolated to human toxicity. The developed models have been subjected to multiple validation strategies. Acceptable results have been obtained in both cases of direct and interspecies extrapolation quantitative structure-activity relationship models. PMID:23238824

Das, Rudra Narayan; Sanderson, Hans; Mwambo, Andrew E; Roy, Kunal

2013-03-01

116

Study of the Distribution of Pseudotuberculosis Bacteriophage in Nature. Communication I. Isolation of Bacteriophage from the Organs of Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During an investigation of the organs of 998 rodents, 36 strains of bacteriophage (3.6%) were isolated that lysed pseudotuberculosis cultures. The bacteriophage was detected in the organs of gray rats (3.8%), house mice, (2.6%), voles and common shrews. T...

N. M. Somova, N. A. Sergeeva

1965-01-01

117

Allometric disparity in rodent evolution  

PubMed Central

In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results indicate that the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents is characterized by different features in sciurids compared with muroids and Ctenohystrica. Sciuridae was found to have a reduced magnitude of inter-trajectory change and growth patterns with less variation in allometric coefficient values among members. In contrast, a greater magnitude of difference between trajectories and an increased variation in allometric coefficient values was evident for both Ctenohystrica and muroids. Ctenohystrica and muroids achieved considerably higher adult disparities than sciurids, suggesting that conservatism in allometric trajectory modification may constrain morphological diversity in rodents. The results provide support for a role of ecology (dietary habit) in the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents. PMID:23610638

Wilson, Laura A B

2013-01-01

118

Allometric disparity in rodent evolution.  

PubMed

In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results indicate that the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents is characterized by different features in sciurids compared with muroids and Ctenohystrica. Sciuridae was found to have a reduced magnitude of inter-trajectory change and growth patterns with less variation in allometric coefficient values among members. In contrast, a greater magnitude of difference between trajectories and an increased variation in allometric coefficient values was evident for both Ctenohystrica and muroids. Ctenohystrica and muroids achieved considerably higher adult disparities than sciurids, suggesting that conservatism in allometric trajectory modification may constrain morphological diversity in rodents. The results provide support for a role of ecology (dietary habit) in the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents. PMID:23610638

Wilson, Laura A B

2013-04-01

119

Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed

J. Huff; J. Bucher; R. Yang

1991-01-01

120

HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN RODENTS ? USES AND CAVEATS IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of cardiac pacing dynamics that has recently garnered a great deal of interest in environmental health studies. While the use of these measures has become popular, much uncertainty remains in the interpretation of results, both in terms ...

121

Evaluation of an operant successive negative contrast task as a method to study affective state in rodents.  

PubMed

Successive negative contrast (SNC) describes a change in an animal's behaviour following a downshift in the quantitative or qualitative value of a reward. Previous studies suggest both consummatory and instrumental paradigms have the potential to provide an objective measure of affective state in rodents. We first investigated whether an SNC effect is observed in an operant task based on the 5 choice serial reaction time task. We then tested whether this SNC effect was sensitive to differences in affective state induced by manipulating the home cage environment. In animals trained to receive a four pellet food reward, reinforcer downshift to a single reward pellet induced a significant slowing of both correct response and collection latencies to levels below that of animals which had only ever received the lower value reward, indicating a SNC effect. Home cage environmental enrichment resulted in a paradoxical effect on responses in this SNC task where animals housed in a barren environment showed faster baseline response times and the SNC effect was significantly attenuated. These data suggest that the animals housed in the barren conditions were in a more positive affective and/or motivational state during testing than animals housed in enriched cages. Although opposite to the effects of housing conditions in a runway SNC task, these data could be explained by the enriching effects of daily training in an operant task. Rather than inducing a negative affective state in rats, the barren housing conditions resulted in a relatively more positive affective state in the chamber when compared to animals living in a highly enriched environment. PMID:22732261

Mitchell, Emma N; Marston, Hugh M; Nutt, David J; Robinson, Emma S J

2012-10-01

122

Urinary Lipocalin Protein in a Female Rodent with Correlation to Phases in the Estrous Cycle: An Experimental Study Accompanied by In Silico Analysis  

PubMed Central

Male urinary lipocalin family proteins, practically odorant-binding proteins but also could be pheromones by themselves, in rodents act as a shuttle for chemosignal communication and facilitate delivery of the signals for access to congeners. However, presence of this protein in urine of female rodents has not yet been reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find if lipocalin family protein is present in the urine of female house rat and, if so, to find whether its expression differs between the phases in the estrous cycle. The rat urinary protein was separated in single dimensional gel electrophoresis. A 14.5 kDa lipocalin protein appeared in the urine prominently during the estrus and metestrus phases compared to proestrus and diestrus phases. The expression of this protein in the urine was very low in ovariectomized rats. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis affirmed the 14.5 kDa protein as a lipocalin family protein. Analysis adopting bio-informatics tools further proved the protein as a lipocalin family member. Thus, this study for the first time demonstrated the presence of a lipocalin family protein in the urine of a female rodent and it was highly expressed during estrus phase. This lipocalin protein in female rat urine may facilitate a chemosignal function independently of a pheromone or in association with a specific pheromone. PMID:23967199

Saibaba, Ganesan; Alagesan, Alagersamy; Rengarajan, Rengasamy Lakhsminarayanan; Archunan, Govindaraju

2013-01-01

123

Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of IS dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of IS dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NASA SMD (APRA; Carbon in the Galaxy).

Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

2014-06-01

124

Ultrastructural features of masseter muscle exhibiting altered occlusal relationship - a study in a rodent model  

SciTech Connect

The role of occlusion on Tempormandibular Disorders (TMD) is still unclear, mainly regarding muscular function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occlusion highlights on masseter ultra morphology. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: 10 for control group, 10 for occlusal alteration group (CCO). Rats underwent unilateral amputation of the left inferior and superior molar cusps to simulate an occlusal wear situation. The rats of control group had no occlusal wear. Half of the animals of each group was sacrificed in 14 days after the occlusal consuming and half 30 days after the occlusal consuming. The masseter muscles ipsilateral to the amputated molars were excised and processed for light microscopy, electron microscopy. The light microscopy did not show differences between the groups. The electron microscopy was able to detect a degree of intracellular damage in muscle fibers of CCO group: swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and cleared matrix, signs of hypercontraction of I bands and myofibril disorganization.

Lisboa, Marcio V.; Aciole, Gilberth T. S.; Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Marques, Aparecida M. C.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Santos, Jean N. [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA, 40110-150 (Brazil); Baptista, Abrahao F.; Aguiar, Marcio C. [Biomorphology Department, Federal University of Bahia, Bahia, 40110-150 (Brazil)

2010-05-31

125

Evidence for rodent-common and species-typical limb and digit use in eating, derived from a comparative analysis of ten rodent species.  

PubMed

Order Rodentia comprises a vast portion of mammalian species (1814 species), which occupy extremely diverse habitats requiring very distinct motor specializations (e.g. burrowing, hopping, climbing, flying and swimming). Although early classification of paw use ability suggests rodents are impoverished relative to primates and make little use of their paws, there have been no systematic investigations of paw use in rodents. The present study was undertaken to describe limb/paw movements in a variety of common rodents. The movements used for handling sunflower seeds and other foods were videorecorded and analyzed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), laboratory mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonni), prairie dog (Cynomus parvidens), and Canadian beaver (Castor americanus). The results suggested five order-common movements of food handling: (1) locating food by sniffing, (2) grasping food by mouth, (3) sitting back on the haunches to eat, (4) grasping the food using an elbow-in movement, and (5) manipulate the food with the digits. Different species displayed species-typical specializations including (1) bilateral grasping with the paws (gerbil), (2) unilateral grasping with a paw (beaver), (3) unilateral holding (ground squirrels), (4) various grip and digit postures (all species), (5) unilateral object removal from the mouth (gerbil), (6) bilateral thumb holding (squirrels), and (7) simultaneous holding/manipulation of two objects (squirrels). Only the guinea pig did not handle food with its paws, suggesting its behavior is regressive. The existence of a core pattern of paw and digit use in rodents suggests that skilled limb and paw movements originate at least with the common ancestors of the rodent, and likely the common ancestor to rodent and primate lineages, while species-typical movements suggest specialization/regression of limb use has occurred in a number of mammalian orders. PMID:9821545

Whishaw, I Q; Sarna, J R; Pellis, S M

1998-11-01

126

Rocket and laboratory studies in astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the reporting period we have prepared the Faint Object Telescope (FOT) for launch from Woomera for far-ultraviolet (FUV) long-slit spectroscopy of the core for 30 Doradus. We have continued our laboratory studies of the ultraviolet (UV) performance of charge-coupled-detector (CCD) arrays and plan to include a UV-sensitive CCD in a new payload that was assembled during the current period. The objective of the experiment is the ultraviolet imaging of Jupiter and we are scheduled to launch the payload, 36. 115UG, in June-July 1996. We have also continued the design of a high resolution FUV spectrograph for a future flight of the FOT and have received a high line density grating fabricated by Jobin-Yvon, S.A. (France) for evaluation. Work has continued on the analysis of data from previous rocket experiments.

Feldman, P. D.

1995-01-01

127

LABORATORY SIMULATION METHODS FOR STUDYING COMPLEX COLLABORATIVE TASKS  

E-print Network

on the benefits of a laboratory study, namely short time span and minimal use of resources. Field studiesLABORATORY SIMULATION METHODS FOR STUDYING COMPLEX COLLABORATIVE TASKS William D. Humphries, Dennis for studying complex CSCW phenomena. In our prior work a more ecological laboratory approach was developed

McCrickard, Scott

128

Clinical laboratory studies in Barth Syndrome.  

PubMed

Barth Syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized principally by dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy and neutropenia and caused by defects in tafazzin, an enzyme responsible for modifying the acyl chain moieties of cardiolipin. While several comprehensive clinical studies of Barth Syndrome have been published detailing cardiac and hematologic features, descriptions of its biochemical characteristics are limited. To gain a better understanding of the clinical biochemistry of this rare disease, we measured hematologic and biochemical values in a cohort of Barth Syndrome patients. We characterized multiple biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acids, plasma 3-methylglutaconic acid, cholesterol, cholesterol synthetic intermediates, and red blood cell membrane fatty acid profiles in 28 individuals with Barth Syndrome from ages 10 months to 30 years. We describe a unique biochemical profile for these patients, including decreased plasma arginine levels. We further studied the plasma amino acid profiles, cholesterol, cholesterol synthetic intermediates, and plasma 3-methylglutaconic acid levels in 8 female carriers and showed that they do not share any of the distinct, Barth Syndrome-specific biochemical laboratory abnormalities. Our studies augment and expand the biochemical profiles of individuals with Barth Syndrome, describe a unique biochemical profile for these patients, and provide insight into the possible underlying biochemical pathology in this disorder. PMID:24751896

Vernon, Hilary J; Sandlers, Yana; McClellan, Rebecca; Kelley, Richard I

2014-06-01

129

The laboratory study of seismic wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the experimental investigation of the anelasticity of rocks is reviewed with particular emphasis upon studies of nearly-dry rocks at relatively low frequencies and strain amplitudes. An introduction to the phenomenology of anelasticity, illustrated with simple mechanical models, is followed by a brief outline of experimental methods. A survey of the literature is presented in order to highlight the factors which most strongly influence the internal friction of nearly-dry rocks. Included among these are the concentration of adsorbed H2O, pressure, temperature and microstructure. For practical reasons these effects have generally been studied in isolation. It is argued that the future of laboratory study of seismic wave dispersion and attenuation lies in the simultaneous control of all these important variables. A recently developed apparatus is described which will ultimately facilitate the study of rock anelasticity under conditions which closely approach those of seismic wave propagation: simultaneous high pressure (to 700 MPa) and temperature (to 1400°C), low frequency (10-3 -1 HZ) and strain amplitude (< 10-6), and controlled pore pressure of volatiles. Its performance has been tested in a series of preliminary high pressure room temperature experiments in which the specimen pore space was vented to atmosphere. Measurements on a steel standard have demonstrated the sensitivity of the apparatus to very small departures (QG-1 < 10-3) from ideal elasticity. Experimental data for a fine-grained granitic rock show that both the shear modulus G and quality factor Q increase sharply with increasing pressure below ˜100 MPa, beyond which pressure both parameters become markedly less pressure sensitive. These observations are in accord with those of previous studies at higher frequencies and larger strains, and are consistent with the view that the anelasticity of rocks at ambient pressure is dominated by mechanisms operative at open cracks and grain boundaries.

Jackson, Ian

130

Effect of chronic antipsychotic treatment on striatal phosphodiesterase 10A levels: a [11C]MP-10 PET rodent imaging study with ex vivo confirmation  

PubMed Central

A number of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) inhibitors are about to undergo clinical evaluation for their efficacy in treating schizophrenia. As phosphodiesterases are in the same signalling pathway as dopamine D2 receptors, it is possible that prior antipsychotic treatment could influence these enzyme systems in patients. Chronic, in contrast to acute, antipsychotic treatment has been reported to increase brain PDE10A levels in rodents. The aim of this study was to confirm these findings in a manner that can be translated to human imaging studies to understand its consequences. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was used to evaluate PDE10A enzyme availability, after chronic haloperidol administration, using a specific PDE10A ligand ([11C]MP-10). The binding of [11C]MP-10 in the striatum and the cerebellum was measured in rodents and a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) with cerebellum as the reference region was used to determine the binding potential (BPND). In rats treated chronically with haloperidol (2?mg?kg?1 per day), there was no significant difference in PDE10A levels compared with the vehicle-treated group (BPND±s.d.: 3.57±0.64 versus 2.86±0.71). Following PET scans, ex vivo analysis of striatal brain tissue for PDE10A mRNA (Pde10a) and PDE10A enzyme activity showed no significant difference. Similarly, the PDE10A protein content determined by western blot analysis was similar between the two groups, contrary to an earlier finding. The results of the study indicate that prior exposure to antipsychotic medication in rodents does not alter PDE10A levels. PMID:24690597

Natesan, S; Ashworth, S; Nielsen, J; Tang, S-P; Salinas, C; Kealey, S; Lauridsen, J B; Stensb?l, T B; Gunn, R N; Rabiner, E A; Kapur, S

2014-01-01

131

Mud erosion by waves: a laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of mud erosion under waves in governing cohesive sediment transport in estuarial and coastal waters is well known. A laboratory study was conducted in order to elucidate the mechanism by which soft muds erode under progressive waves in a flume. Two types of cohesive sediment were used, a commercial kaolinite and an estuarial mud. Beds were formed by pouring in a pre-prepared sediment-water slurry and allowing the deposit to consolidate for a period ranging from 2 to 14 days. A multi-layered hydrodynamic model, which considers the mud to be viscoelastic, has been developed and used to evaluate the bed shear stress at the oscillating mud-water interface. The viscoelastic property of the mud has been confirmed by rheological measurements, and model results on velocity, pressure and wave attenuation verified against flume data. Concentration profiles indicate a distinct evolutionary pattern resulting in a highly stratified suspension. Just above the bed, a thin layer of fluid mud is generated. Above this layer, the suspension concentration is significantly lower. This two-layered feature of the concentration profile is related to the oscillatory response of the mud and water layers, and the associated momentum exchange and mass diffusion characteristics. An expression relating the rate of erosion to the bed shear stress in excess of bed shear resistance has been developed. Generation of fluid mud during erosion is a significant feature of the role of waves over mud.

Maa, P.-Y.; Mehta, A. J.

1987-11-01

132

All Rodents Are Not the Same: A Modern Synthesis of Cortical Organization  

PubMed Central

Rodents are a major order of mammals that is highly diverse in distribution and lifestyle. Five suborders, 34 families, and 2,277 species within this order occupy a number of different niches and vary along several lifestyle dimensions such as diel pattern (diurnal vs. nocturnal), terrain niche, and diet. For example, the terrain niche of rodents includes arboreal, aerial, terrestrial, semi-aquatic, burrowing, and rock dwelling. Not surprisingly, the behaviors associated with particular lifestyles are also highly variable and thus the neocortex, which generates these behaviors, has undergone corresponding alterations across species. Studies of cortical organization in species that vary along several dimensions such as terrain niche, diel pattern, and rearing conditions demonstrate that the size and number of cortical fields can be highly variable within this order. The internal organization of a cortical field also reflects lifestyle differences between species and exaggerates behaviorally relevant effectors such as vibrissae, teeth, or lips. Finally, at a cellular level, neuronal number and density varies for the same cortical field in different species and is even different for the same species reared in different conditions (laboratory vs. wild-caught). These very large differences across and within rodent species indicate that there is no generic rodent model. Rather, there are rodent models suited for specific questions regarding the development, function, and evolution of the neocortex. PMID:21701141

Krubitzer, Leah; Campi, Katharine L.; Cooke, Dylan F.

2011-01-01

133

Shock compression of condensed materials (laboratory studies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory shock compression data obtained in Russia since 1948 are reviewed, including those for elements and alloys, organic compounds, minerals, rocks, and liquids as well as the hydrides, carbides, and nitrides of metals.

Ryurik F Trunin

2001-01-01

134

Rocket and Laboratory Studies in Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period from March 1, 2001 to August 31, 2004. This grant was the continuation of NASA grant NAG5-5122 and supported the Johns Hopkins sounding rocket program that had its roots in the 1960s. The emphasis of this program has been the development of instrumentation for far-ultraviolet astronomy, the training of graduate students in all aspects of a space mission, and the application of these techniques to timely scientific problems. During this period we completed the fabrication of our new long-slit dual-order spectrograph (LIDOS), and successfully flew it on a Black Brant sounding rocket on December 16, 2003 (36.208 UG). The targets were the bright star gamma-Cassiopeiae and its surrounding reflection nebulae, IC 59 and IC 63. We also continued the analysis of the data from our previous flight to study the reflection nebula IC 405 (36.198 UG), which revealed a far-ultraviolet nebular scatter to stellar flux ratio that, contrary to expectations, rises steeply toward the blue. Verifying this result required extensive post-flight analysis and calibration of the Faint Object Telescope FOT) payload, which entailed measuring the telescope mirror reflectivities, the absolute efficiency of the spectrograph, and the telescope point spread function, using a new vacuum collimator developed as part of former graduate student Eric Burgh's Ph.D. dissertation. This work, being done with graduate student Kevin France, has been completed and a paper describing the results has been accepted for publication by the Astrophysical Journal. We have also continued a number of laboratory calibration studies and design efforts.

Feldman, Paul D.; McCandliss, Stephan R.

2004-01-01

135

A Study of Mathematics Needed for Dental Laboratory Technology, Medical Laboratory Technology, and Respiratory Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine what mathematics skills were needed for Dental Laboratory Technology, Medical Laboratory Technology, and Respiratory Therapy. Data obtained from studies, course outlines, textbooks, and reports were used to construct a 79-item mathematics skill questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered to employers,…

Roberts, Keith J.

136

The largest fossil rodent  

PubMed Central

The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000?kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2?Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

Rinderknecht, Andres; Blanco, R. Ernesto

2008-01-01

137

222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

RUELAS, B.H.

2007-03-26

138

Laboratory studies of crystal growth in magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportions, compositions, and interrelationships among crystalline phases and glasses in volcanic rocks cryptically record pre-eruptive intensive conditions, the timing of changes in crystallization environment, and the devolatilization history of eruptive ascent. These parameters are recognized as important monitoring tools at active volcanoes and interpreting geologic events at prehistoric and remote eruptions, thus motivating our attempts to understand the information preserved in crystals through an experimental appoach. We are performing laboratory experiments in mafic, felsic, and intermediate composition magmas to study the mechanisms of crystal growth in thermochemical environments relevant to volcanic environments. We target features common to natural crystals in igneous rocks for our experimental studies of rapid crystal growth phenomena: (1) Surface curvature. Do curved interfaces and spongy cores represent evidence of dissolution (i.e., are they corrosion features), or do they record the transition from dendritic to polyhedral morphology? (2) Trapped melt inclusions. Do trapped liquids represent bulk (i.e., far-field) liquids, boundary layer liquids, or something intermediate, depending on individual species diffusivity? What sequence of crystal growth rates leads to preservation of sealed melt inclusions? (3) Subgrain boundaries. Natural phenocrysts commonly exhibit tabular subgrain regions distinguished by small angle lattice misorientations or "dislocation lamellae" and undulatory extinction. Might these crystal defects be produced as dendrites undergo ripening? (4) Clusters. Contacting clusters of polymineralic crystals are the building blocks of cumulates, and are ubiquitous features of mafic volcanic rocks. Are plagioclase and clinopyroxene aligned crystallographically, suggesting an epitaxial (surface energy) relationship? (5) Log-normal size distribution. What synthetic cooling histories produce "natural" distributions of crystal sizes, and are phenocrystic textures uniquely attributed to staged cooling? In addition, we seek to explore the limitations of the experimental approach. Which aspects of natural crystallization sequences are adequately reproduced in experimental charges, and which are compromised by the obligatory reduced temporal and spatial scales of crystal growth experiments? What are the implications of synthetic starting materials and thermal pre-treatments for nucleation, growth, heterophase equilibria, and textural maturation?

Hammer, J. E.; Welsch, B. T.; First, E.; Shea, T.

2012-12-01

139

Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this…

Shultz, Jeffry

2009-01-01

140

TECHNIQUES IN ASEPTIC RODENT SURGERY  

PubMed Central

Performing aseptic survival surgery in rodents can be challenging. This unit describes some basic principles to assist clinicians, researchers, and technicians in becoming proficient in performing aseptic rodent surgery. PMID:18729061

Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley L.; Brown, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

141

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

142

Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory - A feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans are underway to transfer the technology represented by the lightning and atmospheric science research facilities and capabilities at the Kennedy Space Center to outside users in other government agencies, private industry, and the academic community. Rocket triggered lightning is being used to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing an Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory as a permanent facility and long-term cost sharing. Results from previous programs and data from a lightning event which occurred during the STS-7 flight are presented to demonstrate the adequacy of the present lightning protection and measuring system to protect personnel, vehicle, and ground equipment, as well as to rapidly assess damage due to a lightning event.

Jafferis, William

1987-01-01

143

Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this example, students used genes annotated for the steroid biosynthesis pathway in soybean. The authoritative Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) interactive database and other online resources were used to design primers based first on soybean expressed sequence tags (ESTs), then on ESTs from an alternate organism if soybean sequence was unavailable. Students designed a total of 50 gene-based primer pairs (37 soybean, 13 alternative) and tested these for polymorphism state and similarity between two soybean and two pea lines. Student assessment was based on acquisition of laboratory skills and successful project completion. This simple procedure illustrates conservation of genes and is not limited to soybean or pea. Cost per student estimates are included, along with a detailed protocol and flow diagram of the procedure.

Shultz, Jeffry

2009-02-01

144

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

145

Rodents as Sentinels for the Prevalence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important flavivirus infections of the central nervous system, affecting humans in Europe and Asia. It is mainly transmitted by the bite of an infected tick and circulates among them and their vertebrate hosts. Until now, TBE risk analysis in Germany has been based on the incidence of human cases. Because of an increasing vaccination rate, this approach might be misleading, especially in regions of low virus circulation. Method To test the suitability of rodents as a surrogate marker for virus spread, laboratory-bred Microtus arvalis voles were experimentally infected with TBEV and analyzed over a period of 100 days by real-time (RT)–quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Further, the prevalence of TBEV in rodents trapped in Brandenburg, a rural federal state in northeastern Germany with autochthonous TBE cases, was determined and compared with that in rodents from German TBE risk areas as well as TBE nonrisk areas. Results In experimentally infected M. arvalis voles, TBEV was detectable in different organs for at least 3 months and in blood for 1 month. Ten percent of all rodents investigated were positive for TBEV. However, in TBE risk areas, the infection rate was higher compared with that of areas with only single human cases or of nonrisk areas. TBEV was detected in six rodent species: Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, and Myodes glareolus. M. glareolus showed a high infection rate in all areas investigated. Discussion and Conclusion The infection experiments proved that TBEV can be reliably detected in infected M. arvalis voles. These voles developed a persistent TBE infection without clinical symptoms. Further, the study showed that rodents, especially M. glareolus, are promising sentinels particularly in areas of low TBEV circulation. PMID:21548766

Ruzek, Daniel; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Wenk, Mathias; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Ohlmeyer, Lutz; Ruhe, Ferdinand; Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Kallies, Rene; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Niedrig, Matthias

2011-01-01

146

Rocket and laboratory studies in astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period from September 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During the reporting period we launched the Faint Object Telescope to measure absolute fluxes of two hot dwarf stars in the spectral range below 1200 A. Although all systems worked normally, a higher than anticipated pressure in the detector led to ion-feedback that masked the useable data from the source. We have identified the source of the problem and are preparing for a reflight in the Fall of 1993. Our laboratory program for the evaluation of the ultraviolet performance of charge-coupled-detector (CCD) arrays continued with the aim of including a UV-sensitive CCD in a payload to be flown in 1994, and we have begun the assembly of this payload. Work has continued on the analysis of data from previous rocket experiments and from the UVX experiment which flew on STS-61C in January 1986.

Feldman, P. D.

1993-01-01

147

Bisphenol-A exposures and behavioural aberrations: Median and linear spline and meta-regression analyses of 12 toxicity studies in rodents.  

PubMed

Exposures to bisphenol-A, a weak estrogenic chemical, largely used for the production of plastic containers, can affect the rodent behaviour. Thus, we examined the relationships between bisphenol-A and the anxiety-like behaviour, spatial skills, and aggressiveness, in 12 toxicity studies of rodent offspring from females orally exposed to bisphenol-A, while pregnant and/or lactating, by median and linear splines analyses. Subsequently, the meta-regression analysis was applied to quantify the behavioural changes. U-shaped, inverted U-shaped and J-shaped dose-response curves were found to describe the relationships between bisphenol-A with the behavioural outcomes. The occurrence of anxiogenic-like effects and spatial skill changes displayed U-shaped and inverted U-shaped curves, respectively, providing examples of effects that are observed at low-doses. Conversely, a J-dose-response relationship was observed for aggressiveness. When the proportion of rodents expressing certain traits or the time that they employed to manifest an attitude was analysed, the meta-regression indicated that a borderline significant increment of anxiogenic-like effects was present at low-doses regardless of sexes (?)=-0.8%, 95% C.I. -1.7/0.1, P=0.076, at ?120?g bisphenol-A. Whereas, only bisphenol-A-males exhibited a significant inhibition of spatial skills (?)=0.7%, 95% C.I. 0.2/1.2, P=0.004, at ?100?g/day. A significant increment of aggressiveness was observed in both the sexes (?)=67.9,C.I. 3.4, 172.5, P=0.038, at >4.0?g. Then, bisphenol-A treatments significantly abrogated spatial learning and ability in males (P<0.001 vs. females). Overall, our study showed that developmental exposures to low-doses of bisphenol-A, e.g. ?120?g/day, were associated to behavioural aberrations in offspring. PMID:25242006

Peluso, Marco E M; Munnia, Armelle; Ceppi, Marcello

2014-11-01

148

Validation of an improved nose-only exposure system for rodents.  

PubMed

Several types and modifications of nose-only inhalation chambers for exposing rodents are described. The improvement of this 'flow-past' -like nose-only exposure system is that it is modular, i.e. it can be used for acute studies with a maximum of 20 rodents (one segment) or for chronic inhalation studies with 100 (or more) rodents per chamber with five (or more) segments. Another goal was to design a nose-only exposure system that provides maximal computer support and automatization, as well as robust aerosol collection conditions. The evaluation of the five-segment chamber, charged with 98 rats, revealed that a flow rate of 0.75 l air min-1 or approximately 2.5 times the rat minute ventilation volume per exposure port is sufficient to provide homogeneous temporal and spatial exposure conditions. Also, the aerosol size distribution was constant throughout the chamber. Experimental data suggest that computer-controlled sampling of the test atmosphere up to ca. 6 l air min-1 did not alter the flow dynamics of the exposure system. The nose-only inhalation chamber developed is suitable for short-term and long-term inhalation toxicity studies using small laboratory rodents with minimal consumption of test compound. PMID:8157871

Pauluhn, J

1994-01-01

149

Mortality study of pathologists and medical laboratory technicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membership lists of professional bodies were used to establish study populations of British pathologists (1955-73) and medical laboratory technicians (1963-73). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for pathologists was 60 and for medical laboratory technicians 67. Twenty-seven of the 310 deaths were due to suicide. These numbers gave SMRs of 250 for pathologists and 243 for medical laboratory technicians. Suicide was

J M Harrington; H S Shannon

1975-01-01

150

Heterogeneous processes: Laboratory, field, and modeling studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficiencies of chemical families such as ClO(x) and NO(x) for altering the total abundance and distribution of stratospheric ozone are controlled by a partitioning between reactive (active) and nonreactive (reservoir) compounds within each family. Gas phase thermodynamics, photochemistry, and kinetics would dictate, for example, that only about 1 percent of the chlorine resident in the lower stratosphere would be in the form of active Cl or ClO, the remainder existing in the reservoir compounds HCl and ClONO2. The consistency of this picture was recently challenged by the recognition that important chemical transformations take place on polar regions: the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASA). Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, Solomon et al. suggested that the heterogeneous chemical reaction: ClONO2(g)+HCl(s) yields Cl2(g)+HNO3(s) could play a key role in converting chlorine from inactive forms into a species (Cl2) that would rapidly dissociate in sunlight to liberate atomic chlorine and initiate ozone depletion. The symbols (s) and (g) denote solid phase, or adsorbed onto a solid surface, and gas phase, respectively, and represent the approach by which such a reaction is modeled rather than the microscopic details of the reaction. The reaction was expected to be most important at altitudes where PSC's were most prevalent (10 to 25 km), thereby extending the altitude range over which chlorine compounds can efficiently destroy ozone from the 35 to 45 km region (where concentrations of active chlorine are usually highest) to lower altitudes where the ozone concentration is at its peak. This chapter will briefly review the current state of knowledge of heterogeneous processes in the stratosphere, emphasizing those results obtained since the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) conference. Sections are included on laboratory investigations of heterogeneous reactions, the characteristics and climatology of PSC's, stratospheric sulfate aerosols, and evidence of heterogeneous chemical processing.

Poole, Lamont R.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Jones, Rod L.; Wahner, Andreas; Calvert, Jack G.; Leu, M.-T.; Fried, A.; Molina, Mario J.; Hampson, Robert F.; Pitts, M. C.

1991-01-01

151

Competition between harvester ants and rodents in the cold desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local distribution patterns of three rodent species (Perognathus parvus, Peromyscus maniculatus, Reithrodontomys megalotis) were studied in areas of high and low densities of harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) in Raft River Valley, Idaho. Numbers of rodents were greatest in areas of high ant-density during May, but partially reduced in August; whereas, the trend was reversed in areas of low ant-density. Seed

D. S. Landeen; C. D. Jorgensen; H. D. Smith

1979-01-01

152

A Science Librarian in the Laboratory: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A science librarian in the laboratory can become a "point of access" for database instruction and provide a learning opportunity for students to develop their information literacy skills. A case study describes how a librarian in an organic chemistry laboratory helps the class run smoothly and identifies the science librarian as an ally and a…

Tomaszewski, Robert

2011-01-01

153

How Stress has been Studied: In the Laboratory  

E-print Network

How Stress has been Studied: In the Laboratory ! Acute Stress Paradigm ! People are taken into the laboratory ! Exposed to a short-term stressful event ! Counting backward by 7s/give speech ! The impact of the stress is observed ! Physiological responses ! Neuroendocrine responses ! Psychological responses #12;How

Meagher, Mary

154

LABORATORY STUDIES OF PRIORITY POLLUTANT TREATABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated several methods currently available to reduce the level of pollutants in an industrial plant wastewater stream. Its purpose was to screen these treatment processes. As a result of this screening, further in-depth evaluations should be considered. The study...

155

Vermicomposting of Winery Wastes: A Laboratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean countries, millions of tons of wastes from viticulture and winery industries are produced every year. This study describes the ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to compost different winery wastes (spent grape marc, vinasse biosolids, lees cakes, and vine shoots) into valuable agricultural products. The evolution of earthworm biomass and enzyme activities was tracked for 16 weeks of

ROGELIO NOGALES; CELIA CIFUENTES; EMILIO BENÍTEZ

2005-01-01

156

21 CFR 58.185 - Reporting of nonclinical laboratory study results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports... Reporting of nonclinical laboratory study results. (a) A...prepared for each nonclinical laboratory study and shall include...A description of the test system used. Where...

2013-04-01

157

Microbial Colonization of Retorted Shale in Field and Laboratory Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial c...

J. E. Rogers, V. M. McNair, S. W. Li T. R. Garland, R. E. Wildung

1982-01-01

158

Laboratory studies of water column separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental studies of water column separation following an upstream valve closure are presented. Different geometrical arrangements with transparent PVC pipes are installed immediately downstream of the closing valve, namely, horizontal pipes, vertical pipes flowing down, and humpback profile pipes, the last two being used in order to obtain full pipe section vapor cavities. Maximum over pressures at water column rejoining, and maximum cavity lengths and duration, are compared with theoretical values and with previous experiments with horizontal pipes. Good agreement is found between theory and experiments, and interesting visual material is obtained.

Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.

2013-12-01

159

The Touchscreen Cognitive Testing Method for Rodents: How to Get the Best out of Your Rat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The touchscreen testing method for rodents is a computer-automated behavioral testing method that allows computer graphic stimuli to be presented to rodents and the rodents to respond to the computer screen via a nose-poke directly to the stimulus. The advantages of this method are numerous; however, a systematic study of the parameters that…

Bussey, Timothy J.; Padain, Tina L.; Skillings, Elizabeth A.; Winters, Boyer D.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Saksida, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

160

Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

2002-01-01

161

Problems associated with the control of rodents in tropical Africa  

PubMed Central

As elsewhere in the world, rodents are responsible for very considerable economic losses in tropical Africa because of their depredations on both growing crops and stored food products. Unfortunately, few accurate data are available on the extent of these losses but there is evidence that they are considerable. The public health importance of rodents, both as reservoirs and vectors of disease in tropical Africa, is also great; plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, and Lassa fever are among the diseases associated with rodent hosts. Scientifically based rodent control programmes have been carried out in very few areas of Africa and there is urgent need for studies and demonstrations on rodent control in both urban and rural areas. The problems likely to be encountered are reviewed and methods of control proposed. PMID:1085224

Gratz, N. G.; Arata, A. A.

1975-01-01

162

Ecological validity of laboratory studies of videopoker gaming.  

PubMed

This study compared the cognitive and behavioral components of videopoker players under laboratory and natural settings. Twenty regular gamblers (19 men and 1 woman) were matched into two groups on age and on frequency of gambling. Irrational verbalizations during gambling, monetary risk (number of bets doubled and number of tokens bet), and motivation served as dependent variables. Results showed no significant differences between laboratory and natural settings for the number of inadequate verbalizations, bets doubled, and motivation. The amount of money gambled was greater in the laboratory than in the natural setting. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed according to the ecological validity of gambling studies conducted in laboratory settings. PMID:24242983

Ladouceur, R; Gaboury, A; Bujold, A; Lachance, N; Tremblay, S

1991-06-01

163

Experimental sleep deprivation as a tool to test memory deficits in rodents  

PubMed Central

Paradigms of sleep deprivation (SD) and memory testing in rodents (laboratory rats and mice) are here reviewed. The vast majority of these studies have been aimed at understanding the contribution of sleep to cognition, and in particular to memory. Relatively little attention, instead, has been devoted to SD as a challenge to induce a transient memory impairment, and therefore as a tool to test cognitive enhancers in drug discovery. Studies that have accurately described methodological aspects of the SD protocol are first reviewed, followed by procedures to investigate SD-induced impairment of learning and memory consolidation in order to propose SD protocols that could be employed as cognitive challenge. Thus, a platform of knowledge is provided for laboratory protocols that could be used to assess the efficacy of drugs designed to improve memory performance in rodents, including rodent models of neurodegenerative diseases that cause cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer's disease in particular. Issues in the interpretation of such preclinical data and their predictive value for clinical translation are also discussed. PMID:24379759

Colavito, Valeria; Fabene, Paolo F.; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Pifferi, Fabien; Lamberty, Yves; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bertini, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

164

Rodent borne diseases and their fleas in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of domestic rodent borne diseases and their fleas was carried out in ten centers of Menofiya (Quesna, Shebeen El-Kom, Berka El-Saabe, El-Bagour, El-Shohada, Tala, Menoff, Searth El-Lian, Ashmon and El-Sadat) Governorate, Egypt. Rodent index (number of rodent / trap) and percentage frequency of different rodent species were recorded in spring (2009). The main species was Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, R. rattus alexandrinus, the white- bellied rat, R. rattus frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus musculus. Searth El-Lian center showed the highest existing rodent- index, while Quesna center showed the lowest existing rodent-index. The Norway rat, R. norvegicus showed higher frequency at Shebeen El-Kom, Berka El-Saabe, El-Baguur, Searth El-Lian and El-Sadat. R. rattus alexandrinus showed higher frequency at Tala center, while Rattus rattusfrugivorus showed higher frequency at El-Shohada, Menoff and Ashmon. M. masculus showed the lower frequency at all centers. The common flea species attacking rodents at all centers were: the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, the mouse flea, Lyptopsylla segnis and the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis. The flea index (number of flea/rodent) at Searth El-Lian was the highest, while Shebeen El- Kom showed the lowest index. The oriental rat flea, X. cheopis was the highest frequency distribution for all domestic rodent species studied while, the dog flea, C.s canis was the lowest. The adult rodents showed the higher frequency with fleas than juveniles. PMID:20503591

Soliman, Mohamed Ismail; Abd El-Halim, Azza S; Mikhail, Micheal W

2010-04-01

165

Draft Genome Sequence of the Rodent Opportunistic Pathogen Pasteurella pneumotropica ATCC 35149T  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunistic pathogen in rodents that is commonly isolated from upper respiratory tracts in laboratory rodents. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. pneumotropica type strain ATCC 35149, which was first isolated and characterized as biotype Jawetz. PMID:25103762

Ishikawa, Hiroki; Asano, Ryoki; Ueshiba, Hidehiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Boot, Ron

2014-01-01

166

Inhalation studies in laboratory animals--current concepts and alternatives.  

PubMed

Highly standardized and controlled inhalation studies are required for hazard identification to make test results reproducible and comparable and to fulfill general regulatory requirements for the registration of new drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. Despite significant efforts, the results of inhalation studies have to be analyzed judiciously due to the great number of variables. These variables may be related to technical issues or to the specific features of the animal model. Although inhalation exposure of animals mimics human exposure best, ie, error-prone route-to-route extrapolations are not necessary, not all results obtained under such very rigorous test conditions may necessarily also occur under real-life exposure conditions. Attempts are often made to duplicate as closely as possible these real-life exposure conditions of humans in appropriate bioassays. However, this in turn might affect established baseline data, rendering the interpretation of new findings difficult. In addition, specific use patterns, eg, of inhalation pharmaceuticals or pesticide-containing consumer products, may impose test agent-specific constraints that challenge traditional approaches. Moreover, specific modes of action of the substance under investigation, the evaluation of specific endpoints, or the clarification of equivocal findings in common rodent species may require exposure paradigms or the use of animal species not commonly used in inhalation toxicology. However, particularly in inhalation toxicology, the choice of animal models for inhalation toxicity testing is usually based on guideline requirements and practical considerations, such as exposure technology, expediency, and previous experience rather than validity for use in human beings. Larger animal species, apart from the welfare aspects, may require larger inhalation chambers to accommodate the animals, but for technical reasons and the difficulty of generating homogeneous exposure atmospheres in such inhalation chambers, this may jeopardize the outcome of the study. Some of the many variables and possible artifacts likely to occur in animal inhalation studies are addressed in this paper. PMID:11026610

Pauluhn, J; Mohr, U

2000-01-01

167

A comparative study of the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene  

PubMed Central

Ikeda, M., and Ohtsuji, H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 99-104. A comparative study or the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2- trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene were administered to rats and mice as vapours at 200 p.p.m. for 8 hours and urine was collected for 48 hours. The urine was analysed by the Fujiwara reaction for total trichlorocompounds (TTC), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroethanol (TCE). All compounds except 1,1,2-trichloroethane yielded substantial TCA and TCE but 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene much more than the rest. The results obtained during two periods of 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection were similar. The variations in the amounts of metabolites are shown to be consistent with the vapour pressures of the solvents (compounds with high vapour pressures are lost from the lungs before being metabolized) and with their known chemical properties, according to which 1,1,1-trichlorocompounds should yield TCE and TCA readily, whereas 1,1,2-chlorocompounds should not. Excretion of metabolites from men exposed intermittently to vapours of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were also studied. Both gave enough TCE and TCA, but trichloroethylene gave considerably more, in accordance with its relative instability to oxidation. PMID:5060252

Ikeda, Masayuki; Ohtsuji, Hatsue

1972-01-01

168

The library model for satellite DNA evolution: a case study with the rodents of the genus Ctenomys (Octodontidae) from the Iberá marsh, Argentina.  

PubMed

On the basement of the library model of satellite DNA evolution is the differential amplification of subfamilies through lineages diversification. However, this idea has rarely been explored from an experimental point of view. In the present work, we analyzed copy number and sequence variability of RPCS (repetitive PvuII Ctenomys sequence), the major satellite DNA present in the genomes of the rodents of the genus Ctenomys, in a closely related group of species and forms inhabiting the Iberá marsh in Argentina. We studied the dependence of these two parameters at the intrapopulation level because in the case of interbreeding genomes, differences in RPCS copy number are due to recent amplification/contraction events. We found an inverse relationship among RPCS copy number and sequence variability: amplifications lead to a decrease in sequence variability, by means of biased homogenization of the overall satellite DNA, prevailing few variants. On the contrary, the contraction events that involve tandems of homogeneous monomers contribute-by default-minor variants to become "evident", which otherwise were undetectable. On the other hand, all the RPCS sequence variants are totally or partially shared by all the studied populations. As a whole, these results are comprehensible if these RPCS variants preexisted in the common ancestor of this Ctenomys group. PMID:21072566

Caraballo, Diego A; Belluscio, Pablo M; Rossi, María Susana

2010-12-01

169

A Laboratory Analogue for the Study of Peer Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of peer sexual harassment, and to examine person and situational factors associated with male on female peer sexual harassment. One hundred twenty-two male participants were given the opportunity to tell jokes to a female confederate from a joke list that included…

Mitchell, Damon; Hirschman, Richard; Angelone, D. J.; Lilly, Roy S.

2004-01-01

170

Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves  

EPA Science Inventory

This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

171

The rat: a laboratory model for studies of the diving response  

PubMed Central

Underwater submersion in mammals induces apnea, parasympathetically mediated bradycardia, and sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction. These effects are collectively termed the diving response, potentially the most powerful autonomic reflex known. Although these physiological responses are directed by neurons in the brain, study of neural control of the diving response has been hampered since 1) it is difficult to study the brains of animals while they are underwater, 2) feral marine mammals are usually large and have brains of variable size, and 3) there are but few references on the brains of naturally diving species. Similar responses are elicited in anesthetized rodents after stimulation of their nasal mucosa, but this nasopharyngeal reflex has not been compared directly with natural diving behavior in the rat. In the present study, we compared hemodynamic responses elicited in awake rats during volitional underwater submersion with those of rats swimming on the water's surface, rats involuntarily submerged, and rats either anesthetized or decerebrate and stimulated nasally with ammonia vapors. We show that the hemodynamic changes to voluntary diving in the rat are similar to those of naturally diving marine mammals. We also show that the responses of voluntary diving rats are 1) significantly different from those seen during swimming, 2) generally similar to those elicited in trained rats involuntarily “dunked” underwater, and 3) generally different from those seen from dunking naive rats underwater. Nasal stimulation of anesthetized rats differed most from the hemodynamic variables of rats trained to dive voluntarily. We propose that the rat trained to dive underwater is an excellent laboratory model to study neural control of the mammalian diving response, and also suggest that some investigations may be done with nasal stimulation of decerebrate preparations to decipher such control. PMID:20093670

Gan, Qi; Juric, Rajko

2010-01-01

172

A mechanism for resource allocation among sympatric heteromyid rodent species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory feeding experiments were conducted with Dipodomys ordii and Perognathus flavus in an attempt to discover a mechanism which might result in seed size selection. There was no marked difference in the proportions of four seed types collected whether the rodents foraged in the presence or absence of one another. However, analysis of the variability in weight of each of

Richard L. Hutto

1978-01-01

173

Blood glucose concentration in caviomorph rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hystricomorph rodents are a group of species that belong to the suborder Hystricognathi. They mainly inhabit South American (caviomorph) and African (phiomorph) habitats. This group of rodents has a divergent insulin structure. For example, insulin in this group of rodents exhibits only 1–10% of biological activity in comparison to other mammals. Therefore, hystricomorph rodents may hypothetically be unable to regulate

Juan C. Opazo; Mauricio Soto-Gamboa; Francisco Bozinovic

2004-01-01

174

A Field and Laboratory Study of Fluoride Uptake by Oysters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uptake and concentration of fluoride in the tissues of oysters was studied under laboratory conditions. Experimental animals were maintained for up to two months in water fluoride levels of 0.5, 2, 8, 32, and 128 ppm. It was found that oysters did acc...

D. J. Moore

1969-01-01

175

Laboratory Study of Heavy Metal Phytoremediation by Three Wetland Macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detention ponds and constructed wetlands have proven to be effective in reducing peak stormwater runoff volume and flow, and recent interest has extended to utilizing them to improve stormwater runoff quality. A review of stormwater runoff studies indicated that lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, phosphorus, and chloride are contaminants of primary concern. In laboratory settings, the uptake of contaminants by three

Jeff Weiss; Miki Hondzo; David Biesboer; Michael Semmens

2006-01-01

176

Ecological validity of laboratory studies of videopoker gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the cognitive and behavioral components of videopoker players under laboratory and natural settings. Twenty regular gamblers (19 men and 1 woman) were matched into two groups on age and on frequency of gambling. Irrational verbalizations during gambling, monetary risk (number of bets doubled and number of tokens bet), and motivation served as dependent variables. Results showed no

Robert Ladouceur; Anne Gaboury; Annie Bujold; Nadine Lachance; Sarah Tremblay

1991-01-01

177

LABORATORY STUDIES OF THE PATTERN OF REPRODUCTION OF  

E-print Network

NOTES LABORATORY STUDIES OF THE PATTERN OF REPRODUCTION OF THE ISOPOD CRUSTACEAN lDarEA BAU'ICA The isopod Idotea baltica is a cosmopolitan species that can be an important component of fishes' diets isosexual pairs). The pairs were maintained at room temperature ex = 24.3 ± 2°C SD), with a light cycle

178

SEWER SEDIMENT GATE AND VACUUM FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to test the performance of a traditional gate-flushing device and a newly designed vacuum-flushing device in removing sediments from combined sewers and CSO storage tanks. A laboratory hydraulic flune was used to simulate a reach of sewer or storag...

179

LABORATORY STUDY OF LIMESTONE REGENERATION IN DUAL ALKALI SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a series of open- and closed-loop laboratory bench scale experiments which were carried out to study parameters which affect the reaction of limestone with dual alkali flue gas desulfurization system process liquors. It gives details of several sets of operat...

180

21 CFR 58.130 - Conduct of a nonclinical laboratory study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of a nonclinical laboratory study. (a) The nonclinical laboratory study shall be... (b) The test systems shall be monitored...of a nonclinical laboratory study, except those...data collection systems, shall...

2013-04-01

181

21 CFR 58.130 - Conduct of a nonclinical laboratory study.  

...of a nonclinical laboratory study. (a) The nonclinical laboratory study shall be... (b) The test systems shall be monitored...of a nonclinical laboratory study, except those...data collection systems, shall...

2014-04-01

182

Dual captures of Colorado rodents: implications for transmission of hantaviruses.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed dual-capture data collected during longitudinal studies monitoring transmission and persistence of Sin Nombre virus in rodents in Colorado. Our data indicate that multiple captures (two or more rodents captured in a single trap) may not be random, as indicated by previous studies, but rather the result of underlying, species-specific social behavior or cohesiveness. In the pairs we captured, most often, rodents were of the same species, were male, and could be recaptured as pairs. Therefore, dual captures of rodents, which are unusual but not rare, tend to occur among certain species, and appear to be nonrandom, group-foraging encounters. These demographic and ecologic characteristics may have implications for the study of the transmission of hantaviruses. PMID:10970147

Calisher, C. H.; Childs, J. E.; Sweeney, W. P.; Canestrop, K. M.; Beaty, B. J.

2000-01-01

183

What is the role of small rodents in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida Trypanosomatidae)? A study case in the Brazilian Pantanal.  

PubMed

Determining the reservoir hosts for parasites is crucial for designing control measures, but it is often difficult to identify the role that each host species plays in maintaining the cycle of infection in the wild. One way to identify potential maintenance hosts is to estimate key parameters associated with transmission and pathogenicity. Here we assess the potential for three native rodent species of the Brazilian Pantanal (Clyomys laticeps, Thrichomys pachyurus and Oecomys mamorae) to act as reservoir or maintenance hosts of Trypanosoma evansi, an important parasite of domestic livestock. By analyzing blood parameters of naturally infected wild-caught rodents of these species, we compared their levels of parasitemia and anemia due to T. evansi infection with literature values for other host species infected by this parasite. We also analyzed levels of these blood parameters relative to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in humans, for which wild rodents are already thought to be important reservoir species. All three species showed low impacts of the two trypanosomes on their blood parameters compared to other species, suggesting that they experience a low virulence of trypanosome infection under natural conditions in the Pantanal and might act as maintenance hosts of trypanosome infections. The low parasitemia of trypanosome infections suggests that these rodents play a secondary role in the transmission cycle compared to other species, especially compared to the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) which also experiences low pathogenicity due to infection despite much higher levels of parasitemia. PMID:19467452

Rademaker, V; Herrera, H M; Raffel, T R; D'Andrea, P S; Freitas, T P T; Abreu, U G P; Hudson, P J; Jansen, A M

2009-08-01

184

Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR studies in the non-model species Delomys sublineatus, an endemic Brazilian rodent.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis. A critical factor for creating reliable data in relative quantification is the normalization of the expression data of genes of interest. Therefore the needed normalization factor is calculated out of the expression data of co-amplified genes that are stable expressed in the certain sample material, the so-called reference genes. In this study, we demonstrate the important process of validating potential reference genes using a non-model species. As there are almost no sequences known of the Pallid Atlantic Forest Rat (Delomys sublineatus), a rodent used as indicator species in conservation studies of the endangered Brazilian rainforest, suitable primer sets are more problematic to find than in model species. Out of nine tested primer sets designed for the fully sequenced Mus musculus, five could be used for the establishment of a proper running SYBR-Green assay and validation of their constant expression. qRT-PCR results of 12 cDNAs of Delomys livers were analyzed with three different validation software programs: BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. Our approach showed that out of the five (Sdha, Canx, Pgk1, Actb and Actg1) potential reference genes, the first four should be used for accurate normalization in further relative quantification analyses. Transferring data from close-by model organisms makes high sensitive real-time RT-PCR applicable even to free-ranging non-model organisms. Our approach might be suitable for other non-model organisms. PMID:20059981

Weyrich, Alexandra; Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

2010-02-01

185

Studying X-ray Burst Nucleosynthesis in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type I X-ray bursts are the most common explosions in the Galaxy; however, the nucleosynthesis that occurs during the thermonuclear runaway and explosion is poorly understood. In this proceedings we discuss current experimental efforts and techniques that are being used to study X-ray burst nucleosynthesis in the laboratory. Specifically, radioactive ion beam techniques that have recently been developed have allowed the study of some of the most important (?, p) reactions in X-ray bursts for the first time.

Deibel, C. M.; Afanasieva, L.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Almarez-Calderon, S.; Bedoor, S.; Bertone, P. F.; Carnelli, P.; Chen, A. A.; Chen, J.; Clark, J. A.; Figueira, J. M.; Greene, J. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Irvine, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Lee, H. Y.; Lighthall, J. C.; Manwell, S.; Marley, S. T.; Nair, C.; Palachan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Patel, N.; Paul, M.; Rasco, B. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Rogers, A. M.; Shetty, D.; Ugalde, C.; Wuosmaa, A.; Zinkann, G.

2012-12-01

186

The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber), when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. METHODS: Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for

Ray A Matulka; Michael R Lyon; Simon Wood; Palma Ann Marone; Daniel J Merkel; George A Burdock

2009-01-01

187

Growth of Francisella spp. in rodent macrophages.  

PubMed Central

We examined the nature of the interactions between the facultative intracellular pathogens Francisella tularensis and F. novicida and rodent macrophages. Growth of F. tularensis LVS was observed in macrophage monolayers from mice, guinea pigs, or rats. In contrast, F. novicida grew in macrophages from mice and guinea pigs but not in macrophages from rats. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicated that both Francisella species survive within macrophage phagosomes that are unfused with lysosomes. Images PMID:1879943

Anthony, L D; Burke, R D; Nano, F E

1991-01-01

188

Partial Rodent Genetic Models for Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a complex clinical phenomenon. This episodic illness comprises at least four features\\/components:\\u000a depression, mania, vulnerability to mood swings in euthymic BPD patients, and spontaneous cyclicity in at least some BPD patients.\\u000a Currently, there is no rodent genetic model capable of encompassing the whole phenotype of BPD exists; however, recent genetic-behavioral\\u000a studies have delineated partial models for

Guang Chen; Ioline D. Henter; Husseini K. Manji

189

Chronotype changes during puberty depend on gonadal hormones in the slow-developing rodent, Octodon degus.  

PubMed

During puberty, human adolescents develop a later chronotype, exhibiting a delay in the timing of rest and activity as well as other daily physiological rhythms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar changes in chronotype occur during puberty in a laboratory rodent species, and, if so, to determine whether they are due to pubertal hormones acting on the circadian timekeeping system. To test this hypothesis, we carefully tracked daily activity rhythms across puberty in the slow-developing rodent Octodon degus. We confirmed that male degus showed a large reorganization of activity rhythms that correlated with secondary sex development during puberty, including a loss of bimodality and a 3-5 h phase-advance. Similar to humans, this circadian reorganization showed distinct sex differences, with females showing little change during puberty in two separate experiments. Prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) eliminated the changes, whereas SHAM gonadectomy had little impact. Therefore, gonadal hormones are likely to play a role in pubertal changes in chronotype in this rodent species. Using evidence from a variety of species, including our recent studies in the rat, we conclude that chronotype changes during puberty are a well-demonstrated phenomenon in mammals. PMID:21316365

Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Ku, Jennifer HeeYoung; Lee, Theresa M

2011-06-01

190

Neutrino Nuclear Responses For Neutrino Studies In Nuclear Femto Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos are key particles for particle and astro-nuclear physics. Majorana neutrino masses and phases, solar and supernova neutrino productions and oscillations, and neutrino nuclear synthesis and fundamental weak interactions are well studied in nuclei as femto laboratories. Here neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for the neutrino studies. This reports briefly experimental studies of neutrino nuclear responses, charge exchange reactions on Ga to study nuclear responses for solar and {sup 51}Cr neutrinos, and {beta}{sup +} neutrino responses for {beta}{beta}-{nu} matrix elements and astro {nu} interactions by photon and muon probes.

Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047, Japan and Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Brehova, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-12-16

191

Rodent models of TDP-43: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Recently, missense mutations in the gene TARDBP encoding TDP-43 have been linked to familial ALS. The discovery of genes encoding these RNA binding proteins, such as TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, raised the notion that altered RNA metabolism is a major factor underlying the pathogenesis of ALS. To begin to unravel how mutations in TDP-43 cause dysfunction and death of motor neurons, investigators have employed both gain- and loss-of-function studies in rodent model systems. Here, we will summarize major findings from the initial sets of TDP-43 transgenic and knockout rodent models, identify their limitations, and point to future directions toward clarification of disease mechanism(s) and testing of therapeutic strategies that ultimately may lead to novel therapy for this devastating disease. PMID:22608070

Tsao, William; Jeong, Yun Ha; Lin, Sophie; Ling, Jonathan; Price, Donald L.; Chiang, Po-Min; Wong, Philip C.

2013-01-01

192

DNA-based and geometric morphometric analysis to validate species designation: a case study of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys bicolor.  

PubMed

The genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) shows several taxonomic inconsistencies. In this study, we used an integrative approach including DNA sequences, karyotypes, and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the taxonomic validity of a nominal species, Ctenomys bicolor, which was described based on only one specimen in 1912 by Miranda Ribeiro, and since then neglected. We sampled near the type locality assigned to this species and collected 10 specimens. A total of 820 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene were sequenced and analyzed together with nine other species and four morphotypes obtained from GenBank. Bayesian analyses showed that C. bicolor is monophyletic and related to the Bolivian-Matogrossense group, a clade that originated about 3 mya. We compared the cranial shape through morphometric geometrics of C. bicolor, including the specimen originally sampled in 1912, with other species representative of the same phylogenetic group (C. boliviensis and C. steinbachi). C. bicolor shows unique skull traits that distinguish it from all other currently known taxa. Our findings confirm that the specimen collected by Miranda Ribeiro is a valid species, and improve the knowledge about Ctenomys in the Amazon region. PMID:24301764

Stolz, J F B; Gonçalves, G L; Leipnitz, L; Freitas, T R O

2013-01-01

193

Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.  

PubMed

Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans. PMID:24639295

Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

2014-05-01

194

Rorschach Measures of Aggression: A Laboratory-Based Validity Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's (2003) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's (1992) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35

Aaron J. Kivisto; Scott A. Swan

2012-01-01

195

Systematic studies of Oryzomyine rodents (Muridae, Sigmodontinae): diagnoses and distributions of species formerly assigned to Oryzomys 'capito'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the morphological species-boundaries and geographic distributions of ten Neotropical Oryzomys based on analyses of museum specimens (skins and skulls, examples preserved in fluid, chromosomal spreads, and information about collection sites from skin tags, field catalogs, and other sources). These species have been regarded as members of an Oryzomys capito complex and for a long time were consolidated into a single entity identified as O. capito. Our study documents the following: 1. Defining the limits of species within the O. capito complex first requires a comprehensive review and rigorous definition of O. capito itself. We consider Fischer's (1814) Mus megacephalus to be valid and available, designate a neotype to bear the name, and reinstate it as a senior synonym of capito Olfers (1818). We then provide a working definition of O. megacephalus and its close relative, O. laticeps, derived from analyses of morphometric variation, estimates of geographic distributions, and evaluations of synonyms. In our view, O. megacephalus occurs in Amazonia but also extends into eastern Paraguay; its synonyms are capito Olfers (1818), cephalotes Desmarest (1819), velutinus Allen and Chapman (1893), goeldi Thomas (1897), modestus Allen (1899), and perenensis Allen (1901). Oryzomys laticeps Lund (1840) occurs in the Atlantic Forest region of eastern Brazil. We designate a lectotype for laticeps and allocate the names saltator Winge (1887) and oniscus Thomas (1904) as synonyms. 2. We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of Oryzomys yunganus Thomas (1902). Its range covers tropical evergreen rainforest formations in the Guiana region and the Amazon Basin where, as documented by voucher specimens, it has been collected at the same localities as O. megacephalus, O. nitidus, and O. tern of carotid arterial circulation, occlusal patterns of second upper and lower molars, cranial proportions, and chromosomal features. Appreciable intraspecific geographic variation occurs in diploid number of chromosomes and frequency of occurrence of the hypothenar plantar pad, but sampling inadequacies obscure the significance of this variation. Large body size is characteristic of populations in the western Amazon Basin and in the tepui region of eastern Venezuela; smaller size characterizes populations in the Guianas and along the eastern margin of the Amazon Basin. No other scientific name has been correctly associated with the species. Samples from Mirador, Palmera, and Mera in the western Andean foothills of central Ecuador possess a combination of pelage, cranial, and dental traits that distinguish them from all samples of O. yunganus. These specimens are the basis for a new species we describe here, one that is more closely related to O. yunganus than to any other member of the former O. 'capito' complex. 3. We redescribe Oryzomys bolivaris (reviewed by Pine, 1971, under the name O. bombycinus), amplify its geographic range, and contrast it with O. talamancae and O. alfaroi, two sympatric congeners often confused with it. A distinctive set of morphological traits allows unambiguous identification of specimens belonging to O. bolivaris. It is a trans-Andean species recorded from very wet tropical evergreen rainforests extending from eastern Honduras and Nicaragua through Costa Rica and Panama to western Colombia and Ecuador. Allen's (1901) bolivaris is the oldest name for this species; castaneus Allen (1901), rivularis Allen (1901), bombycinus Goldman (1912), alleni Goldman (1915), and orinus Pearson (1939) are synonyms. 4. We revise the definition of Oryzomys talamancae Allen (1891) provided by Musser and Williams (1985), document additional specimens, describe karyotypes from Ecuadoran and Venezuelan samples, and contrast its morphology, chromosomes, and distribution with those of O. alfaroi and O. megacephalus. The geographic distribution of O. talamancae is also trans-Andean, but it inh

Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D.; Brothers, E.M.; Gardner, A.L.

1998-01-01

196

METABOLIC AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF THE RAT MAINTAINED IN ACRYLIC OR WIRE-SCREEN CAGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory rodents are usually housed and studied in cages with walls and floor made of ventilated metal or solid plastic materials. It should be recognized that a rodent's thermoregulatory requirements will vary in metal and plastic cages; and it is likely that its metabolic res...

197

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND DIVERGENCE TIMES IN RODENTS BASED ON BOTH GENES AND FOSSILS.  

E-print Network

??Molecular and paleontological approaches have produced extremely different estimates for divergence times among orders of placental mammals and within rodents with molecular studies suggesting a… (more)

Norris, Ryan

2008-01-01

198

Study of Enteric Infection in Volunteers Support of Laboratory Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represent the most frequent etiologic agent of Travelers' Diarrhea. Studies of immunity to ETEC were undertaken in volunteers in order to evaluate the feasibility of immunoprophylaxis against ETEC. Seventeen student...

R. B. Hornick, M. M. Levine

1978-01-01

199

Evidence for Novel Hepaciviruses in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species). Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8%) of 1,465 European bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and 10 (1.9%) of 518 South African four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%). Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage efforts to develop rodent surrogate models for HCV. PMID:23818848

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Muller, Marcel Alexander; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Gmyl, Anatoly; Coutard, Bruno; Adam, Alexander; Ritz, Daniel; Leijten, Lonneke M.; van Riel, Debby; Kallies, Rene; Klose, Stefan M.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Rupp, Daniel; Hoffmann, Bernd; Schlegel, Mathias; Kummerer, Beate M.; Kruger, Detlev H.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Setien, Alvaro Aguilar; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Osterrieder, Klaus; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Matthee, Sonja; Beer, Martin; Kuiken, Thijs; Reusken, Chantal; Leroy, Eric M.; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Drosten, Christian

2013-01-01

200

Infrared studies at the ice laboratory of Alcoy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, there are few laboratory spectra of analogs of astrophysical interest in the far-infrared range (FIR). Laboratory infrared (IR) spectra of simple ices and its mixtures obtained at low temperature and pressure are found mainly up to 25 ?m, and few up to 200 ?m. On the other hand, there are some spectra for carbonaceous material and silicates up to 2000 ?m. Our laboratory is equipped with an IR spectrometer that integrates a Michelson interferometer with a resolution better than 0.25 cm -1 and that operates under vacuum conditions of 10 -1 mbar. There is also a silicon bolometer, a very high-sensitivity detector in comparison with the standard deuterated triglycine sulfate (DTGS) detectors. The use of the bolometer and the possibility of working under vacuum conditions inside the optics and the sample compartment of the spectrometer allow obtaining high-sensitivity spectra free from H 2O vapor and CO 2 gas bands. Those conditions are necessary to obtain high-quality spectra in the FIR where absorption bands are much less intense than those in the mid-IR region. In our laboratory there is also a high-vacuum chamber that allows different studies on ices deposited onto a cold finger. We have already carried out experiments on the study of ice density as a function of temperature, UV irradiation of ices, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and UV-vis reflectance. In this work, we present the design of the experimental setup we are building to carry out different experiments simultaneously on the same ice sample, including spectra measurements in the mid-IR range (MIR) and the FIR. This design integrates jointly the IR spectrometer, the high-vacuum chamber and the silicon bolometer. Lastly, we show a spectrum we have obtained of a solid of astrophysical interest such as crystalline forsterite grains by using the polyethylene pellet technique.

Vilaplana, R.; Gomis, O.; Luna, R.; Cantó, J.

2008-11-01

201

Circadian pattern of wheel-running activity of a South American subterranean rodent (Ctenomys cf knightii).  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are regarded as essentially ubiquitous features of animal behavior and are thought to confer important adaptive advantages. However, although circadian systems of rodents have been among the most extensively studied, most comparative biology is restricted to a few related species. In this study, the circadian organization of locomotor activity was studied in the subterranean, solitary north Argentinean rodent, Ctenomys knightii. The genus, Ctenomys, commonly known as Tuco-tucos, comprises more than 50 known species over a range that extends from 12 degrees S latitude into Patagonia, and includes at least one social species. The genus, therefore, is ideal for comparative and ecological studies of circadian rhythms. Ctenomys knightii is the first of these to be studied for its circadian behavior. All animals were wild caught but adapted quickly to laboratory conditions, with clear and precise activity-rest rhythms in a light-dark (LD) cycle and strongly nocturnal wheel running behavior. In constant dark (DD), the rhythm expression persisted with free-running periods always longer than 24 h. Upon reinstatement of the LD cycle, rhythms resynchronized rapidly with large phase advances in 7/8 animals. In constant light (LL), six animals had free-running periods shorter than in DD, and 4/8 showed evidence of "splitting." We conclude that under laboratory conditions, in wheel-running cages, this species shows a clear nocturnal rhythmic organization controlled by an endogenous circadian oscillator that is entrained to 24 h LD cycles, predominantly by light-induced advances, and shows the same interindividual variable responses to constant light as reported in other non-subterranean species. These data are the first step toward understanding the chronobiology of the largest genus of subterranean rodents. PMID:19142755

Valentinuzzi, Veronica Sandra; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Araujo, John Fontenele; Ralph, Martin Roland

2009-01-01

202

Rodent Control: Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!  

MedlinePLUS

... the home to help reduce the rodent population... Clean Up! Clean up rodent food sources and nesting sites... Diseases from ... up after rodents Take precautions before and during clean up of rodent-infested areas. Before cleaning, trap the ...

203

Chromosome damage in wild rodents inhabiting a site contaminated with Aroclor 1254  

SciTech Connect

An in situ investigation of structural chromosomal damage in wild rodents from a site contaminated with Aroclor 1254 was undertaken to compare effects observed in nature to those documented in previous laboratory studies. Laboratory assays indicate that Aroclor 1254 does not cause structural damage to chromosomes. However, the many variables at work in actual waste-site environments and receptor populations led the authors to question whether exposures under natural conditions could potentially lead to different results using the same assay systems. Individuals of three rodent species, Peromyscus leucopus, Sigmodon hispidus, and Reithrodontomys fulvescens, were collected from the contaminated site and three matched, pristine reference sites. Standard somatic metaphase chromosome preparations from bone marrow were examined for chromosomes lesions. Comparisons were made between conspecifics from the Aroclor-contaminated site and the reference sites. Significant increases in chromosome damage were not observed in animals from the Aroclor-contaminated site, indicating agreement between laboratory assays and an in situ application of this assay system.

Shaw-Allen, P.L.; McBee, K. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

1993-04-01

204

Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheng, Chin-Min

205

Laboratory plant study on the melting process of asbestos waste  

SciTech Connect

The melting process was studied as a method of changing asbestos into non-hazardous waste and recovering it as a reusable resource. In an initial effort, the thermal behaviors of asbestos waste in terms of physical and chemical structure have been studied. Then, 10 kg/h-scale laboratory plant experiments were carried out. By X-ray diffraction analysis, the thermal behaviors of sprayed-on asbestos waste revealed that chrysotile asbestos waste change in crystal structure at around 800 C, and becomes melted slag, mainly composed of magnesium silicate, at around 1,500 C. Laboratory plant experiments on the melting process of sprayed-on asbestos have shown that melted slag can be obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis of the melted slag revealed crystal structure change, and SEM analysis showed the slag to have a non-fibrous form. And more, TEM analysis proved the very high treatment efficiency of the process, that is, reduction of the asbestos content to 1/10{sup 6} as a weight basis. These analytical results indicate the effectiveness of the melting process for asbestos waste treatment.

Sakai, Shinichi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takatsuki, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Environment Preservation Center; Tsunemi, Takeshi [Osaka Gas Engineering Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1996-12-31

206

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This publication is one in series of case studies for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings. This case study describes the Science and Technology Facility, a new laboratory at NREL that incorporated energy-efficient and sustainable design features including underfloor air distribution in offices, daylighting, and process cooling.

Not Available

2007-03-01

207

Native rodent species are unlikely sources of infection for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in Madre de Dios, Peru.  

PubMed

An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V.) braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail) were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%), Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%), and Proechimys spp. (12%). All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V.) braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region. PMID:25062033

Shender, Lisa A; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M; Conrad, Patricia A; Ghersi, Bruno M; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G; Mazet, Jonna A K

2014-01-01

208

When allowed, females prefer novel males in the polygynous subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (tuco-tuco).  

PubMed

The ability to recognize familiar conspecifics plays an important role at the time of choosing a mating partner in rodents. A laboratory study using preference test was used in order to test the hypothesis that, in the polygynous subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum, females prefer novel males when offered two odors, or individuals (one familiar and one novel) limited in their movements so that male aggression is prevented. Our findings show that females prefer novel tuco-tucos at three levels of male assessment: odor samples (consisting of shavings soiled with urine, feces, and presumably, other body secretions collected from the male home cage), confined males behind a wire mesh, and full contact with tethered males. Previous studies of this species demonstrated that in the wild, male-male competition and male coercion severely limit the possibility of females mating non-neighbors, i.e. novel males. Females mating neighbors to whom they are familiarized, obtain high quality mating since they are territorial, highly competitive males. Nonetheless, when females have the opportunity, as shown in the two-choice experiments, they choose novel males, probably benefiting their progeny from novel genetic combinations. Hence, combining evidence from laboratory and field studies in C. talarum, it is possible to better understand female preferences in modeling individual reproductive strategies. PMID:23164625

Fanjul, Maria Sol; Zenuto, Roxana Rita

2013-01-01

209

Laboratory Based Case Studies: Closer to the Real World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case-based laboratories offer students the chance to approximate real science. Based on interesting stories that pose problems requiring experimental solutions, they avoid the cookbook approach characteristic of traditional undergraduate laboratory instruction. Instead, case-based laboratories challenge students to develop, as much as possible,…

Dinan, Frank J.

2005-01-01

210

Performances of inbred and outbred laboratory mice in putative tests of aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of situations commonly used to assess aggression in laboratory rodents was studied in two outbred varieties and six inbred strains of mice. The situations investigated included attacks on anosmic TO-line standard opponents by males from individual housing, from pairings with females, or after exposure to electroshock. Lactating females were studied in similar tests. Locust killing (predatory aggression) and

Sandra E. Jones; Paul F. Brain

1987-01-01

211

Selenium neurotoxicity in humans: bridging laboratory and epidemiologic studies.  

PubMed

Selenium is a metalloid of considerable interest in the human from both a toxicological and a nutritional perspective, with a very narrow safe range of intake. Acute selenium intoxication is followed by adverse effects on the nervous system with special clinical relevance, while the neurotoxicity of long-term overexposure is less characterized and recognized. We aimed to address this issue from a public health perspective, focusing on both laboratory studies and the few epidemiologic human studies available, with emphasis on their methodological strengths and limitations. The frequently overlooked differences in toxicity and biological activity of selenium compounds are also outlined. In addition to lethargy, dizziness, motor weakness and paresthesias, an excess risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the effect on the nervous system which has been more consistently associated with chronic low-level selenium overexposure, particularly to its inorganic compounds. Additional research efforts are needed to better elucidate the neurotoxic effects exerted by selenium overexposure. PMID:24269718

Vinceti, Marco; Mandrioli, Jessica; Borella, Paola; Michalke, Bernhard; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Finkelstein, Yoram

2014-10-15

212

Regional air pollution study: gas chromatography laboratory operation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatography laboratory was set up to analyze air samples collected in Teflon bags and stainless steel tanks. Samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, methane, CO, and C2-C10 hydrocarbons. A total of 455 samples, including replicates, were analyzed during the summer and fall of 1976. Many samples were collected at 12 of the Regional Air Monitoring Systems (RAMS) sites to yield data on spatial and temporal distributions of hydrocarbons. Additional sampling was performed to study ethylene contamination in and around RAMS stations. Roadway samples were collected to determine the composition of freshly emitted vehicular pollution. Quality control audits indicated good system performance during the study. Replicate samples indicated good reproducibility for samples stored for as long as six days in the Teflon bags. All data, including sums of paraffins, olefins, aromatic, and total non-methane hydrocarbons are stored in the RAPS Data Bank at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Cardwell, G.

1980-01-01

213

Pyrethroids as promising marine antifoulants: laboratory and field studies.  

PubMed

Due to the regulations and bans regarding the use of traditional toxic chemicals against marine fouling organisms and the practical impediments to the commercialization of natural product antifoulants, there is an urgent need for compounds that are antifouling-active, environmentally friendly, and have a potential for commercial application. In this study, a series of common, commercially available pyrethroid products, which are generally used as environmentally safe insecticides, was evaluated for antifouling activity in the laboratory using an anti-settlement test with cyprids of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus and also in a field experiment. Laboratory assay showed that all eleven pyrethroids (namely, rich d-trans-allethrin, Es-biothrin, rich d-prallethrin, S-prallethrin, tetramethrin, rich d-tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyphenothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, and high active cypermethrin) were able to inhibit barnacle settlement (EC(50) range of 0.0316 to 87.00 microg/ml) without significant toxicity. Analysis of structure-activity relationships suggested that the cyano group at the alpha-carbon position had a significant influence on the expression of antifouling activity in pyrethroids. In the field, the antifouling activity of pyrethroids was further confirmed, with the most potent pyrethroids being cypermethrin and high active cypermethrin, which displayed efficiency comparable with that of tributyltin. In summary, our investigation indicated that these pyrethroids have a great and practical commercial potential as antifouling agents. PMID:18654821

Feng, Danqing; Ke, Caihuan; Li, Shaojing; Lu, Changyi; Guo, Feng

2009-01-01

214

NIH POLICY MANUAL 3043-1 -Introduction of Rodents, Rodent Products and Rodent Pathogens  

E-print Network

. · NIH Manual System, contact the Office of Management Assessment, OM, on (301) 496- 4606 · Online poses a risk to both established rodent colonies and to the humans who come into contact with infected colonies and research mission. It is the goal of this policy to establish a dynamic balance between

Bandettini, Peter A.

215

Petrochemical-related DNA damage in wild rodents detected by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The need for quick, reliable, in situ tests of environmental mutagenicity is evidenced by increasing public concern about potential health effects of pollutants. Conventional tests of clastogenicity usually involve treatment of laboratory test systems with pure samples of suspect compounds followed by scoring numerous metaphase cells for chromosome aberrations. There are at least two shortcomings of these test protocols. They are very time consumptive and are generally restricted to controlled laboratory situations which may not realistically indicate the effects of environmental pollution. The use of flow cytometry to study resident rodent species as bioindicators provides a system by which cytogenetic effects of environmental pollutants upon exposed organisms rapidly and accurately can be ascertained. The authors found that two species of wild rodents (Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus) living at a dump site polluted with a complex mixture of oil, grease, polychlorinated biphenols, hexachlorobenzene, zinc, manganese, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead had significantly higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than did animals from two unpolluted control sites. These data suggest that resident small mammals may be useful as in situ monitors of the presence and action of mutagenic pollutants in the environment. This study was conducted to determine if changes in patterns of DNA content indicative of the action of mutagens could be detected by flow cytometric analysis of tissues from these same animals.

McBee, K.; Bickham, J.W.

1988-03-01

216

Geographical distribution of rodent-associated hantaviruses in Texas.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution and natural host range of hantaviruses in Texas, southeastern New Mexico, and Mexico. Blood samples from 3,225 wild rodents, representing 34 species, were tested for hantavirus antibody (IgG), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hantavirus antibody was found in one or more rodents from each of 13 counties in Texas, Otero County in southeastern New Mexico, and Mexico State (central Mexico). The 133 antibody-positive rodents included seven Peromyscus species (P. attwateri, P. boylii, P. hylocetes, P. leucopus, P. maniculatis, P. melanotis, and P. pectoralis), Sigmodon hispidus, Oryzomys palustris, two Reithrodontomys species (R. fulvescens and R. megalotis), Neotoma albigula, and Perognathus merriami. This study provides further evidence that rodent-associated hantaviruses are geographically widely distributed in Texas. The discovery of antibody in P. hylocetes and P. melanotis is evidence that peromyscine rodents in Mexico are naturally associated with viruses belonging to the genus Hantavirus. PMID:11469186

Mantooth, S J; Milazzo, M L; Bradley, R D; Hice, C L; Ceballos, G; Tesh, R B; Fulhorst, C F

2001-06-01

217

Multiple Co-infections of Rodents with Hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170

Turk, Nenad; Korva, Misa; Margaletic, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habus, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Zupanc, Tatjana Avsic; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotic, Alemka

2012-01-01

218

Helminth parasite species richness in rodents from Southeast Asia: role of host species and habitat.  

PubMed

Southeast Asia is a biodiversity hotspot that harbours many species of rodents, including some that live in close contact with humans. They host helminth parasites, some of which are of zoonotic importance. It is therefore important to understand the factors that influence the richness of the helminths parasitizing rodents. The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate rodent species as a factor determining helminth richness in rodent assemblages, to identify the major rodent helminth reservoir species and to explore the influence of habitat on helminth richness. We estimated helminth species richness using a large dataset of 18 rodent species (1,651 individuals) originating from Southeast Asia and screened for helminth parasites. The use of an unbiased estimator shows that the helminth species richness varies substantially among rodent species and across habitats. We confirmed this pattern by investigating the number of helminth species per individual rodent in all rodent species, and specifically in the two mitochondrial lineages Rattus tanezumi and R. tanezumi R3, which were captured in all habitats. PMID:25082015

Palmeirim, Marta; Bordes, Frédéric; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Siribat, Praphaiphat; Ribas, Alexis; Morand, Serge

2014-10-01

219

Laboratory Scale Antifoam Studies for the STTPB Process  

SciTech Connect

Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration, and washing steps. Conclusions are if air entrainment in the slurry is carefully avoided, little or no foam will be generated during normal operations during precipitation, concentration, and washing of the precipitate. Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration and washing steps. In all cases little or no foam formed during normal operations of precipitation, concentration and washing. Foam was produced by purposely-introducing gas sub-surface into the slurry. Once produced, the IIT B52 antifoam was effective in defoaming the slurry. In separate foam column tests, all antifoam/defoam agents were effective in mitigating foam formation and in defoaming a foamed 10 wt % insoluble solids slurry. Based on the results in this report as well as foam column studies at IIT, it is recommended that IIT B52 antifoam at the 1000 ppmV level be used in subsequent STTPB work where foaming is a concern. This study indicates that the addition of antifoam agent hinders the recovery of NaTPB during washing. Washing precipitate with no antifoam agent added had the highest level of NaTPB recovery, but had the shortest overall washing time ({approximately}19 hours) compared to 26-28 hours for antifoam runs. The solubilities of the three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were measured in a 4.7 M sodium salt solution. The Surfynol DF-110D defoamer was essentially insoluble while the two IIT antifoamers; Particle Modifier (PM) and B52 were soluble to at least the 2000 ppmV level.

Baich, M.A.

2001-02-13

220

Partnering at the National Laboratories: Catalysis as a Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The role of the national laboratories, particularly the defense program laboratories, since the end of the cold war, has been a topic of continuing debate. The relationship of national laboratories to industry spurred debate which ranged from designating the labs as instrumental to maintaining U.S. economic competitiveness to concern over the perception of corporate welfare to questions regarding the industrial globalization and the possibility of U.S. taxpayer dollars supporting foreign entities. Less debated, but equally important, has been the national laboratories' potential competition with academia for federal research dollars and discussions detailing the role of each in the national research enterprise.

JACKSON,NANCY B.

1999-09-14

221

Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis.  

PubMed

To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses. PMID:16867157

Devalapalli, A P; Lesher, A; Shieh, K; Solow, J S; Everett, M L; Edala, A S; Whitt, P; Long, R R; Newton, N; Parker, W

2006-08-01

222

Laboratory Studies of Supersonic Magnetized Plasma Jets and Radiative Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I will focus on laboratory plasma experiments producing magnetically driven supersonic plasma jets and on the interaction of these jets with ambient media. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that the critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, the Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. In the experiments the jets are driven and collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields and it is found that the level of MHD instabilities in the jets strongly depends on the strength of the field represented by the ratio of the thermal to magnetic field pressures (plasma beta). The experiments show the possibility of formation of episodic outflows, with periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities [1,2]. We also found that it is possible to form quasi-laminar jets which are “indirectly” collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields, but this requires the presence of the lower density halo plasma surrounding the central jet [3]. Studies of the radiative shocks formed in the interaction of the supersonic magnetized plasma flows with ambient plasma will be also presented, and the development of cooling instabilities in the post-shock plasma will be discussed. This research was sponsored by EPSRC Grant No. EP/G001324/1 and by the OFES DOE under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-SC-0001063. References 1. A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009) 2. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, S.V. Lebedev, S.N. Bland et al., Physics of Plasmas, 17, 112708 (2010). 3. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, M. Bocchi, S.V. Lebedev et al., Physics of Plasmas, 19, 022708 (2012).

Lebedev, Sergey

2013-06-01

223

Modeling natural photic entrainment in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco.  

PubMed

Subterranean rodents spend most of the day inside underground tunnels, where there is little daily change in environmental variables. Our observations of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) in a field enclosure indicated that these animals perceive the aboveground light-dark cycle by several bouts of light-exposure at irregular times during the light hours of the day. To assess whether such light-dark pattern acts as an entraining agent of the circadian clock, we first constructed in laboratory the Phase Response Curve for 1 h light-pulses (1000lux). Its shape is qualitatively similar to other curves reported in the literature and to our knowledge it is the first Phase Response Curve of a subterranean rodent. Computer simulations were performed with a non-linear limit-cycle oscillator subjected to a simple model of the light regimen experienced by tuco-tucos. Results showed that synchronization is achieved even by a simple regimen of a single daily light pulse scattered uniformly along the light hours of the day. Natural entrainment studies benefit from integrated laboratory, field and computational approaches. PMID:23874562

Flôres, Danilo E F L; Tomotani, Barbara M; Tachinardi, Patricia; Oda, Gisele A; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S

2013-01-01

224

Modeling Natural Photic Entrainment in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco  

PubMed Central

Subterranean rodents spend most of the day inside underground tunnels, where there is little daily change in environmental variables. Our observations of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) in a field enclosure indicated that these animals perceive the aboveground light-dark cycle by several bouts of light-exposure at irregular times during the light hours of the day. To assess whether such light-dark pattern acts as an entraining agent of the circadian clock, we first constructed in laboratory the Phase Response Curve for 1 h light-pulses (1000lux). Its shape is qualitatively similar to other curves reported in the literature and to our knowledge it is the first Phase Response Curve of a subterranean rodent. Computer simulations were performed with a non-linear limit-cycle oscillator subjected to a simple model of the light regimen experienced by tuco-tucos. Results showed that synchronization is achieved even by a simple regimen of a single daily light pulse scattered uniformly along the light hours of the day. Natural entrainment studies benefit from integrated laboratory, field and computational approaches. PMID:23874562

Flores, Danilo E. F. L.; Tomotani, Barbara M.; Tachinardi, Patricia; Oda, Gisele A.; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.

2013-01-01

225

ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

Anderson, L.E.

1992-06-01

226

Overview of UIUC's Concrete Cross-tie and Fastening System Laboratory Study  

E-print Network

· Instrumentation plan overview · Preliminary laboratory test ­ Built up load cell feasibility study ­ Partial Laboratory Study Slide 7 · Strain gauge locations: Lateral built-up load cell ­ moment & shear force Vertical Built-up Load Cell #12;Overview of UIUC's Concrete Cross Tie and Fastening System Laboratory Study Slide

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

227

Rodent herpesvirus Peru encodes a secreted chemokine decoy receptor.  

PubMed

Viruses have long been studied not only for their pathology and associated disease but also as model systems for understanding cellular and immunological processes. Rodent herpesvirus Peru (RHVP) is a recently characterized rhadinovirus related to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice. RHVP encodes numerous unique proteins that we hypothesize might facilitate host immune evasion during infection. We report here that open reading frame (ORF) R17 encodes a high-affinity chemokine binding protein that broadly recognizes human and murine CC and C chemokines. The interaction of R17 with chemokines is generally characterized by rapid association kinetics, and in the case of CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL24, and XCL1, extremely stable complexes are formed. Functionally, R17 potently inhibited CCL2-driven chemotaxis of the human monocytic cell line THP-1, CCL3-driven chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CCL2-mediated calcium flux. Our studies also reveal that R17 binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a process dependent upon two BBXB motifs and that chemokine and GAG binding can occur simultaneously at distinct sites. Collectively, these studies suggest that R17 may play a role in RHVP immune evasion through the targeted sabotage of chemokine-mediated immune surveillance. PMID:24173234

Lubman, Olga Y; Cella, Marina; Wang, Xinxin; Monte, Kristen; Lenschow, Deborah J; Huang, Yina H; Fremont, Daved H

2014-01-01

228

Rodent Herpesvirus Peru Encodes a Secreted Chemokine Decoy Receptor  

PubMed Central

Viruses have long been studied not only for their pathology and associated disease but also as model systems for understanding cellular and immunological processes. Rodent herpesvirus Peru (RHVP) is a recently characterized rhadinovirus related to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice. RHVP encodes numerous unique proteins that we hypothesize might facilitate host immune evasion during infection. We report here that open reading frame (ORF) R17 encodes a high-affinity chemokine binding protein that broadly recognizes human and murine CC and C chemokines. The interaction of R17 with chemokines is generally characterized by rapid association kinetics, and in the case of CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL24, and XCL1, extremely stable complexes are formed. Functionally, R17 potently inhibited CCL2-driven chemotaxis of the human monocytic cell line THP-1, CCL3-driven chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CCL2-mediated calcium flux. Our studies also reveal that R17 binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a process dependent upon two BBXB motifs and that chemokine and GAG binding can occur simultaneously at distinct sites. Collectively, these studies suggest that R17 may play a role in RHVP immune evasion through the targeted sabotage of chemokine-mediated immune surveillance. PMID:24173234

Lubman, Olga Y.; Cella, Marina; Wang, Xinxin; Monte, Kristen; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Huang, Yina H.

2014-01-01

229

New observations on urine contents in water-deprived Negev Desert rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In past studies, several rodent species of the murid subfamilies Gerbillinae and Cricetomyinae from the Namib Desert, when deprived of water, excreted allantoin precipitate in their urine. Shifting nitrogen excretion from urea to allantoin allows them to save much water. This phenomenon has not been reported in other rodents, and whether it is a trait that is common among desert

Carmi Korine; Itzick Vatnick; Ian G. van Tets; Berry Pinshow

2003-01-01

230

A qualitative case study of instructional support for web-based simulated laboratory exercises in online college chemistry laboratory courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study fills a gap in the research literature regarding the types of instructional support provided by instructors in online introductory chemistry laboratory courses that employ chemistry simulations as laboratory exercises. It also provides information regarding students' perceptions of the effectiveness of that instructional support. A multiple case study methodology was used to carry out the research. Two online introductory chemistry courses were studied at two community colleges. Data for this study was collected using phone interviews with faculty and student participants, surveys completed by students, and direct observation of the instructional designs of instructional support in the online Blackboard web sites and the chemistry simulations used by the participating institutions. The results indicated that the instructors provided multiple types of instructional support that correlated with forms of effective instructional support identified in the research literature, such as timely detailed feedback, detailed instructions for the laboratory experiments, and consistency in the instructional design of lecture and laboratory course materials, including the chemistry lab simulation environment. The students in one of these courses identified the following as the most effective types of instructional support provided: the instructor's feedback, opportunities to apply chemistry knowledge in the chemistry lab exercises, detailed procedures for the simulated laboratory exercises, the organization of the course Blackboard sites and the chemistry lab simulation web sites, and the textbook homework web sites. Students also identified components of instructional support they felt were missing. These included a desire for more interaction with the instructor, more support for the simulated laboratory exercises from the instructor and the developer of the chemistry simulations, and faster help with questions about the laboratory exercises or experimental calculations. Students believed that having this additional instructional support would lead to increased understanding of the laboratory exercises, allowing them to complete them with less difficulty, and giving them increased access to the instructor. Recommendations for the instructors of these two courses include: increased participation in the online course environment, increased emphasis on laboratory safety, and increased emphasis on the differences between simulated and real life chemistry laboratory experiments.

Schulman, Kathleen M.

231

Unexpected primitive rodents in the Quaternary of Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the most primitive taxon of a clade formed by Dinomyidae-Neoepiblemidae-Heptaxodontidae. Evidence of the close relationships among these families also is presented herein. The new fossils reinforce previous hypotheses about the survival of primitive Brazilian taxa after their extinction in the Pampas and Patagonia of southern South America. They also show that the diversity of caviomorph rodents during the Quaternary was greater than supposed and that an important Quaternary extinction, not previously detected, affected several lineages. With the available evidence, it is not possible to determine if these rodents indicate a warm pulse or a particular biogeographic situation in Entre Ríos.

Vucetich, María G.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Verzi, Diego H.; Noriega, Jorge I.; Tonni, Eduardo P.

2005-10-01

232

Can shrub cover increase predation risk for a desert rodent?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous research indicates that predation risk may influence activity patterns, habitat partitioning, and community structure of nocturnal desert rodents. Shrub microhabitat is typically considered safer than open microhabitat for these small mammals. We investigated predation risk for Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), which are diurnal desert rodents that detect predators visually and use burrows for refuge. Our results suggested that shrub cover may increase risk for these squirrels by decreasing their ability to escape from predators. Our field experiment indicated that running speeds of juvenile squirrels were lower in shrub (Ceratoides lanata) habitat than in open areas. Shrub cover was also associated with shorter predator-detection distances (mammalian and avian) and fewer refuges (burrow entrances per hectare) than in open areas in one year but not in another. Our study demonstrated that the visual and locomotive obstruction of vegetative cover may increase predation risk for diurnal desert rodents and that elements of habitat-dependent risk may be temporally dynamic.

Schooley, R.L.; Sharpe, Peter B.

1996-01-01

233

"Supercharge Nerve Transfer to Enhance Motor Recovery, a Laboratory Study"  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the ability of a supercharge end-to-side (SETS) nerve transfer to augment the effect of regenerating native axons in an incomplete rodent sciatic nerve injury model. Methods Fifty-four Lewis rats were randomized to 3 groups. The first group was an incomplete recovery model (IRM) of the tibial nerve complemented with a SETS transfer from the peroneal nerve (SETS-IRM). The IRM consisted of tibial nerve transection and immediate repair using a 10mm fresh tibial isograft to provide some, but incomplete, nerve recovery. The 2 control groups were IRM alone and SETS alone. Nerve histomorphometry, electron microscopy, retrograde labeling, and muscle force testing were performed. Results Histomorphometry of the distal tibial nerve showed significantly increased myelinated axonal counts in the SETS-IRM group compared to the IRM and SETS groups at 5 and 8 weeks. Retrograde labeling at 8 weeks confirmed increased motoneuron counts in the SETS-IRM group. Functional recovery at 8 weeks showed a significant increase in muscle specific force in the SETS-IRM group compared to the IRM group. Conclusions A SETS transfer enhanced recovery from an incomplete nerve injury as determined by histomorphometry, motoneuron labeling within the spinal cord, and muscle force measurements. Clinical Relevance A SETS distal nerve transfer may be useful in nerve injuries with incomplete regeneration such as proximal Sunderland II or III degree injuries, where long regeneration distance yields prolonged time to muscle reinnervation and suboptimal functional recovery. PMID:23391355

Farber, Scott J.; Glaus, Simone W.; Moore, Amy M.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

2013-01-01

234

Teasing Apart the Effects of Seed Size and Energy Content on Rodent Scatter-Hoarding Behavior  

PubMed Central

Scatter-hoarding rodents are known to play a crucial role in the seed dispersal of many plant species. Numerous studies have indicated that both seed size and the energy content of seeds can affect rodent foraging behavior. However, seed size is usually associated with energy content per seed, making it difficult to isolate how seed size and energy affect rodent foraging preferences. This study used 99 treatments of artificial seeds (11 seed sizes×9 levels of energy content) to tease apart the effect of seed size and energy content on rodent seed-caching behavior. Both seed traits showed significant effects, but their details depended on the stage of the rodent foraging process. Seeds with higher energy content were harvested more rapidly while seed size only had a modest effect on harvest rate. However, after harvesting, seed size showed a much stronger effect on rodent foraging behavior. Rodents’ choice of which seeds to remove and cache, as well as seed dispersal distance, seemed to reflect an optimal seed size. Our findings could be adapted in future studies to gain a better understanding of scatter-hoarding rodent foraging behavior, and the co-evolutionary dynamics between plant seed production and seed dispersers. PMID:25350369

Wang, Bo; Yang, Xiaolan

2014-01-01

235

Synanthropic rodents as possible reservoirs of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli strains.  

PubMed

Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for different cases of human disease including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Transmission of STEC to humans occurs through the consumption of food and water contaminated by faeces of carriers and by person-to-person contact. The objective of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate whether synanthropic rodents are possible reservoirs of STEC in the urban area and (2) whether a particular genus out of synanthropic rodent is the principal carrier of STEC. One hundred and forty-five rodents were captured in Buenos Aires City. Screening for stx1/stx2 and rfbO157 was done by PCR from the confluence zone. STEC isolates were further characterized with biochemical tests by standard methods. Additional virulence factors (eae, ehxA, and saa) were also determined by PCR. Forty-one of the rodents were necropsied and sample of kidney and small and large intestine were taken for histopathological diagnosis. The samples sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and observed by light microscopy to evaluate the systemic involvement of these species in natural infections. STEC was isolated from seven out of 27 suspect animals at screening. The following genotypes were found in the STEC strains: stx1/stx2/ehxA (1), stx2 (4), stx2/ehxA (1), stx2/ehxA/eae (1). Neither gross nor microscopic lesions compatible with those produced by Shiga toxin were observed in the studied organs of necropsied rodents. The bivariate analysis including the 145 rodent's data showed that the isolation of STEC is associated positively to Rattus genus. This synanthropic species may play a role in the transmissibility of the agent thus being a risk to the susceptible population. Their control should be included specifically in actions to dismiss the contamination of food and water by STEC in the urban area, as additional strategies for epidemiological control. PMID:23125967

Blanco Crivelli, Ximena; Rumi, María V; Carfagnini, Julio C; Degregorio, Osvaldo; Bentancor, Adriana B

2012-01-01

236

Prospects for biological control of rodent populations*  

PubMed Central

Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population. PMID:4587482

Wodzicki, Kazimierz

1973-01-01

237

Laboratory study of gravel-bed cluster formation and disintegration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

knowledge of clusters is essential for the understanding of sediment transport behavior and the monitoring and protection of aquatic life. A physical study using graded river gravels is conducted in a laboratory environment. Using photogrammetry and painted gravels, a cluster identification tool (CIT) is developed based on image subtraction between subsequent frames, allowing identification of any stable areas and groups of particles on the bed. This is combined with digital particle tracking (DPT) to present a novel approach for monitoring the formation and disintegration of clusters. Clusters from graded gravels are formed successfully during the experimental stage, allowing investigation into the complex dynamic behavior of cluster formation and disintegration in a simulated natural environment. Various anchor stone arrangements are used in the experiments. However, only about one fifth of the potential anchor stones on the bed surface enable cluster formation. In general, clusters classified as "typical" and "heap" are most common. Inspection of temporal cluster coverage of the test-bed surface shows that the proportion of clusters present on the surface tends to grow with time. Maximum cluster surface coverage of between 5% and 34% is observed. In addition, particles entering and departing from clusters are monitored. Most commonly, particles enter from directly upstream of the cluster, however >20% of particles approach from a direction >20 deg from the streamwise direction. Approximately 35% of all particles directly upstream of a cluster bypass the cluster.

Heays, K. G.; Friedrich, H.; Melville, B. W.

2014-03-01

238

ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

239

Laboratory study of heavy metal phytoremediation by three wetland macrophytes.  

PubMed

Detention ponds and constructed wetlands have proven to be effective in reducing peak stormwater runoff volume and flow, and recent interest has extended to utilizing them to improve stormwater runoff quality. A review of stormwater runoff studies indicated that lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, phosphorus, and chloride are contaminants of primary concern. In laboratory settings, the uptake of contaminants by three wetland plant species, Glyceria grandis, Scirpus validus, and Spartina pectinata, was examined and removal rates from nutrient solutions inflow and nonflow reactors were measured. The removal rates varied by plant species and target contaminant, and no one species was the best accumulator of all six contaminants. Belowground tissues of all three species accumulated higher concentrations of the four heavy metals and aboveground tissues accumulated higher concentrations of phosphorus and chloride. Plants grown in flow reactors showed significantly higher accumulation rates than those grown in nonflow reactors. Also, plants grown hydroponically accumulated higher concentrations of the six target contaminants than those grown in sand reactors. However, those grown in sand had a much greater increase of biomass and removed a greater mass of the six target contaminants. Removal rates measured in these experiments can be used to design detention ponds to maximize stormwater remediation. PMID:17120528

Weiss, Jeff; Hondzo, Miki; Biesboer, David; Semmens, Michael

2006-01-01

240

Meteoric water - basalt interactions: a field and laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to define and interpret the composition of the meteoric waters in N.E. Iceland in their cycle through the hydrosphere and the upper part of the crust, and to calibrate the natural process by dissolution experiments done in the laboratory. The composition of rain, snow, spring and geothermal waters from the rift zone of N.E. Iceland can be explained by sea-spray addition (1/10000), dissolution of basalts and buffering by alteration minerals. Rates, stoichiometry and activation energy of dissolution, pH vs. time and activity-activity paths were determined by dissolving basaltic rocks under simulated natural conditions at 25 to 60/sup 0/C. Dissolution follows a linear rate law, with basaltic glass dissolving 10 times faster than the crystalline basalt. Rates are independent of pH from 7 to 10. The average activation energy for dissolution of basaltic glass is 31.8 kJ/mol (+/-3). For individual elements leached from crystalline basalt it ranges from 35 to 15 kJ/mol. This indicates that under the experimental conditions reactions on the surfaces of the solids are the rate determining step in the dissolution mechanism. Considerable differences (2 to 4 log units) exist in the calculated oxygen fugacities obtained from different redox species in the geothermal fluids. This is primarily caused by the nonequilibrium state of the sulfur redox pair.

Gislason, S.R.

1985-01-01

241

A laboratory study on groundwater quality and mass movement occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, soil samples collected from the sides of two streams with high debris flow potential at Shenmu and Fengchiou village in Nantou County, Taiwan, were used for seepage tank tests in the laboratory. While the tests were being conducted, observations were made to investigate the relationships among displacement of the slope, quality of the seepage water and occurrence of mass movement. The results showed that according to the change rate, displacement could be divided into two stages, namely, the initial failure displacement stage and primary failure displacement stage. While the displacement of the slope was in primary failure displacement stages, the probability of slope failure became much higher. Before general slope failure, electrical conductivity (EC) and sulfate ion (SO4 2-) concentration of the seepage water increased significantly. The time when EC of the seepage water started to increase rapidly was much earlier than that when displacement of the slope started to increase significantly. Therefore, from the hazard mitigation view, there will be a longer time for response if EC of the seepage water was monitored.

Fan, Jen-Chen; Liu, Che-Hsin; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Huang, Hsiao-Yu

2009-06-01

242

Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

Leykin, I. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

243

Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

1995-03-01

244

Rodent leptospirosis in Colorado.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate leptospirosis in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and mice (Mus musculus) in southeastern Larimer County, Colorado. Leptospira serotype icterohaemorrhagiae was isolated from fourteen of 143 feral brown rats, an infection rate of 9.8%. Serological evidence of infection with this stereotype was found in 66.4% of the rats. Serological evidence of L. serotype ballum infection was present in three of 17 muskrats. Leptospires were seen in histological sections of kidney tissue from two of 61 feral mice. No isolations were made from cultures and serology was not done on mice. PMID:16498868

Al Saadi, M; Podt, G

1976-07-01

245

RAINFALL SIMULATOR FOR LABORATORY USE IN ACIDIC PRECIPITATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A rainfall simulator, developed on the principle of droplet formation from needle tips, is described. The simulator is designed for laboratory experimentation to examine the effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial plants. The system offers sufficient flexibility to simulat...

246

The Study of a Cobalt Complex--A Laboratory Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an 8-week project involving the synthesis of cobalt compounds. Once synthesized, compounds are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Background information, laboratory procedures, and results/discussion are provided for three project experiments. (Author/JN)

Loehlin, James H.; And Others

1982-01-01

247

A laboratory study of the friction behavior of granular materials  

E-print Network

I report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate the microphysical processes that result in rate- and state-dependent friction behavior and experiments designed to match the boundary conditions used by numerical ...

Frye, Kevin M. (Kevin Michael), 1972-

2002-01-01

248

A Laboratory Study of X-to-Frequency Converters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory demonstration that can be used to convert an analog quantity into frequency, which can then be converted into a binary measure using either an oscilloscope or a frequency counter. (MA)

Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V.

1979-01-01

249

Study of the Effectiveness of the Instructional Systems Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey examined perception and use of the services of the Instructional Systems Laboratory (ISL) by the faculty of the University of Minnesota's College of Education. The questionnaire, mailed to all College of Education faculty members, emphasized facu...

W. D. Philipson, P. W. Chan-Tam

1983-01-01

250

Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

E-print Network

Dupont's Marshall Laboratory is an automotive paint research and development facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The campus is comprised of several buildings that are served by Trigen-Philadelphia Energy Corporation's district steam loop...

Larkin, A.

251

Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 30 chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Predictions of carcinogenic activity are made for 30 chemicals currently being assessed for rodent carcinogenicity by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. The predictions are based upon the chemical structure, the anticipated or reported mutagenicity, and the reported sub-chronic toxicity of each chemical. It is predicted that 13 chemicals will be noncarcinogenic to rodents, that 7 will be genotoxic carcinogens, and that 10 may show some evidence of presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. PMID:8933060

Ashby, J

1996-01-01

252

Ethanol Drinking in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Many studies have used voluntary ethanol consumption by animals to assess the influence of genetic and environmental manipulations on ethanol drinking. However, the relationship between home cage ethanol consumption and more formal assessments of ethanol-reinforced behavior using operant and instrumental conditioning procedures is not always clear. The present review attempted to evaluate whether there are consistent correlations between mouse and rat home cage ethanol drinking on the one hand, and either operant oral self-administration (OSA), conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or conditioned place preference (CPP) with ethanol on the other. We also review literature on intravenous ethanol self-administration (IVSA). To collect data, we evaluated a range of genetic manipulations that can change both genes and ethanol drinking behavior including selective breeding, transgenic and knock-out models, and inbred and recombinant inbred strain panels. For a genetic model to be included in the analysis, there had to be published data resulting in differences on home cage drinking and data for at least one of the other behavioral measures. A consistent, positive correlation was observed between ethanol drinking and OSA, suggesting that instrumental behavior is closely genetically related to consummatory and ingestive behavior directed at ethanol. A negative correlation was observed between CTA and drinking, suggesting that ethanol’s aversive actions may limit oral consumption of ethanol. A more modest, positive relationship was observed between drinking and CPP, and there were not enough studies available to determine a relationship with IVSA. That some consistent outcomes were observed between widely disparate behavioral procedures and genetic populations may increase confidence in the validity of findings from these assays. These findings may also have important implications when researchers decide which phenotypes to use in measuring alcohol-reward relevant behaviors in novel animal models. PMID:18164576

Green, Alexis S.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

2008-01-01

253

Susceptibility of selected rodent species from Colorado to Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

To determine the susceptibility of some common Colorado (USA) rodent species to Borrelia burgdorferi, pregnant Peromyscus maniculatus, Tamias minimus, and Spermophilus lateralis were trapped in May 1990 and kept in quarantine until their young were old enough to be used in the experiment. Six to eight 8-wk-old individuals of each of the Colorado species and, for comparison, eight laboratory raised P. leucopus were subcutaneously inoculated with > or = 10(5) spirochetes in 0.1 ml in July 1990. Tissue specimens were collected for isolation from these animals through April 1991. Spirochetes were isolated from blood, ear, bladder, kidney, spleen, liver, and eye in Barbour-Stoener-Kelly (BSK) medium from P. maniculatus, P. leucopus and T. minimus. Spirochetes were isolated from at least one tissue from all of these animals and no isolations were obtained from any of the S. lateralis. Thus, three of the four rodent species tested are susceptible to, and could harbor, B. burgdorferi. PMID:8722268

Ubico, S R; McLean, R G; Cooksey, L M

1996-04-01

254

Rock fragment movement in shallow rill flow - A laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies concerning rill erosion mainly deal with the erosion and transport of fine material. The transport of rock fragments is examined mostly for mountain rivers. But there are important differences between the conditions and processes in rivers and in rills: (1) In most cases, the river cuts into a coarse substrate, where fine material is sparse, whereas rill erosion occurs on arable land. So the main part of the substrate is fine material and only single rock fragments influence the processes. (2) In rivers, the water depth is relatively high. There are a lot of studies about hydraulic parameters in such flows, but there is almost nothing known about hydraulic conditions in surface runoff events of a few centimeters. Additionally, little information exists about the rock fragment movement as a part of rill erosion processes on arable land. This knowledge should be increased because rock fragments cause non-stationary water turbulences in rills, which enhance the erosive force of flowing water. Field experiments can only show the fact that a certain rock fragment has moved: The starting point and the final position can be estimated. But the moving path and especially the initiation of the movement is not detectable under field conditions. Hence, we developed a laboratory setup to analyze the movement of rock fragments depending on rock fragment properties (size, form), slope gradient, flow velocity and surface roughness. By observing the rock fragments with cameras from two different angles we are able (1) to measure the rotation angles of a rock fragment during the experiment and (2) to deduce different rock fragment movement patterns. On this poster we want to present the experimental setup, developed within the scope of a master thesis, and the results of these experiments.

Becker, Kerstin; Wirtz, Stefan; Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Remke, Alexander; Iserloh, Thomas; Brings, Christine; Casper, Markus; Ries, Johannes B.

2014-05-01

255

Performance of dust allergen carpet samplers in controlled laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Allergens and other pollutants in house dust are collected using a variety of dust samplers that are assumed to operate similarly. This factorial design study compared sampler performance under controlled environmental conditions. House dust with known particle sizes (212-90, 90-45, and <45??m) and allergen concentrations were sampled from new carpet squares with varying denier, pile height and pile densities. Dust mass and allergen recovery for total dust mites (Der p 1 and Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) were assessed using the Eureka Mighty Mite (EURK), the High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS), or the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) method. Allergen concentrations were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and dust mass results were corrected for carpet fiber shedding. Samplers were compared by exploring mass collection efficiency (CE=fiber corrected dust mass/applied dust mass) and concentration ratio (CR=allergen concentration in collected sample/allergen concentration in test dust). Test dust allergen concentrations varied by particle size fraction due to varying laboratory performance over time. The EURK and HVS samplers had CEs of 41-63% in the small and medium particle size fractions, and collected less than 20% of the available dust from the large size fraction. The AIHA CE ranged from 10% to 17% in the medium and small particle size fractions, but collected little dust in the largest particle size fraction. The AIHA and HVS samplers were more likely to acquire more representative and less variable allergen CRs compared with the EURK method. Health studies that use allergen concentration as an exposure metric need to consider the implications of sampler performance when interpreting links to health outcomes and development of health-based standards for allergens in house dust. PMID:23281430

Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Wang, Mei; McKenzie, Lisa M; Hwang, Jooyeon; Ja Cho, Sook; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

2013-07-01

256

Los Alamos National Laboratory W76 Pit Tube Lifetime Study  

SciTech Connect

A metallurgical study was requested as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) W76-1 life-extension program (LEP) involving a lifetime analysis of type 304 stainless steel pit tubes subject to repeat bending loads during assembly and disassembly operations at BWXT/Pantex. This initial test phase was completed during the calendar years of 2004-2006 and the report not issued until additional recommended tests could be performed. These tests have not been funded to this date and therefore this report is considered final. Tubes were reportedly fabricated according to Rocky Flats specification P14548 - Seamless Type 304 VIM/VAR Stainless Steel Tubing. Tube diameter was specified as 0.125 inches and wall thickness as 0.028 inches. A heat treat condition is not specified and the hardness range specification can be characteristic of both 1/8 and 1/4 hard conditions. Properties of all tubes tested were within specification. Metallographic analysis could not conclusively determine a specified limit to number of bends allowable. A statistical analysis suggests a range of 5-7 bends with a 99.95% confidence limit. See the 'Statistical Analysis' section of this report. The initial phase of this study involved two separate sets of test specimens. The first group was part of an investigation originating in the ESA-GTS [now Gas Transfer Systems (W-7) Group]. After the bend cycle test parameters were chosen (all three required bends subjected to the same amount of bend cycles) and the tubes bent, the investigation was transferred to Terri Abeln (Metallurgical Science and Engineering) for analysis. Subsequently, another limited quantity of tubes became available for testing and were cycled with the same bending fixture, but with different test parameters determined by T. Abeln.

Abeln, Terri G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-25

257

The laboratory animal boards study group: A multifaceted tool for preparation for the American College for Laboratory Medicine board examination.  

PubMed

Preparation for the specialty board examination for the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) is an intensive process that is facilitated by geographic regions where many people studying for the exam are located in close proximity. However, many people work at institutions that are distant from these 'study centers'. Approximately 10 y ago, the Laboratory Animal Boards Study Group (LABSG) online journal club was established to provide a forum for journal review for examination preparation. Over the years, the mission of this group has expanded to include practice examinations and practicals, questions from common resources, and summaries and questions from common laboratory animal science journals. These study aids are beneficial for those preparing for the ACLAM certification examination. They are also beneficial for those preparing for the technician and manager certification examinations offered by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). This article is intended to be an introduction to the variety of study aids available through the LABSG online journal review club and the LABSG web page (www.labsg.org). It also provides details on the demographics of participants and an exploration of how this resource enhances examination preparation. PMID:16884177

Hickman, Debra; King-Herbert, Angela; Murphy, Stephanie J

2006-07-01

258

Geographic variation in rodent-flea relationships in the presence of black-tailed prairie dog colonies.  

PubMed

We characterized the relationship between fleas and their rodent hosts in the presence of prairie dog colonies and compared them to adjacent assemblages away from colonies. We evaluated the rodent-flea relationship by quantifying prevalence, probability of infestation, flea load, and intensity of fleas on rodents. As prairie dog burrows provide refugia for fleas, we hypothesized that prevalence, flea load, and intensity would be higher for rodents that are associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Rodents were trapped at off- and on-colony grids, resulting in the collection of 4,509 fleas from 1,430 rodents in six study areas. The rodent community composition varied between these study areas. Flea species richness was not different between prairie dog colonies and the surrounding grasslands (p = 0.883) but was positively correlated with rodent species richness (p = 0.055). Prairie dog colonies did not increase the prevalence of fleas (p > 0.10). Flea loads on rodents did not vary between off- and on-colony grids at three of the study areas (p > 0.10). Based on the prevalence, infestation rates, and flea loads, we identified Peromyscus maniculatus, Onychomys leucogaster, and two Neotoma species as important rodent hosts for fleas and Aetheca wagneri, Orchopeus leucopus, Peromyscopsylla hesperomys, Pleochaetis exilis, and Thrassisfotus as the most important fleas associated with these rodents. Prairie dog colonies did not seem to facilitate transmission of fleas between rodent hosts, and the few rodent-flea associations exhibited significant differences between off- and on-colony grids. PMID:18697322

Thiagarajan, Bala; Cully, Jack F; Loughin, Thomas M; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L

2008-06-01

259

Neuregulin 1: a prime candidate for research into gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia? Insights from genetic rodent models  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a multi-factorial disease characterized by a high heritability and environmental risk factors. In recent years, an increasing number of researchers worldwide have started investigating the “two-hit hypothesis” of schizophrenia predicting that genetic and environmental risk factors (GxE) interactively cause the development of the disorder. This work is starting to produce valuable new animal models and reveal novel insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This mini review will focus on recent advancements in the field made by challenging mutant and transgenic rodent models for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (NRG1) with particular environmental factors. It will outline results obtained from mouse and rat models for various Nrg1 isoforms/isoform types (e.g., transmembrane domain Nrg1, Type II Nrg1), which have been exposed to different forms of stress (acute versus chronic, restraint versus social) and housing conditions (standard laboratory versus minimally enriched housing). These studies suggest Nrg1 as a prime candidate for GxE interactions in schizophrenia rodent models and that the use of rodent models will enable a better understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23966917

Karl, Tim

2013-01-01

260

Seed consumption and caching on seeds of three sympatric tree species by four sympatric rodent species in a subtropical forest, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because it is difficult and often impossible to distinguish dispersal, consumption and caching of seeds among different rodent species in the field, the differences of sympatric rodent species in affecting seed fates and forest regeneration are often unknown. To understand the different impact of four sympatric rodent species on seed fates of three sympatric tree species, we studied the food-hoarding

Jinrui Cheng; Zhishu Xiao; Zhibin Zhang

2005-01-01

261

Ultrasonic Attenuation and Backscatter Coefficient Estimates of Rodent-Tumor-Mimicking Structures: Comparison of Results among Clinical Scanners  

PubMed Central

In vivo estimations of the frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation (?) and backscatter (?) coefficients using radio frequency (RF) echoes acquired with clinical ultrasound systems must be independent of the data acquisition setup and the estimation procedures. In a recent in vivo assessment of these parameters in rodent mammary tumors, overall agreement was observed among ? and ? estimates using data from four clinical imaging systems. In some cases, particularly in highly attenuating heterogeneous tumors, multi-system variability was observed. This paper compares ? and ? estimates of a well-characterized rodent-tumor-mimicking homogeneous phantom scanned using 7 transducers with the same four clinical imaging systems: a Siemens Acuson S2000, an Ultrasonix RP, a Zonare Z.one, and a VisualSonics Vevo2100. ? and ? estimates of lesion-mimicking spheres in the phantom were independently assessed by three research groups, who analyzed their system’s RF echo signals. Imaging-system-based estimates of ? and ? of both lesion-mimicking spheres were comparable to through-transmission laboratory estimates and to predictions using Faran’s theory, respectively. A few notable variations in results among the clinical systems were observed, but the average and maximum percent difference between ? estimates and laboratory-assessed values was 11% and 29%, respectively. Excluding a single outlier dataset, the average and maximum average difference between ? estimates for the clinical systems and values predicted from scattering theory was 16% and 33%, respectively. These results were an improvement over previous inter-laboratory comparisons of attenuation and backscatter estimates. Although the standardization of our estimation methodologies can be further improved, this study validates our results from previous rodent breast-tumor model studies. PMID:22518954

Nam, Kibo; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Pawlicki, Alexander D.; Kumar, Viksit; Madsen, Ernest L.; Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.; Bigelow, Timothy A.; Zagzebski, James A.; O'Brien, William D.; Hall, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

262

Anti-erosion stone bunds influence rodent dynamics and crop damage in Ethiopian highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas of subsistence agriculture, a variety of soil conservation methods have been implemented in the last few decades to improve crop yields, however these can have unintended consequences such as providing habitat for rodent pests. We studied rodent population dynamics and estimated crop damage in high and low stone bund density fields for four cropping seasons in Tigray highlands, northern Ethiopia. Stone bunds are physical structures for soil and water conservation, and potentially habitat for rodents. We used a general model to relate the proportion of crop damage to rodent abundance, stone bund density and crop stages. We found a positive correlation between rodent abundance and crop damage, and significant variation in rodent abundance and crop damage between high and low stone bund density fields. Furthermore, crop damage also varied significantly between crop stages. We concluded that Mastomys awashensis and Arvicanthis dembeensis were the two most important crop pests in the highlands causing significant damage. Fields with high stone bund density (~10 m average distance apart) harbor more rodents and endure a significantly higher proportion of crop damage compared to fields with lower stone bund density (~15 m average distance apart). The fact that rodent abundances peaked during the reproductive stage of the crop and around harvest implies the need for management intervention before these crop stages are attained.

Meheretu, Yonas; Welegerima, Kiros; Teferi, Mekonen; Yirga, Gidey; Haile, Mitiku; Sluydts, Vincent; Bauer, Hans; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

2014-05-01

263

Variable effects of cyclophosphamide in rodent models of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have evaluated the effects of cyclophosphamide on the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in four EAE rodent models: monophasic EAE in Lewis rats, protracted relapsing (PR)-EAE in DA rats, myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG)-induced EAE in C57Bl/6 mice and proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced EAE in Swiss/Jackson Laboratory (SJL) mice. Cyclophosphamide, administered either prophylactically or therapeutically, suppressed most strongly the clinical symptoms of PR-EAE in DA rats. Treated rats in this group also exhibited the lowest degree of inflammatory infiltration of the spinal cord, as well as the lowest levels of nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma. Cyclophosphamide prophylactically, but not therapeutically, also delayed significantly the onset of EAE in Lewis rats. In contrast, regardless of the treatment regimen used, was unable to influence the clinical course of EAE in either MOG-induced EAE in C57Bl/6 mice or PLP-induced EAE in SJL mice. This heterogeneous pharmacological response to cyclophosphamide suggests that significant immunopathogenic differences exist among these EAE rodent models that must be considered when designing preclinical studies. In addition, the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide in dark Agouti (DA) rats with PR-EAE suggests that this may be a particularly useful model for studying novel therapeutic approaches for refractory and rapidly worsening multiple sclerosis in human patients. PMID:19922500

Mangano, K; Nicoletti, A; Patti, F; Donia, M; Malaguarnera, L; Signorelli, S; Magro, G; Muzio, V; Greco, B; Zaratin, P; Meroni, P; Zappia, M; Nicoletti, F

2010-01-01

264

Knowledge Retention for Computer Simulations: A study comparing virtual and hands-on laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of virtual laboratories has the potential to change physics education. These low-cost, interactive computer activities interest students, allow for easy setup, and give educators a way to teach laboratory based online classes. This study investigated whether virtual laboratories could replace traditional hands-on laboratories and whether students could retain the same long-term knowledge in virtual laboratories as compared to hands-on laboratories. This study is a quantitative quasi-experiment that used a multiple posttest design to determine if students using virtual laboratories would retain the same knowledge as students who performed hands-on laboratories after 9 weeks. The study was composed of 336 students from 14 school districts. Students had their performances on the laboratories and their retention of the laboratories compared to a series of factors that might have affected their retention using a pretest and two posttests, which were compared using a t test. The results showed no significant difference in short-term learning between the hands-on laboratory groups and virtual laboratory groups. There was, however, a significant difference (p = .005) between the groups in long-term retention; students in the hands-on laboratory groups retained more information than those in the virtual laboratory groups. These results suggest that long-term learning is enhanced when a laboratory contains a hands-on component. Finally, the results showed that both groups of students felt their particular laboratory style was superior to the alternative method. The findings of this study can be used to improve the integration of virtual laboratories into science curriculum.

Croom, John R., III

265

Synthetic cathinones and their rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents  

PubMed Central

Synthetic cathinones, colloquially referred to as “bath salts”, are derivatives of the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone found in Catha edulis (Khat). Since the mid-to-late 2000’s, these amphetamine-like psychostimulants have gained popularity amongst drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and constantly evolving chemical structures. Concomitant with their increased use is the emergence of a growing collection of case reports of bizarre and dangerous behaviors, toxicity to numerous organ systems, and death. However, scientific information regarding the abuse liability of these drugs has been relatively slower to materialize. Recently we have published several studies demonstrating that laboratory rodents will readily self-administer the “first generation” synthetic cathinones methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methylone via the intravenous route, in patterns similar to those of methamphetamine. Under progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, the rank order of reinforcing efficacy of these compounds are MDPV ? methamphetamine > methylone. MDPV and methylone, as well as the “second generation” synthetic cathinones ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP) and 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), also dose-dependently increase brain reward function. Collectively, these findings indicate that synthetic cathinones have a high abuse and addiction potential and underscore the need for future assessment of the extent and duration of neurotoxicity induced by these emerging drugs of abuse.

Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

2014-01-01

266

Coxiella burnetii in Rodents on Heixiazi Island at the Sino-Russian Border  

PubMed Central

This work is a molecular epidemiologic study to detect the incidence of Coxiella burnetii in rodents on Heixiazi Island at the Sino-Russian border of Heilongjiang Province. Liver tissues were extracted and processed to test the incidence of C. burnetii infection using polymerase chain reaction analysis. In total, 18% (66 of 370) of rodents tested positive for infection. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that infection with C. burnetii was associated significantly with weight and month of capture, and infection was found in all rodent species that were observed; there was no significant difference of sex on the infection of C. burnetii. Though phylogenetic analysis disclosed heterogeneity in the nucleotide sequences isolated from the island rodents, the majority of observed strains were among the most common strains found worldwide. This is the first report on the incidence of C. burnetii in rodents on Heixiazi Island at the Sino-Russian border. PMID:23382172

Liu, Lijuan; Baoliang, Xu; Yingqun, Fu; Ming, Li; Yu, Yang; Yong, Hou; Shasha, Wang; Manxia, Hu; Tianyu, Guo; Chao, Jiang; Xiaohong, Sun; Jing, Wang

2013-01-01

267

Micromechanics of friction studied nanoseismically on laboratory faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Careful analysis of high frequency seismic waves (nanoseismic waves) emanating from a laboratory-scale frictional interface reveals seismic radiation which occurs in discrete bursts. Using an array of thirteen sensors, we are able to study the focal mechanism and force time history of the discrete events, which we interpret to be rupture or fracture of asperities. The rapid rise time (~1 ?s) of recorded waves enables spatio-temporal location of the sources to be resolved to ~1 mm/ ~1 ?s accuracy. The evolution of asperity rupture is mapped as the interface transitions from "stick" to "slip," which provides clues to the micromechanics of friction and the dynamics of fault rupture and the production of earthquakes. We compare and contrast the results of sliding friction tests on basalt and PMMA, using a direct shear apparatus instrumented with pm-scale sensitivity broadband (~8kHz - ~2MHz) displacement sensors, shown in Figure 1. Recorded signals are in excellent agreement with synthetic seismograms calculated using generalized ray theory, shown in Figure 2(c). The system is absolutely calibrated using both the impact of a tiny (1 mm) ball on the specimen surface and the sudden fracture of a thin-walled glass capillary tube loaded on its side. For the basalt sample, the focal mechanisms of the discrete nanoseismic sources imply fracture of asperities that carried both shear and normal forces about 10-100 mN in magnitude, less than .01% of the total load carried by the interface. The focal mechanisms of the PMMA sample indicate that the rupture of asperities releases only shear load, typically at greater magnitude. Figure 1. Schematic of the experimental setup. Figure 2. Typical results from basalt: a, shear force is slowly increased until the block slips. Nanoseismic signals are recorded simultaneously. b, Details of the slip shown with greater time magnification. c, Nanoseismic signals recorded for one discrete event shown alongside synthetic seismograms (thick lines).

McLaskey, G. C.; Glaser, S. D.

2010-12-01

268

Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document  

SciTech Connect

One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

2000-01-01

269

Factors determining the abundance and distribution of rodents in a shrub-steppe ecosystem: the role of shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the relative importances of shrub “resources” on a rodent community in a sagebrush dominated shrub-steppe ecosystem in southwestern Wyoming. Direct effects of shrubs (i.e., providing rodents with “food and cover”) were assessed by removing shrubs from a 1.25 ha study plot and monitoring both rodent populations and their food resources. Shrub architecture and shrub-related food resources were

Robert R. Parmenter; James A. MacMahon

1983-01-01

270

Fine structure of bacterial adhesion to the epithelial cell membranes of the filiform papillae of tongue and palatine mucosa of rodents: a morphometric, TEM, and HRSEM study.  

PubMed

The palatine mucosa and filiform papillae of the dorsal tongue mucosae of rodents were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). In the HRSEM method, the samples were fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in alcohol, critical point-dried, and coated with gold-palladium. In addition, the HRSEM technique was used for morphometric analysis (length, width, and length/width ratio of cocci and bacilli). For the TEM method, the tissues were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution (2.5% glutaraldehyde, 2% formalin in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and embedded in Spurr resin. The results demonstrated that there are thick polygonal keratinized epithelial cells where groups of bacteria are revealed in three-dimensional images on the surface of filiform papillae in these animals. The bacterial membranes are randomly attached to the microplicae surface of epithelial cells. Morphometrics showed higher values of length and width of cocci in newborn (0 day) as compared to newborn (7 days) and adults animals, the bacilli showed no differences in these measurements. At high magnification, the TEM images revealed the presence of glycocalyx microfilaments that constitute a fine adhesion area between bacterial membranes and the membranes of epithelial microplicae cells. In conclusion, the present data revealed the fine fibrillar structures of bacteria that facilitate adhesion to the epithelial cell membranes of the oral cavity and morphometric changes in newborn (0 day) rats as compared with other periods. PMID:24123452

Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Ogawa, Koichi; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

2013-12-01

271

COMPARISON OF FIELD- AND LABORATORY-DEVELOPED ESTUARINE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FOR TOXICANT-EXPOSURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The structures of macrobenthic communities that colonized sand-filled boxes in laboratory and field were compared to learn if laboratory-developed assemblages of animals used in toxicity studies realistically simulate those in nature. Laboratory boxes were colonized for eight wee...

272

Next-Generation Sequencing for Rodent Barcoding: Species Identification from Fresh, Degraded and Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Rodentia is the most diverse order among mammals, with more than 2,000 species currently described. Most of the time, species assignation is so difficult based on morphological data solely that identifying rodents at the specific level corresponds to a real challenge. In this study, we compared the applicability of 100 bp mini-barcodes from cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes to enable rodent species identification. Based on GenBank sequence datasets of 115 rodent species, a 136 bp fragment of cytochrome b was selected as the most discriminatory mini-barcode, and rodent universal primers surrounding this fragment were designed. The efficacy of this new molecular tool was assessed on 946 samples including rodent tissues, feces, museum samples and feces/pellets from predators known to ingest rodents. Utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies able to sequence mixes of DNA, 1,140 amplicons were tagged, multiplexed and sequenced together in one single 454 GS-FLX run. Our method was initially validated on a reference sample set including 265 clearly identified rodent tissues, corresponding to 103 different species. Following validation, 85.6% of 555 rodent samples from Europe, Asia and Africa whose species identity was unknown were able to be identified using the BLASTN program and GenBank reference sequences. In addition, our method proved effective even on degraded rodent DNA samples: 91.8% and 75.9% of samples from feces and museum specimens respectively were correctly identified. Finally, we succeeded in determining the diet of 66.7% of the investigated carnivores from their feces and 81.8% of owls from their pellets. Non-rodent species were also identified, suggesting that our method is sensitive enough to investigate complete predator diets. This study demonstrates how this molecular identification method combined with high-throughput sequencing can open new realms of possibilities in achieving fast, accurate and inexpensive species identification. PMID:23144869

Galan, Maxime; Pages, Marie; Cosson, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

273

Effects of Fat and Protein Levels on Foraging Preferences of Tannin in Scatter-Hoarding Rodents  

PubMed Central

Both as consumers and dispersers of seeds, scatter-hoarding rodents often play an important role in the reproductive ecology of many plant species. However, the seeds of many plant species contain tannins, which are a diverse group of water-soluble phenolic compounds that have a high affinity for proteins. The amount of tannins in seeds is expected to affect rodent foraging preferences because of their major impact on rodent physiology and survival. However, variable results have been obtained in studies that evaluated the effects of tannin on rodent foraging behavior. Hence, in this study, we aimed to explain these inconsistent results and proposed that a combination of seed traits might be important in rodent foraging behavior, because it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of individual traits on rodent foraging behavior and the interactions among them. By using a novel artificial seed system, we manipulated seed tannin and fat/protein levels to examine directly the univariate effects of each component on the seed preferences of free-ranging forest rats (Apodemus latronum and Apodemus chevrieri) during the behavioral process of scatter hoarding. Our results showed that both tannin and fat/protein had significant effects on rodent foraging behavior. Although only a few interactive effects of tannin and fat/protein were recorded, higher concentrations of both fat and protein could attenuate the exclusion of seeds with higher tannin concentrations by rodents, thus influencing seed fate. Furthermore, aside from the concentrations of tannin, fat, and protein, numerous other traits of plant seeds may also influence rodent foraging behavior. We suggest that by clarifying rodent foraging preferences, a better understanding of the evolution of plant seed traits may be obtained because of their strong potential for selective pressure. PMID:22808217

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

2012-01-01

274

Development and characterization of rodent cardiac phantoms: comparison with in vivo cardiac imaging  

PubMed Central

The increasing availability of rodent models of human cardiovascular disease has led to a need to translate noninvasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the clinic to the animal laboratory. The aim of this study was to develop phantoms simulating the short-axis view of left ventricular motion of rats and mice, thus reducing the need for live animals in the development of MRI. Cylindrical phantoms were moulded from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Cryogel and attached via stiff water-filled tubing to a gear pump. Pulsatile distension of the phantoms was effected by suitable programming of the pump. Cine MRI scanning was carried out at 7 T and compared with in vivo rodent cardiac imaging. Suitable pulsatile performance was achieved with phantoms for which the PVA material had been subjected to two freeze–thaw cycles, resulting in T1 and T2 relaxation time constants of 1656±124 ms and 55±10 ms, respectively. For the rat phantom operating at 240 beats per min (bpm), the dynamic range of the outer diameter was from 10.3 to 12.4 mm with the wall thickness varying between 1.9 and 1.2 mm. Corresponding figures for the mouse phantom at 480 bpm were outer diameter range from 5.4 to 6.4 mm and wall thickness from 1.5 to 1.2 mm. Dynamic cardiac phantoms simulating rodent left ventricular motion in the short-axis view were successfully developed and compared with in vivo imaging. The phantoms can be used for future development work with reduced need of live animals. PMID:22770689

Fortune, Steven; Jansen, Maurits A.; Anderson, Tom; Gray, Gillian A.; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Hoskins, Peter R.; Marshall, Ian

2012-01-01

275

A laboratory study of predation on lake-dwelling triclads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation on four species of triclads was investigated by exposing them to likely predators in the laboratory. The only serious littoral predators would seem to be dragonfly nymphs and adult Dytiscus marginalis. Although fish devoured triclads to some extent it is argued that predation by these in nature is unlikely. The slow movement and distastefulness of triclads contribute to their

J. O. Young; T. B. Reynoldson

1965-01-01

276

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY LABORATORY OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A gas chromatography laboratory was set up to analyze air samples collected in Teflon bags and stainless steel tanks. Samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, methane, CO, and C2-C10 hydrocarbons. A total of 455 samples, including replicates, were analyzed during the summer ...

277

Laboratory Studies of Predation by Euphausiid Shrimps on Fish Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our experiments were designed to determine whether euphausiids could capture fish larvae, and if so, how many and under what conditions. We have combined our laboratory findings with the field data given by Brinton (1967 and unpublished) to estimate the mortality of northern anchovy larvae that may be caused by co-occurring E. pacifica. Of the oceanic zooplankters which frequent the

G. H. Theilacker; R. Lasker

278

Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes.

Not Available

1984-12-01

279

Laboratory Scale Antifoam Studies for the STTPB Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three candidate antifoam\\/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration, and washing steps. Conclusions are if air entrainment in the slurry is carefully avoided, little or no foam will be generated during normal operations during precipitation, concentration, and washing of the precipitate. Three candidate antifoam\\/defoam agents were tested on

Baich

2001-01-01

280

The Study of Biobehavioral Rhythms in a Psychology Laboratory Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a laboratory experiment where students measured their heart rate, blood pressure, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Measures showed significant circadian heart rhythm variations. They were strongly correlated and peaked at different times. Discusses the implications of this and students' reactions to the experiment. (MJP)

Rowland, David L.; Wesselhoft, Theresa

1998-01-01

281

Laboratory astrochemistry: studying molecules under inter- and circumstellar conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline recent developments in and the growing need for laboratory astrochemical measurements. After a short review on experimental methods, we focus primarily upon the utility of multi-electrode ion trapping methods for addressing key problems in reaction dynamics and their applications towards gaining a better understanding of the physicochemical driving forces behind compositional development in interstellar and

D. Gerlich; M. Smith

2006-01-01

282

Mound Laboratory tritium environmental study: 1976--1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of an extensive investigation of tritium in the aquifer underlying the Mound Facility site, an unusual behavior was noted for a beta-emitting radionuclide contaminant present in the environs of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to the laboratory site. The soil contaminant was determined to be tritium, of which 90% was in the form of a relatively stable

C. J. Kershner; T. B. Rhinehammer

1978-01-01

283

Medical Laboratory Technician Student & Graduate. Articulation Interest Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interests in articulation by students and graduates of the nine medical laboratory technology programs in Kentucky were surveyed. Articulation refers to transfer between programs or institutions and increased opportunities for career mobility and advancement. The 131 respondents to a questionnaire indicated: their interest in articulation, marital…

Morris, Frances J.

284

Laboratory studies of heterogeneous processes relevant to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous (gas-surface) processes may play an important role in both the atmospheric and surface chemistry of Mars. Atmospheric species may be affected by the chemistry and physical properties of the planetary surface and the surface material may be affected by the components and properties of the atmosphere. In this thesis, several laboratory studies are described which experimentally investigate two types of atmosphere-surface systems likely to exist on Mars. First, experiments were performed to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric methane (CH4) on Mars. Reported CH4 plumes in the atmosphere of Mars are difficult to explain using known chemical or physical processes. The observations imply a strong, present-day source and also a rapid yet unknown CH4 sink. We have investigated the potential role of mineral dust in CH4 variability. First, using a Knudsen cell capable of simulating Martian temperature and pressure conditions, we have studied the adsorption of CH4 to a Martian mineral analog as a function of temperature. An uptake coefficient was determined and then applied to the Martian surface-atmosphere system. Our results suggest that adsorption to soil grains could possibly affect the CH4 mixing ratio on a seasonal time scale especially at mid-latitude regions. Additionally, chemical oxidation of CH4 by oxidants thought to exist in the Martian regolith was studied. The Viking mission in the 1970's found Martian soil was able to oxidize complex organic compounds to CO 2. The identity of the oxidant is unknown, but has been proposed to be either hydrogen peroxide or perchlorate salts. We used a gas chromatograph to determine if simulated Mars soil containing these oxidants was able to oxidize CH4 to CO2. However, no CH4 was oxidized within the detection limit of the instrument and only an upper limit reaction coefficient could be reported. Even these upper limit values suggest CH 4 could not be removed from the Martian atmosphere rapidly enough to cause variability. We have also studied the interactions of another important trace gas on Mars, water vapor, with perchlorate, a highly deliquescent salt recently discovered in polar soil. A Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell was used to study phase transitions of the salts. The relative humidity (RH) at which deliquescence (absorption of water vapor by the solid to become an aqueous solution) and efflorescence (crystallization of the aqueous solution) occur were determined as a function of temperature, hydration state and associated cation. We show that the deliquescence RH for perchlorate salts can be low (˜40% RH for anhydrous sodium perchlorate, for example). Thermodynamics can predict deliquescence; however, the kinetic inhibition of crystallization causes efflorescence to occur at much lower RH values than deliquescence which allows supersaturated salt solutions to exist in a metastable state. Based on the diurnal RH and temperature cycles on Mars, aqueous solutions could be stable or metastable for several hours a day at the Phoenix landing site. The astrobiological implications of potential liquid H2O on Mars are significant.

Gough, Raina V.

285

Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on the geographic and natural rodent host ranges of New World arenaviruses in California. Sera from 1,094 sigmodontine and 112 murine rodents were tested for antibody against Whitewater Arroyo and Amapari viruses. Antibody was found in 55 (4.6%) of the 1,206 rodents: 4 from northwestern San Diego County, 3 from Los Angeles County, and 48 from Orange County. The antibody-positive rodents included 8 (7.8%) of 103 Neotoma fuscipes, 1 (0.6%) of 180 Neotoma lepida, 1 (3.1%) of 32 Peromyscus boylii, 8 (11.0%) of 73 Peromyscus californicus, 1 (1.2%) of 85 Peromyscus eremicus, 30 (8.5%) of 353 Peromyscus maniculatus, and 6 (2.2%) of 268 Reithrodontomys megalotis. This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern San Diego County, and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses. PMID:11289675

Bennett, S G; Milazzo, M L; Webb, J P; Fulhorst, C F

2000-05-01

286

Rodent Models of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Of Mice and Men  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. The progressive nature of ALD is well described however the complex interactions under which these pathologies evolve remain to be fully elucidated. Clinically there are no clear biomarkers or universally accepted, effective treatment strategies for ALD. Experimental models of ALD are an important component in identifying underlying mechanisms of alcohol-induced injury to develop better diagnostic markers, predictors of disease progression, and therapeutic targets to manage, halt, or reverse disease progression. Rodents remain the most accessible model for studying ALD pathology. Effective rodent models must mimic the natural history of ALD while allowing examination of complex interactions between multiple hepatic, and non-hepatic, cell types in the setting of altered metabolic or oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammatory responses, and sensitivity to cytotoxic stress. Additionally, mode and duration of alcohol delivery influences hepatic response and presents unique challenges in understanding disease pathology. This review provides an overview of rodent models of ALD, their strengths and weaknesses relative to human disease states, and provides insight of the potential to develop novel rodent models to simulate the course of human ALD. PMID:22960051

Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Schrum, Laura W.; Schmidt, C. Max; McKillop, Iain H.

2012-01-01

287

Hypothalamic neuropeptide mechanisms for regulating energy balance: from rodent models to human obesity.  

PubMed

In small rodents there is compelling evidence of a lipostatic system of body mass regulation in which peripheral signals of energy storage are decoded in the hypothalamus. The ability of small mammals to defend an appropriate mass against imposed energy imbalance has implicated hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems in body mass regulation. The effect of the neuropeptide systems involved in this regulation is primarily compensatory. However, small mammals can also effect changes in the level of body mass that they will defend, as exemplified by seasonal species. Regulatory control over fat mass may be relatively loose in humans; the sizes of long-term storage depots may not themselves be regulated, but rather may be a consequence of temporal variations in the matching of supply and demand. Whether food intake is regulated to match energy demand, or to match demand and to regulate storage, it is clear that physiological defects or genetic variation in hypothalamic and peripheral feedback systems will have profound implications for fat storage. Study of mechanisms implicated in energy homeostasis in laboratory rodents is likely to continue to identify targets for pharmacological manipulation in the management of human obesity. PMID:11323077

Mercer, J G; Speakman, J R

2001-03-01

288

Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate, effective nutritional and exercise strategies for the prevention of this disease are required. Specific dietary components with antidiabetic efficacy could be one aspect of these strategies. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of the most abundant green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, TEAVIGO), in rodent models of type 2 diabetes mellitus and H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. We assessed glucose and insulin tolerance in db/db mice and ZDF rats after they ingested EGCG. Using gene microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we investigated the effect of EGCG on gene expression in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells as well as in liver and adipose tissue of db/db mice. EGCG improved oral glucose tolerance and blood glucose in food-deprived rats in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol were reduced and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was enhanced. In H4IIE cells, EGCG downregulated genes involved in gluconeogenesis and the synthesis of fatty acids, triacylgycerol, and cholesterol. EGCG decreased the mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in H4IIE cells as well as in liver and adipose tissue of db/db mice. Glucokinase mRNA expression was upregulated in the liver of db/db mice in a dose-dependent manner. This study shows that EGCG beneficially modifies glucose and lipid metabolism in H4IIE cells and markedly enhances glucose tolerance in diabetic rodents. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16988119

Wolfram, Swen; Raederstorff, Daniel; Preller, Mareike; Wang, Ying; Teixeira, Sandra R; Riegger, Christoph; Weber, Peter

2006-10-01

289

Toxicological study of plant extracts on termite and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Toxic activity of leaf extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. were tested in the laboratory against tea termite, Odontotermes assamensis Holm. Both the tested extracts caused mortality of the termite. The highest toxic activity (100%) was found in the 2.0% chloroform extracts of P. hydropiper. The chloroform extract of P. hydropiper was explored for possible mammalian toxicological effects. The LD50 was 758.58 mg/kg in male albino mice. Subcutaneous injection of sub-lethal dose of extract into male mice once a week for 6 weeks failed to express any significant influence on WBC, RBC count and blood cholesterol. PMID:16161979

Rahman, I; Gogoi, Inee; Dolui, A K; Handique, Ruma

2005-04-01

290

Evaluation of bioaccumulation using in vivo laboratory and field studies.  

PubMed

A primary consideration in the evaluation of chemicals is the potential for substances to be absorbed and retained in an organism's tissues (i.e., bioaccumulated) at concentrations sufficient to pose health concerns. Substances that exhibit properties that enable biomagnification in the food chain (i.e., amplification of tissue concentrations at successive trophic levels) are of particular concern due to the elevated long-term exposures these substances pose to higher trophic organisms, including humans. Historically, biomarkers of in vivo chemical exposure (e.g., eggshell thinning, bill deformities) retrospectively led to the identification of such compounds, which were later categorized as persistent organic pollutants. Today, multiple bioaccumulation metrics are available to quantitatively assess the bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals and identify substances that, upon or before environmental release, may be characterized as persistent organic pollutants. This paper reviews the various in vivo measurement approaches that can be used to assess the bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic or terrestrial species using laboratory-exposed, field-deployed, or collected organisms. Important issues associated with laboratory measurements of bioaccumulation include appropriate test species selection, test chemical dosing methods, exposure duration, and chemical and statistical analyses. Measuring bioaccumulation at a particular field site requires consideration of which test species to use and whether to examine natural populations or to use field-deployed populations. Both laboratory and field methods also require reliable determination of chemical concentrations in exposure media of interest (i.e., water, sediment, food or prey, etc.), accumulated body residues, or both. The advantages and disadvantages of various laboratory and field bioaccumulation metrics for assessing biomagnification potential in aquatic or terrestrial food chains are discussed. Guidance is provided on how to consider the uncertainty in these metrics and develop a weight-of-evidence evaluation that supports technically sound and consistent persistent organic pollutant and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical identification. Based on the bioaccumulation information shared in 8 draft risk profiles submitted for review under the United Nations Stockholm Convention, recommendations are given for the information that is most critical to aid transparency and consistency in decision making. PMID:19552500

Weisbrod, Annie V; Woodburn, Kent B; Koelmans, Albert A; Parkerton, Thomas F; McElroy, Anne E; Borgå, Katrine

2009-10-01

291

Studies on perilla, agarwood, and cinnamon through a combination of fieldwork and laboratory work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldwork is one of the primary methods for studying medicinal plants and materials, and information thus obtained can be\\u000a valuable for experiments performed in the laboratory. Meanwhile, results of experiments in the laboratory can be brought back\\u000a to the field for verification and further investigation. A combination of field and laboratory work has led to effective progress\\u000a in studies of

Michiho Ito

2008-01-01

292

Household characteristics associated with rodent presence and Leptospira infection in rural and urban communities from Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Rodents are well-recognized reservoirs of Leptospira, contributing to its maintenance in endemic areas and playing a role in the public health risk associated with the infection. This study sought to provide some insights into rodent populations from Chile and their Leptospira carriage. In total, 393 rodents were trapped in 177 households. Higher rodent counts were associated with year 2 of the study, rainfall, and number of rodent signs. There was an inverse correlation with the number of cats. The number of rodents was higher in villages compared with slums (rate ratio = 3.23) but modified by average household age. Eighty rodents (20.4%) tested positive for Leptospira: 19.7% on the farms, 25.9% in villages, and 12.3% in the slums. Prevalence was 22.5% in Mus musculus, 20.7% in Rattus rattus, 21.1% in wild rodents, and 10.3% in R. norvegicus. Seasonal and temporal effects were the major determinants of Leptospira infection in rodent populations. PMID:24445209

Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Mason, Meghan; Encina, Carolina; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Berg, Sergey

2014-03-01

293

Internal temporal order in the circadian system of a dual-phasing rodent, the Octodon degus.  

PubMed

Daily rhythms in different biochemical and hematological variables have been widely described in either diurnal or nocturnal species, but so far no studies in the rhythms of these variables have been conducted in a dual-phasing species such as the degus. The Octodon degus is a rodent that has the ability to switch from diurnal to nocturnal activity under laboratory conditions in response to wheel-running availability. This species may help us discover whether a complete temporal order inversion occurs parallel to the inversion that has been observed in this rodent's activity pattern. The aim of the present study is to determine the phase relationships among 26 variables, including behavioral, physiological, biochemical, and hematological variables, during the day and at night, in diurnal and nocturnal degus chronotypes induced under controlled laboratory conditions through the availability of wheel running. A total of 39 male degus were individually housed under a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle, with free wheel-running access. Wheel-running activity (WRA) and body temperature (Tb) rhythms were recorded throughout the experiment. Melatonin, hematological, and biochemical variables were determined by means of blood samples obtained every 6?h (ZT1, ZT7, ZT13, and ZT19). In spite of great differences in WRA and Tb rhythms between nocturnal and diurnal degus, no such differences were observed in the temporal patterns of most of the biological variables analyzed for the two chronotypes. Variation was only found in plasma urea level and lymphocyte number. A slight delay in the phase of the melatonin rhythm was also observed. This study shows the internal temporal order of a dual-phasing mammal does not show a complete inversion in accordance with its activity and body temperature pattern; it would appear that the switching mechanism involved in the degu's nocturnalism is located downstream from the pacemaker. PMID:20854135

Otalora, Beatriz Baño; Vivanco, Pablo; Madariaga, Ana Maria; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles

2010-09-01

294

Laboratory Studies of Organic Compounds With Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to properly interpret reflectance spectra of any solar system surface from the earth to the Oort cloud, laboratory spectra of candidate materials for comparative analysis are needed. Although the common cosmochemical species (H2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4) are well represented in the spectroscopic literature, comparatively little reflectance work has been done on organics from room to cryogenic temperatures at visible to near infrared wavelengths. Reflectance spectra not only enhance weak or unseen transmission features, they are also more analogous to spectra obtained by spacecraft that are imaging such bodies as giant planet moons, kuiper belt objects, centaurs, comets and asteroids, as well as remote sensing of the earth. The USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory is measuring reflectance spectra of organic compounds from room to cryogenic temperatures over the spectral range of 0.35 to 15.5 microns. This region encompasses the fundamental absorptions and many overtones and combinations of C, H, O, and N molecular bonds. Because most organic compounds belong to families whose members have similar structure and composition, individual species identification within a narrow wavelength range may be ambiguous. By measuring spectral reflectance of the pure laboratory samples from the visible through the near and mid-infrared, absorption bands unique to each can be observed, cataloged, and compared to planetary reflectance data. We present here spectra of organic compounds belonging to five families: the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and cyanides. Common to all of these are the deep C-H stretch fundamental absorptions, which shift shortward from 3.35+ microns in alkanes to 3.25+ microns in aromatics, to 3.2+ microns in alkenes, and down to 3.0+ microns in alkynes. Mid-IR absorptions due to C-H bending deformations at 6.8+ and 7.2+ microns are also identified. In the near infrared these stretching and bending fundamentals yield a diagnostic set of combination absorptions at approximately 2.3 microns, as well as the first C-H stretching overtones at 1.6 to 1.7 microns, and even the second stretching overtones at 1.2+ microns. Additionally, the spectral properties of these organic materials have applications to remote sensing of terrestrial environments, including hazardous waste and disaster site characterization.

Curchin, J. M.; Clark, R. N.; Hoefen, T. M.

2007-12-01

295

Laboratory measurements in support of radar studies of Titan seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from Cassini RADAR instrument observations of Titan's lakes and seas show tantalizing hints that in some locations the radar signals might penetrate the liquids, returning measurable reflections from the solid surfaces beneath. At the microwave frequencies used by the RADAR instrument, non-polar liquid alkanes such as methane, ethane, and propane are fairly transparent, supporting the possibility that propagation through the liquids at Titan occurs. But relatively small amounts of other species dissolved in a liquid can strongly influence its microwave absorption coefficient. The dissolution of small amounts of sodium chloride in water, which increases the absorption coefficient by orders of magnitude, illustrates the potential of this effect. At Titan it is almost certain that some of the organic materials observed on the surface, and possibly other species, would dissolve in the methane-ethane mixture thought to constitute the bulk of the seas and lakes. If the microwave propagation constants of the liquids were known, Cassini RADAR data could provide estimates of depth profiles for areas yielding lake-bottom returns, and lower limits to depth for those areas where returns are absent. But the effects of anticipated dissolved species on the microwave properties of liquid alkane mixtures are largely unknown. Laboratory measurements could provide the key to inferring the lake-depth implications of Cassini RADAR results. There are multiple laboratory techniques available for measuring refractive indices and absorption coefficients of liquid samples at microwave frequencies. In the case of liquids relevant to Titan, the primary challenge is to maintain the samples and experimental apparatus at temperatures and pressures that keep the samples in the liquid phase, but this is not an impossible task. Other considerations include ensuring that the composition of a sample within the apparatus is well known. Notably, it is important that all surfaces in contact with the samples at any stage of the experiments do not affect the composition of the samples. An opportunity might arise to conduct such measurements as an extension of a task recently funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute. That task calls for measuring the solubility of expected Titan materials, including but not limited to species found in tholins, in liquid methane-ethane mixtures. If such solutions are to be generated for that task, it would be prudent to use them for microwave experiments also. This presentation will describe candidate techniques for making these measurements and suggest possible applications to the Cassini data. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

Spilker, T. R.; Hodyss, R. P.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Reh, K. R.

2009-04-01

296

From rodent utopia to urban hell: population, pathology, and the crowded rats of NIMH.  

PubMed

In a series of experiments at the National Institute of Mental Health, the animal ecologist John B. Calhoun offered rats everything they needed, except space. The resulting population explosion was followed by a series of "social pathologies"--violence, sexual deviance, and withdrawal. This essay examines the influence of Calhoun's experiments among psychologists and sociologists concerned with the effects of the built environment on health and behavior. Some saw evidence of the danger of the crowd in Calhoun's "rat cities" and fastened on a method of analysis that could be transferred to the study of urban man. Others, however, cautioned against drawing analogies between rodents and humans. The ensuing dispute saw social scientists involved in a careful negotiation over the structure and meaning of Calhoun's experimental systems and, with it, over the significance of the crowd in the laboratory, institution, and city. PMID:22448542

Ramsden, Edmund

2011-12-01

297

Ecologically based management of rodents in the real world: applied to a mixed agroecosystem in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Rodents cause significant damage to lowland irrigated rice crops in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A four-year study was conducted in 1999-2002 to examine the effectiveness of applying rodent control practices using the principles of ecologically based pest management. Four 100-150 ha study sites adjacent to villages were selected and farmers on two treated sites were asked to follow a set of rodent management practices, while farmers on the untreated sites were asked not to change their typical practices. Farmers on the treated sites were encouraged to use trap-barrier systems (TBS's; 0.065-ha early planted crop surrounded by a plastic fence with multiple capture traps; one TBS for every 10-15 ha), to work together over large areas by destroying burrows in refuge habitats soon after planting (before the rats reestablish in the fields and before the onset of breeding), synchronizing planting and harvesting of the their rice crops, cleaning up weeds and piles of straw, and keeping bund (embankment) size small (<30 cm) to prevent burrowing. A 75% reduction in the use of rodenticides and plastic barrier fences (without traps or an early crop) was achieved on treated sites. The abundance of rodents was low after implementation of the management practices across all sites. There was no evidence for an effect of treatment on the abundance of rodents captured each month using live-capture traps, and no difference in damage between treatments or in yields obtained from the rice crops. Therefore, ecologically based rodent management was equally effective as typical practices for rodent management. Farmers on the treated sites spent considerably less money applying rodent control practices, which was reflected in the comparative increase in the partial benefit:cost of applying ecologically based rodent management from 3:1 on treated sites and untreated sites prior to the implementation of treatments to 17:1 on treated sites in the final year of the project. PMID:17069390

Brown, Peter R; Tuan, Nguyen Phu; Singleton, Grant R; Ha, Phi Thi Thu; Hoa, Phung Thi; Hue, Dao Thi; Tan, Tran Quang; Van Tuat, Nguyen; Jacob, Jens; Müller, Warren J

2006-10-01

298

Assessing Immunological Function in Toxicological Studies of Avian Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that the immune system is sensitive to environ- mental contaminants. Testing protocols have been developed to screen for immunotoxic effects and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity in laboratory rodents. Similar methods have been applied to wildlife species in captivity and the wild. Several epizootics in wildlife have been associated with elevated exposure to contam-

KEITH A. GRASMAN

2002-01-01

299

Current review of in vivo GBM rodent models: emphasis on the CNS-1 tumour model  

PubMed Central

GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) is a highly aggressive brain tumour with very poor prognosis despite multi-modalities of treatment. Furthermore, recent failure of targeted therapy for these tumours highlights the need of appropriate rodent models for preclinical studies. In this review, we highlight the most commonly used rodent models (U251, U86, GL261, C6, 9L and CNS-1) with a focus on the pathological and genetic similarities to the human disease. We end with a comprehensive review of the CNS-1 rodent model. PMID:21740400

Jacobs, Valerie L; Valdes, Pablo A; Hickey, William F; De Leo, Joyce A

2011-01-01

300

Typing of Brachyspira spp. from rodents, pigs and chickens on Swedish farms.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to look for evidence of possible cross-species transmission of Brachyspira species between rodents and farm animals. To do this, previously collected and characterised Brachyspira isolates from rodents, pigs and chickens on the same farms were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Isolates with similar RAPD banding patterns were further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identical isolates of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira murdochii and Brachyspira innocens from pigs and rodents and of B. murdochii from laying hens and rodents were found, indicating cross-species transmission at farm level. PFGE data from rodent isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae were compared with PFGE data from previously typed field isolates of B. hyodysenteriae from pigs with swine dysentery and isolates from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of four isolates of B. hyodysenteriae from rodents were similar to porcine field isolates by PFGE. PCR analyses of the plasmid-encoded and potential virulence determinants rfb genes B, A, D and C showed that they were present in isolates of B. hyodysenteriae of porcine, mallard and rodent origin. PMID:21497461

Backhans, A; Jansson, D S; Aspán, A; Fellström, C

2011-11-21

301

COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

302

Effect of leachate recirculation on landfill gas production and leachate quality: A controlled laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a laboratory study conducted during 1992-1994 at Argonne National Laboratory. The study examined biogas production and leachate chemistry in parallel anaerobic assays run under either leachate recycle or leachate drainage regimes over a period of 400 days. A standardized synthetic refuse (paper, grass, food) was used in an experimental design which evaluated two elevated

J. Bogner; K. Spokas

1995-01-01

303

Seven Principles of Instructional Content Design for a Remote Laboratory: A Case Study on ERRL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the results of a study of the requirements for developing a remote radio frequency (RF) laboratory for electrical engineering students. It investigates students' preferred usage of the technical content of a state-of-the-art RF laboratory. The results of this study are compared to previous findings, which dealt with other user…

Cagiltay, N. E.; Aydin, E.; Aydin, C. C.; Kara, A.; Alexandru, M.

2011-01-01

304

A Comparison of Science Laboratory Classrooms in Asia, Australia, South Pacific and USA: An International Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to compare the science laboratory learning environments of secondary schools across both developed and developing countries (Australia, Brunei, Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, United States, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa). The study used a version of the Science Laboratory Learning…

Giddings, Geoffrey; Waldrip, Bruce G.

305

A laboratory and full-scale study on the fragmentation behavior of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock fines produced in rock blasting and crushing processes is a major problem for aggregate producers. Laboratory and full-scale studies were carried out to explore the possible relationship between fines production and water content of rock material. The Brazilian tensile test was selected for the laboratory study while a cone crusher machine was employed for the full-scale trials. Results of

B. Bohloli; E. Hoven

2007-01-01

306

[Liver cell function test based on selective laboratory studies].  

PubMed

Laboratory tests have been carried out in 517 workers of a Chemical Fibres Plant. This was aimed at the detection of the changes resulting from cumulative exposure to caprolactam, dowtherm and physical factors. There have been performed hematological investigations, uninalyses and biochemical tests: total protein level, activity of enzymes: ASPAT, ALAT, PA, ChE, thymol test. The results have been analysed as the mean values for particular divisions and workstands; then they have been compared with standards. In order to evaluate the degree of occupational exposure of particular groups of workers, an index of the liver cell damage has been calculated. It was expressed in % of the results exceeding the standards in relation to all results in a given group of workers. The highest values of the index were those in the group employed at the polymerization division. The authoresses promote the advisability of special care for this group of workers. PMID:7289867

Sliwi?ska-Przyjemska, H; Pilawska, H

1981-01-01

307

PCB biodegradation: Laboratory studies transitioned into the field  

SciTech Connect

Two distinct bacterial systems are known to be involved in PCB biotransformations. Both aerobic PCB biodegradation (Oxidative attack) and anaerobic PCB dechlorination (reductive attack) have been demonstrated in the laboratory. These results have been successfully reproducted in recent experiments performed in aquatic sediments. In 1991, GE performed a large scale test of in situ aerobic PCB biodegradation in the Upper Hudson River. The experiments involved six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into Aroclor 1242 contaminated sediments that had already undergone extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Stimulation of indigenous PCB-degrading microorganisms resulted in >50% biodegradation over 10 weeks. A large scale stimulation of in situ anaerobic PCB dechlorination in Housatonic River sediments contaminated with untransformed Aroclor 1260 was initiated in 1992. The experiments similarly involve six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into contaminated sediments to investigate new methods developed to accelerate PCB dechlorination in the field. Preliminary results from this ongoing field test will be discussed.

Abramowicz, D.A. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1993-12-31

308

Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuelsâ?? combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

Valentin Soloiu

2012-03-31

309

Recent Expansion of the Telomeric Complex in Rodents: Two Distinct POT1  

E-print Network

Recent Expansion of the Telomeric Complex in Rodents: Two Distinct POT1 Proteins Protect Mouse Telomeres Dirk Hockemeyer,1 Jan-Peter Daniels,1 Hiroyuki Takai,1 and Titia de Lange1, * 1 Laboratory *Contact: delange@mail.rockefeller.edu DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.044 SUMMARY Human telomeres are protected

de Lange, Titia

310

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy on Rodent Euthanasia using Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy on Rodent Euthanasia using Carbon Dioxide Approved by UGA IACUC Revised 22014 Euthanasia is the act of humanely killing animals for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1), methods of euthanasia should be consistent with the AVMA

Arnold, Jonathan

311

Camera Trapping: A Contemporary Approach to Monitoring Invasive Rodents in High Conservation Priority Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. Insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. Few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species persist. This study investigates the effectiveness of camera trapping for monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation areas, and the influence of habitat features and density of colonial-nesting seabirds on rodent relative activity levels to provide insights into their potential impacts. A total of 276 camera sites were established and left in situ for 8 days. Identified species were recorded in discrete 15 min intervals, referred to as ‘events’. In total, 19 804 events were recorded. From these, 31 species were identified comprising 25 native species and six introduced. Two introduced rodent species were detected: the black rat (90% of sites), and house mouse Mus musculus (56% of sites). Rodent activity of both black rats and house mice were positively associated with the structural density of habitats. Density of seabird burrows was not strongly associated with relative activity levels of rodents, yet rodents were still present in these areas. Camera trapping enabled a large number of rodents to be detected with confidence in site-specific absences and high resolution to quantify relative activity levels. This method enables detection of multiple species simultaneously with low impact (for both target and non-target individuals); an ideal strategy for monitoring trap-adverse invasive rodents in high conservation areas. PMID:24599307

Rendall, Anthony R.; Sutherland, Duncan R.; Cooke, Raylene; White, John

2014-01-01

312

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and Mouse Bioassay in Rodents of Ahvaz District, Southwestern Iran  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is obligate coccidian zoonotic parasite. Felidae family is definitive and wide ranges of warm-blooded vertebrates are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Rodents are measured as an important source of T. gondii infection for the definitive host. Thus, this study aimed to investigate Toxoplasm infection in rodents of Ahvaz district, southwest of Iran. A total of 100 rodents (73 Rattus norvegicus, 21 Rattus rattus, and 6 Mus musculus) were collected and studied by GRA6PCR and mouse bioassay. The finding indicated that 6 out of 100 (6%) and 2 out of 100 (2%) samples were positive by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively. The results show notable chronic infection in the rodent and potential transmission of the infection among animal and men in the region. Accordingly, this study recommended investigating of the T. gondii infection in definitive and other intermediate hosts in other points of Khuzestan province, Southwest, Iran. PMID:24605327

Saki, J.; Khademvatan, S.

2014-01-01

313

Guinea-zilla? World's largest rodent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Roughly the size of a buffalo, a giant rodent that roamed the banks of an ancient Venezuelan river some 8 million years ago, dining on sea grass and dodging crocodiles, was an evolutionary sibling to modern-day guinea pigs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-07-03

314

21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be maintained free of...

2011-04-01

315

21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.  

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be maintained free of...

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be maintained free of...

2013-04-01

317

21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be maintained free of...

2012-04-01

318

21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be maintained free of...

2010-04-01

319

Mammals. Key to Rodents (Mlekopitayushchie. Opredelitel Gryzunov).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a comprehensive work on rodents (suborder Glires) of the USSR and adjacent eastern European and northern Asian territories. Among the subjects treated are: evolution, morphology, taxonomy, mode of life, and geographical distribution. This last is ...

S. B. Vinogradov, A. I. Argiropulo

1968-01-01

320

Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish  

SciTech Connect

Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine were administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.

Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Gerstenberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Biosciences; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, MI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

1996-03-01

321

Pretreatment for membrane water treatment systems: a laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work was to determine if biological treatment of water containing soil-derived humic substances has the potential for reducing the fouling of membranes used in water treatment. Laboratory scale biological filters containing biologically active carbon or iron oxide coated sand were fed humic-laden water with or without prechlorination. This stream was split, with half being further treated by microfiltration. Treated water was assessed for total organic carbon removal and biofouling potential using a glass bead assay and membrane assay for total cell counts, fouling layer thickness, and flux reduction. A combination of these assays provided more insight than any single measurement. Compared to untreated control water, biological treatment was capable of reducing downstream fouling of membrane systems. For example, fouling layer thickness was reduced by half after biological treatment, and cell counts were reduced four- to five-fold. Biological treatment coupled with microfiltration provided the best reduction of fouling, while prechlorination did not appear to impact the process. These results suggest that biological treatment may be valuable in reducing membrane fouling while reducing the amount of disinfectants used in pretreatment.

Wend, Christopher F.; Stewart, Philip S.; Jones, Warren L.; Camper, Anne K.

2003-09-30

322

Laboratory Studies of Turbulence Associated with Localized Current Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized current layers are a natural consequence of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetic field. In particular, field-aligned currents dynamically link the active magnetotail to the auroral ionosphere. Within these currents there may develop small-scale phenomena such as density-gradient or shear-driven instabilities, or electron solitary structures and micro-turbulence which may profoundly influence the larger-scale dynamics of the system. The Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA offers a unique opportunity to model magneto/heliospheric phenomena, including current sheets. We present measurements from laboratory experiments of an electron current sheet which is several ion-gyroradii thick by up to ten Alfv'en wavelengths along the field(1cm by 20m). The current sheet leads to a depletion of the background plasma, forming a field-aligned density depression. Drift-Alfv'en waves are spontaneously excited and drive cross-field particle transport which relaxes the density gradient and modulates the current flow. We will also present initial results of small-scale electric field spikes within the current sheet using specially fabricated dipole probes with separation on the order of the Debye length---here 13 microns. These measurements are motivated by the observation of electron solitary structures throughout the magnetosphere.

Vincena, Stephen

2006-04-01

323

Review: A comparative analysis of studies of enzyme changes with age, with comments on possible sources of error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on enzyme changes during aging from rodents, nematodes and tissue culture cells have been reviewed. In the rodent\\u000a and tissue culture studies, conflicting results on aging of specific enzymes have been reported from several laboratories.\\u000a These works have been analyzed, with the aim of stressing the different findings and analyzing possible reasons for the discrepancies.\\u000a With regard to the

Heinrich F. Klefenz; Bert M. Zuckerman

1978-01-01

324

A SURVEY OF LABORATORY AND STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO FARMWORKER EXPOSURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final da...

325

Usability of Windows Vista Firewall: A Laboratory User Study  

E-print Network

conducted a user study of Microsoft Windows Vista Firewall: a lab study followed by a questionnaire to evaluate the usability of Vista's personal firewall. Our results show that the main problem with Windows Windows Vista, personal firewall, usability analysis, user study. 1. INTRODUCTION A firewall is a software

326

Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.  

PubMed

Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control. PMID:23971813

Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

2013-09-01

327

Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest  

PubMed Central

Scatter-hoarding rodents are effective dispersal agents for many plant species. Several studies have shown that rodents repeatedly re-cache seeds. The re-caching process often has a significant impact on final seedling establishment, but the factors determining its occurrence are poorly understood. In this study, we followed the fate of 3564 artificial seeds that varied in size, nutrient content and tannin content. Seeds cached closer to their original releasing plots were more likely to be re-cached, and to a further distance. Larger seeds were more likely to be re-cached than smaller ones, while nutrient and tannin content had little effect. Most plant species that depend on scatter-hoarding rodents for seed dispersal bear relatively large seeds, and large seeds are usually more likely to be dispersed and to establish seedlings, suggesting that the caching preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents may have played an important role in the evolution of large seeds. PMID:24759374

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T.

2014-01-01

328

A Case-Study of Assessment in Materials Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Materials engineering students are often ill prepared to enter the workforce upon graduation. While students master the content knowledge they often lack critical skills for success. Our industry feedback of internship students indicates weakness in the areas of: technical writing, critical thinking, professional attitude & teamwork, analysis, reasoning and decision making. We have examined the effectiveness of new teaching and assessment methods in the Materials Laboratory classes. Through our use of new materials and assessment instruments support our thesis that will lead to student improvement in the defined areas of weakness. The integration of peer review strengthens teamwork and professional attitude both in the classroom and later in the students' professional lives. We have used interdisciplinary collaboration as another component to help develop analysis and reasoning skills by utilizing field trips to manufacturers who have quality control and project management programs. Our feedback system in scoring student reports will likely strengthen their technical writing skills. This works as follows: The group consists of one author and two to three reviewers every week. The roles alternate. The author sends a draft to the reviewers, who in turn review electronically and send the response to both the author and the instructor. This is to make sure the review process can also be graded and the author receives the material in time. The author now makes changes to the report and also responds to the reviewers suggestions in writing. The entire report is submitted to the instructor for assessment. The grades for the reviewers and the author alike, including the comments on the documents teach the students where strengths and weaknesses lie. We have exposed the students to professional engineering centers such as MAIC (Major Analytical Instrumentation Center) and PERC (Particle Engineering Research Center) where they develop better insight and can mirror an appropriate attitude in a professional environment.

Carter, Rufus L.; Milz, Claudia

2009-08-28

329

Experimental infections by Brucella suis type 4 in Alaskan rodents.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of nine species of rodents and one species of lagomorph to Brucella suis type 4 was studied experimentally. The rodent species included: guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Scandinavian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), brown lemming (L. sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilis), varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx stevensoni and D. rubricatus), yellow-cheeked vole (Microtus xanthognathus), flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and ground squirrel (Citellus parryii). The lagomorph, Lepus americanus (varying hare), was also studied. All of these species were readily infected by intraperitoneal inoculations of brucellae. Pathologic responses were not marked in most of these species. However, both species of varying lemmings responded dramatically to infections initiated by about as few as two cfu. All individuals of both species that were not killed eventually died from the infection. PMID:7463596

Miller, L G; Neiland, K A

1980-10-01

330

Microbial transformations of substituted benzenes during infiltration of river water to groundwater: Laboratory column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial transformations of dimethyl- and dichlorobenzenes have been studied in laboratory aquifer columns simulating saturated-flow conditions typical for a river water\\/groundwater infiltration system. The behavior of all compounds in the laboratory was qualitatively the same as that observed at a field site. Both dimethyl- and dichlorobenzenes were biotransformed under aerobic conditions, the dimethylbenzenes faster than the chlorinated analogues. Evidence

Elmar P. Kuhn; Patricia J. Colberg; Jerald L. Schnoor; Oskar Wanner; Alexander J. P. Zehnder; Rene P. Schwarzenbach

1985-01-01

331

Follow-Up Study of Graduates of the Medical Laboratory Technician Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study to discover to what extent the education provided by the Medical Laboratory Technician program at Western Wisconsin Technical Institute has benefited the graduates and their employers was conducted. It was determined that 17 of the first 22 graduates were working successfully as medical laboratory technicians in eight states;…

Kupel, Claudia

332

Studies of Photovoltaic Roofing Systems at Wind Engineering and Fluids Laboratory at Colorado State University  

E-print Network

for Testing of Models of Photovoltaic Roofing Systems, at Wind Engineering and Fluids Laboratory, ColoradoStudies of Photovoltaic Roofing Systems at Wind Engineering and Fluids Laboratory at Colorado State of photovoltaic technology to generate electricity. Various innovative systems incorporating photovoltaic panels

333

The SR/SE Laboratory: A Systems Approach to Reading/Study Skills Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to provide self-improvement through a combination of individualized learning and personal attention, the Survey of Reading/Study Efficiency Systems Laboratory is available to all Loyola University of Los Angeles students. The Student Personnel Services directs the Laboratory, which is composed of a number of centers located in the student…

Christ, Frank L.

334

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies  

E-print Network

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies Matthew, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Karenia brevis Phosphate-processing effluent monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB

Meyers, Steven D.

335

Can laboratory studies on dominance predict fitness of young brown trout in the wild?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies suggest that dominance and aggression increase fitness, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested under natural conditions. We therefore designed a combined laboratory-field experiment to detect how social status and aggression relate to growth rate, movement and habitat choice in a natural stream. In 1998 and 1999, juvenile brown trout were caught in the wild and paired in

Johan Höjesjö; Jörgen I. Johnsson; Torgny Bohlin

2002-01-01

336

Behavioral Assessment of Intermittent Wheel Running and Individual Housing in Mice in the Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical cage enrichment—exercise devices for rodents in the laboratory—often in- cludes running wheels. This study compared responses of mice in enriched physical and social conditions and in standard social conditions to wheel running, individual housing, and open-field test. The study divided into 6 groups, 48 female BALB\\/c mice group housed in enriched and standard conditions. On alternate days, the study

Therese M. Pham; Stefan Brené; Vera Baumans

337

Radiochemical studies at the cyclotron laboratory, Tohoku university  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a progressive experimental program, a new system for radioisotope production has been developed at one of the beam-courses of a multipurpose Cyclotron of K=110 MeV. The upgraded beam-course is useful for the study of the nuclear physics and chemistry of heavy elements, radiopharmaceutical studies, the production of radioactive tracers, activation analysis using charged particles, etc. Several topics are demonstrated in the field of radioanalytical and nuclear studies.

Ohtsuki, T.; Shikano, K.; Yuki, H.; Hirose, K.; Takamiya, K.

2006-01-01

338

Crepuscular Rhythms of EEG Sleep-Wake in a Hystricomorph Rodent, Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-wake circadian rhythms are well documented for nocturnal rodents, but little is known about sleep regulation in diurnal or crepuscular rodent species. This study examined the circadian sleep-wake rhythms in Octodon degus by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Recordings were made from animals housed with or without running wheels in the cages. In a 24-h light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12),

Martien J. H. Kas; Dale M. Edgar

1998-01-01

339

Factors Driving Small Rodents Assemblages from Field Boundaries in Agricultural Landscapes of Western France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the factors driving diversity and abundance of small rodent species inhabiting permanent linear\\u000a habitat patches within high-intensified agricultural landscapes of western France. Multivariate (co-inertia) analysis was\\u000a used to analyse relationships of habitat and landscape descriptive variables with rodent records. Two main ecological gradients\\u000a were recognized according to statistical analysis. Relationships of species occurrence with environmental

Butet Alain; Paillat Gilles; Delettre Yannick

2006-01-01

340

Seasonal activity patterns of rodents in a sagebrush community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve species of nocturnal rodents were studied on a 2.7-hectare plot of sagebrush desert in west-central Nevada. Six species, Dipodomys merriami, D. ordii, D. panamintinus, D. microps, Onychomys torridus, and Peromyscus maniculatus, were active throughout the year. Four species, Perognathus longimembris, P. formosus, Microdipodops megacephalus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis, hibernated and were active only in spring, summer, and autumn. Onychomys leucogaster

OFarrell

1974-01-01

341

PHYLOGENETICS OF THE NEW WORLD RODENT FAMILY HETEROMYIDAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Heteromyidae includes 6 genera of rodents traditionally placed in 3 subfamilies endemic to the Nearctic and northern Neotropical biogeographic regions. Although several of these taxa represent intensively studied members of North and Central American ecosystems (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice), phylogenetic relationships within and among subfamilies, genera, and species-groups are not well understood. Here, we used maximum-likelihood,

Lois F. Alexander; Brett R. Riddle

2005-01-01

342

Rodent and Ruminant Ingestive Response to Flavonoids in Euphorbia esula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euphorbia esula, common name leafy spurge, was chemically evaluated for aversive phytochemicals that appear to minimize herbivory by rodents and cattle. A middle-layer extract elicited food aversions in rats as did the petroleum ether extract of the initial methanol extract. Kaempferol-3-0-ß- glucuronic acid and quercetin-3-0-ß-glucuronic acid were separated and identified from the middle-layer residue. This study is the first report

F. Halaweish; S. Kronberg; J. A. Rice

2003-01-01

343

Mammalogy Laboratory 5 -Rodents I: Hystricognathi, Sciuridae, Aplodontidae  

E-print Network

: Erethizon dorsatum (Porcupine) #12;3 Family Myocastoridae (Nutria or Coypu) Diagnosis: Robust; pes much; nocturnal. Range: North, Central and South America Representative Genera: Erethizon, Coendu Material in Lab

Sullivan, Jack

344

Mammalogy Laboratory 6 -Rodents II: Castoridae, Geomyidae, Heteromyidae, Dipodidae, Muridae  

E-print Network

(Desert pocket mouse)* Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) D. microps (Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat) D and Neotropical Genera: Heteromys, Liomys, Perognathus, Cheatodipus, Dipodomys, Microdipodops Material in Lab

Sullivan, Jack

345

Learning Style and Laboratory Preference: A Study of Middle School Technology Education Teachers in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory instruction has long been a cornerstone of technology education pedagogy. The French realized the potential for technical laboratory instruction within general education in 1865 (Bennett, 1926). By the 1880s, the United States also realized the benefits of the technical laboratory for general education (Anderson, 1926). Despite these early roots and the continued practice of utilizing laboratory instruction within technology education, there is little research to support this teaching method. McCrory (1987) noted that there were no studies on laboratories (excluding machine safety) or new technology education equipment during the period 1980-1986. Laboratory studies during the period 1987-1993 concentrated on curriculum and did not focus on new instructional methods and strategies (Zuga, 1994). The adoption of modular technology education has only heightened the need for research on laboratory instructional methods. Since the middle of the 1980s, modular technology education has grown considerably. Brusic and LaPorte (2000) found that almost half of the technology education teachers they surveyed in Virginia taught in some type of modular lab. Despite such emerging research, opinions concerning the merit of modular technology education, especially commercially created packages, dominate the field of technology education. To address these opinions, this study investigated whether the preference for a conventional or modular laboratory is influenced by the learning style of the teacher. Target Audience: Middle School Faculty/Administrators

Reed, Philip A.

2009-08-26

346

Scientometric Study of Doctoral Theses of the Physical Research Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a study of bibliographies compiled from theses submitted in the period 2001-2005. The bibliographies have been studied to find out how research carried out at PRL is being used by the doctoral students. Resources are categorized by type of resource — book, journal article, proceedings, doctoral thesis, etc., to understand the usage of content procured by the library. The period of the study, 2001-2005, has been chosen because technology is changing so fast and so are the formats of scholarly communications. For the sake of convenience, only the "e-journals period" is considered for the sample.

Anilkumar, N.

2010-10-01

347

FIELD AND LABORATORY OPERATIONS REPORT FOR THE OREGON WETLANDS STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Oregon Wetlands Study (OWS) was designed to provide detailed characterizations of natural, created, and restored freshwater wetlands which is located in the urban environment of Portland, Oregon. his document discusses training the elementary, middle and high school teachers ...

348

Laboratory Studies of Ion Chemistry in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of gas phase ion-neutral reactions provide insight into many areas of astrochemistry, including the elusive characterization of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs). This presentation gives an overview of our experimental studies of several classes of positive and negative ions, using the flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube and a newly modified ion trap. Earlier studies of carbon chain anions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations, both of which have been suggested as carriers of the DIBs, are described. More recent work including isomeric PAHs, nitrogen-containing PAHs, negative ions of PAHs, and negative ions of 5-membered heterocyclic rings are discussed. Finally, the study of quantitative thermochemistry by coupling our results with data from Photoelectron Spectroscopy is described.

Bierbaum, V. M.

2014-02-01

349

A Fully Automated High-Throughput Training System for Rodents  

PubMed Central

Addressing the neural mechanisms underlying complex learned behaviors requires training animals in well-controlled tasks, an often time-consuming and labor-intensive process that can severely limit the feasibility of such studies. To overcome this constraint, we developed a fully computer-controlled general purpose system for high-throughput training of rodents. By standardizing and automating the implementation of predefined training protocols within the animal’s home-cage our system dramatically reduces the efforts involved in animal training while also removing human errors and biases from the process. We deployed this system to train rats in a variety of sensorimotor tasks, achieving learning rates comparable to existing, but more laborious, methods. By incrementally and systematically increasing the difficulty of the task over weeks of training, rats were able to master motor tasks that, in complexity and structure, resemble ones used in primate studies of motor sequence learning. By enabling fully automated training of rodents in a home-cage setting this low-cost and modular system increases the utility of rodents for studying the neural underpinnings of a variety of complex behaviors. PMID:24349451

Poddar, Rajesh; Kawai, Risa; Olveczky, Bence P.

2013-01-01

350

Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

1973-01-01

351

Anti-epileptogenesis in rodent post-traumatic epilepsy models.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) accounts for 10-20% of symptomatic epilepsies. The urgency to understand the process of post-traumatic epileptogenesis and search for antiepileptogenic treatments is emphasized by a recent increase in traumatic brain injury (TBI) related to military combat or accidents in the aging population. Recent developments in modeling of PTE in rodents have provided tools for identification of novel drug targets for antiepileptogenesis and biomarkers for predicting the risk of epileptogenesis and treatment efficacy after TBI. Here we review the available data on endophenotypes of humans and rodents with TBI associated with epilepsy. Also, current understanding of the mechanisms and biomarkers for PTE as well as factors associated with preclinical study designs are discussed. Finally, we summarize the attempts to prevent PTE in experimental models. PMID:21402123

Pitkänen, Asla; Bolkvadze, Tamuna; Immonen, Riikka

2011-06-27

352

Calorimetric Studies at the New Hydrogen Energy Laboratory in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments using China Lake type calorimetric cells produced excess power in three out of three experiments and no excess power in three control studies. A detailed analysis is presented for two experiments using the China Lake cells. Anomalous thermistor signals in Cell A suggest the emission of electromagnetic radiation from the active palladium cathode. Experiments in Fleischmann-Pons type calorimetric cells produced excess power in six out of eight experiments. These studies involved palladium alloy cathodes, co-deposition of palladium and deuterium from the solution, and electromigration using thin palladium wires.

Miles, Melvin H.

2000-03-01

353

Bioremediation of solvent hydrocarbons: Laboratory and in situ field studies  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary international site assessment and remediation project has been undertaken for an operating paint manufacturing site in Germany, with specialist input from collaborating research centers and remediation consultants from both Australia and Germany. After a detailed chemical and hydrogeological investigation revealed areas of contamination with aromatic and aliphatic solvent hydrocarbons, soil and groundwater samples were collected for detailed microcosm-based studies to demonstrate the potential for biodegradation of the contaminants of concern. In situ biodegradation rates in the unsaturated zone were established by a field test program involving air injection testing, tracer testing and in situ respiration studies. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

Peck, P.C.; Rhodes, S.H. [Minenco Pty. Ltd. Bioremediation Services, North Sydney (Australia); Anderson, B.N. [RMIT Univ., Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Henkler, R.D. [Safety, Health and Environment, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

354

Calorimetric Studies at the New Hydrogen Energy Laboratory in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments using China Lake type calorimetric cells produced excess power in three out of three experiments and no excess power in three control studies. A detailed analysis is presented for two experiments using the China Lake cells. Anomalous thermistor signals in Cell A suggest the emission of electromagnetic radiation from the active palladium cathode. Experiments in Fleischmann-Pons type calorimetric cells

Melvin H. Miles

2000-01-01

355

Mound Laboratory plutonium study: Presentation to the scientific review panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Mound plutonium study. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the inventory of plutonium 238 in the environment at Mound, determine the source, and alleviate potential health hazards. Analysis of soils, water, vegetation, fishes, and runoff were performed.

D. R. Rogers; W. H. Westendorf; J. R. McClain

1975-01-01

356

Circulation in Lake Vostok: A laboratory analogue study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waters of sub-glacial Lake Vostok are thought to represent a unique biological habitat that has been out of contact with the atmosphere for millions of years. Although the water circulation within the lake will determine how nutrients are redistributed and hence where life may exist, the handful of existing studies conflict regarding whether the lake is stratified or well

Mathew G. Wells; J. S. Wettlaufer

2008-01-01

357

Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.  

PubMed

The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

2014-01-01

358

Towards an integrative model of sociality in caviomorph rodents  

PubMed Central

In the late 1990s and early 2000s it was recognized that behavioral ecologists needed to study the sociality of caviomorph rodents (New World hystricognaths) before generalizations about rodent sociality could be made. Researchers identified specific problems facing individuals interested in caviomorph sociality, including a lack of information on the proximate mechanisms of sociality, role of social environment in development, and geographical or intraspecific variation in social systems. Since then researchers have described the social systems of many previously understudied species, including some with broad geographical ranges. Researchers have done a good job of determining the role of social environments in development and identifying the costs and benefits of social living. However, relatively little is known about the proximate mechanisms of social behavior and fitness consequences, limiting progress toward the development of integrative (evolutionary-mechanistic) models for sociality. To develop integrative models behavioral ecologists studying caviomorph rodents must generate information on the fitness consequences of different types of social organization, brain mechanisms, and endocrine substrates of sociality. We review our current understanding and future directions for research in these conceptual areas. A greater understanding of disease ecology, particularly in species carrying Old World parasites, is needed before we can identify potential links between social phenotypes, mechanism, and fitness. PMID:22328791

Hayes, Loren D.; Burger, Joseph Robert; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Sobrero, Raul; Ebensperger, Luis A

2012-01-01

359

Pyrethroids as Promising Marine Antifoulants: Laboratory and Field Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the regulations and bans regarding the use of traditional toxic chemicals against marine fouling organisms and the\\u000a practical impediments to the commercialization of natural product antifoulants, there is an urgent need for compounds that\\u000a are antifouling-active, environmentally friendly, and have a potential for commercial application. In this study, a series\\u000a of common, commercially available pyrethroid products, which are

Danqing Feng; Caihuan Ke; Shaojing Li; Changyi Lu; Feng Guo

2009-01-01

360

Personnel neutron dosimetry studies at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the effect of phantom size, shape and composition on the response of an albedo neutron dosimeter. The most important feature was the shape. The dose equivalent rate from a californium neutron source was determined. Ten different dose rates were determined which varied from 2.39 to 3.02 rem/h for the CF source used. (ACR)

Hankins, D.E.

1981-06-09

361

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California  

SciTech Connect

This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

Not Available

2010-11-01

362

Field efficacy of deltamethrin for rodent flea control in San Bernardino County, California, USA.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the initial and residual activity of deltamethrin (0.05% dust) applied to rodent burrows (at approximately 14 g/burrow) against fleas in the Silverwood Lake area of San Bernardino County. In initial toxicity (2-d post-treatment), deltamethrin provided 97% flea control and in residual toxicity it resulted in 68% control of the rodent fleas at 15-d post-treatment. The flea fauna consisted of Oropsylla montana (89.9%) and Hoplopsylls anomalus (10.1%). All rodents captured in this study were California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi. In mark-release-recapture trials, using the microchip identification implant method at the treatment site, the recapture rate of rodents was 29% from 2- to 58-d post-treatment, declining to 21% after 98 d. In the tail-clip method at the treatment site, the recapture rate of 40% at 15-d post-treatment rose to 87% and 73% at 56- and 58-d post-treatment, respectively. At the control site, the recapture rate of 100% at 15-d post-post-treatment dropped to 20% after 98 d. In another trial at Camp Cedar Crest in the Running Springs area, deltamethrin applied to rodent burrows resulted in 70% control of fleas infesting S. beecheyi. Based on the two trials, deltamethrin showed a good initial control of rodent fleas in enzootic or epizootic plague control. PMID:15707280

Mian, Lal S; Hitchcock, James C; Madon, Minoo B; Myers, Charles M

2004-12-01

363

Variable effects of host characteristics on species richness of flea infracommunities in rodents from three continents.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of host gender and body mass on species richness of flea infracommunities in nine rodent host species from three biomes (temperate zone of central Europe, desert of the Middle East and the tropics of East Africa). Using season- and species-specific generalized linear mixed models and controlling for year-to-year variation, spatial clustering of rodent sampling and over-dispersion of the data, we found inconsistent associations between host characteristics and flea species richness. We found strong support for male-biased flea parasitism, especially during the reproductive period (higher species richness in male hosts than in females) in all considered European rodents (Apodemus agrarius, Myodes glareolus and Microtus arvalis) and in one rodent species from the Middle East (Dipodillus dasyurus). In contrast, two of three African rodent species (Lophuromys kilonzoi and Praomys delectorum) demonstrated a trend of female-biased flea species richness. Positive associations between body mass and the number of flea species were detected mainly in males (five of nine species: A. agrarius, M. glareolus, M. arvalis, D. dasyurus and Mastomys natalensis) and not in females (except for M. natalensis). The results of this study support earlier reports that gender-biased, in general, and male-biased, in particular, infestation by ectoparasites is not a universal rule. This suggests that mechanisms of parasite acquisition by an individual host are species-specific and have evolved independently in different rodent host-flea systems. PMID:24820040

Kiffner, Christian; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Hawlena, Hadas; Krasnov, Boris R

2014-08-01

364

Laboratory Study of Hall Reconnection in Partially Ionized Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The effects of partial ionization (ni/nn ? 1%) on magnetic reconnection in the Hall regime have been studied systematically in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). It is shown that, when neutrals are added the Hall quadrupole field pattern and thus electron flow is unchanged while the ion outflow speed is reduced due to ion-neutral drag. However, in constrast to theoretical predictions, the ion diffusion layer width does not change appreciably. Therefore, the total ion outflow flux and the normalized reconnection rate are reduced.

Eric E. Lawrence, Hanto Ji, Masaaki Yamaada and Jongsoo Yoo

2012-05-15

365

Ketene Formation in Interstellar Ices: A Laboratory Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of ketene (H2CCO, ethenone) in polar and apolar ices was studied with in situ 0.8 MeV proton irradiation, far-UVphotolysis, and infrared spectroscopic analyses at 10-20 K. Using isotopically enriched reagents, unequivocal evidencewas obtained for ketene synthesis in H2O-rich and CO2-rich ices, and several reaction products were identified. Results from scavenging experiments suggested that ketene was formed by free-radical pathways, as opposed to acid-base processes or redox reactions. Finally, we use our results to draw conclusions about the formation and stability of ketene in the interstellar medium.

Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark Josiah

2013-01-01

366

Nucleobases in Space: Laboratory Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs) are heterocyclic aromatics Le., PAHs with carbon atoms replaced by a nitrogen atom. These molecules have been detected in meteorite extracts, and in general these nitrogen heterocycles are of astrobiological interest since this class of molecules include nucleobases, basic components of our nucleic acids. These compounds are predicted to be present in the interstellar medium and in Titan tholin, but have received relatively little attention. We will present spectra and reactions of PANHs, frozen in solid H2O at 12 K, conditions germane to astronomical observations. In contrast to simple PAHs, that do not interact strongly with solid H2O, the nitrogen atoms in PANHs are potentially capable of hydrogen bonding with H20 changing their spectra, complicating their remote detection on the surfaces of icy bodies. Moreover, we have studied the photo-chemistry of these interesting compounds under astrophysical conditions and will use our lab studies to assess a potential interstellar heritage of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites.

Elsila, Jamie; Mattioda, Andy; Bernstein, Max; Sandford, Scott; Hudgins, Doug

2005-01-01

367

Laboratory Studies in UV and EUV Solar Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ion Beam Experiment at the Center for Astrophysics is dedicated to the study of ion-electron collision processes of importance in solar physics. The analysis of measurements of Electron Impact Excitation (EIE) from the 3s3p(exp 3)P(exp o) metastable state to the 3s3p(exp 1)P state of Si(2+) was completed during the past year and a paper describing the results is available as a preprint. Our current program is directed at measuring absolute cross sections for dielectronic recombination (DR) and EIE in Si(3+), one of the primary ions used for probing the solar transition region. Our study of DR is particularly concerned with the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the recombination rates. Measurements of silicon ions with charge greater than n=2 have necessitated upgrading the experiment with a new ion source. The new source is also suitable for producing C(2+) beams to be used for measurements of EIE and DR for that system. The source is expected to be capable of producing beams of more highly charged systems as well.

Parkinson, W. H.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

368

Laboratory based study of undetectable thyroid stimulating hormone.  

PubMed Central

The clinical importance of an undetectable thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration (less than 0.2 mU/l) was studied in a consecutive series of 2573 requests for routine thyroid function tests. Two hundred and seventeen (8.4%) patients had an undetectable TSH concentration, and of these 39 (18%) had otherwise normal thyroid hormone concentrations and no history of thyroid disease. In a follow up study 71 patients (34 outpatients and 37 inpatients) with undetectable TSH concentration associated with otherwise normal thyroid hormone concentrations were randomly selected during routine reporting of thyroid function test results. None of these patients had a history of thyroid disease. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in five out of 50 of these patients and antithyroid antibodies were detectable in four out of 49, suggesting that in most cases the isolated undetectable TSH concentration was not associated with thyroid dysfunction, particularly hyperthyroidism. Isolated undetectable TSH concentration was observed in both inpatients and outpatients and was not associated with any particular clinical condition. Repeat specimens were received in 54 of the 71 patients and TSH concentration remained persistently undetectable in 35 of these. Images PMID:2613915

Pollock, M A; Jones, A

1989-01-01

369

Laboratory studies on the biology and ecology of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm  

E-print Network

LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN P1NE BEETLE, DENDROCTONUS FRONTALIS ZIMM. A Thesis JOHN ERNEST BREMER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Mey 1967 Major Subject: Entomology LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE, DENDROCTONUS FRONTALIS ZIMM. A Thesis By JOHN ERNFST BREMER Approved as to style and content by: Cha rm...

Bremer, John Ernest

2012-06-07

370

KETENE FORMATION IN INTERSTELLAR ICES: A LABORATORY STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO, ethenone) in polar and apolar ices was studied with in situ 0.8 MeV proton irradiation, far-UV photolysis, and infrared spectroscopic analyses at 10-20 K. Using isotopically enriched reagents, unequivocal evidence was obtained for ketene synthesis in H{sub 2}O-rich and CO{sub 2}-rich ices, and several reaction products were identified. Results from scavenging experiments suggested that ketene was formed by free-radical pathways, as opposed to acid-base processes or redox reactions. Finally, we use our results to draw conclusions about the formation and stability of ketene in the interstellar medium.

Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J., E-mail: Reggie.Hudson@NASA.gov [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-08-20

371

Laboratory stress corrosion cracking studies with sulfur acids and chlorides  

SciTech Connect

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) caused by polythionic acid and/or chlorides has occurred in coal liquefaction pilot plants. This problem is also common in refineries and has been extensively researched. This study examines: (1) the relationship of the ASTM standard ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test for determining sensitization to resistance to polythionic SCC; (2) the cracking resistance of higher-alloy. Fe-Ni-Cr materials and common austenitic stainless steels (SS); and (3) the effect of chloride concentrations up to 1% in polythionic acid solutions on cracking behavior. The ferric sulfatesulfuric acid test can be used as an acceptance test for materials resistant to polythionic acid SCC. More highly alloyed materials were more resistant to sensitization than most austenitic SS and were virtually unattacked in polythionic acid solutions containing up to 1% chloride. Chloride increased the corrosion rate and caused localized pitting but it did not significantly affect the number of failures or the failure mode.

Baylor, V.B.

1985-10-01

372

Laboratory Studies in UV and EUV Solar Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ion Beam Experiment at the Center for Astrophysics is dedicated to the study of ion-electron collision processes of importance in solar physics. A paper describing our most recent measurement 'Absolute cross section for Si(2+)(3s3p(sup 3)Rho (sup 0) yields 3s3p(sup 1)Rho(sup 0)) electron-impact excitation' was published during the past year. Dr. Paul Janzen received his PhD. from the Harvard Physics Department on the basis of this and other work, such as the new electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The ion source is producing stable beams with large currents for our present work on C(2+), and it also produces stable beams with large currents of more highly charged systems, for future work on systems such as O(4+). The past year has been focussed on our current program to measure absolute cross sections for Electron Impact Excitation (EIE) in C(2+), one of the primary ions used for probing the solar transition region. C(2+) beams produced by the ion source have been transported to the interaction region of the experiment, where the collisions are studied, and Visiting Scientist Dr. Adrian Daw is currently collecting data to measure the C(2+)(2s2p(sup 3)Rho(sup 0) yields 2p(sup 2)(sup 3)Rho) EIE cross section as a function of collision energy, under the guidance of Drs. John Kohl, Larry Gardner and Bill Parkinson. Also this year, modifications were made to the ECR ion source in order to produce greater currents of highly charged ions. Testing of the ion source was completed. Modifications were designed to extend the photon detection capabilities of the apparatus to shorter UV wavelengths, or EUV. Following the work on C(2+)(2s2p(sup 3)Pho(sup 0) yields 2p(sup 2)(sup 3)Rho), the extended UV detection capabilities will be used to measure the C(2+)(2s(sup 2)(sup 1)S yields 2s2p(sup 1)Rho(sup 0)) EIE cross section. The EUV modifications complement those of the new ion source, by enabling detection of EUV light generated by high charge state ions and putting us in a position to measure the excitation cross sections for more highly charged ions as well.

Parkinson, William

2003-01-01

373

Laboratory studies of thin films representative of atmospheric sulfate aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate aerosols are present globally in both the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These aerosols are of great interest because they have a profound influence on Earth's radiation balance, heterogeneous chemistry, and cloud formation mechanisms throughout the atmosphere. The magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined by the size, phase, and chemical composition of the aerosols themselves. This thesis explores some of the questions that remain concerning the phase of these aerosols under atmospheric conditions and the effects of their chemical composition on heterogeneous chemistry and cloud formation mechanisms. In the upper troposphere, cirrus clouds are thought to form via the homogeneous nucleation of ice out of dilute sulfate aerosols such as ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). To investigate this, the low-temperature phase behavior of ammonium sulfate films has been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Experiments performed as a function of increasing relative humidity demonstrate that a phase transition from crystalline (NH 4)2SO4 to a metastable aqueous solution can occur at temperatures below the eutectic at 254 K. However, on occasion, direct deposition of ice from the vapor phase was observed, possibly indicating selective heterogeneous nucleation. In addition to serving as nuclei for cirrus clouds, sulfate aerosols can participate in heterogeneous reactions. The interaction of HNO3 with ammonium sulfate has been investigated as a possible loss mechanism for gas-phase HNO3 using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled with transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that HNO3 reacts with solid ammonium sulfate to produce ammonium nitrate and letovicite at 203 K. Furthermore, this reaction is enhanced as a function of relative humidity from 0 to 41%. In the lower stratosphere, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for springtime ozone depletion. The vapor deposition of ice on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) has been studied as a possible formation mechanism for Type 2 PSCs. Results show that SAT is an efficient ice nucleus, requiring a supercooling of just 0.1--1.4 K below the ice frost point. Possible implications of this heterogeneous nucleation mechanism for PSC formation have been examined through use of a microphysical/photochemical model.

Fortin, Tara Jean

374

Xenoendocrine disrupters: laboratory studies on male reproductive effects.  

PubMed

Wildlife from ecosystems contaminated with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) display a variety of reproductive alterations including cryptorchidism in the Florida panther, small baculum in young male otters, small penises in alligators, sex reversal in fish, and altered social behavior in birds. It has been proposed that EDCs also may have contributed to increases in testicular cancer and hypospadias and the reported decline in human sperm counts. Combined in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to fully characterize EDC induced alterations of reproduction. We have identified several pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone, p,p'-DDE) which bind rat and human androgen receptors, block androgen-induced gene expression in vitro and in vivo, delay puberty, reduce sex accessory gland size and alter sex differentiation in the male rat. Some of the phthalates, which are estrogenic in vitro but not in vivo, cause malformations in male rats that appear to result from antagonism of androgens in utero. In contrast, xenoestrogens affect male offspring but they are not malformed or infertile. Prenatal administration of an Ah receptor agonist (2,3,7,8-TCDD or PCB 169) produces a different spectrum of effects including reduced ejaculated sperm numbers in male rats. PMID:10022274

Gray, L E

1998-12-28

375

Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of our studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish's tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system, in other words, determining or assuming that those conditions known to injure fish will provide the descriptions of conditions that engineers must consider in the design of a turbine system. These biological specifications must be carefully and thoroughly documented throughout the design of a fish friendly turbine. To address the development of biological specifications, we designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response.

Neitzel, Duane A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Guensch, Greg R.

2000-09-20

376

Laboratory stress corrosion cracking studies in polythionic acid  

SciTech Connect

Stress corrosion cracking caused by polythionic acid and/or chlorides is a problem in coal liquefaction pilot plants. This problem is also common in refineries and has been the subject of extensive research. This study examines (1) the relationship of the ASTM standard ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test for determining sensitization to resistance to polythionic stress corrosion cracking, (2) the cracking resistance of higher-alloy Fe-Ni-Cr materials in addition to the common austenitic stainless steels, and (3) the effect of chloride concentrations up to 1% in polythionic acid solutions on cracking behavior. We found that the ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test can be used as an acceptance test for materials resistant to polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking because of its severity. The more highly alloyed materials were more resistant to sensitization than most of the austenitic stainless steels and were virtually unattacked in polythionic acid solutions containing up to 1% chloride. Chloride increased the corrosion rate and caused localized pitting, but it did not affect significantly the number of failures or the failure mode.

Baylor, V.B.; Newsome, J.F.

1984-08-01

377

Decomposition and plant-available nitrogen in biosolids: laboratory studies, field studies, and computer simulation.  

PubMed

This research combines laboratory and field studies with computer simulation to characterize the amount of plant-available nitrogen (PAN) released when municipal biosolids are land-applied to agronomic crops. In the laboratory studies, biosolids were incubated in or on soil from the land application sites. Mean biosolids total C, organic N, and C to N ratio were 292 g kg(-1), 41.7 g kg(-1), and 7.5, respectively. Based on CO2 evolution at 25 degrees C and optimum soil moisture, 27 of the 37 biosolids-soil combinations had two decomposition phases. The mean rapid and slow fraction rate constants were 0.021 and 0.0015 d(-1), respectively, and the rapid fraction contained 23% of the total C assuming sequential decomposition. Where only one decomposition phase existed, the mean first order rate constant was 0.0046 d(-1). The mean rate constant for biosolids stored in lagoons for an extended time was 0.00097 d(-1). The only treatment process that was related to biosolids treatment was stabilization by storage in a lagoon. Biosolids addition rates (dry basis) ranged from 1.3 to 33.8 Mg ha(-1) with a mean value of 10.6 Mg ha(-1). A relationship between fertilizer N rate and crop response was used to estimate observed PAN at each site. Mean observed PAN during the growing season was 18.9 kg N Mg(-1) or 37% of the biosolids total N. Observed PAN was linearly related to biosolids total N. Predicted PAN using the computer model Decomposition, actual growing-season weather, actual analytical data, and laboratory decomposition kinetics compared well with observed PAN. The mean computer model prediction of growing-season PAN was 19.2 kg N Mg(-1) and the slope of the regression between predicted and observed PAN was not significantly different from unity. Predicted PAN obtained using mean decomposition kinetics was related to predicted PAN using actual decomposition kinetics suggesting that mean rate constants, actual weather, and actual analytical data could be used in estimation of PAN. There was a linear relationship between predicted N mineralization for the growing season and for the first year. For this study, the mean values for the growing season and year were 27 and 37% of the organic N, respectively. PMID:12931907

Gilmour, John T; Cogger, Craig G; Jacobs, Lee W; Evanylo, Gregory K; Sullivan, Dan M

2003-01-01

378

What happens to mood, performance and sleep in a laboratory study with no sleep deprivation?  

PubMed Central

There are few studies examining changes in waking function in a laboratory environment with no sleep deprivation and mood has been largely overlooked in this context. The present study examined changes in mood, performance, sleep and sleepiness in the laboratory study with no sleep deprivation. Nineteen participants (10M, 9F; 22y ± 4.2y) were given nine 9h sleep opportunities (2300-0800). Every two hours during wake, participants completed the Mood Scale II, a 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Task and measures of sleepiness and fatigue. Sleep was monitored using an electroencephalographic montage. Findings revealed significant negative mood change, performance impairment, reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency (all p < .05). These findings suggest that the laboratory environment or procedural factors may impair mood, performance and sleep. These findings may have implications for interpreting impairments in mood, performance and sleep when observed in laboratory environments. PMID:24839396

Paterson, Jessica L; Dorrian, Jill; Ferguson, Sally A; Jay, Sarah M; Dawson, Drew

2014-01-01

379

Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants  

SciTech Connect

The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

1987-03-23

380

Genotypes of pathogenic Leptospira spp isolated from rodents in Argentina.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and significant efforts have been made to determine and classify pathogenic Leptospira strains. This zoonosis is maintained in nature through chronic renal infections of carrier animals, with rodents and other small mammals serving as the most important reservoirs. Additionally, domestic animals, such as livestock and dogs, are significant sources of human infection. In this study, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to genotype 22 pathogenic Leptospira strains isolated from urban and periurban rodent populations from different regions of Argentina. Three MLVA profiles were identified in strains belonging to the species Leptospira interrogans (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola); one profile was observed in serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two MLVA profiles were observed in isolates of serovars Canicola and Portlandvere. All strains belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis exhibited the same MLVA profile. Four different genotypes were isolated from urban populations of rodents, including both mice and rats and two different genotypes were isolated from periurban populations. PMID:24676656

Loffler, Sylvia Grune; Pavan, Maria Elisa; Vanasco, Bibiana; Samartino, Luis; Suarez, Olga; Auteri, Carmelo; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

2014-04-01

381

Coronagraphic phase diversity: performance study and laboratory demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The final performance of current and future instruments dedicated to exoplanet detection and characterization (such as SPHERE on the European Very Large Telescope, GPI on Gemini North, or future instruments on Extremely Large Telescopes) is limited by uncorrected quasi-static aberrations. These aberrations create long-lived speckles in the scientific image plane, which can easily be mistaken for planets. Aims: Common adaptive optics systems require dedicated components to perform wave-front analysis. The ultimate wave-front measurement performance is thus limited by the unavoidable differential aberrations between the wave-front sensor and the scientific camera. To reach the level of detectivity required by high-contrast imaging, these differential aberrations must be estimated and compensated for. In this paper, we characterize and experimentally validate a wave-front sensing method that relies on focal-plane data. Methods: Our method, called COFFEE (for COronagraphic Focal-plane wave-Front Estimation for Exoplanet detection), is based on a Bayesian approach, and it consists in an extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging. It estimates the differential aberrations using only two focal-plane coronagraphic images recorded from the scientific camera itself. Results: We first present a thorough characterization of COFFEE's performance by means of numerical simulations. This characterization is then compared with an experimental validation of COFFEE using an in-house adaptive optics bench and an apodized Roddier & Roddier phase mask coronagraph. An excellent match between experimental results and the theoretical study is found. Lastly, we present a preliminary validation of COFFEE's ability to compensate for the aberrations upstream of a coronagraph.

Paul, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Mugnier, L. M.

2013-04-01

382

Metallophilic macrophages of the rodent thymus.  

PubMed

For a very long time, we studied the metallophilic macrophages of the rodent thymus and in this review our results on morphological, histochemical, enzymehistochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and functional features of these cells, as well as the molecular regulation of their development, will be presented. Furthermore, the differences between species will also be discussed and the comparisons with similar/related cell types (metallophilic macrophages in the marginal sinus of the spleen, subcapsular sinus of the lymph nodes and germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles) will be made. Metallophilic macrophages are strategically positioned in the thymic cortico-medullary zone and are very likely to be involved in: (i) the metabolism, synthesis and production of bioactive lipids, most likely arachidonic acid metabolites, based on their histochemical and enzymehistochemical features, and (ii) the process of negative selection that occurs in the thymus, based on their ultrastructural features and their reactivity after the application of toxic or immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory agents. Taken together, their phenotypic and functional features strongly suggest that metallophilic macrophages play a significant role in the thymic physiology. PMID:23352337

Mili?evi?, Novica M; Mili?evi?, Živana

2013-03-01

383

Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega-Studies: A Case Study At Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data, ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender-specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly-developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene-specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology megastudies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research.

Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

2011-09-06

384

Study of the life cycle of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on field and laboratory data.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Amblyomma dubitatum was described based on the seasonal distribution of all parasitic stages and the development periods of engorged ticks under different conditions of photoperiod and temperature. All stages were found active along the entire year in the study area. Larvae peaked from May to July, nymphs peaked from July to October, and females peaked from November to March. This pattern represents a life cycle with one generation per year with most of the ticks reaching adulthood during the warmest months. The analysis of the effect of the photoperiod on the development of A. dubitatum showed no indication of morphogenetic diapause. Exposure of ticks to field conditions indicates a delay in metamorphosis of immature stages, in the oviposition of females and in the incubation of eggs, which were associated with low winter temperatures. The results indicate that though A. dubitatum has a one year life cycle, more than one cohort can co-exist within the same population in a certain interval of time. Finally, the potential role of small rodents as hosts for larvae and nymphs of A. dubitatum is confirmed. PMID:24458810

Debárbora, Valeria N; Mangold, Atilio J; Oscherov, Elena B; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

2014-05-01

385

Sporadic amplification of ID elements in rodents.  

PubMed

ID sequences are members of a short interspersed element (SINE) repetitive DNA family within the rodent genome. The copy number of individual ID elements varies by up to three orders of magnitude between species. This amplification has been highly sporadic in the order Rodentia and does not follow any phylogenetic trend. Using library screening and dot-blot analysis, we estimate there are 25,000 copies of ID elements in the deer mouse, 1,500 copies in the gerbil (both cricetid rodents), and 60,000 copies of either ID or ID-like elements in a sciurid rodent (squirrel). By dot-blot analysis, we estimate there are 150,000, 4,000, 1,000, and 200 copies of ID elements in the rat, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig, respectively (which is consistent with previous reports) and 200 copies in the hystricognath rodent, nutria. Therefore, a rapid amplification took place not only after the divergence of rat and mouse but also following the deer mouse (Peromyscus) and hamster split, with no evidence of increased amplifications in hystricognath rodents. No notable variations of sequences from the BC1 genes of several myomorphic rodents were observed that would possibly explain the varied levels of ID amplification. We did observe subgenera and species-group-specific variation in the ID core sequence of the BC1 gene within the genus Peromyscus. Sequence analysis of cloned ID elements in Peromyscus show most ID elements in this genus arose prior to Peromyscus subgenus divergence. Correspondence of the consensus sequence of individual ID elements in gerbil and deer mouse further confirms BC1 as a master gene in ID amplification. Several possible mechanisms responsible for the quantitative variations are explored. PMID:8576967

Kass, D H; Kim, J; Deininger, P L

1996-01-01

386

Dissipation of the Herbicide Clopyralid in an Allophanic Soil: Laboratory and Field Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil dissipation of the herbicide clopyralid (3,6?dichloropicolinic acid) was measured in laboratory incubations and in field plots under different management regimes. In laboratory studies, soil was spiked with commercial grade liquid formulation of clopyralid (Versatill®, 300 g a.i. L soluble concentrate) @ 0.8 µg a.i. g dry soil and the soil water content was maintained at 60% of water holding

Riaz Ahmad; Trevor K. James; Anis Rahman; Patrick T. Holland

2003-01-01

387

Studying Human Disease Genes in "Caenorhabditis Elegans": A Molecular Genetics Laboratory Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists routinely integrate information from various channels to explore topics under study. We designed a 4-wk undergraduate laboratory module that used a multifaceted approach to study a question in molecular genetics. Specifically, students investigated whether "Caenorhabditis elegans" can be a useful model system for studying genes…

Cox-Paulson, Elisabeth A.; Grana, Theresa M.; Harris, Michelle A.; Batzli, Janet M.

2012-01-01

388

Subsite awareness in neuropathology evaluation of National Toxicology Program (NTP) studies: a review of select neuroanatomical structures with their functional significance in rodents.  

PubMed

This review article is designed to serve as an introductory guide in neuroanatomy for toxicologic pathologists evaluating general toxicity studies. The article provides an overview of approximately 50 neuroanatomical subsites and their functional significance across 7 transverse sections of the brain. Also reviewed are 3 sections of the spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves (trigeminal and sciatic, respectively), and intestinal autonomic ganglia. The review is limited to the evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections, as light microscopic evaluation of these sections is an integral part of the first-tier toxicity screening of environmental chemicals, drugs, and other agents. Prominent neuroanatomical sites associated with major neurological disorders are noted. This guide, when used in conjunction with detailed neuroanatomic atlases, may aid in an understanding of the significance of functional neuroanatomy, thereby improving the characterization of neurotoxicity in general toxicity and safety evaluation studies. PMID:24135464

Rao, Deepa B; Little, Peter B; Sills, Robert C

2014-01-01

389

Genospecies diversity of Lyme disease spirochetes in rodent reservoirs.  

PubMed Central

To determine whether particular Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies associate solely with rodent reservoir hosts, we compared the genospecies prevalence in questing nymphal Ixodes ticks with that in xenodiagnostic ticks that had fed as larvae on rodents captured in the same site. No genospecies was more prevalent in rodent-fed ticks than in questing ticks. The three main spirochete genospecies, therefore, share common rodent hosts. PMID:10221886

Richter, D.; Endepols, S.; Ohlenbusch, A.; Eiffert, H.; Spielman, A.; Matuschka, F. R.

1999-01-01

390

Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds.  

PubMed

Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period. Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5-25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a dominant tree species in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Quantifying the occurrence and dynamics of directed dispersal in this and other cases will contribute to better understanding of mutualistic coevolution of plants and animals and to more effective management of ecosystems in which directed dispersal is a keystone process. PMID:19341138

Briggs, Jennifer S; Vander Wall, Stephen B; Jenkins, Stephen H

2009-03-01

391

Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) in rodents  

PubMed Central

Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of F. paniculata (HLE-FP). HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in weight gain pattern compared to control. These changes were sustained with 60 days treatment. However, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p < 0.05) increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p < 0.05) elevations in serum K+, urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slight but non-significant alterations in relevant parameters when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioral manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed, and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution should be exercised with its long-term usage. PMID:24795634

Akindele, Abidemi J.; Adeneye, Adejuwon A.; Salau, Oluwole S.; Sofidiya, Margaret O.; Benebo, Adokiye S.

2014-01-01

392

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies (Revision)  

SciTech Connect

This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the laboratories in the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center complex in Seattle, Washington, include extensive use of efficient lighting, variable-air-volume controls, variable-speed drives, motion sensors, and high-efficiency chillers and motors. With about 532,000 gross square feet, the complex is estimated to use 33% less electrical energy than most traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

Not Available

2002-03-01

393

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies  

SciTech Connect

This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the laboratories in the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center complex in Seattle, Washington, include extensive use of efficient lighting, variable-air-volume controls, variable-speed drives, motion sensors, and high-efficiency chillers and motors. With about 532,000 gross square feet, the complex is estimated to use 33% less electrical energy than most traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

Not Available

2001-12-01

394

Business case study Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 3: Revitalization  

SciTech Connect

It is the conclusion of this study that Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) will gain dramatically from revitalization of Technical Area 3 (TA-3) by providing a premiere facility for the US National Laboratory system, the Laboratory will be able to recruit and retain the best available expertise to help fulfill its mission, and plan for the future mission of LANL. The costs of TA-3 revitalization have been estimated at $200 million, however utilizing alternative construction and financing, commercial construction can dramatically reduce these costs and Third Party financing can reduce the overall estimated costs by nearly 50%. In addition, the costs of construction can be captured through savings in staff efficiency, energy efficiency, and reduced maintenance costs of the now aging infrastructure.

KPMG PEAT MARWICK

1999-01-08

395

Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area. PMID:24838257

Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

2014-09-01

396

Chemical Shift MR Imaging Methods for the Quantification of Transcatheter Lipiodol Delivery to the Liver: Preclinical Feasibility Studies in a Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of using chemical shift magnetic resonance (MR) imaging fat-water separation methods for quantitative estimation of transcatheter lipiodol delivery to liver tissues. Materials and Methods: Studies were performed in accordance with institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines. Proton nuclear MR spectroscopy was first performed to identify lipiodol spectral peaks and relative amplitudes. Next, phantoms were constructed with increasing lipiodol-water volume fractions. A multiecho chemical shift–based fat-water separation method was used to quantify lipiodol concentration within each phantom. Six rats served as controls; 18 rats underwent catheterization with digital subtraction angiography guidance for intraportal infusion of a 15%, 30%, or 50% by volume lipiodol-saline mixture. MR imaging measurements were used to quantify lipiodol delivery to each rat liver. Lipiodol concentration maps were reconstructed by using both single-peak and multipeak chemical shift models. Intraclass and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for statistical comparison of MR imaging–based lipiodol concentration and volume measurements to reference standards (known lipiodol phantom compositions and the infused lipiodol dose during rat studies). Results: Both single-peak and multipeak measurements were well correlated to phantom lipiodol concentrations (r2 > 0.99). Lipiodol volume measurements were progressively and significantly higher when comparing between animals receiving different doses (P < .05 for each comparison). MR imaging–based lipiodol volume measurements strongly correlated with infused dose (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.93, P < .001) with both single- and multipeak approaches. Conclusion: Chemical shift MR imaging fat-water separation methods can be used for quantitative measurements of lipiodol delivery to liver tissues. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623693

Yin, Xiaoming; Guo, Yang; Li, Weiguo; Huo, Eugene; Zhang, Zhuoli; Nicolai, Jodi; Kleps, Robert A.; Hernando, Diego; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Omary, Reed A.

2012-01-01

397

The involvement of the GPR39-Zn(2+)-sensing receptor in the pathophysiology of depression. Studies in rodent models and suicide victims.  

PubMed

Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in our body. Patients suffering from depression show lower serum zinc levels compared to healthy controls. Zincs antagonism to the glutamatergic system seems to be responsible for mood recovery. Recent years have shown that zinc may regulate neurotransmission via the metabotropic GPR39 receptor. Activation of the GPR39-Zn(2+)-sensing receptor (GPR39) triggers diverse neuronal pathways leading to a cAMP-responsive element binding the protein (CREB) expression, which then induces synthesis of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and, in turn, activation of the Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor. In the present study, we investigated the alteration of the GPR39 in different models of depression, such as zinc deficiency and olfactory bulbectomy and in suicide victims. Additionaly, we focused on CREB-BDNF/TrkB under zinc deficient conditions in mice. To demonstrate depressive-like behaviour, a standard and modified forced swim test (FST) was performed. To evaluate expression of GPR39, CREB, BDNF and TrkB, Western Blot analysis was used. Zinc deficient mice and rats showed decreased GPR39 expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. A decreased level of hippocampal and cortical GPR39 was also observed in suicide victims. In contrast, increased GPR39 in the hippocampus of olfactory bulbectomized rats was observed. Additionally, we found a decreased expression of CREB, BDNF and TrkB only in the hippocampus of zinc-deficient mice. Our present study demonstrates the associacion of the GPR39 Zn(2+)-sensing receptor in the pathomechanism of depression. Down-regulation of CREB, BDNF, TrkB and GPR39 receptor found under zinc-deficient conditions in the hippocampus, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, since most of patients suffering from depression show lower serum zinc. PMID:24333148

M?yniec, Katarzyna; Doboszewska, Urszula; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Ku?ma, Magdalena; Misztak, Paulina; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Trela, Franciszek; Ostachowicz, Beata; Nowak, Gabriel

2014-04-01

398

Microdialysis as a tool to determine free kidney levels of voriconazole in rodents: a model to study the technique feasibility for a moderately lipophilic drug.  

PubMed

Microdialysis has been employed for the in vivo measurement of endogenous compounds and a variety of drugs in different tissues. The applicability of this technique can be limited by drug lipophilicity which can impair the diffusion through dialysis membrane. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using microdialysis to study kidney penetration of voriconazole, a moderately lipophilic antifungal triazolic agent (LogD7.4=1.8). Microdialysis probe recoveries were investigated in vitro by dialysis and retrodialysis using four different drug concentrations (0.1-2 microg/mL) at five flow rates (1-5 microL/min). Recoveries were dependent on the method used for the determination as well as on the flow rate, but independent of drug concentration. The average apparent recoveries determined by dialysis and retrodialysis, at flow rate of 2 microL/min, were 21.1+/-1.5% and 28.7+/-2.0%, respectively. Recovery by retrodialysis was bigger than the recovery by dialysis. The average apparent dialysis/retrodialysis recovery ratio in vitro was 0.73 for all concentrations investigated. The differences between retrodialysis and dialysis recoveries were attributed to the drug's binding to the plastic tubing before and after the dialysis membrane which was experimentally evaluated and mathematically modeled. The in vivo apparent recovery determined by retrodialysis in healthy Wistar rats' kidney was 38.5+/-3.5%, similar to that observed in vitro using the same method (28.7+/-2.0%). The in vivo apparent recovery after correcting for plastic tubing binding (25.1+/-2.8%) was successfully used for determining free kidney levels of voriconazole in rats following 40 and 60mg/kg oral dosing. The results confirmed that microdialysis can be used as sampling technique to determine free tissue levels of moderately lipophilic drugs once the contribution of tubing binding and membrane diffusion on the apparent recovery are disentangled. PMID:18395391

Araujo, B V; Silva, C F; Haas, S E; Dalla Costa, T

2008-08-01

399

Seismic hazard studies for the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a calculation to determine the site specific seismic hazard appropriate for the deep soil site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is to be used in the risk assessment studies being conducted for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). The calculations use as input the seismic hazard defined for the bedrock outcrop by a study conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Variability in site soil properties were included in the calculations to obtain the seismic hazard at the ground surface and compare these results with those using the generic amplification factors from the LLNL study. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfield, E. (City Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

400

Northwestern University New Researcher Checklist: Evanston Campus Rodent Users  

E-print Network

and Access to CCM Facilities Register for Facility Orientation and Hands-On Rodent Euthanasia o Contact the CCM Training Office to register for Facility Orientation and Hands-On Rodent Euthanasia training: 312-503-2758 o Facility Orientation and Hands-On Rodent Euthanasia are: Held on Tuesdays at 10:30am and Fridays

Contractor, Anis

401

Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and rodents exhibit similar patterns of inhibited antibody production following exposure to immunotoxic chemicals.  

PubMed

The hemolytic plaque forming cell assay (PFC), a measure of ability to produce specific antibodies following challenge with antigen, is a powerful predictor of immunosuppression in chemical-exposed rodents. The efficacy of this assay for predicting humoral immunosuppression in non-rodent species remains unknown. In the present report, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to 9 chemical agents known to inhibit antibody production in mice (benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dimethyl nitrosamine, cadmium chloride, azathioprine, hexachlorocyclohexane, T2 mycotoxin and toluene) and 5 chemical agents which do not inhibit this response (oxymethalone, acetonitrile, diethylstilbesterol, t-butylhydroquinone and formaldehyde). Eight of 9 agents which inhibit antibody production in rodents caused decreased PFC responses in fish. All 5 compounds with negative humoral effects in rodents were also negative in fish. Thus, 13/14 chemical agents tested gave similar results in tilapia as reported in rodents, suggesting a comparable pattern of humoral immunosuppression in chemical-exposed tilapia to that seen in laboratory rodent models. PMID:10592942

Smith, D A; Schurig, G G; Smith, S A; Holladay, S D

1999-12-01

402

Too many rodent carcinogens: Mitogenesis increases mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clarification of the mechanism of carcinogenesis is developing at a rapid rate. This new understanding undermines many assumptions of current regulatory policy toward rodent carcinogens and necessitates rethinking the utility and meaning of routine animal cancer tests. At a recent watershed meeting on carcinogenesis, much evidence was presented suggesting that mitogenesis plays a dominant role in carcinogenesis. Our own

B. N. Ames; L. S. Gold

1990-01-01

403

Biological markers in animal sentinels: Laboratory studies improve interpretation of field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described some of the results of our studies of biomarker responses of fish. We report results of field surveys of animals from contaminated and unpolluted reference streams, as well as laboratory studies of biomarker responses. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize two points that are critical to the successful application and interpretation of biomarker responses in

J. F. McCarthy; B. D. Jimenez; L. R. Shugart; F. V. Sloop; A. Oikari

1988-01-01

404

ORGANOTIN TOXICITY STUDIES CONDUCTED WITH SELECTED MARINE ORGANISMS AT EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies on effect of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) and other organotins on marine species have been conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, since 1983. First studies were done on two species of algae, Skeletonema costatum and ...

405

Rodents as reservoirs of parasites in India.  

PubMed

We monitored the prevalence of endoparasitic infections of rodents in Punjab State, India, between January 2004 and December 2005. Three species of wild rodents, namely the house rat, Rattus rattus (n= 42), the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (n= 34) and the Indian gerbil, Tatera indica (n= 15), were live-captured from houses and crop fields. Examination of various organs revealed that the highest rates of endoparasitic infection occurred in R. rattus (40.5%), followed by B. bengalensis (35.3 %) and then T. indica (20.0%), with an overall infection rate of 35.2%. All three rodent species were found naturally infected with one or more species of helminths. Metacestodes (1-6) of Cysticercus fasciolaris (larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis) were found in all three rodent species (in the liver). In one male T. indica, numerous robust T. taeniaeformis metacestodes were found in oval sacs attached to the mesentery and the abdominal wall, an unusual site. The cauda epididymal fluid of the same gerbil was also found to be infected with a very rare species of strongylid nematode, which could not be identified to genus or species level. It is possible that this nematode is transmitted sexually and thus may affect the reproductive potential of gerbils. This appears to be the first report of this phenomenon. In one B. bengalensis individual, the intestine was found to be obstructed with an acanthocephalan, Moniliformis moniliformis, with concurrent infection with C. fasciolaris in the form of multiple cysts in the liver. Although no natural protozoan infection was found in these field rodents, experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection has been established in all three species with high pathogenicity, and the possibility of sexual transmission was supported by the presence of T. evansi in the cauda epididymal fluid of male rats. PMID:21396047

Singla, Lachhman D; Singla, Neena; Parshad, Vir R; Juyal, Prayag D; Sood, Naresh K

2008-03-01

406

Bird's the Word: By Raising Chicks, Students Study Animals in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most biology students have the opportunity to look at protozoa under the microscopes or keep mealworms in a bowl. They may manipulate the heart rate of "Daphnia" or calculate the respiration of plants. They may even grow corn in the spring or keep fish and a small rodent or two. But once the class hamster grows testy from being awakened every…

Barra, Paul A.

2002-01-01

407

Sustained high levels of neuregulin-1 in the longest-lived rodents; a key determinant of rodent longevity  

E-print Network

Sustained high levels of neuregulin-1 in the longest-lived rodents; a key determinant of rodent 31905, Israel Summary Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), the longest-lived rodents, live 7% of their lives. Little is known about the mechanisms that allow them to delay the aging process and live so long

Huchon, Dorothée

408

Study to Determine Allergenic Properties of Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this contract were (1) to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic importance of allergens derived from rats, and (2) to identify and purify allergenic components in specimens of rat pelt, saliva, serum and urine. Assays of these materia...

D. A. Levy

1984-01-01

409

Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances.  

PubMed

In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS) exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA) of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach) for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction. PMID:24369134

Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Livera, Gabriel

2014-01-01

410

Rodent Models and Behavioral Outcomes of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Rodent spinal cord injury (SCI) models have been developed to examine functional and physiological deficits after spinal cord injury with the hope that these models will elucidate information about human SCI. Models are needed to examine possible treatments and to understand histopathology after SCI; however, they should be considered carefully and chosen based on the goals of the study being performed. Contusion, compression, transection, and other models exist and have the potential to reveal important information about SCI that may be related to human SCI and the outcomes of treatment and timing of intervention.

Geissler, Sydney A.; Schmidt, Christine E.; Schallert, Timothy

2014-01-01

411

Ghrelin Influences Novelty Seeking Behavior in Rodents and Men  

PubMed Central

Recent discoveries indicate an important role for ghrelin in drug and alcohol reward and an ability of ghrelin to regulate mesolimbic dopamine activity. The role of dopamine in novelty seeking, and the association between this trait and drug and alcohol abuse, led us to hypothesize that ghrelin may influence novelty seeking behavior. To test this possibility we applied several complementary rodent models of novelty seeking behavior, i.e. inescapable novelty-induced locomotor activity (NILA), novelty-induced place preference and novel object exploration, in rats subjected to acute ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor; GHSR) stimulation or blockade. Furthermore we assessed the possible association between polymorphisms in the genes encoding ghrelin and GHSR and novelty seeking behavior in humans. The rodent studies indicate an important role for ghrelin in a wide range of novelty seeking behaviors. Ghrelin-injected rats exhibited a higher preference for a novel environment and increased novel object exploration. Conversely, those with GHSR blockade drastically reduced their preference for a novel environment and displayed decreased NILA. Importantly, the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area selective GHSR blockade was sufficient to reduce the NILA response indicating that the mesolimbic GHSRs might play an important role in the observed novelty responses. Moreover, in untreated animals, a striking positive correlation between NILA and sucrose reward behavior was detected. Two GHSR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2948694 and rs495225, were significantly associated with the personality trait novelty seeking, as assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), in human subjects. This study provides the first evidence for a role of ghrelin in novelty seeking behavior in animals and humans, and also points to an association between food reward and novelty seeking in rodents. PMID:23227170

Hansson, Caroline; Shirazi, Rozita H.; Naslund, Jakob; Vogel, Heike; Neuber, Corinna; Holm, Goran; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Eriksson, Elias; Skibicka, Karolina P.

2012-01-01

412

A Study of the Laboratory Science Teaching Skills of Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent of agreement between selected college-level elementary science educators (N=107) and selected fourth-,fifth-, and sixth-grade Kansas science teachers (N=256) regarding the science laboratory teaching competencies that should be possessed by these teachers. Each group was given a questionnaire which focused on…

Donaldson, Henry Carrol

413

Photochemical aging of organic aerosol: Laboratory studies of the heterogeneous oxidation of oxidized organic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multigenerational oxidative processing of atmospheric organics (``aging'') is thought to have a major influence on the mass, composition, and properties of organic aerosol (OA). However aging processes are generally not simulated in most laboratory studies of OA formation. Particularly uncertain is the chemistry underlying the formation and degradation of low-volatility, multifunctional, highly oxidized species. Such species make up a large

J. H. Kroll; S. H. Kessler; T. Nah; J. D. Smith; D. L. Che; A. J. Carrasquillo; J. Jayne; D. R. Worsnop; K. R. Wilson

2010-01-01

414

Competition between Nonindigenous Ruffe and Native Yellow Perch in Laboratory Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus is a European percid that was accidently introduced in Duluth Harbor, Lake Superior. This nonindigenous species is closely related to yellow perch Perca flavescens, and because the two species have similar diets and habitat requirements, they are potential competitors. Laboratory studies in aquaria and pools were conducted to determine whether ruffe can compete with yellow perch

Jacqueline F. Savino; Cynthia S. Kolar

1996-01-01

415

CUNNER(TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS) AS A MODEL FISH FOR REPRODUCTIVE STUDIES IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) are being studied at our laboratory as a model species to determine the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on estuarine fish populations. Cunner was selected because this species is common in es