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1

Fungal diseases of laboratory rodents.  

PubMed

Although fungal disease is uncommon in rodents, dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis seen in clinical practice. T. mentagrophytes is the most common etiologic agent, and the guinea pig is the most common species affected, although there are reports in all pet and laboratory rodent species except the gerbil. Despite the low incidence of clinical disease, rodents are common asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and ringworm is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted from rodents to people. PMID:12827729

Pollock, Christal

2003-05-01

2

In Vivo Effects of Bisphenol A in Laboratory Rodent Studies  

PubMed Central

Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/kg/day, in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10 to 1,000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low-dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long-lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

Richter, Catherine A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Farabollini, Francesca; Newbold, Retha R.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

2007-01-01

3

Susceptibility of laboratory rodents to Trichinella papuae.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp. PMID:24516265

Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

2013-12-01

4

Field and Laboratory Studies Provide Insights into the Meaning of Day-Time Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco  

PubMed Central

South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti), commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD) conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD). However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12?12) with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker.

Tomotani, Barbara M.; Flores, Danilo E. F. L.; Tachinardi, Patricia; Paliza, Jose D.; Oda, Gisele A.; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.

2012-01-01

5

PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS. C. Lau, J.R. Thibodeaux, R.G. Hanson, B.E. Gray and J.M. Rogers. Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. PFOS is an environmental contaminant ubiquitously found in h...

6

Historical histopathological control data for laboratory rodents: valuable treasure or worthless trash?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The reasons for variation in longevity and disease incidence in untreated control animals in chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in laboratory rodents are reviewed and discussed. Genetic drift, dietary composition, caloric intake, age of animals at the termination of studies, the skill, experience and diligence of the pathologist, the. diagnostic criteria used and the appropriateness of statistical procedures are

F. J. C. Roe

1994-01-01

7

Anaesthesia and post-operative analgesia following experimental surgery in laboratory rodents: are we making progress?  

PubMed

Current attitudes to the use of animals in biomedical research require that any pain or distress should be minimised. This can often be achieved by the use of appropriate anaesthetic and analgesic regimens. There, is however, little information on the peri-operative regimens used. A literature review was conducted to estimate how commonly analgesics are administered to laboratory rodents, the most widely used species of laboratory animals, and to assess the anaesthetic regimens employed. Studies describing potentially painful experimental procedures involving rodents were identified from peer-reviewed journals published from 1990 to 1992 and from 2000 to 2002. In papers published between 2000 and 2002, if analgesic administration was not specified, the institutional veterinary surgeons or authors of the papers were contacted by e-mail to obtain additional information on analgesic use. From 1992 to 2002, there was an increase in the reported prevalence of analgesic administration to laboratory rodents from 2.7% to 19.8%. Although the use of analgesics has increased over the past ten years, the overall level of post-operative pain relief for laboratory rodents is still low. Anaesthetic methodology changed markedly between the two time-periods sampled. Notably, there was an increase in the use of isoflurane and of injectable anaesthetic combinations such as ketamine/xylazine, whereas the use of ether and methoxyflurane decreased. PMID:16180987

Richardson, Claire A; Flecknell, Paul A

2005-04-01

8

Environmental Enrichment of Laboratory Rodents: The Answer Depends on the Question  

PubMed Central

Efforts to refine the care and use of animals in research have been ongoing for many years and have led to general standardization of rodent models, particularly with regard to animal housing, genetics, and health status. Concurrently, numerous informal practices and recommendations have been promulgated with the laudable intent of promoting general animal wellbeing through so-called enrichment of the cage environment. However, the variety of housing conditions fostered by efforts at environmental enrichment (EE) complicates the goal of establishing standardized or even defined environments for laboratory rodents. Many studies over the years have sought to determine whether or how various enrichment strategies affect the behavior and physiology of laboratory rodents. The findings, conclusions, and interpretations of these studies are mixed, particularly with regard to their application across rodent species, strains, genders, and ages; whether or how they affect the animals and the science; and, in some cases, whether the effects are positive, negative, or neutral in terms of animal wellbeing. Crucial issues related to the application of EE in research settings include its poorly defined effect on the animals, the potential for increased variability in the data, poor definition across labs and in publications, and potential for animal or scientific harm. The complexities, uncertainties, interpretational conundrums, varying conclusions, and lack of consensus in the EE literature warrant careful assessment of the benefits and liabilities associated with implementing such interventions. Reliance on evidence, professional judgment, and performance standards are crucial in the development of EE strategies.

Toth, Linda A; Kregel, Kevin; Leon, Lisa; Musch, Timothy I

2011-01-01

9

Rodent Studies of Cardiovascular Deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in blood pressure can occur for two reasons: 1) A decrease in cardiac output resulting from the altered contractility of the heart or through changes in venous filling pressure via the Frank Starling mechanism or; 2) A change in systemic vascular resistance. The observed changes in cardiac output and blood pressure after long term space flight cannot be entirely explained through changes in contractility or heart rate alone. Therefore, alterations in filling pressure mediated through changes in systemic venous capacitance and arterial resistance function may be important determinants of cardiac output and blood pressure after long term space flight. Our laboratory and previous studies have shown the importance of veno-constriction mediated by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex system on overall circulatory homeostasis and in the regulation of cardiac output. Our proposed experiments test the overall hypothesis that alterations in venous capacitance function and arterial resistance by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex system are an important determinant of the cardiac output and blood pressure response seen in astronauts after returning to earth from long term exposure to microgravity. This hypothesis is important to our overall understanding of circulatory adjustments made during long term space flight. It also provides a framework for investigating counter measures to reduce the incidence of orthostatic hypotension caused by an attenuation of cardiac output. We continue to use hind limb unweighted (HLU) rat model to simulate the patho physiological effects as they relate to cardiovascular deconditioning in microgravity. We have used this model to address the hypothesis that microgravity induced cardiovascular deconditioning results in impaired vascular responses and that these impaired vascular responses result from abnormal alpha-1 AR signaling. The impaired vascular reactivity results in attenuated blood pressure and cardiac output responses to an orthostatic challenge. We have used in vitro vascular reactivity assays to explore abnormalities in vascular responses in vessels from HLU animals and, cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements to characterize changes in hemodynamics following HLU.

Shoukas, Artin A.

1999-01-01

10

Three-dimensional organization of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels of laboratory rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three-dimensional aspects of smooth muscle cells of the microvas-culature were studied ultrastructurally in laboratory rodents by means of serial thin sections and reconstruction of muscle cell models. It was demonstrated that a muscle cell of an arteriole (luminal diameter (LD) 17 m) in hamster striated muscle was spindle-shaped, 70 m long, and wound twice round the vessel axis. The volume

Terumasa Komuro; Junzo Desaki; Yasuo Uehara

1982-01-01

11

A review of seasonal/circannual effects of laboratory rodent behavior.  

PubMed

The existence of seasonal or circannual effects on laboratory rodent behavior has been the subject of much debate in recent conversations with colleagues. If such effects are real, they could explain poor replicability or hinder the detection of treatment effects. Here, we review the literature in which seasonal or circannual rhythms were examined under typical 12:12h photoperiods and present our historical data of locomotor activity of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats across several seasons and years. In general, there was little evidence to indicate significant effects on the locomotor activity of rats or mice, while studies of depression behaviors were somewhat inconsistent in their findings. Results of the few anxiety behavior assessments were fairly consistent, at least in rat studies. Two studies of pain-related behaviors indicated decreased responses during spring or summer testing. If such seasonal effects are real, this would imply that laboratory rodents have a type of internal Type 2 circannual clock or endogenous oscillator. However, photoperiod, temperature, or humidity cannot be the zeitgeber. Further, the need for a circannual clock in a short-lived rodent is debatable. PMID:23770329

Ferguson, Sherry A; Maier, Kaitlyn L

2013-07-01

12

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. NASA established the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, LADTAG has recommended investigating its toxicity in the lungs of laboratory animals. After receiving this recommendation, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in exposed rodents. The rodent pulmonary toxicity studies proposed here are the same as those proposed by the LADTAG. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal instillation (ITI). This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. We succeeded in completing an ITI study on JSC-1 lunar dust simulant in mice (Lam et al., Inhalation Toxicology 14:901-916, 2002, and Inhalation Toxicology 14: 917-928, 2002), and have conducted a pilot ITI study to examine the acute toxicity of an Apollo lunar (highland) dust sample. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies have been planned to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The ITI results will also be useful for choosing an exposure concentration for the animal inhalation study on a selected lunar dust sample, which is included as a part of this proposal. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The simulant exposure will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of ITI and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Taylor, Larry

2008-01-01

13

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

2009-01-01

14

The rodent estrous cycle: Characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the estrous cycle in laboratory rodents can be a useful measure of the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. It can also serve as a way of insuring that animals exhibiting abnormal cycling patterns are disincluded from a study prior t...

15

The role of pheromonal responses in rodent behavior: future directions for the development of laboratory protocols.  

PubMed

Pheromones--chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific--are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam-pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094

Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

2013-03-01

16

Laboratory and field evaluation of rodent bait treated with fipronil for feed through and systemic control of Phlebotomus papatasi.  

PubMed

The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of Leishmania major, etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), which is endemic in North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In North Africa, Meriones shawi is one of the two main reservoir hosts of L. major. P. papatasi populations are maintained in borrowing rodents such as M. shawi. Three fipronil-treated rodent baits were evaluated for systemic and feed through insecticidal activity against P. papatasi feeding on M. shawi. Through blood feeding bioassays, mortality rates of females P. papatasi increased with the concentration of fipronil in the rodent bait varying from 0.001% to 0.005%. In the laboratory, more than 90.0% of P. papatasi were killed within 48h after blood feeding on the desert's jirds, M. shawi, treated up to 29 days prior with a single application of fipronil at a concentration of 0.001%, 0.0025% and 0.005%. Through larval bioassays, mortality rates of larvae that have fed on faeces of treated bait for M. shawi increase with the concentrations of fipronil. Faeces of orally-treated Meriones were significantly toxic to larvae for 5 weeks with a concentration of 0.005%. In the field, application of treated bait resulted in 80.0% reduction in the populations of P. papatasi up to 6 weeks after a single application of fipronil at a concentration of 0.005%. This is the first study to demonstrate field efficacy of fipronil-treated rodent baits for P. papatasi control and the first study to evaluate this approach in M. shawi, a principal ZCL reservoir host. These results suggest that fipronil-treated rodent baits can be used to effectively reduce the populations of P. papatasi associated with M. shawi in ZCL endemic areas. PMID:24681222

Derbali, M; Polyakova, L; Boujaâma, A; Burruss, D; Cherni, S; Barhoumi, W; Chelbi, I; Poché, R; Zhioua, E

2014-07-01

17

Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.  

PubMed

After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

2008-09-01

18

Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: cage environment and animal health aspects.  

PubMed

The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288

Höglund, A U; Renström, A

2001-01-01

19

A Bead-Based Multiplex Assay for the Detection of DNA Viruses Infecting Laboratory Rodents  

PubMed Central

The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association (FELASA) recommends screening of laboratory rodents and biological materials for a broad variety of bacterial agents, viruses, and parasites. Methods commonly used to date for pathogen detection are neither cost-effective nor time- and animal-efficient or uniform. However, an infection even if silent alters experimental results through changing the animals’ physiology and increases inter-individual variability. As a consequence higher numbers of animals and experiments are needed for valid and significant results. We developed a novel high-throughput multiplex assay, called rodent DNA virus finder (rDVF) for the simultaneous identification of 24 DNA viruses infecting mice and rats. We detected all 24 DNA viruses with high specificity and reproducibility. Detection limits for the different DNA viruses varied between 10 and 1000 copies per PCR. The validation of rDVF was done with DNA isolated from homogenised organs amplified by pathogen specific primers in one multiplex PCR. The biotinylated amplicons were detected via hybridisation to specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to spectrally distinct sets of fluorescent Luminex beads. In conclusion, rDVF may have the potential to replace conventional testing and may simplify and improve routine detection of DNA viruses infecting rodents.

Hofler, Daniela; Nicklas, Werner; Mauter, Petra; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

2014-01-01

20

Laboratory evaluation of oral treatment of rodents with systemic insecticides for control of bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral treatment of rodents with diets containing the systemic insecticides ivermectin, abamectin, imidacloprid, or spinosad, to control bloodfeeding sand flies. We found that diets containing concentrations higher than 10 mg/kg abamectin were not palatable to rodents, and that a diet containing 10 mg/kg abamectin (a palatable concentration) did not cause 100% mortality of bloodfeeding sand flies. Treatment of rodents with imidacloprid was effective for less than 3 days post-treatment. Treatment of rodents with diets containing 20 mg/kg ivermectin or 5000 mg/kg spinosad caused 100% mortality of bloodfeeding sand flies for at least 1 week. The efficacy of ivermectin and spinosad also were not reduced when combined with the fluorescent tracer dye rhodamine B in a single diet. We also did not observe significant benefits by increasing the feeding period of the rodents from 3 to 6 or 9 days. We conclude that ivermectin and spinosad are effective as rodent systemic insecticides against bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that weekly treatment of wild rodent reservoirs of Leishmania major with bait containing one of these systemic insecticides could be a useful tool as part of a sand fly control program. PMID:22607066

Mascari, Thomas Michael; Stout, Rhett W; Foil, Lane D

2012-08-01

21

Ecologic studies of rodent reservoirs: their relevance for human health.  

PubMed Central

Within the past few years, the number of "new" human diseases associated with small-mammal reservoirs has increased dramatically, stimulating renewed interest in reservoir ecology research. A consistent, integrative approach to such research allows direct comparisons between studies, contributes to the efficient use of resources and data, and increases investigator safety. We outline steps directed toward understanding vertebrate host ecology as it relates to human disease and illustrate the relevance of each step by using examples from studies of hosts associated with rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses.

Mills, J. N.; Childs, J. E.

1998-01-01

22

Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: Influence of Gestation Length and Timing of Neonatal Examinations on Litter Data in Controls  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies with rodents use varied protocols for determining the timing of neonatal litter examinations and subsequent measurements. Most laboratories determine timing based on the day of birth (DOB); l.e., gestation le...

23

[Laboratory and field evaluation of an imidacloprid treated rodent oral bait for a systemic control of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1786 (Dipetra: Psychodidae)].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic insecticidal activity of an imidacloprid-treated rodent oral bait, against Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1786 vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). Shaw's gerbil Meriones shawi Duvernoy, 1842 (Rodentia, Gerbillidae) were treated with imidacloprid-treated bait (0.05%). In the laboratory, effects on adult and larval of Phlebotomus papatasi fed on treated M. shawi and on its faeces were studied. The effectiveness of this approach was tested under field conditions. In the laboratory, 100% of P. papatasi were killed within 24 hours after blood feeding on Meriones shawi treated up to four weeks prior with a single application of imidacloprid (0.05%) bait. In addition, none of the P. papatasi larvae that consumed feces from M. shawi treated with the imidacloprid bait survived to pupation. In the field, application of the imidacloprid bait resulted in a 90% reduction in the P. papatasi population up to four weeks prior with a single application of imidacloprid (0.05%) bait. This is the first study to demonstrate field efficacy of insecticide-treated rodent baits for P. papatasi control and the first study to evaluate this approach in M. shawi, a principal ZCL reservoir host. These results suggest that insecticide-treated rodent baits could be used to effectively reduce the populations of P. papatasi associated with M. shawi in ZCL endemic areas. PMID:23299949

Derbali, M; Chelbi, I; Cherni, S; Barhoumi, W; Boujaâma, A; Raban, R; Poché, R; Zhioua, E

2013-02-01

24

?-Cell Generation: Can Rodent Studies Be Translated to Humans?  

PubMed Central

?-cell replacement by allogeneic islet transplantation is a promising approach for patients with type 1 diabetes, but the shortage of organ donors requires new sources of ? cells. Islet regeneration in vivo and generation of ?-cells ex vivo followed by transplantation represent attractive therapeutic alternatives to restore the ?-cell mass. In this paper, we discuss different postnatal cell types that have been envisaged as potential sources for future ?-cell replacement therapy. The ultimate goal being translation to the clinic, a particular attention is given to the discrepancies between findings from studies performed in rodents (both ex vivo on primary cells and in vivo on animal models), when compared with clinical data and studies performed on human cells.

Carlotti, Francoise; Zaldumbide, Arnaud; Ellenbroek, Johanne H.; Spijker, H. Siebe; Hoeben, Rob C.; de Koning, Eelco J.

2011-01-01

25

Survey of studies on how spaceflight affects rodent skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Rodent muscles have been examined in more than 89 spaceflight studies over the last 25 years with much variation in the procedures and results. Mission duration ranged from four days to three weeks, postflight data collection ranged from a few hours to two days after landing, and there is great diversity in the number, size, and age of the rats that have flown. Several different types and sizes of animal enclosures have also been used--a significant factor because cage design affects animal activity and muscle loading. Only a small percentage (approximately 16%) of the total number of striated muscles in the rat have been examined. We have identified both substantial redundancy and inconsistencies in the results from studies to date. However, many of these appear unavoidable due to the great variation in experimental protocol of the different missions. Nevertheless these studies repeatedly confirm that exposure to spaceflight decreases the mass of limb muscles and leads to muscle atrophy. The majority of missions were flown by the former Soviet Union, but the majority of papers have been published by U.S. researchers. A relatively small number of investigators (about 50) clustered into fewer than 15 identifiable research groups worldwide account for most of the results to date. These groups have had access to rodent muscle tissue from two to seven spaceflights each. International cooperation in the post-cold war era and the publication of future work in peer-reviewed international journals should help greatly in reducing redundancy and enriching our knowledge of how gravity affects biological systems. PMID:10660771

Fejtek, M B; Wassersug, R J

1999-01-01

26

The socially stressed heart. Insights from studies in rodents.  

PubMed

The existence of a close relationship between psychosocial factors and cardiovascular morbidity is not just a hypothesis anymore. Research on humans has been attempting to unravel the significance of this association by investigating psychological and social characteristics in relation to cardiovascular health. However, this research is limited by the difficulty to control and standardize for the individual social history, the impossibility to apply psychosocial stress stimuli for mere experimental purposes, as well as the long time span of cardiovascular pathogenesis in humans. Animal studies controlling for social environment and adverse social episodes since weaning allow for partially overcoming these limitations. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date reference of the experimental evidence so far collected on the link between psychosocial factors and cardiovascular (dys-)function in rodent species, with special emphasis on social conflict, aggressiveness and negative mood states, which have been significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24373860

Sgoifo, Andrea; Carnevali, Luca; Grippo, Angela J

2014-02-01

27

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

28

STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL AND BEHAVIORAL TOXICOLOGY OF SUBSTITUTE CHEMICALS IN MICROTINE RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute oral LD50 and 30-day dietary subacute LC50 studies of 10 selected pesticides were evaluated in microtine rodents. As a means to developing new animal model systems, four species of microtine rodents including Microtus ochrogaster (MO), Microtus canicaudus (MC), Microtus pen...

29

Chemical-induced atrial thrombosis in NTP rodent studies.  

PubMed

Cardiac thrombosis, one of the causes of sudden death throughout the world, plays a principal role in several cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke in humans. Data from studies of induction of chemical thrombosis in rodents help to identify substances in our environment that may contribute to cardiac thrombosis. Results for more than 500 chemicals tested in rodents in 2-year bioassays have been published as Technical Reports of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/index. We evaluated atrial thrombosis induced by these chemical exposures and compared it to similarly induced lesions reported in the literature. Spontaneous rates of cardiac thrombosis were determined for control Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice: 0% in rats and mice in 90-day studies and, in 2-year studies, 0.7% in both genders of mice, 4% in male rats, and 1% in female rats. Incidences of atrial thrombosis were increased in high-dosed groups involving 13 compounds (incidence rate: 20-100%): 2-butoxyethanol, C.I. Direct Blue 15, bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane, diazoaminobenzene, diethanolamine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, hexachloroethane, isobutene, methyleugenol, oxazepam, C.I. Pigment Red 23, C.I. Acid Red 114, and 4,4'-thiobis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol). The main localization of spontaneously occurring and chemically induced thromboses occurred in the left atrium. The literature survey suggested that chemical-induced atrial thrombosis might be closely related to myocardial injury, endothelial injury, circulatory stasis, hypercoagulability, and impaired atrial mechanical activity, such as atrial fibrillation, which could cause stasis of blood within the left atrial appendage, contributing to left atrial thrombosis. Supplementary data referenced in this paper are not printed in this issue of Toxicologic Pathology. They are available as downloadable files at http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0192-6233. To access them, click on the issue link for 33(5), then select this article. A download option appears at the bottom of this abstract. In order to access the full article online, you must either have an individual subscription or a member subscription accessed through www.toxpath.org. PMID:16048847

Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kissling, Grace E; Johnson, Jo Anne; Clayton, Natasha P; Flagler, Norris D; Nyska, Abraham

2005-01-01

30

Seed choice by rodents: learning or inheritance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning plays a central role in animal life, and it has received special attention in the context of foraging. In this study,\\u000a we have tested whether learning operates in seed choices by rodents using the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus) and Holm oak (Quercus ilex) acorns as a model. At the laboratory, those rodents captured in the field during the acorn

Alberto Muñoz; Raúl Bonal

2008-01-01

31

OCT-aided anastomosis platform study in the rodent model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.

Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

2014-02-01

32

Nucleofection of rodent neuroblasts to study neuroblast migration in vitro.  

PubMed

The subventricular zone (SVZ) located in the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles plays a fundamental role in adult neurogenesis. In this restricted area of the brain, neural stem cells proliferate and constantly generate neuroblasts that migrate tangentially in chains along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to reach the olfactory bulb (OB). Once in the OB, neuroblasts switch to radial migration and then differentiate into mature neurons able to incorporate into the preexisting neuronal network. Proper neuroblast migration is a fundamental step in neurogenesis, ensuring the correct functional maturation of newborn neurons. Given the ability of SVZ-derived neuroblasts to target injured areas in the brain, investigating the intracellular mechanisms underlying their motility will not only enhance the understanding of neurogenesis but may also promote the development of neuroregenerative strategies. This manuscript describes a detailed protocol for the transfection of primary rodent RMS postnatal neuroblasts and the analysis of their motility using a 3D in vitro migration assay recapitulating their mode of migration observed in vivo. Both rat and mouse neuroblasts can be quickly and efficiently transfected via nucleofection with either plasmid DNA, small hairpin (sh)RNA or short interfering (si)RNA oligos targeting genes of interest. To analyze migration, nucleofected cells are reaggregated in 'hanging drops' and subsequently embedded in a three-dimensional matrix. Nucleofection per se does not significantly impair the migration of neuroblasts. Pharmacological treatment of nucleofected and reaggregated neuroblasts can also be performed to study the role of signaling pathways involved in neuroblast migration. PMID:24300093

Falenta, Katarzyna; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Sonego, Martina; Doherty, Patrick; Lalli, Giovanna

2013-01-01

33

Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals.  

PubMed Central

Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed using laboratory rodents offered diets containing fish caught in polluted waters. Induced cancers in rodents would corroborate field observations in fish; positive results from these studies would provide further evidence about potential human health hazards from eating substantial amounts of chemically contaminated fish. Nonetheless, fish and aquatic organisms should be viewed as environmental biological monitors of pollution or of potential human health hazards, and authorities responsible for assuring clean and safe rivers, bodies of water, and biota should give more attention to these valid biological indicators or sentinels of environmental pollution. Consequently, fish and other sea creatures alone should serve as alarms regarding whether water areas constitute public health hazards.

Huff, J; Bucher, J; Yang, R

1991-01-01

34

Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: occupational health aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary New ventilated caging systems for laboratory animals were compared with conventional caging regarding allergen distribution, ergonomic suitability, cage environment and animal welfare. This paper presents occupational health evaluations. Mice were placed in individually ventilated cage (IVC)systems, a ventilated cabinet, and in cages on open shelves (conventional husbandry). The IVC systems were studied at negative and positive airow. Aeroallergens were

Anne Renström; Gunnar Björing; A. Urban Höglund

2001-01-01

35

Pharmacological study of Stachytarpheta cayennensis Vahl in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze-dried aqueous extracts (AEs, 0.1–1g\\/kg body wt., p.o.) obtained from entire or selected parts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis were tested for their effects on gastric secretion, gastric motility, inflammation and pain in rodents, with the purpose of validating the plant's ethnomedical uses. The AE-Total, AE-Flowers and AE-Leaves but not AE-Stems inhibited the gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats with varying potency.

S. Mesia-Vela; C. Souccar; M. T. R. Lima-Landman; A. J. Lapa

2004-01-01

36

Comparative pathology of cardiac neoplasms in humans and in laboratory rodents: a review.  

PubMed

This review deals with the frequency, heredity, and morphology of 19 different histologic types of cardiac tumors that may affect humans, rat, mouse, guinea pig, and mastomys. Chemicals, durable fibrous materials, viruses, and probably irradiation have induced cardiac tumors in rodents. Apart from the involvement of asbestos in the induction of pericardial mesothelioma, no carcinogens have been identified in induction or promotion of cardiac tumors in humans. A hereditary tendency for the occurrence of myxoma and aortic paraganglioma has been indicated in humans as well as strain-specific heredity for rhabdomyoma in the guinea pig and for atriocaval node tumor in the rat. PMID:3001398

Hoch-Ligeti, C; Restrepo, C; Stewart, H L

1986-01-01

37

Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity.  

PubMed

According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6-11 yr old fail to obtain the recommended 60 min/day of physical activity and 92% of adolescents fail to achieve this goal [Troiano et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 40, 2008]. Nonetheless, invasive mechanistic studies in children linking diminished physical activity with metabolic maladies are lacking for obvious ethical reasons. The rodent wheel lock (WL) model was adopted by our laboratory and others to study how different organ systems of juvenile rats respond to a cessation of daily physical activity. Our WL model houses rats in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels starting at 28 days of age. After a certain period of voluntary running (3 to 6 wk), the wheels are locked, thus preventing the rats' primary source of physical activity. The studies discussed herein suggest that obesity-associated maladies including skeletal muscle insulin resistance, hypothalamic leptin resistance, fatty acid oxidation impairments in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and endothelial dysfunction are initiated in juvenile animals that are restrained from voluntary exercise via WL. The use of the juvenile rodent WL or other inactivity models will continue to provide a powerful clinical translational tool that can be used for primordial prevention of human childhood obesity. PMID:22696577

Roberts, Michael D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W

2012-08-01

38

Exposure of immunologically naive laboratory rodents to antigen via the airways. Where does tolerance stop and sensitization begin?  

PubMed

Conventional rodent models of respiratory allergy that employ intraperitoneal sensitization to aeroallergen plus adjuvant, have offered greatly to our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of allergic airway diseases. Notwithstanding this significant contribution, non-adjuvant aided sensitization via respiratory presentation of the allergen, is more naturally relevant and more closely mimics the human exposure. Nevertheless, in the experimental setting, primary respiratory exposure to inert antigen is likely to lead to inhalation tolerance. Inasmuch as divergent and discrepant results are often reported in experimental models employing this method of sensitization, we set out to review the relative literature and identify and discuss factors that are liable to interfere in such protocols and modify the immune response, hence leading to variable outcomes. Protocol design features (including the use of anaesthesia, the nature and dosage of the antigen and the strain/age/sex and handling of the animals) as well as environmental factors (including airborne substances, viruses and lipopolysaccharide) have been identified as key modulators of the immune response that evolves, following primary airway exposure of laboratory rodents to aeroallergen. Delineation of the effect of those factors to induction or abrogation of inhalation tolerance can have important implications in the design of both improved experimental protocols of respiratory allergy and methods to intercept sensitization to inert aeroallergens in the clinical field. PMID:23106656

Guibas, G V; Makris, M; Spandou, E; Priftis, K N

2012-11-01

39

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological changes, a similar study was conducted to microscopically examine rat lung tissue and the associated lymph nodes for lesions, including fibrosis, 1 or 3 months after the instillation. The results from this ITI study led us to select two concentrations (20 and 60 mg/cu m) for an inhalation study, in which rats were exposed to lunar dust 6 h daily for 4 weeks (5d/wk). Similar biochemical and histopathological assessments were carried out in these rats 1 day or 1, 4, or 13 weeks after the dust exposure. Rats exposed to lunar dust by ITI or inhalation showed effects indicating that the dust is moderately toxic. The data will be useful to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in a lunar habitat and also help engineers designing dust mitigation systems for lunar vehicles and habitats.

Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

2012-01-01

40

MONITORING OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE IN THE LABORATORY RODENT BY VAGINAL LAVAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ovarian cyclicity in a number of laboratory species can be monitored easily and noninvasively by observing changes in the vaginal cytology. his chapter describes the techniques used to collect data in the laboratory rat and mouse and how to interpret the lavages as they are obtai...

41

Monitoring of the Estrous Cycle in the Laboratory Rodent by Vaginal Lavage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ovarian cyclicity in a number of laboratory species can be monitored easily and noninvasively by observing changes in the vaginal cytology. The chapter describes the techniques used to collect data in the laboratory rat and mouse and how to interpret the ...

R. L. Cooper J. M. Goldman J. G. Vandenbergh

1992-01-01

42

Studies on the life history and development of Cuterebra polita (Diptera: Cuterebridae) in four species of rodents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cuterebra polita Coquillett is a primary parasite of the pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, in the western United States. It also occurs secondarily in other wild rodents that come into close contact with pocket gophers.Field studies disclosed pursuit, mating, and ovipositing at an aggregation site near Monte Cristo, Utah. Eggs were individually attached to fibrous roots suspended from the roof of shallow gopher burrows. This refinement of the host-parasite relationship has not previously been described for other North American cuterebrids.In the laboratory, 3 gravid females produced 186-357 viable eggs; about 85% were induced to hatch or hatched spontaneously after 12 days. Dissection of 1 of the females revealed another 886 eggs, for a total of 1243.Larvae were artificially introduced and developed in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), domestic mice (Mus musculus), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and meadow voles (Microtus montanus). The domestic rabbit (Orystolagus cuniculus) appeared refractory. The rate and success of development in the 4 rodent species was variable, but terminal larval development averaged about 22 days. Warbles appeared after 8 days in the rodents, and the majority of the cysts occurred in the posterior dorsal region.On the basis of larval characteristics, C. polita and C. thomomuris appear to be independent, valid species, though they share a common host.

Capelle, K. J.

1970-01-01

43

Eliminating Animal Facility Light-at-Night Contamination and Its Effect on Circadian Regulation of Rodent Physiology, Tumor Growth, and Metabolism: A Challenge in the Relocation of a Cancer Research Laboratory  

PubMed Central

Appropriate laboratory animal facility lighting and lighting protocols are essential for maintaining the health and wellbeing of laboratory animals and ensuring the credible outcome of scientific investigations. Our recent experience in relocating to a new laboratory facility illustrates the importance of these considerations. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that animal room contamination with light-at-night (LAN) of as little as 0.2 lx at rodent eye level during an otherwise normal dark-phase disrupted host circadian rhythms and stimulated the metabolism and proliferation of human cancer xenografts in rats. Here we examined how simple improvements in facility design at our new location completely eliminated dark-phase LAN contamination and restored normal circadian rhythms in nontumor-bearing rats and normal tumor metabolism and growth in host rats bearing tissue-isolated MCF7(SR–) human breast tumor xenografts or 7288CTC rodent hepatomas. Reducing LAN contamination in the animal quarters from 24.5 ± 2.5 lx to nondetectable levels (complete darkness) restored normal circadian regulation of rodent arterial blood melatonin, glucose, total fatty and linoleic acid concentrations, tumor uptake of O2, glucose, total fatty acid and CO2 production and tumor levels of cAMP, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters, as well as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, serine–threonine protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3?, ?-histone 2AX, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

Dauchy, Robert T; Dupepe, Lynell M; Ooms, Tara G; Dauchy, Erin M; Hill, Cody R; Mao, Lulu; Belancio, Victoria P; Slakey, Lauren M; Hill, Steven M; Blask, David E

2011-01-01

44

Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents  

PubMed Central

Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ? 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.

Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi

2013-01-01

45

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Astronauts on the Moon will go in and out of the base for various activities, and will inevitably bring some dust into the living quarters. Depressurizing the airlock so that astronauts can exit for outdoor activities could also bring dust inside the airlock to the habitable area. Concerned about the potential health effects on astronauts exposed to airborne lunar dust, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust. The toxicity data also will be needed by toxicologists to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts residing in the lunar habitat and by environmental engineers to design an appropriate dust mitigation strategy. We conducted a study to examine biomarkers of toxicity (inflammation and cytotoxicity) in lung lavage fluids from mice intrapharyngeally instilled with lunar dust samples; we also collected lung tissue from the mice for histopathological examination 3 months after the dust instillation. Reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) having known toxicities and industrial exposure limits were studied in parallel with lunar dust so that the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. A 6-month histopathology study has been planned. These instillation experiments will be followed by inhalation studies, which are more labor intensive and technologically difficult. The animal inhalation studies will be conducted first with an appropriate lunar dust simulant to ensure that the exposure techniques to be used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of these studies collectively will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and enable us to establish exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Taylor, L.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.

2009-01-01

46

Zinc, the Pancreas, and Diabetes: Insights from Rodent Studies and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular and cellular studies have demonstrated several roles for zinc (Zn) in insulin production and the consequent actions of insulin on metabolism. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that reduced Zn status is associated with diabetes. Investigations of Zn in rodent models of diabetes have provided a valuable link for understanding the molecular, cellular, clinical and epidemiological observations in the context

Carla G. Taylor

2005-01-01

47

Estrogenic isoflavones in rodent diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many rodent diets contain components such as soy isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) known to have estrogenic properties. The dietary background of phytoestrogens may modulate some responses to environmental estrogens when these compounds are tested in rodent bioassays. Thus, and since only few data were available on the phytoestrogen content of rodent diets commonly used in European laboratories, it was of

Gisela H. Degen; Petra Janning; Patrick Diel; Hermann M. Bolt

2002-01-01

48

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

49

Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls  

EPA Science Inventory

Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

50

Pharmacological study of Stachytarpheta cayennensis Vahl in rodents.  

PubMed

Freeze-dried aqueous extracts (AEs, 0.1-1g/kg body wt., p.o.) obtained from entire or selected parts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis were tested for their effects on gastric secretion, gastric motility, inflammation and pain in rodents, with the purpose of validating the plant's ethnomedical uses. The AE-Total, AE-Flowers and AE-Leaves but not AE-Stems inhibited the gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats with varying potency. Purification of AEs yielded the semipurifed fractions EtFs rich in iridoids. All the EtFs with exception of EtF-Stems inhibited gastric acid secretion of pylorus ligated mice. While AE-Total stimulated the intestinal transit of mice by 43%, AE-Leaves delayed it by 38%. These effects on intestinal transit were not observed when the EtFs were tested. Only AE-Leaves and AE-Flowers altered the gastric emptying of semisolids, increasing it by 45% and 69%, respectively. These results indicate that the compounds related to inhibition of gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility are different. The AE-Total reduced abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid potently (ED50 value = 700 mg/kg, p. o.) without altering the writhes induced by acetylcholine. Attempts to identify the mechanism of analgesia were unsuccessful since the AE-Total did not show analgesic effects when tested in different models of pain such as formalin and capsaicin or the tail-flick test. Pretreatment of animals with AE-Total did not show antiinflammatory activity in any of the acute (paw edema induced by carrageenin, dextran or histamine, pleurisy induced by carrageenin and capsaicin-induced mouse ear edema) or chronic (air pouch) models used. No toxic signs were observed after administration of the different extracts up to 2 g/kg body wt., p.o. Collectively, the results confirmed folk information indicating presence of analgesic, mild laxative and potent inhibition of gastric secretion activities in the aqueous extracts of S. cayennensis. The results do not, however confirm the folk use of the plant as an antiinflammatory medicine. PMID:15636175

Mesia-Vela, S; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T R; Lapa, A J

2004-11-01

51

Issues in the Design and Interpretation of Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies in Rodents: Approaches to Dose Selection  

EPA Science Inventory

For more than three decades chronic studies in rodents have been the benchmark for assessing the potential long-term toxicity, and particularly the carcinogenicity, of chemicals. With doses typically administered for about 2 years (18 months to lifetime), the rodent bioassay has ...

52

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) thermal control issues; (2) attitude control sybsystem; (3) configuration constraints; (4) payload; (5) acceleration requirements on Variable Gravity Laboratory (VGL); and (6) VGL configuration highlights.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

53

Laboratory Tests of Dimethoate for Systemic Control of Chigger 'Acarina: Trombiculidae' Populations on Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study demonstrates that dimethoate as a systemic acaricide offers some promise for the control of chiggers. Such chemical control may prove useful in certain situations where conventional forms of chigger control, either cultural control (i.e., clear...

A. L. Dohany H. L. Cromroy M. M. Cole

1977-01-01

54

Thirteen week rodent feeding study with processed fractions from herbicide tolerant (DP-Ø73496-4) canola.  

PubMed

The potential health effects of meal and oil processed from seed of genetically modified (GM) canola plants (OECD unique identifier: DP-Ø73496-4; hereafter referred to as 73496 canola) containing an insert that expresses the GAT4621 protein conferring tolerance to nonselective herbicidal ingredient glyphosate were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were administered diets containing dehulled, defatted toasted canola meal (DH meal) and refined/bleached/deodorized canola oil (RBD oil) processed from seed of plants that were untreated (73496), sprayed in-field with glyphosate (73496GLY), the non-transgenic near-isogenic (091; control), or one of four commercially available non-GM reference canola varieties (45H72, 45H73, 46A65, 44A89). All diets were formulated as a modification of the standard laboratory chow PMI® Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet® 5002 (PMI® 5002). DH canola meal and RBD canola oil replaced all commodity soybean fractions typically incorporated in PMI® 5002. No toxicologically significant differences were observed between the test and control groups in this study. The results reported herein support the conclusion that DH meal and RBD oil processed from seed of 73496 canola are as safe and nutritious as DH meal and RBD oil processed from seed of non-GM canola. PMID:24491265

Delaney, Bryan; Appenzeller, Laura M; Roper, Jason M; Mukerji, Pushkor; Hoban, Denise; Sykes, Greg P

2014-04-01

55

Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of our preliminary study in mice intratracheally instilled with a fine lunar dust indicate that the dust is somewhat toxic. More extensive studies have been initiated to obtain data for exposure risk assessment and setting exposure limits.

Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Khan-Mayberry, N.; Hammond, D.; Hunter, R.; McCluskey, R.; Taylor, L.; Chen, B. T.; Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.

2008-07-01

56

Activity of and Effect of Subcutaneous Treatment with the Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin in Two Laboratory Rodent Models  

PubMed Central

Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red-alga-derived lectin that binds the terminal mannose residues of N-linked glycans found on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and other enveloped viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Ebola virus. GRFT displays no human T-cell mitogenic activity and does not induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in treated human cell lines. However, despite the growing evidence showing the broad-spectrum nanomolar or better antiviral activity of GRFT, no study has reported a comprehensive assessment of GRFT safety as a potential systemic antiviral treatment. The results presented in this work show that minimal toxicity was induced by a range of single and repeated daily subcutaneous doses of GRFT in two rodent species, although we noted treatment-associated increases in spleen and liver mass suggestive of an antidrug immune response. The drug is systemically distributed, accumulating to high levels in the serum and plasma after subcutaneous delivery. Further, we showed that serum from GRFT-treated animals retained antiviral activity against HIV-1-enveloped pseudoviruses in a cell-based neutralization assay. Overall, our data presented here show that GRFT accumulates to relevant therapeutic concentrations which are tolerated with minimal toxicity. These studies support further development of GRFT as a systemic antiviral therapeutic agent against enveloped viruses, although deimmunizing the molecule may be necessary if it is to be used in long-term treatment of chronic viral infections.

Barton, Christopher; Kouokam, J. Calvin; Lasnik, Amanda B.; Foreman, Oded; Cambon, Alexander; Brock, Guy; Montefiori, David C.; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; McCormick, Alison A.; O'Keefe, Barry R.

2014-01-01

57

Laboratory studies of volcanic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the fluid dynamics volcanic eruptions by laboratory experiment is described, and the important fluid-dynamic processes that can be examined in laboratory models are discussed in detail. In preliminary experiments, pure gases are erupted from small reservoirs. The gases used are Freon 12 and Freon 22, two gases of high molecular weight and high density that are good

Susan Werner Kieffer; Bradford Sturtevant

1984-01-01

58

Activity of and effect of subcutaneous treatment with the broad-spectrum antiviral lectin griffithsin in two laboratory rodent models.  

PubMed

Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red-alga-derived lectin that binds the terminal mannose residues of N-linked glycans found on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and other enveloped viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Ebola virus. GRFT displays no human T-cell mitogenic activity and does not induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in treated human cell lines. However, despite the growing evidence showing the broad-spectrum nanomolar or better antiviral activity of GRFT, no study has reported a comprehensive assessment of GRFT safety as a potential systemic antiviral treatment. The results presented in this work show that minimal toxicity was induced by a range of single and repeated daily subcutaneous doses of GRFT in two rodent species, although we noted treatment-associated increases in spleen and liver mass suggestive of an antidrug immune response. The drug is systemically distributed, accumulating to high levels in the serum and plasma after subcutaneous delivery. Further, we showed that serum from GRFT-treated animals retained antiviral activity against HIV-1-enveloped pseudoviruses in a cell-based neutralization assay. Overall, our data presented here show that GRFT accumulates to relevant therapeutic concentrations which are tolerated with minimal toxicity. These studies support further development of GRFT as a systemic antiviral therapeutic agent against enveloped viruses, although deimmunizing the molecule may be necessary if it is to be used in long-term treatment of chronic viral infections. PMID:24145548

Barton, Christopher; Kouokam, J Calvin; Lasnik, Amanda B; Foreman, Oded; Cambon, Alexander; Brock, Guy; Montefiori, David C; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; McCormick, Alison A; O'Keefe, Barry R; Palmer, Kenneth E

2014-01-01

59

Rodent repellency  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the course of studies involving more than 2,500 chemical repellents, it has been found that certain groups of- compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur are repellent to rats under the , test conditions and it appears probable that some of these compounds might be used for the protection of packaged goods against rodent attacks. Additional tests to determine optimum methods of application will be necessary before final evaluation of these compounds will be possible and extensive field trials will be required to establish the degree of protection which may be afforded by the use of these materials. Pending such final evaluation, it may be assumed that the results,to date offer a means of selecting the most promising types of'materials for further trial....On the basis of the test data, it appears that some amine derivative, such as a salt of some organic, acid, or a complex with trinitrobenzene or with a metallic salt of a dialkyl dithiocarbamic acid might offer promise of protection of packaging materials against rodent attacks....Protection might be obtained through the use of certain 'physical deterrents' such as plastics, waxes or drying oils.

DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Bellack, E.

1950-01-01

60

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

61

Laboratory and simulation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Solar System bodies by remote and in situ measurements provides information about geological, chemical and physical properties of materials present in different space environments. Processes (e.g., thermal annealing, UV irradiation, ion bombardment, gas-solid interaction) contribute with different efficiencies to determine the characteristics of materials, depending on both the local environment properties and on the sensitivity of species

L. Colangeli; R. Battaglia; J. R. Brucato; V. della Corte; A. Esposito; F. Esposito; G. Ferrini; E. Mazzotta Epifani; V. Mennella; E. Palomba; P. Palumbo; A. Rotundi

2002-01-01

62

Functional magnetic resonance imaging in rodents: an unique tool to study in vivo pharmacologic neuromodulation.  

PubMed

When new compounds targeting the brain are developed, it is important to assess both the acute and chronic effects on brain functioning. This can be done non-invasively using a technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This review discusses the possibilities of both stimulation-based and resting state fMRI to study pharmacological modulations of the rodent brain. Moreover, attention is given to the use of anesthetics which could importantly influence the outcome of both techniques. PMID:23856429

Jonckers, Elisabeth; Van der Linden, Annemie; Verhoye, Marleen

2013-10-01

63

The structure of rodent faunas associated with arenaviral infections  

PubMed Central

The biogeographical examination of rodent faunas associated with arenaviruses reveals two distinct patterns. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus is associated primarily with a single murid species, Mus musculus, although it is also known to cause laboratory infections in other species. On the other hand, the arenaviruses from the Western hemisphere are associated exclusively with a large and diverse group of cricetid rodents. Studies to date, although limited, have not demonstrated their association with any other rodent groups, although in South America alone at least twelve other rodent families are known. Evidence at the present time indicates that Lassa virus is only associated with a common African rodent, Mastomys natalensis. From this limited evidence it is as yet difficult to determine whether Lassa virus will follow the pattern of the South American arenaviruses, most of which are known from several species of rodents, or that of LCM virus, which appears to be associated with only a single rodent species. In this paper, the history and structure of South American, Eurasian, and African rodent faunas are described.

Arata, A. A.; Gratz, N. G.

1975-01-01

64

Rodent repellent studies. IV. Preparation and properties of trinitrobenzene-aryl amine complexes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are presented on methods of preparation, chemical arid physical characteristics, toxicity, and repellency to rodents of complexes of symmetrical trinitrohenzene with various aromatic amines: When applied in suitable carriers or incorporated in plastic .films, members of this series ofmaterials were shown to offer significant increases in time required by wild rodents to damage common packaging materials.

DeWitt, J.B.; Bellack, E.; Welch, J.F.

1953-01-01

65

A Review of the Methods of Studies on Infant Ultrasound Production and Maternal Retrieval in Small Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic vocalizations or calls produced by young rodents have been associated with aspects of maternal behavior, in particular retrieving. We reviewed the methods of study used by investigators on each topic, focusing on intrinsic or subject variables and extrinsic or experimental variables. Intrinsic variables included the species studied, genotypes employed, number and sex composition of the litters, and the ages

Martin E. Hahn; Maria J. Lavooy

2005-01-01

66

A Novel Method of Head Fixation for the Study of Rodent Facial Function  

PubMed Central

The rodent vibrissial system offers an excellent model for the study of both sensory and motor function. It has been widely employed to gather data pertaining to sensory and motor function involving the 5th and 7th cranial nerves and the central nervous system. Existing methods of head fixation for precise measurements of ocular and vibrissial function involve exposing the cranium and applying dental cement from which two or more threaded rods emerge. This common approach is suboptimal, requiring a relatively complicated implantation procedure, and results in a large, chronic interface between the scalp and environmentally-exposed implant material attached to the skull. Here we describe a head fixation device that is inexpensive, easy to build, less prone to infection, preserves access to the cranial midline, and permits repeated measurements over many months.

Hadlock, Tessa; Kowaleski, Jeffrey; Mackinnon, Susan; Heaton, James T.

2007-01-01

67

Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO{sub 2}-enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe [Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Z.A. des Suhards, 53940 Le Genest-Saint-Isle (France); Picard, Sandra, E-mail: spicard@porsolt.co [Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Z.A. des Suhards, 53940 Le Genest-Saint-Isle (France)

2010-09-15

68

CYTOKINE REGULATION OF HOST DEFENSE AGAINST PARASITIC GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES:Lessons from Studies with Rodent Models*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies with rodents infected with Trichinella spiralis, Heligmosomoides poly- gyrus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Trichuris muris have provided consid- erable information about immune mechanisms that protect against parasitic gas- trointestinal nematodes. Four generalizations can be made: 1. CD4 C T cells are critical for host protection; 2. IL-12 and IFN- inhibit protective immunity; 3. IL-4 can: (a) be required for host

Fred D. Finkelman; Terez Shea-Donohue; Jon Goldhill; Carolyn A. Sullivan; Suzanne C. Morris; Kathleen B. Madden; William C. Gause

1997-01-01

69

CLINICAL LABORATORY, VIROLOGIC, AND PATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN HAMSTERS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH PIRITAL VIRUS (ARENAVIRIDAE): A RODENT MODEL OF LASSA FEVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes occurring in hamsters after infection with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae) are described. Pirital virus infection in the hamsters was characterized by high titered viremia, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, hepatocellular and splenic necrosis, and marked eleva- tion of serum transaminase levels. All of the animals died within 9 days. The clinical and histopathological

ELENA SBRANA; ROSA I. MATEO; SHU-YUAN XIAO; VSEVOLOD L. POPOV; PATRICK C. NEWMAN; ROBERT B. TESH

70

Gold(III)-dithiocarbamato anticancer agents: activity, toxicology and histopathological studies in rodents.  

PubMed

Gold(III)-dithiocarbamato complexes have recently gained increasing attention as potential anticancer agents because of their strong tumor cell growth--inhibitory effects, generally achieved by exploiting non-cisplatin-like mechanisms of action. The rationale of our research work is to combine the antitumor properties of the gold(III) metal center with the potential chemoprotective function of coordinated dithiocarbamates in order to reduce toxic side effects (in particular nephrotoxicity) induced by clinically established platinum-based drugs. In this context, [Au(III) Br(2) (ESDT)] (AUL12) was proved to exert promising and outstanding antitumor activity in vitro and to overcome both acquired and intrinsic resistance showed by some types of tumors toward cisplatin. As a subsequent extension of our previous work, we here report on detailed in vivo studies in rodents, including antitumor activity toward three transplantable murine tumor models, toxicity, nephrotoxicity and histopathological investigations. Remarkably, the gold(III) complex AUL12 stands out for higher anticancer activity than cisplatin toward all the murine tumor models examined, inducing up to 80% inhibition of tumor growth. In addition, it shows low acute toxicity levels (lethal dose, LD(50) = 30 mg kg(-1) ) and reduced nephrotoxicity. Altogether, these results confirm the reliability of our drug design strategy and support the validation of this gold(III)-dithiocarbamato derivative as a suitable candidate for clinical trials. PMID:20853318

Marzano, Cristina; Ronconi, Luca; Chiara, Federica; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Faustinelli, Ivo; Cristofori, Patrizia; Trevisan, Andrea; Fregona, Dolores

2011-07-15

71

Dextran sulfate sodium induces pan-gastroenteritis in rodents: implications for studies of colitis.  

PubMed

Dextran sulfate sodium is widely used to induce colitis in rodents. Though given orally in drinking water, this agent is widely believed to produce injury through direct toxic effects on the epithelium, and it has been assumed to produce damage and inflammation only in the colon. Given the apparent toxic effects of dextran sodium sulfate on epithelial cells, its administration orally, and the anticoagulant properties of this agent, we hypothesized that significant damage and inflammation would be produced in regions of the digestive tract proximal to the colon. Groups of rats or mice received DSS (5%) in the drinking water for up to 7 days. Tissues were harvested at various time-points for blind evaluation of damage, and measurement of several markers of inflammation. In both rats and mice given DSS, significant damage and inflammation was produced in the stomach, small intestine and colon. Significant granulocyte infiltration was apparent in all tissues by day 3 of DSS ingestion. Bleeding was evident throughout the small intestine and colon. These studies clearly demonstrate that DSS, when administered orally in drinking water, produces a pan-gastroenteritis, rather than the damage and inflammation being limited to the colon. The damage and inflammation in the stomach and small intestine could contribute to changes in body weight, stool consistency and bleeding, all of which are commonly used as indices of severity of colitis. Beneficial or detrimental effects of therapeutic interventions could be attributable, at least in part, to modulation of injury and inflammation proximal to the colon. PMID:23211300

Elsheikh, W; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Ferraz, J G P; Wallace, J L

2012-10-01

72

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal swimming tests, such as the forced swim test, are extensively used in biomedical research to study rodent behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test. Since various hair and skin abnormalities are not uncommon in genetically modified or drug-treated laboratory animals, this test may be inappropriate for these

A V Kalueff; P Tuohimaa

2005-01-01

73

Novel Rodent Models for Macular Research  

PubMed Central

Background Many disabling human retinal disorders involve the central retina, particularly the macula. However, the commonly used rodent models in research, mouse and rat, do not possess a macula. The purpose of this study was to identify small laboratory rodents with a significant central region as potential new models for macular research. Methodology/Principal Findings Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli, laboratory rodents less commonly used in retinal research, were subjected to confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using standard equipment (Heidelberg Engineering HRA1 and Spectralis™) adapted to small rodent eyes. The existence of a visual streak-like pattern was assessed on the basis of vascular topography, retinal thickness, and the topography of retinal ganglion cells and cone photoreceptors. All three species examined showed evidence of a significant horizontal streak-like specialization. cSLO angiography and retinal wholemounts revealed that superficial retinal blood vessels typically ramify and narrow into a sparse capillary net at the border of the respective area located dorsal to the optic nerve. Similar to the macular region, there was an absence of larger blood vessels in the streak region. Furthermore, the thickness of the photoreceptor layer and the population density of neurons in the ganglion cell layer were markedly increased in the visual streak region. Conclusions/Significance The retinal specializations of Gerbillus perpallidus, Meriones unguiculatus and Phodopus campbelli resemble features of the primate macula. Hence, the rodents reported here may serve to study aspects of macular development and diseases like age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema, and the preclinical assessment of therapeutic strategies.

Huber, Gesine; Heynen, Severin; Imsand, Coni; vom Hagen, Franziska; Muehlfriedel, Regine; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Feng, Yuxi; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Grimm, Christian; Peichl, Leo; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Beck, Susanne C.

2010-01-01

74

Tactile and non-tactile sensory paradigms for fMRI and neurophysiologic studies in rodents  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a popular functional imaging tool for human studies. Future diagnostic use of fMRI depends, however, on a suitable neurophysiologic interpretation of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal change. This particular goal is best achieved in animal models primarily due to the invasive nature of other methods used and/or pharmacological agents applied to probe different nuances of neuronal (and glial) activity coupled to the BOLD signal change. In the last decade, we have directed our efforts towards the development of stimulation protocols for a variety of modalities in rodents with fMRI. Perception of the natural world relies on the formation of multi-dimensional representation of stimuli impinging on the different sensory systems, leading to the hypothesis that a sensory stimulus may have very different neurophysiologic outcome(s) when paired with a near simultaneous event in another modality. Before approaching this level of complexity, reliable measures must be obtained of the relatively small changes in the BOLD signal and other neurophysiologic markers (electrical, blood flow) induced by different peripheral stimuli. Here we describe different tactile (i.e., forepaw, whisker) and non-tactile (i.e., olfactory, visual) sensory paradigms applied to the anesthetized rat. The main focus is on development and validation of methods for reproducible stimulation of each sensory modality applied independently or in conjunction with one another, both inside and outside the magnet. We discuss similarities and/or differences across the sensory systems as well as advantages they may have for studying essential neuroscientific questions. We envisage that the different sensory paradigms described here may be applied directly to studies of multi-sensory interactions in anesthetized rats, en route to a rudimentary understanding of the awake functioning brain where various sensory cues presumably interrelate.

Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Bailey, Christopher J.; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

2013-01-01

75

Linking human behavior to environmental effects using a case study of urban rodent control  

EPA Science Inventory

Pest control is common practice in many land use activities worldwide. Although often inadvertent, pest control can affect non-target species, sometimes fatally. Using social survey data about residential rodent control behavior in two areas in California, we applied a framewor...

76

Biological and behavioural studies of rodents as a basis for control  

PubMed Central

Domestic rodents, particularly those living in urban populations, represent a serious public health problem, and effective control measures are required to deal with this threat to human health. Because of the characteristic interactions between individual animals, certain behaviour patterns occur in rodent populations that are of particular concern to control biologists. The genus Rattus is an extremely diverse group whose ecological requirements are variable and flexible, while the genus Mus, on account of its small size, limited range, and modest requirements in terms of food and water, is also very difficult to control. For any control operation a knowledge of the growth dynamics of domestic rodent populations is needed; after a period of logarithmic growth, population increases cease when the habitat is fully exploited. Consequently, control operations that merely remove some animals lead only to renewed population growth. Trapping, poisoning, and predation are traditional control measures of this kind. Environmental modification is a more certain, but more difficult, approach. The use of chemosterilants offers some hope of radical control in the future, but at present, although some field trials have been made, these substances are not available for general use, one reason being their lack of specificity. Another problem connected with the use of chemosterilants is that, on account of the sexual behaviour and physiology of domestic rodents, it would be necessary to reach nearly 100% of the population to obtain effective control.

Jackson, W. B.

1972-01-01

77

CAVEATS REGARDING THE USE OF THE LABORATORY RATS AS A MODEL FOR ACUTE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES: MODULATION OF THE TOXIC RESPONSE VIA PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The rodent, specifically the inbred laboratory rat, is the primary experimental animal used in toxicology testing. Despite its popularity, recent studies from our laboratory and others raise a number of questions concerning the rat's appropriateness as an animal model for toxicol...

78

Imaging Neuronal Populations in Behaving Rodents: Paradigms for Studying Neural Circuits Underlying Behavior in the Mammalian Cortex  

PubMed Central

Understanding the neural correlates of behavior in the mammalian cortex requires measurements of activity in awake, behaving animals. Rodents have emerged as a powerful model for dissecting the cortical circuits underlying behavior attributable to the convergence of several methods. Genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with viral-mediated or transgenic tools enable chronic monitoring of calcium signals in neuronal populations and subcellular structures of identified cell types. Stable one- and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in awake, behaving animals is now possible using new behavioral paradigms in head-fixed animals, or using novel miniature head-mounted microscopes in freely moving animals. This mini-symposium will highlight recent applications of these methods for studying sensorimotor integration, decision making, learning, and memory in cortical and subcortical brain areas. We will outline future prospects and challenges for identifying the neural underpinnings of task-dependent behavior using cellular imaging in rodents.

Andermann, Mark L.; Keck, Tara; Xu, Ning-Long; Ziv, Yaniv

2013-01-01

79

Dynamic Causal Models and Physiological Inference: A Validation Study Using Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Generative models of neuroimaging and electrophysiological data present new opportunities for accessing hidden or latent brain states. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) uses Bayesian model inversion and selection to infer the synaptic mechanisms underlying empirically observed brain responses. DCM for electrophysiological data, in particular, aims to estimate the relative strength of synaptic transmission at different cell types and via specific neurotransmitters. Here, we report a DCM validation study concerning inference on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, using different doses of a volatile anaesthetic agent (isoflurane) to parametrically modify excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processing while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from primary auditory cortex (A1) and the posterior auditory field (PAF) in the auditory belt region in rodents. We test whether DCM can infer, from the LFP measurements, the expected drug-induced changes in synaptic transmission mediated via fast ionotropic receptors; i.e., excitatory (glutamatergic) AMPA and inhibitory GABAA receptors. Cross- and auto-spectra from the two regions were used to optimise three DCMs based on biologically plausible neural mass models and specific network architectures. Consistent with known extrinsic connectivity patterns in sensory hierarchies, we found that a model comprising forward connections from A1 to PAF and backward connections from PAF to A1 outperformed a model with forward connections from PAF to A1 and backward connections from A1 to PAF and a model with reciprocal lateral connections. The parameter estimates from the most plausible model indicated that the amplitude of fast glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) behaved as predicted by previous neurophysiological studies. Specifically, with increasing levels of anaesthesia, glutamatergic EPSPs decreased linearly, whereas fast GABAergic IPSPs displayed a nonlinear (saturating) increase. The consistency of our model-based in vivo results with experimental in vitro results lends further validity to the capacity of DCM to infer on synaptic processes using macroscopic neurophysiological data.

Moran, Rosalyn J.; Jung, Fabienne; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Endepols, Heike; Graf, Rudolf; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Tittgemeyer, Marc

2011-01-01

80

Vibrodissociation of neurons from rodent brain slices to study synaptic transmission and image presynaptic terminals.  

PubMed

Mechanical dissociation of neurons from the central nervous system has the advantage that presynaptic boutons remain attached to the isolated neuron of interest. This allows for examination of synaptic transmission under conditions where the extracellular and postsynaptic intracellular environments can be well controlled. A vibration-based technique without the use of proteases, known as vibrodissociation, is the most popular technique for mechanical isolation. A micropipette, with the tip fire-polished to the shape of a small ball, is placed into a brain slice made from a P1-P21 rodent. The micropipette is vibrated parallel to the slice surface and lowered through the slice thickness resulting in the liberation of isolated neurons. The isolated neurons are ready for study within a few minutes of vibrodissociation. This technique has advantages over the use of primary neuronal cultures, brain slices and enzymatically isolated neurons including: rapid production of viable, relatively mature neurons suitable for electrophysiological and imaging studies; superior control of the extracellular environment free from the influence of neighboring cells; suitability for well-controlled pharmacological experiments using rapid drug application and total cell superfusion; and improved space-clamp in whole-cell recordings relative to neurons in slice or cell culture preparations. This preparation can be used to examine synaptic physiology, pharmacology, modulation and plasticity. Real-time imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic elements in the living cells and boutons is also possible using vibrodissociated neurons. Characterization of the molecular constituents of pre- and postsynaptic elements can also be achieved with immunological and imaging-based approaches. PMID:21654624

Jun, Sang Beom; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia; Ikeda, Stephen; Lovinger, David

2011-01-01

81

Laboratory studies of volcanic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the fluid dynamics of violent volcanic eruptions by laboratory experiment is described, and the important fluid-dynamic processes that can be examined in laboratory models are discussed in detail. In preliminary experiments, pure gases are erupted from small reservoirs. The gases used are Freon 12 and Freon 22, two gases of high molecular weight and high density that are good analogs of heavy and particulate-laden volcanic gases; nitrogen, a moderate molecular weight, moderate density gas for which the thermodynamic properties are well known; and helium, a low molecular weight, lowdensity gas that is used as a basis for comparison with the behavior of the heavier gases and as an analog of steam, the gas that dominates many volcanic eruptions. Transient jets erupt from the reservoir into the laboratory upon rupture of a thin diaphragm at the exit of a convergent nozzle. The gas accelerates from rest in the reservoir to high velocity in the jet. Reservoir pressures and geometries are such that the fluid velocity in the jets is initially supersonic and later decays to subsonic. The measured reservoir pressure decreases as the fluid expands through repetitively reflecting rarefaction waves, but for the conditions of these experiments, a simple steady-discharge model is sufficient to explain the pressure decay and to predict the duration of the flow. Density variations in the flow field have been visualized with schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The observed structure of the jet is correlated with the measured pressure history. The starting vortex generated when the diaphragm ruptures becomes the head of the jet. Though the exit velocity is sonic, the flow head in the helium jet decelerates to about one-third of sonic velocity in the first few nozzle diameters, the nitrogen head decelerates to about three-fourths of sonic velocity, while Freon maintains nearly sonic velocity. The impulsive acceleration of reservoir fluid into the surrounding atmosphere produces a compression wave. The strength of this wave depends primarily on the sound speed of the fluid in the reservoir but also, secondarily with opposite effect, on the density: helium produces a relatively strong atmospheric shock while the Freons do not produce any optically observable wave front. Well-formed N waves are detected with a microphone far from the reservoir. Barrel shocks, Mach disks, and other familiar features of steady underexpanded supersonic jets form inside the jet almost immediately after passage of the flow head. These features are maintained until the pressure in the reservoir decays to sonic conditions. At low pressures the jets are relatively structureless. Gas-particle jets from volcanic eruptions may behave as pseudogases if particle concentrations and mass and momentum exchange between the components are sufficiently small. The sound speed of volcanic pseudogases can be as large as 1000 m s-1 or as small as a few tens of meters per second depending on the mass loading and initial temperature. Fluids of high sound speed produce stronger atmospheric shock waves than do those of low sound speed. Therefore eruption of a hot gas lightly laden with particulates should produce a stronger shock than eruption of a cooler or heavily laden fluid. An empirical expression suggests that the initial velocity of the head of supersonic volcanic jets is controlled by the sound speed and the ratio of the density of the erupting fluid to that of the atmosphere. The duration of gas or pseudogas eruptions is controlled by the sound speed of the fluid and the ratio of reservoir volume to vent area.

Kieffer, Susan Werner; Sturtevant, Bradford

1984-09-01

82

Evaluation of NASA Foodbars as a Standard Diet for Use in Short-Term Rodent Space Flight Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard rodent diet for space flight must meet the unique conditions imposed by the space environment and must be nutritionally adequate since diet can influence the outcome of experiments. This paper evaluates the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Foodbars as a standard space flight diet for rats. The Foodbar's semi-purified formulation permits criteria such as nutrient consistency, high nutrient bioavailability and flexibility of formulation to be met. Extrusion of the semi-purified diet produces Foodbars with the proper texture and a non-crumbing solid form for use in space. Treatment of Foodbar with 0.1% potassium sorbate prevents mold growth. Irradiation (15-25 kGy) prevents bacterial growth and in combination with sorbate-treatment provides added protection against mold for shelf-stability. However, during the development process, nutrient analyses indicated that extrusion and irradiation produced nutrient losses. Nutrients were adjusted accordingly to compensate for processing losses. Nutrient analysis of Foodbars continues to be performed routinely to monitor nutrient levels. It is important that the standard rodent diet provide nutrients that will prevent deficiency but also avoid excess that may mask physiological changes produced by space flight. All vitamins levels in the Foodbars, except for vitamin K conformed to or exceeded the current NRC (1995) recommendations. All indispensable amino acids in Foodbar conformed to or exceeded the NRC nutrient recommendation for mice growth and rat maintenance. However, some indispensable amino acids were slightly below recommendations for rat reproduction/growth. Short-term (18-20 d) animal feeding studies indicated that Foodbars were palatable, supported growth and maintained health in rats. Results indicated that NASA rodent Foodbars meet both the physical and nutritional criteria required to support rodents in the space environment and thus, may be used successfully as a standard diet for short-term space flight studies. However, nutritional adequacy of NASA Rodent Foodbars as a standard diet on longer duration (>20 d) space flight missions remains to be determined.

Tou, Janet; Grindeland, Richard; Barrett, Joyce; Dalton, Bonnie; Mandel, Adrian; Wade, Charles

2003-01-01

83

Laboratory Studies of Astrophysical Ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports the results of three laboratory studies, each concerned with some aspect of ices in an astrophysical environment, presented as independent papers water ice on interstellar grains demonstrate that amorphous water ice at 12 K can incorporate a substantial amount of H2, up to a mole ratio of H2/H2O = 0.53. We find that the physical behavior of approx. 80% of the hydrogen can be explained satisfactorily in terms of an equilibrium population, thermodynamically governed by a wide distribution of binding site energies. Such a description predicts that gas phase accretion could lead to mole fractions of H2 in interstellar grain mantles as high as 0.3. The possibility of interstellar grains that are rich in H2 could strongly affect our understanding of grain surface chemistry and gas-grain interactions. (2) Ultraviolet photolysis experiments on C2H4 ice were done to simulate its irradiation on Triton's surface. 0ur results show that C2H4 ice is readily dissociated by radiation of wavelengths less than ro equal to 1849A, with C2H2 ice as a primary product. Quantum yields for both the destruction of C2H4 and the formation of C2H2 are discussed, as functions of both irradiation wavelength and dilution in N2 ice. Applying these results to Triton, we find that the ambient UV flux reaching Triton's surface is more than adequate to prevent the build-up of an ethylene ice layer. (3) Thermal models of icy satellite surfaces that allow the scattering and absorption of incident sunlight at significant depths predict an enhancement of subsurface temperatures over the mean surface temperature known as the solid-state greenhouse effect. We verify that a solid-state greenhouse can readily be produced in a bed of evacuated glass beads, used as a crude analog for the surface of an icy body. Measurements of the thermal and radiative properties thought to govern the size of this temperature enhancement confirm that it can be reasonably predicted from these parameters.

Dissly, Richard William

1994-01-01

84

A Guide to Research Rodent Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Laboratory rodents have been used in the United States as research animals since the late 1800s. In the past, housing of rodents used for research was designed primarily to prevent escape, to provide easy access to the animals by researchers, to allow the animals ready access to food and water, and to allow efficient dirty bedding removal and cage

William J. White

85

Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.  

PubMed Central

The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced tumors in the same site observed in humans. Structural classes of chemicals having a propensity for certain organs can be easily identified from these data. Sex-species responders to particular induced cancers become clearly evident, such as in the ovary of female mice or in the kidney of male rats.

Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

1991-01-01

86

The Estrogenic Content of Rodent Diets, Bedding, Cages, and Water Bottles and Its Effect on Bisphenol A Studies  

PubMed Central

The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 µg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans.

Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth DR; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luisa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary

2013-01-01

87

Effects of Laboratory Housing on Exploratory Behaviour, Novelty Discrimination and Spatial Reference Memory in a Subterranean, Solitary Rodent, the Cape Mole-Rat (Georychus capensis)  

PubMed Central

A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychuscapensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under natural living conditions.

Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Charles Bennett, Nigel; Amrein, Irmgard

2013-01-01

88

Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) Certification Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) certification feasibility study was undertaken to address the feasibility of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide certification of the Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) to UL Standards. This study was prop...

D. Wilson

2000-01-01

89

Measuring rodent incisors from scats can increase accuracy of predator diet studies. An illustration based on island cats and rats.  

PubMed

Non-invasive diet studies, which are a simple but important tool to understand trophic interactions inside ecosystems, need to be as detailed as possible. Determining the precise biomass of ingested prey is a key to obtaining not only a better understanding of the amount of food really ingested but also the predator-prey interactions. It is particularly relevant in the case of rodents, because they are often a predominant prey in carnivores' diet and can differ widely in biomass. This study demonstrates how an original and simple method for measuring rat incisors found in cat scats produces measurements which can be correlated with rat weight. This correlation, used in a field application, made it possible to: (i) calculate a more accurate biomass of rats in cat diets and thus obtain a better estimation of the proportion of rats compared to other prey in cat diets; (ii) show that cats preferentially ate smaller rats, indicating that the use of the mean weight of rodents sampled by trap-lines may induce a significant bias in the biomass calculation. Likewise, a correlation between rat lens weight and incisor measurements was found. Using this correlation, it should be possible to estimate the age of the rats eaten by cats and obtain a better understanding of the impact of predators on prey population dynamics. PMID:18722988

Bonnaud, Elsa; Vidal, Eric; Zarzoso-Lacoste, Diane; Torre, Franck

2008-09-01

90

Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory: Provenance Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site showcases two research projects at the University of Wisconsin that are using radiogenic isotopes to study sediment provenance. One research group is studying large-scale terrane translation along western North America, and the other is looking at tectonics, provenance, and paleoclimate in Wyoming's Green River Basin. The site provides a project description and selected publications for each research focus. Some publications are available as PDF's.

Laboratory, Department O.; Wisconsin, University O.

91

Genetic strategies to study TDP-43 in rodents and to develop preclinical therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The neuropathological hallmark of the majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a class of frontotemporal lobar degeneration is ubiquitinated cytoplasmic aggregates composed of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). Genetic manipulation of TDP-43 in animal models has been used to study the protein's role in pathogenesis. Transgenic rodents for TDP-43 have recapitulated key aspects of ALS such as paralysis, loss of spinal motor neurons and muscle atrophy. Viral vectors are an alternate approach to express pathological proteins in animals. Use of the recombinant adeno-associated virus vector serotype 9 has permitted widespread transgene expression throughout the central nervous system after intravenous administration. Expressing TDP-43 in rats with this method produced a phenotype that was consistent with and similar to TDP-43 transgenic lines. Increased levels of TDP-43 in the nucleus are toxic to neurons and sufficient to produce ALS-like symptoms. Animal models based on TDP-43 will address the relationships between TDP-43 expression levels, pathology, neuronal loss, muscle atrophy, motor function and causative mechanisms of disease. New targets that modify TDP-43 function, or targets from previous ALS models and other models of spinal cord diseases, could be tested for efficacy in the recent rodent models of ALS based on TDP-43. The vector approach could be an important therapeutic channel because the entire spinal cord can be affected from a one-time peripheral administration.

Wang, David B.; Gitcho, Michael A.; Kraemer, Brian C.; Klein, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

92

Laboratory studies of lean combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental processes controlling lean combustion were observed for better understanding, with particular emphasis on the formation and measurement of gas-phase pollutants, the stability of the combustion process (blowout limits), methods of improving stability, and the application of probe and optical diagnostics for flow field characterization, temperature mapping, and composition measurements. The following areas of investigation are described in detail: (1) axisymmetric, opposed-reacting-jet-stabilized combustor studies; (2) stabilization through heat recirculation; (3) two dimensional combustor studies; and (4) spectroscopic methods. A departure from conventional combustor design to a premixed/prevaporized, lean combustion configuration is attractive for the control of oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions, the promotion of uniform turbine inlet temperatures, and, possibly, the reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons at idle.

Sawyer, R. F.; Schefer, R. W.; Ganji, A. R.; Daily, J. W.; Pitz, R. W.; Oppenheim, A. K.; Angeli, J. W.

1977-01-01

93

Mound Laboratory Environmental Plutonium Study, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1974, the sediment in certain waterways near the laboratory site appeared to exhibit plutonium-238 concentrations higher than the expected baseline levels. A comprehensive environmental plutonium-238 study to determine the full extent of the contaminat...

D. R. Rogers

1975-01-01

94

LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

95

Photographic laboratory studies of explosions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a series of cinematographic studies of explosions made with a high-speed rotating-mirror streak camera which uses a high-frequency stroboscopic ruby laser as the light source. The results obtained mainly concern explosions initiated by focused laser irradiation from a pulsed neodymium laser in a detonating gas consisting essentially of an equimolar mixture of acetylene and oxygen at an initial pressure of 100 torr at room temperature. Among the most significant observations were observations of a spherical blast wave preceded by a Chapman-Jouguet detonation which is stabilized immediately after initiation, the merging of a spherical flame with a shock front of the blast wave in which the flame is propagating, the division of a spherical detonation front into a shock wave and flame, and the generation of shock waves by a network of spherical flames.

Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1973-01-01

96

Non-invasive muscle contraction assay to study rodent models of sarcopenia  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related sarcopenia is a disease state of loss of muscle mass and strength that affects physical function and mobility leading to falls, fractures, and disability. The need for therapies to treat age-related sarcopenia has attracted intensive preclinical research. To facilitate the discovery of these therapies, we have developed a non-invasive rat muscle functional assay system to efficiently measure muscle force and evaluate the efficacy of drug candidates. Methods The lower leg muscles of anesthetized rats are artificially stimulated with surface electrodes on the knee holders and the heel support, causing the lower leg muscles to push isometric pedals that are attached to force transducers. We developed a stimulation protocol to perform a fatigability test that reveals functional muscle parameters like maximal force, the rate of fatigue, fatigue-resistant force, as well as a fatigable muscle force index. The system is evaluated in a rat aging model and a rat glucocorticoid-induced muscle loss model Results The aged rats were generally weaker than adult rats and showed a greater reduction in their fatigable force when compared to their fatigue-resistant force. Glucocorticoid treated rats mostly lost fatigable force and fatigued at a higher rate, indicating reduced force from glycolytic fibers with reduced energy reserves. Conclusions The involuntary contraction assay is a reliable system to assess muscle function in rodents and can be applied in preclinical research, including age-related sarcopenia and other myopathy.

2011-01-01

97

A rodent model of metabolic surgery for study of type 2 diabetes and positron emission tomography scanning of beta cell mass  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide healthcare problem with major socioeconomic implications. Metabolic surgical procedures have been shown to improve diabetes, but the mechanism of action is poorly understood. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rodent is a type 2 diabetic animal model that is ideally situated for studying the effect of surgery on diabetes; however, the operative mortality is high. The aim of this study was to describe the operative technique, improvements in perioperative management, and the technique of micro-positron emission tomography (PET) scanning of the ?-cell mass in GK rodents. Methods A total of 53 GK rats were divided into 1 of 3 operative groups: sham, sleeve gastrectomy, and duodenojejunal bypass. A subset of animals underwent micro-PET scanning with [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine to determine the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 binding index, an indicator of ?-cell mass. Results The 30-day mortality in the sham and sleeve gastrectomy rodents was 0; however, 2 sleeve gastrectomy rodents developed enterocutaneous fistula and 1 developed an abscess. In the duodenojejunal bypass group, the initial mortality rate was close to 90%; however, refinements in the surgical technique and perioperative management (fluids, antibiotics, pain control) lowered the mortality rate to 60%. The surgical technique is discussed in detail. [11C]-Dihydrotetrabenazine uptake in the pancreas was demonstrated on micro-PET scanning in the sham and duodenojejunal bypass rodents. Conclusion Intensive medical management in the perioperative period and attention to the operative technique lowered the mortality. [11C]-Dihydrotetrabenazine micro-PET scanning is a feasible method for assessing the ?-cell mass in GK rodents and could prove to be an important modality for evaluating ?-cell performance in type 2 diabetes.

Inabnet, William B.; Milone, Luca; Korner, Judith; Durak, Evren; Ahmed, Leaque; Pomrantz, Jill; Harris, Paul E.; Bessler, Marc

2013-01-01

98

Two-photon microscopy as a tool to study blood flow and neurovascular coupling in the rodent brain  

PubMed Central

The cerebral vascular system services the constant demand for energy during neuronal activity in the brain. Attempts to delineate the logic of neurovascular coupling have been greatly aided by the advent of two-photon laser scanning microscopy to image both blood flow and the activity of individual cells below the surface of the brain. Here we provide a technical guide to imaging cerebral blood flow in rodents. We describe in detail the surgical procedures required to generate cranial windows for optical access to the cortex of both rats and mice and the use of two-photon microscopy to accurately measure blood flow in individual cortical vessels concurrent with local cellular activity. We further provide examples on how these techniques can be applied to the study of local blood flow regulation and vascular pathologies such as small-scale stroke.

Shih, Andy Y; Driscoll, Jonathan D; Drew, Patrick J; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Kleinfeld, David

2012-01-01

99

Rodent sperm analysis in field-based ecological risk assessment: pilot study at Ravenna army ammunition plant, Ravenna, Ohio.  

PubMed

Ecological risk assessment (ERA) guidance recommends that field-truthing efforts proceed when modeled hazard quotients (HQs) suggest that toxicological effects are occurring to site receptors. To date, no field methods have been proposed by the regulatory community that can lead to definitive determinations of acceptable or unacceptable risk for birds and mammals, the two terrestrial classes of receptors that are commonly assessed using the HQ method. This paper describes rodent sperm analysis (RSA) as a viable method to be applied in the field at sites with historical contamination. RSA is capable of detecting biological differences that bear on reproduction, a highly regarded toxicological endpoint of concern in USEPA Superfund-type ERAs. The results of RSA's first application at a study site are reported and discussed. The paper also provides the rationale for RSA's efficacy in the context of Superfund and other environmental cleanup programs, where limited time and money are available to determine and evaluate the field condition. PMID:12663202

Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Bazar, Matthew; Hawkins, Melanie S; Cornaby, Barney W; Ferguson, Elizabeth A; Chantelle Carroll, L; Ryan, Patrick F

2003-01-01

100

Bodies in flowing plasmas - Laboratory studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of early rudimentary laboratory studies of bodies in flowing, rarefied plasmas is presented (e.g., Birkeland, 1908), along with a discussion of more recent parametric studies conducted in steady plasma wind tunnels, which includes the study by Hall et al. (1964), in which a strong ion density enhancement in the center of the ion void created downstream from the body was observed. Good agreement was found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations which omit ion thermal motion. Examples in which in situ data on the interaction between satellites and the ionospheric plasma have been elucidated by the laboratory results are presented, and include evidence for a midwake axial ion peak, and ion current density in the near-wake region. The application of the ionospheric laboratory to basic space plasma physics is discussed, and its application to some types of solar system plasma phenomena is illustrated.

Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

1981-01-01

101

Rabies in rodents and lagomorphs in the United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Objective-To assess the epidemiology of rabies in rodents and lagomorphs and provide information that will enable public health officials to make recommendations regarding postexposure prophylaxis for humans after contact with these animals. Design-Cross-sectional epidemiological analysis. Sample-Rodents and lagomorphs submitted to state laboratories for rabies diagnosis from 1995 through 2010. Procedures-Positive samples were identified by use of direct fluorescent antibody testing, typed by sequencing of viral genes, and quantified via titration in mice or cell culture. Results-737 rabid rodents and lagomorphs were reported from 1995 through 2010, which represented a 62.3% increase, compared with the number of rabid rodents and lagomorphs reported from 1979 through 1994. The most commonly reported rodents or lagomorphs were groundhogs (Marmota monax). All animals submitted to the CDC for additional viral characterization were positive for the raccoon rabies virus variant. Infectious virus or viral RNA was detected in salivary glands or oral cavity tissues in 11 of 13 rabid rodents. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The increase in reported rabid rodents, compared with results of previous studies, appeared to be associated with spillover infections from the raccoon rabies epizootic during the first half of the study period. Analysis supported the assumption that rabies remained rare in rodents and lagomorphs. However, transmission of rabies virus via exposure to a rabid rodent or lagomorph may be possible. Given the rarity of rabies in these species, diagnostic testing and consideration of postexposure prophylaxis for humans with potential exposures should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25029313

Fitzpatrick, Jill L; Dyer, Jessie L; Blanton, Jesse D; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Rupprecht, Charles E

2014-08-01

102

Probing perceptual decisions in rodents  

PubMed Central

The study of perceptual decision-making offers insight into how the brain uses complex, sometimes ambiguous information to guide actions. Understanding the underlying processes and their neural bases requires that one pair recordings and manipulations of neural activity with rigorous psychophysics. Though this research has been traditionally performed in primates, it seems increasingly promising to pursue it at least partly in mice and rats. However, rigorous psychophysical methods are not yet as developed for these rodents as they are for primates. Here we give a brief overview of the sensory capabilities of rodents and of their cortical areas devoted to sensation and decision. We then review methods of psychophysics, focusing on the technical issues that arise in their implementation in rodents. These methods represent a rich set of challenges and opportunities.

Carandini, Matteo; Churchland, Anne K

2014-01-01

103

Leptospirosis in Man and Rodents on Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey for leptospirosis in man and wild rodents in Taiwan, by serologic and cultural techniques, is presented. Of 586 rodents studied, (6.48%) were positive by the macroscopic slide-agglutination test, and 20 were positive by culture. (Author)

J. W. Fresh C. C. Tsai C. H. Lai C. T. Chang

1968-01-01

104

Rodent-Vegetation Relationships in Southeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant communities of southeastern Montana were surveyed for rodents over a two year period. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were the most abundant rodent species found on the study area. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), sagebrush voles (Lagurus curtatus), Wyoming pocket mice (Perognathus fasciatus), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), least chipmunks (Eutamias minimus), and eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus

Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

105

Review of the literature and suggestions for the design of rodent survival studies for the identification of compounds that increase health and life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature describing the search for agents that increase the life span of rodents was found to suffer from confounds.\\u000a One-hundred-six studies, absent 20 contradictory melatonin studies, of compounds or combinations of compounds were reviewed.\\u000a Only six studies reported both life span extension and food consumption data, thereby excluding the potential effects of caloric\\u000a restriction. Six other studies

Stephen Richard Spindler

106

A guide for measurement of circulating metabolic hormones in rodents: Pitfalls during the pre-analytical phase  

PubMed Central

Researchers analyse hormones to draw conclusions from changes in hormone concentrations observed under specific physiological conditions and to elucidate mechanisms underlying their biological variability. It is, however, frequently overlooked that also circumstances occurring after collection of biological samples can significantly affect the hormone concentrations measured, owing to analytical and pre-analytical variability. Whereas the awareness for such potential confounders is increasing in human laboratory medicine, there is sometimes limited consensus about the control of these factors in rodent studies. In this guide, we demonstrate how such factors can affect reliability and consequent interpretation of the data from immunoassay measurements of circulating metabolic hormones in rodent studies. We also compare the knowledge about such factors in rodent studies to recent recommendations established for biomarker studies in humans and give specific practical recommendations for the control of pre-analytical conditions in metabolic studies in rodents.

Bielohuby, Maximilian; Popp, Sarah; Bidlingmaier, Martin

2012-01-01

107

Laboratory Microfusion Capability Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) Phase II Study, Bechtel Corporation carried out an independent cost study for the Department of Energy, comparing the three more detailed proposals for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF); the neodymium-glass (Nd:glass) solid state laser; the light-ion accelerator; and the krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer gas laser. The cost study tasks centered on developing the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the methodology for costing technologies in different stages of development in order to produce, for the three proposals, cost estimates with a common basis. In addition to the equipment and facility costs, the cost estimates include system and design engineering, project management and administration, construction management, and contingency.

McAllister, G.L. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-11-01

108

FELASA guidelines for the refinement of methods for genotyping genetically-modified rodents: a report of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Working Group.  

PubMed

The use of genetically-modified (GM) animals as research models continues to grow. The completion of the mouse genome sequence, together with the high-throughput international effort to introduce mutations across the mouse genome in the embryonic stem (ES) cells (www.knockoutmouse.org) facilitates an efficient way to obtain mutated mouse strains as research models. The increasing number of available mutated mouses trains and their combinations, together with the increasing complexity in the targeting approaches used,reinforces the need for guidelines that will provide information about the mouse strains and the robust and reliable methods used for their genotyping. This information, however, should be obtained with a method causing minimal discomfort to the experimental animals. We have, therefore, compiled the present document which summarizes the currently available methods for obtaining genotype information. It provides updated guidelines concerning animal identification, DNA sampling and genotyping, and the information to be kept and distributed for any mutated rodent strain. PMID:23479772

Bonaparte, Dolores; Cinelli, Paolo; Douni, Eleni; Hérault, Yann; Maas, Maas; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Poutanen, Matti; Lafuente, Mirentxu Santos; Scavizzi, Ferdinando

2013-07-01

109

Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents. Conclusions Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis.

Mascari, Thomas M.; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Jackson, Ryan E.; Ouahabi, Souad; Ameur, Btissam; Faraj, Chafika; Obenauer, Peter J.; Diclaro, Joseph W.; Foil, Lane D.

2013-01-01

110

Effects of intrauterine position on the behavior and genital morphology of litter?bearing rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the literature describing hormonally mediated effects of intrauterine position on the genital morphology and reproductive behaviors of litter?bearing rodents. We emphasize work carried out in our own laboratory in which male and female Mongolian gerbils served as subjects. The results of the studies we consider indicate that biologically significant aspects of the variance in morphology and reproductive strategy

Mertice M. Clark; Bennett G. Galef Jr

1998-01-01

111

Changes within vascular bundles of rodent kidneys caused by different diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological effects caused by two different diets (low protein — high water intake, and high protein — restricted water) on the vascular bundles in the outer medullary zone of the kidney were studied in the laboratory white mouse and in the golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus, Muridae). In both rodents, when on a low protein — high water intake diet,

Duba Yaakobi; Arieh Borut

1977-01-01

112

Chronotype changes during puberty depend on gonadal hormones in the slow-developing rodent, Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

During puberty, human adolescents develop a later chronotype, exhibiting a delay in the timing of rest and activity as well as other daily physiological rhythms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar changes in chronotype occur during puberty in a laboratory rodent species, and, if so, to determine whether they are due to pubertal hormones acting on

Megan Hastings Hagenauer; Jennifer HeeYoung Ku; Theresa M. Lee

2011-01-01

113

Preparation and biodistribution studies of a radiogallium-acetylacetonate bis (thiosemicarbazone) complex in tumor-bearing rodents.  

PubMed

Various radiometal complexes have been developed for tumor imaging, especially Ga-68 tracer. In the present study, the development of a radiogallium bis-thiosemicarbazone complex has been reported. [(67)Ga] acetylacetonate bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex ([(67)Ga] AATS) was prepared starting [(67)Ga]Gallium acetate and freshly prepared acetylacetonate bis (thiosemicarbazone) (AATS) in 30 min at 90°C. The partition co-efficient and the stability of the tracer were determined in final solution (25°C) and the presence of human serum (37°C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type and fibrosarcoma-bearing rodents were determined up to 72 h. The radiolabled Ga complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 97%, HPLC) followed by initial biodistribution data with the significant tumor accumulation of the tracer in 2 h which is far higher than free Ga-67 cation while the compound wash-out is significantly faster. Above-mentioned pharmacokinetic properties suggest an interesting radiogallium complex while prepared by the PET Ga radioisotope, (68)Ga, in accordance with the physical half life, for use in fibrosarcoma tumors, and possibly other malignancies. PMID:24250475

Jalilian, Amir Reza; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shafaii, Kamaleddin; Novinrouz, Aytak; Rajamand, Amir Abbas

2012-01-01

114

Preparation and Biodistribution Studies of a Radiogallium-Acetylacetonate Bis (Thiosemicarbazone) Complex in Tumor-Bearing Rodents  

PubMed Central

Various radiometal complexes have been developed for tumor imaging, especially Ga-68 tracer. In the present study, the development of a radiogallium bis-thiosemicarbazone complex has been reported. [67Ga] acetylacetonate bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex ([67Ga] AATS) was prepared starting [67Ga]Gallium acetate and freshly prepared acetylacetonate bis (thiosemicarbazone) (AATS) in 30 min at 90°C. The partition co-efficient and the stability of the tracer were determined in final solution (25°C) and the presence of human serum (37°C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type and fibrosarcoma-bearing rodents were determined up to 72 h. The radiolabled Ga complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 97%, HPLC) followed by initial biodistribution data with the significant tumor accumulation of the tracer in 2 h which is far higher than free Ga-67 cation while the compound wash-out is significantly faster. Above-mentioned pharmacokinetic properties suggest an interesting radiogallium complex while prepared by the PET Ga radioisotope, 68Ga, in accordance with the physical half life, for use in fibrosarcoma tumors, and possibly other malignancies.

Jalilian, Amir Reza; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shafaii, Kamaleddin; Novinrouz, Aytak; Rajamand, Amir Abbas

2012-01-01

115

Laboratory Purposes and Functions: Issues for the National Study Group on Regional Educational Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues concerning the purposes and functions of regional educational laboratories supported by the National Institute of Education (NIE) are examined. The analysis is designed to assist the Study Group on Regional Laboratories to develop and evaluate a number of alternative conceptions of laboratories. A brief history of the laboratories and…

Mack, David P.

116

Laboratory studies in ultraviolet solar physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activity comprised the measurement of basic atomic processes and parameters which relate directly to the interpretation of solar ultraviolet observations and to the development of comprehensive models of the component structures of the solar atmosphere. The research was specifically directed towards providing the relevant atomic data needed to perform and to improve solar diagnostic techniques which probe active and quiet portions of the solar chromosphere, the transition zone, the inner corona, and the solar wind acceleration regions of the extended corona. The accuracy with which the physical conditions in these structures can be determined depends directly on the accuracy and completeness of the atomic and molecular data. These laboratory data are used to support the analysis programs of past and current solar observations (e.g., the Orbiting solar Observatories, the Solar Maximum Mission, the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount, and the Naval Research Laboratory's rocket-borne High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph). In addition, we attempted to anticipate the needs of future space-borne solar studies such as from the joint ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Our laboratory activities stressed two categories of study: (1) the measurement of absolute rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination and electron impact excitation; and (2) the measurement of atomic transition probabilities for solar density diagnostics. A brief summary of the research activity is provided.

Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.; Gardner, L. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Smith, P. L.

1991-01-01

117

Laboratory Studies of Interstellar PAH Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

118

Rodent-borne diseases in Thailand: targeting rodent carriers and risky habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative analysis, which aims at investigating ecological and evolutionary patterns among species, may help at targeting reservoirs of zoonotic diseases particularly in countries presenting high biodiversity. Here, we developed a simple method to target rodent reservoirs using published studies screening microparasite infections. Methods We compiled surveys of microparasites investigated in rodents trapped in Thailand. The data comprise a total of 17,358 rodents from 18 species that have been investigated for a total of 10 microparasites (viruses, bacteria and protozoans). We used residual variation of microparasite richness controlled for both rodent sample size and pathogens’ screening effort to identify major rodent reservoirs and potential risky habitats. Results Microparasite species richness was positively related to rodent sample size and pathogens’ screening effort. The investigation of the residual variations of microparasite species richness showed that several rodent species harboured more pathogens than expected by the regression model. Similarly, higher pathogen richness than expected was observed in rodents living in non-flooded lands, forests and paddy fields. Conclusion Our results suggest to target some rodent species that are not commonly investigated for pathogen screening or surveillance such as R. adamanensis or B. savilei, and that non-flooded lands and forests should be more taken into caution, whereas much surveys focused on paddy rice fields and households.

Herbreteau, Vincent; Bordes, Frederic; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Supputamongkol, Yupin; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

119

Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present laboratory studies of scaled occulting starshades for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). A deep reactive ion etched silicon starshade has been fabricated by NIST, designed to cover the same number of Fresnel zones as in the proposed mission. The broadband shadow is mapped with a photometer in a dark vacuum tunnel fed by a heliostat at HAO. CCD images provide direct contrast measurements of different features around the starshade. Preliminary measurements reach 5x10-6 suppression in the center of the shadow at the focal plane. The two-dimensional structure of the starshade diffraction pattern is compared to that produced by the Fresnel integral.

Schindhelm, E.; Shipley, A.; Oakley, P.; Leviton, D.; Cash, W.; Card, G.

2007-09-01

120

Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents.

Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

2013-01-01

121

Nonclinical toxicology studies with zidovudine: acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity in rodents, dogs, and monkeys.  

PubMed

In single dose acute toxicity studies in CD-1 mice and CD rats, the median lethal dose (MLD) for zidovudine (ZDV) was > 750 mg/kg after iv dosing and > 3000 mg/kg after po administration (recommended human dose is 100 mg every 4 hr while awake). Because of the short half-life in rats (0.8 hr), dogs (1.0 hr), and monkeys (0.8 hr), the daily dose of ZDV in most studies was given in two equal portions approximately 6 hr apart. Intravenous administration of ZDV was well tolerated in beagle dogs at dose levels up to 42.5 mg/kg bid for 2 weeks and in CD rats at dose levels up to 75 mg/kg bid for 4 weeks. In a 2-week dose range-finding study in beagle dogs, cytostatic effects were noted at po dose levels of 62.5 to 250 mg/kg bid in certain tissues with rapid cell replication rates. In contrast, in 3- to 12-month oral toxicity studies in CD rats and cynomolgus monkeys, the principal toxicologic finding was reversible macrocytic normochromic anemia which occurred at 225-250 mg/kg bid in rats and 17.5-150 mg/kg bid in monkeys. In the 12-month rat study, RBC was decreased at 25 and 75 mg/kg bid. In the 12-month monkey study WBC was slightly decreased at 150 mg/kg bid. PMID:8921316

Ayers, K M; Tucker, W E; Hajian, G; De Miranda, P

1996-08-01

122

Intramedullary osseointegration: Development of a rodent model and study of histology and neuropeptide changes around titanium implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rodent model has been developed to explore intramedullary osseointegration and the phenomena of osseop- erception. Osseointegration with endosseous titanium implants is frequently used in oral surgery. More recently, intramedullary osseointegration has been used for direct skele- tal anchoring of amputation prostheses, a procedure that pro- vides for a stable prosthesis with improved perception. Experimental, commercially pure titanium rods with

Magnus Ysander; Rickard Brånemark; Kjell Olmarker; Robert R. Myers

123

HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN RODENTS ? USES AND CAVEATS IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of cardiac pacing dynamics that has recently garnered a great deal of interest in environmental health studies. While the use of these measures has become popular, much uncertainty remains in the interpretation of results, both in terms ...

124

Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis aristata is an edible plant employed in the South Asian Traditional Medicine, particularly its fruits being used as a tonic remedy for liver and heart. In this investigation, berberine, a known compound from this plant, was studied for its possible antihepatotoxic action in rats. Pretreatment of animals with berberine (4 mg\\/kg; orally twice daily for 2 days) prevented the

K. H Janbaz; A. H Gilani

2000-01-01

125

Overview of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of 1,3-butadiene in rodents.  

PubMed Central

A series of studies to further evaluate the developmental and reproductive toxicity of inhaled 1,3-butadiene was sponsored by the National Toxicology Program. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (24-28/group) and Swiss (CD-1) mice (18-22/group) were exposed to atmospheric concentrations of 0, 40, 200, or 1000 ppm 1,3-butadiene for 6 hr/day on days 6 through 15 of gestation (dg) and killed on dg 18 (mice) or dg 20 (rats). Subsequently, the uterine contents were evaluated; individual fetal body weights were recorded; and external, visceral, and skeletal examinations were performed. In rats, maternal toxicity was observed in the 1000-ppm group in the form of reduced extragestational weight gain and, during the first week of treatment, decreased body weight gain. Under these conditions, there was no evidence of developmental toxicity in rats. In contrast, results of the mouse developmental toxicity study indicated that the fetus may be more susceptible than the dam to inhaled 1,3-butadiene. Maternal toxicity was observed in mice at the 200- and 1000-ppm 1,3-butadiene exposure levels, whereas 40 ppm and higher concentrations of 1,3-butadiene caused significant exposure-related reductions in the mean body weights of male fetuses. Mean body weights of female fetuses were also reduced at the 200- and 1000-ppm exposure levels. No increased incidence of malformations was observed in either study. Other studies addressing male reproductive and mutagenesis end points were performed with B6C3F1 mice (sperm-head morphology) and Swiss (CD-1) mice (dominant lethal study).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Morrissey, R E; Schwetz, B A; Hackett, P L; Sikov, M R; Hardin, B D; McClanahan, B J; Decker, J R; Mast, T J

1990-01-01

126

Transplantation of islets using microencapsulation: studies in diabetic rodents and dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies involving the transplantation of human islets in Type I diabetics have been of significant value both in documenting\\u000a the potential importance of islet transplantation as a therapeutic modality, and in defining some of the problems which must\\u000a be overcome before this approach can be used in large numbers of patients. The currently limited supply of adult human pancreatic\\u000a glands,

Robert P. Lanza; Dawn M. Ecker; Willem M. Kühtreiber; Joanne P. Marsh; John Ringeling; William L. Chick

1999-01-01

127

Observed incidence of tumorigenesis in long-term rodent studies of rAAV vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) is generally considered safe. During the course of a study designed to determine the long-term efficacy of rAAV-mediated gene therapy initiated in newborn mice with the lysosomal storage disease, mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII), a significant incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and angiosarcomas was discovered. A hepatocellular carcinoma was first detected in a 35-week-old

A Donsante; C Vogler; N Muzyczka; JM Crawford; J Barker; T Flotte; M Campbell-Thompson; T Daly; M S Sands; Sands

2001-01-01

128

Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of IS dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of IS dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NASA SMD (APRA; Carbon in the Galaxy).

Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

2014-06-01

129

Fate of unfertilized ova in male rodent dominant lethal assays: extension of the studies by Kratochvilova.  

PubMed

Kratochvilova has described a technique whereby ova can be recovered from mated mice and their stage of division determined. This is of value to determine if reduced total implantations in a male dominant lethal (DL) germ cell mutation assay are due to pre-implantation loss of embryos, a presumed mutagenic event, or to chemically induced male infertility. Kratochvilova was not specific about the fate of unfertilized ova, but it was implied that they undergo a process of fragmentation that might be confused with the regular cleavage of fertilized ova. It became important for us to draw a firm distinction between ova fragmentation and regular ova cleavage in the rat. We therefore repeated the ova analyses of female mice mated with males exposed to iso-propyl methanesulphonate (iPMS), as described by Kratochvilova. Following that calibration study the technique was extended to the rat via ova cleavage analysis in mated female rats, coupled to a study of the normal decay of ova in virgin rats. Unfertilized ova are shown to undergo irregular fragmentation that can be clearly distinguished from normal cell division. It is concluded that the individual or combined incidences of single celled ova and fragmented ova (dependent on the cleavage stage of the concurrent control embryos) can provide a measure of male infertility as it relates to reduced implantations in DL assays. This ability to regard two morphological classifications of unfertilized ova as providing evidence for male infertility will simplify the conduct of ova analyses in both the mouse and the rat. PMID:8692237

Tinwell, H; Clapp, M J; Ashby, J

1996-07-01

130

Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

1976-01-01

131

ART and health: clinical outcomes and insights on molecular mechanisms from rodent studies  

PubMed Central

Since the birth of the first IVF-conceived child in 1978, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has grown dramatically, contributing to the successful birth of 5 million individuals worldwide. However, there are several reported associations of ART with pregnancy complications, such as low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, birth defects, epigenetic disorders, cancer and poor metabolic health. Whether this is attributed to ART procedures or to the subset of the population seeking ART remains a controversy, but the most relevant question today concerns the potential long-term implications of assisted conception. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that ART-conceived children have distinct metabolic profiles that may predispose to cardiovascular pathologies in adulthood. Because the eldest IVF individuals are still too young to exhibit components of chronic middle-aged syndromes, the use of animal models has become particularly useful in describing the effects of unusual or stressful preimplantation experiences on adult fitness. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which embryos integrate environmental signals into development and metabolic gene expression programs will be essential for optimizing ART procedures such as in vitro culture conditions, embryo selection and transfer. In the future, additional animal studies to identify mechanisms underlying unfavorable ART outcomes, as well as more epidemiological reviews to monitor the long-term health of ART children are required, given that ART procedures have become routine medical practice.

Feuer, S.K.; Camarano, L.; Rinaudo, P.F.

2013-01-01

132

PRELIMINARY GASTROINTESTINAL STUDIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF INDIGOFERA PULCHRA WILLD IN RODENTS  

PubMed Central

In this study, the effect of the methanol extract of Indigofera pulchra Willd. (Papillionaceae) was investigated against castor oil induced diarrheoa. Its effects on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum were also evaluated. The extract produced a dose-dependent protection against the castor oil-induced diarrheoa in mice with the highest protection (100%), obtained at 200 mgkg?1 comparable to that of loperamide (5 mgkg?1), a standard antidiarrhoeal drug. The extract (0.4 – 6.4 mgml?1) produced a concentration relaxation of the rabbit jejunum. However, no observable effect was noticed when the guinea pig ileum was treated. The extract blocked the contractile effect of acetylcholine (2 × 10?8 gml?1) and histamine (4 × 10?7 gml?1) on both rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) value for the extract was found to be 2154.0 mgkg?1. The results obtained revealed that the extract possesses pharmacologically active compounds with gastrointestinal relaxant and antidiarrhoeal activities and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorder.

Sule, M.I.; Haruna, A. K.; Ilyas, M.; Iliya, I.; Yaro, A. H.; Magaji, M.G.

2010-01-01

133

Differential Activity of NADPH-Producing Dehydrogenases Renders Rodents Unsuitable Models to Study IDH1R132 Mutation Effects in Human Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

The somatic IDH1R132 mutation in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene occurs in high frequency in glioma and in lower frequency in acute myeloid leukemia and thyroid cancer but not in other types of cancer. The mutation causes reduced NADPH production capacity in glioblastoma by 40% and is associated with prolonged patient survival. NADPH is a major reducing compound in cells that is essential for detoxification and may be involved in resistance of glioblastoma to treatment. IDH has never been considered important in NADPH production. Therefore, the authors investigated NADPH-producing dehydrogenases using in silico analysis of human cancer gene expression microarray data sets and metabolic mapping of human and rodent tissues to determine the role of IDH in total NADPH production. Expression of most NADPH-producing dehydrogenase genes was not elevated in 34 cancer data sets except for IDH1 in glioma and thyroid cancer, indicating an association with the IDH1 mutation. IDH activity was the main provider of NADPH in human normal brain and glioblastoma, but its role was modest in NADPH production in rodent brain and other tissues. It is concluded that rodents are a poor model to study consequences of the IDH1R132 mutation in glioblastoma.

Atai, Nadia A.; Renkema-Mills, Nynke A.; Bosman, Joost; Schmidt, Nadja; Rijkeboer, Denise; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Bosch, Klazien S.; Troost, Dirk; Jonker, Ard; Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Miletic, Hrvoje; Bjerkvig, Rolf; De Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

2011-01-01

134

Rocket and laboratory studies in astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the reporting period we have prepared the Faint Object Telescope (FOT) for launch from Woomera for far-ultraviolet (FUV) long-slit spectroscopy of the core for 30 Doradus. We have continued our laboratory studies of the ultraviolet (UV) performance of charge-coupled-detector (CCD) arrays and plan to include a UV-sensitive CCD in a new payload that was assembled during the current period. The objective of the experiment is the ultraviolet imaging of Jupiter and we are scheduled to launch the payload, 36. 115UG, in June-July 1996. We have also continued the design of a high resolution FUV spectrograph for a future flight of the FOT and have received a high line density grating fabricated by Jobin-Yvon, S.A. (France) for evaluation. Work has continued on the analysis of data from previous rocket experiments.

Feldman, P. D.

1995-01-01

135

Funding of Regional Laboratories: Issued for the National Study Group on Regional Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and an analysis of issues involved in the funding of a network of new regional educational laboratories are presented. The new laboratories are to be established through a 1984 competition administered by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The information is designed to assist the Study Group on Regional Laboratories

Schultz, Thomas

136

Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

1973-01-01

137

Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally,

M Brielmeier; E Mahabir; J R Needham; C Lengger; P Wilhelm; J Schmidt

2006-01-01

138

Rocket and Laboratory Studies in Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG5-5122 and covers the period from March 1, 1997 to February 28, 2001. This grant was a continuation of a program in rocket and laboratory studies in ultraviolet astronomy that was supported by NASA grant NAG5-619. As of March 1, 2001, this program is continuing under grant NAG5-5315. During the period of the grant, annual status reports have been submitted detailing the scientific achievements and current objectives of each report period. These will not be repeated here. Among the highlights of the program are four successful rocket launches including participation in the campaign to study comet Hale-Bopp in April 1997. We have continued our emphasis on long-slit spectroscopy of extended sources in the shorter wavelength far-ultraviolet, necessitating the development of evacuated telescope/spectrograph payloads. Finally, we also note the use of our ultraviolet calibration facilities in support of other sounding rocket investigators and for other space missions such as the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. We include a list of the sounding rocket launches performed under NASA sponsorship during this period, a list of Ph.D. degrees awarded to students who worked in this program, and a summary bibliography of publications between 1997 and 2001.

Feldman, Paul D.

2001-01-01

139

The susceptibility of rodents to schistosome infection, with special reference to Schistosoma haematobium  

PubMed Central

In this investigation the susceptibility of several species of rodents—Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus, Aethomys chrysophilus, Tatera brantsi and the white mouse (SAIMR 200 strain)—to Schistosoma haematobium was determined and the pathology studied. From the results it is clear that these rodents are susceptible to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. For various reasons, notably adaptability to laboratory conditions, the most suitable as laboratory animals for the study of bilharziasis are Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus and Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis. These three species breed readily in the laboratory and show a high susceptibility to S. haematobium, with characteristic lesions involving several organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and intestine. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 16FIG. 17FIG. 18FIG. 19FIG. 20FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15

Gear, J. H. S.; Davis, D. H. S.; Pitchford, R. J.

1966-01-01

140

Rocket and laboratory studies in astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period from September 1, 1993 to August 31, 1994. During the reporting period we launched the Faint Object Telescope to measure the absolute flux of a hot white dwarf star in the spectral range below 1200 A. This experiment was not successful due to a failure of an electronics unit in the onboard TV acquisition system. The source of the failure has been identified and corrected and is described in detail below. The payload was recovered in excellent condition and we are planning to refurbish it for flight during the November 1995 Australia campaign. We have continued our laboratory studies of the ultraviolet performance of charge-coupled-detector (CCD) arrays and plan to include a UV-sensitive CCD in a new payload that was assembled during the current period. The objective of the experiment is the ultraviolet imaging of Jupiter and we are scheduled to launch the payload, 36.115UG, in May-June 1995. We have also begun the design of a high-resolution FUV spectrograph for a future flight of the FOT and have just recently received a high line density grating fabricated by Jobin-Yvon, S.A. (France) for evaluation. Work has continued on the analysis of data from previous rocket experiments.

Feldman, Paul D.

1994-01-01

141

Infrared laboratory studies of synthetic planetary atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial stages of the research were involved with a test of Burch's law of multiplicative transmittance for mixed absorbing gases when their lines are broadened by H2 and He, which are constituents of the atmospheres of the major planets. The broadening of individual lines in the CO fundamental by various gases was investigated. Line strength and half-width for individual CO lines were studied as a function of temperature. Measurements of total band absorptance as a function of absorber thickness and total effective pressure were made at various temperatures for bands of CO and N2O. Attempts were made to develop a phenomenological theory of line broadening that would account for the phenomena observed for the CO fundamental and those reported for more highly polar gases. Laboratory measurements of nitric acid vapor absorptance were compared with balloon measurements in arriving at an estimate of the quantity of nitric acid vapor present in the earth's atmosphere in the region of the ozone layer.

Williams, D.

1972-01-01

142

Laboratory and space plasma studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work encompasses a wide range of topics in experimental, computational, and analytical laboratory and space plasma physics. The accomplishments described in this report have been in support of the programs of the Laser Plasma Branch (Code 6730) and other segments of the Plasma Physics Division at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and cover the period 27 September 1993 to August 1, 1996. The authors describe each of the topics investigated and the results obtained. Published research reports are included as Appendices.

Hyman, E.

1996-08-01

143

Effect of chronic antipsychotic treatment on striatal phosphodiesterase 10A levels: a [11C]MP-10 PET rodent imaging study with ex vivo confirmation  

PubMed Central

A number of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) inhibitors are about to undergo clinical evaluation for their efficacy in treating schizophrenia. As phosphodiesterases are in the same signalling pathway as dopamine D2 receptors, it is possible that prior antipsychotic treatment could influence these enzyme systems in patients. Chronic, in contrast to acute, antipsychotic treatment has been reported to increase brain PDE10A levels in rodents. The aim of this study was to confirm these findings in a manner that can be translated to human imaging studies to understand its consequences. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was used to evaluate PDE10A enzyme availability, after chronic haloperidol administration, using a specific PDE10A ligand ([11C]MP-10). The binding of [11C]MP-10 in the striatum and the cerebellum was measured in rodents and a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) with cerebellum as the reference region was used to determine the binding potential (BPND). In rats treated chronically with haloperidol (2?mg?kg?1 per day), there was no significant difference in PDE10A levels compared with the vehicle-treated group (BPND±s.d.: 3.57±0.64 versus 2.86±0.71). Following PET scans, ex vivo analysis of striatal brain tissue for PDE10A mRNA (Pde10a) and PDE10A enzyme activity showed no significant difference. Similarly, the PDE10A protein content determined by western blot analysis was similar between the two groups, contrary to an earlier finding. The results of the study indicate that prior exposure to antipsychotic medication in rodents does not alter PDE10A levels.

Natesan, S; Ashworth, S; Nielsen, J; Tang, S-P; Salinas, C; Kealey, S; Lauridsen, J B; Stensb?l, T B; Gunn, R N; Rabiner, E A; Kapur, S

2014-01-01

144

A laboratory study of irregular shoaling waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research aims to investigate the dynamics of a single laboratory irregular wave, characterized by a narrow-banded spectrum and developing on a sloping sand bottom, in intermediate waters up to the surf zone. Experiments focused on the wave shoaling region, in order to examine how the wave is affected by breaking induced turbulence offshore the surf zone. A 3D acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used to measure the three wave velocity components, which were all processed to evaluate the time-averaged vertical distributions of orbital velocities, wave and turbulent Reynolds shear stresses and turbulent intensities. The vertical distributions of the phase-averaged velocity components, turbulent kinetic energy and transport of turbulence were also analysed. The adopted phase-averaging technique was applied to each investigated measurement point. Therefore, the crucial element of the study is that all the analysed values derive directly from real measurements and are not approximated by any kind of interpolation. The study confirmed some dynamic behaviour in the shoaling zone already known in the literature, such as the typical cell-type flow pattern of the mean flow and the necessity to evaluate the turbulent kinetic energy with all the three velocity components, when available, which would otherwise be underestimated. Referring to the time-averaged wave and Reynolds shear stresses, a contribution was added to the open debate on their order of magnitude. The measured wave Reynolds shear stresses were also compared with the results of the model by Zou et al. (J Geophys Res 111:C09032, 2006), confirming the behaviour typical of dissipative breaking waves. The analysis of turbulence transport in the shoaling zone revealed that it is seaward directed close to the surface and landward directed close to the bottom. The results presented in the paper can be extended only to other analogous flow conditions.

De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

2013-06-01

145

Rocket and Laboratory Studies in Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period from March 1, 2001 to August 31, 2004. This grant was the continuation of NASA grant NAG5-5122 and supported the Johns Hopkins sounding rocket program that had its roots in the 1960s. The emphasis of this program has been the development of instrumentation for far-ultraviolet astronomy, the training of graduate students in all aspects of a space mission, and the application of these techniques to timely scientific problems. During this period we completed the fabrication of our new long-slit dual-order spectrograph (LIDOS), and successfully flew it on a Black Brant sounding rocket on December 16, 2003 (36.208 UG). The targets were the bright star gamma-Cassiopeiae and its surrounding reflection nebulae, IC 59 and IC 63. We also continued the analysis of the data from our previous flight to study the reflection nebula IC 405 (36.198 UG), which revealed a far-ultraviolet nebular scatter to stellar flux ratio that, contrary to expectations, rises steeply toward the blue. Verifying this result required extensive post-flight analysis and calibration of the Faint Object Telescope FOT) payload, which entailed measuring the telescope mirror reflectivities, the absolute efficiency of the spectrograph, and the telescope point spread function, using a new vacuum collimator developed as part of former graduate student Eric Burgh's Ph.D. dissertation. This work, being done with graduate student Kevin France, has been completed and a paper describing the results has been accepted for publication by the Astrophysical Journal. We have also continued a number of laboratory calibration studies and design efforts.

Feldman, Paul D.; McCandliss, Stephan R.

2004-01-01

146

Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

Oliveriusová, Ludmila; N?mec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedlá?ek, František

2014-06-01

147

Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami), a dominant species among the desert rodent community at a long-term study site in Portal, Arizona.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami) was the most dominant desert rodent species at the Portal Study site in Arizona for 23 of the 25 years from 1978-2002. In the early 1990s, after the second most dominant species became extinct in the area and a new species arrived and became abundant, the dominance structure of the community changed, with D. merriam becoming less dominant and the top four species becoming similar in dominance. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (85:10) in October of 2004.

Kurzius, Margaret

2010-02-16

148

A comparative study of the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ikeda, M., and Ohtsuji, H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 99-104. A comparative study or the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2- trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene were administered to rats and mice as vapours at 200 p.p.m. for 8 hours and urine was collected

Masayuki Ikeda; Hatsue Ohtsuji

1972-01-01

149

Rodent Models of Depression: Neurotrophic and Neuroinflammatory Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Rodent models are an indispensable tool for studying etiology and progress of depression. Since interrelated systems of neurotrophic factors and cytokines comprise major regulatory mechanisms controlling normal brain plasticity, impairments of these systems form the basis for development of cerebral pathologies, including mental diseases. The present review focuses on the numerous experimental rodent models of depression induced by different stress factors (exteroceptive and interoceptive) during early life (including prenatal period) or adulthood, giving emphasis to the data on the changes of neurotrophic factors and neuroinflammatory indices in the brain. These parameters are closely related to behavioral depression-like symptoms and impairments of neuronal plasticity and are both gender- and genotype-dependent. Stress-related changes in expression of neurotrophins and cytokines in rodent brain are region-specific. Some contradictory data reported by different groups may be a consequence of differences of stress paradigms or their realization in different laboratories. Like all experimental models, stress-induced depression-like conditions are experimental simplification of clinical depression states; however, they are suitable for understanding the involvement of neurotrophic factors and cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease—a goal unachievable in the clinical reality. These major regulatory systems may be important targets for therapeutic measures as well as for development of drugs for treatment of depression states.

Stepanichev, Mikhail; Dygalo, Nikolay N.; Grigoryan, Grigory; Shishkina, Galina T.; Gulyaeva, Natalia

2014-01-01

150

222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

RUELAS, B.H.

2007-03-26

151

Laboratory studies of crystal growth in magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportions, compositions, and interrelationships among crystalline phases and glasses in volcanic rocks cryptically record pre-eruptive intensive conditions, the timing of changes in crystallization environment, and the devolatilization history of eruptive ascent. These parameters are recognized as important monitoring tools at active volcanoes and interpreting geologic events at prehistoric and remote eruptions, thus motivating our attempts to understand the information preserved in crystals through an experimental appoach. We are performing laboratory experiments in mafic, felsic, and intermediate composition magmas to study the mechanisms of crystal growth in thermochemical environments relevant to volcanic environments. We target features common to natural crystals in igneous rocks for our experimental studies of rapid crystal growth phenomena: (1) Surface curvature. Do curved interfaces and spongy cores represent evidence of dissolution (i.e., are they corrosion features), or do they record the transition from dendritic to polyhedral morphology? (2) Trapped melt inclusions. Do trapped liquids represent bulk (i.e., far-field) liquids, boundary layer liquids, or something intermediate, depending on individual species diffusivity? What sequence of crystal growth rates leads to preservation of sealed melt inclusions? (3) Subgrain boundaries. Natural phenocrysts commonly exhibit tabular subgrain regions distinguished by small angle lattice misorientations or "dislocation lamellae" and undulatory extinction. Might these crystal defects be produced as dendrites undergo ripening? (4) Clusters. Contacting clusters of polymineralic crystals are the building blocks of cumulates, and are ubiquitous features of mafic volcanic rocks. Are plagioclase and clinopyroxene aligned crystallographically, suggesting an epitaxial (surface energy) relationship? (5) Log-normal size distribution. What synthetic cooling histories produce "natural" distributions of crystal sizes, and are phenocrystic textures uniquely attributed to staged cooling? In addition, we seek to explore the limitations of the experimental approach. Which aspects of natural crystallization sequences are adequately reproduced in experimental charges, and which are compromised by the obligatory reduced temporal and spatial scales of crystal growth experiments? What are the implications of synthetic starting materials and thermal pre-treatments for nucleation, growth, heterophase equilibria, and textural maturation?

Hammer, J. E.; Welsch, B. T.; First, E.; Shea, T.

2012-12-01

152

A Laboratory Study of Clay Stabilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a laboratory comparison of various clay stabilizers. A new testing method is discussed. Acid solutions and acid solutions containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether or certain surfactants were shown to increase the efficiency of most clay stabilizers tested. The most dramatic improvement was with zirconium. The value of a test method using sliding end pieces to apply stress

A. W. Coulter; C. T. Copeland; W. H. Harrisberger

1979-01-01

153

222-S Laboratory Fume Hood Testing Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing che...

B. H. Ruclas

2007-01-01

154

WATER MIST FIRE SUPPRESSION RESEARCH: LABORATORY STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The water mist program at the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is an integrated effort for understanding water mist fire suppression, augmenting water mist effectiveness, observing water mist suppression in intermediate and large scale environments, and addressing implementation issues. This technology-based approach will lead to fire protection design guidance for military ship requirements, which are more challenging than

J. W. FLEMING; B. A. WILLIAMS; R. S. SHEINSON; W. YANG; R. J. KEE

155

Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this…

Shultz, Jeffry

2009-01-01

156

Progress in the Laboratory Study of Interstellar Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent progress in the laboratory study of cosmic carbon analogs will be discussed. After a brief review of the history of laboratory studies of interstellar carbon molecules and ions, new gas-phase results will be discussed and contrasted to previous studies that used the techniques of matrix isolation spectroscopy. Finally, the impact of these new laboratory studies on the field of astrophysics will be discussed.

Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

157

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

158

Field and laboratory studies with typhoid vaccines*  

PubMed Central

In 1953 the Yugoslav Typhoid Commission organized the first strictly controlled field trial of two types of anti-typhoid vaccine—alcoholized and phenolized—in an attempt to determine the relative and absolute effectiveness of each. They were tested against a phenolized control vaccine prepared from strains of Shigella flexneri, type II. This preliminary report gives the basic information on the conditions of the trial, in which 35 508 persons completed the course of two injections, and shows the results obtained. The phenolized vaccine proved the more effective of the two, giving protection in about 70% of the vaccinated, but the Commission points out that the results do not necessarily mean that the same degree of protection would be obtained with other batches of either vaccine. Laboratory work done with the field trial showed that the existing laboratory tests cannot at present be correlated with the protection afforded to man.

1957-01-01

159

Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.  

PubMed

The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating. PMID:21453121

Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2011-08-01

160

Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory - A feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans are underway to transfer the technology represented by the lightning and atmospheric science research facilities and capabilities at the Kennedy Space Center to outside users in other government agencies, private industry, and the academic community. Rocket triggered lightning is being used to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing an Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory as a permanent facility and long-term cost sharing. Results from previous programs and data from a lightning event which occurred during the STS-7 flight are presented to demonstrate the adequacy of the present lightning protection and measuring system to protect personnel, vehicle, and ground equipment, as well as to rapidly assess damage due to a lightning event.

Jafferis, William

1987-01-01

161

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals.

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

162

Rocket and laboratory studies in astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the period from September 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During the reporting period we launched the Faint Object Telescope to measure absolute fluxes of two hot dwarf stars in the spectral range below 1200 A. Although all systems worked normally, a higher than anticipated pressure in the detector led to ion-feedback that masked the useable data from the source. We have identified the source of the problem and are preparing for a reflight in the Fall of 1993. Our laboratory program for the evaluation of the ultraviolet performance of charge-coupled-detector (CCD) arrays continued with the aim of including a UV-sensitive CCD in a payload to be flown in 1994, and we have begun the assembly of this payload. Work has continued on the analysis of data from previous rocket experiments and from the UVX experiment which flew on STS-61C in January 1986.

Feldman, P. D.

1993-01-01

163

Rodents as Sentinels for the Prevalence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important flavivirus infections of the central nervous system, affecting humans in Europe and Asia. It is mainly transmitted by the bite of an infected tick and circulates among them and their vertebrate hosts. Until now, TBE risk analysis in Germany has been based on the incidence of human cases. Because of an increasing vaccination rate, this approach might be misleading, especially in regions of low virus circulation. Method To test the suitability of rodents as a surrogate marker for virus spread, laboratory-bred Microtus arvalis voles were experimentally infected with TBEV and analyzed over a period of 100 days by real-time (RT)–quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Further, the prevalence of TBEV in rodents trapped in Brandenburg, a rural federal state in northeastern Germany with autochthonous TBE cases, was determined and compared with that in rodents from German TBE risk areas as well as TBE nonrisk areas. Results In experimentally infected M. arvalis voles, TBEV was detectable in different organs for at least 3 months and in blood for 1 month. Ten percent of all rodents investigated were positive for TBEV. However, in TBE risk areas, the infection rate was higher compared with that of areas with only single human cases or of nonrisk areas. TBEV was detected in six rodent species: Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, and Myodes glareolus. M. glareolus showed a high infection rate in all areas investigated. Discussion and Conclusion The infection experiments proved that TBEV can be reliably detected in infected M. arvalis voles. These voles developed a persistent TBE infection without clinical symptoms. Further, the study showed that rodents, especially M. glareolus, are promising sentinels particularly in areas of low TBEV circulation.

Ruzek, Daniel; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Wenk, Mathias; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Ohlmeyer, Lutz; Ruhe, Ferdinand; Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Kallies, Rene; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Niedrig, Matthias

2011-01-01

164

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

165

Microdialysis in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Microdialysis is an in vivo sampling technique that permits the quantification of various substances (e.g., neurotransmitters, peptides, electrolytes) in blood and tissue. It is also used to infuse substances into the brain and spinal cord. This unit describes methods for the construction and stereotaxic implantation of microdialysis probes into discrete brain regions of the rat and mouse. Procedures for the conduct of conventional and quantitative microdialysis experiments in the awake and anesthetized rodent are also provided.

Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.

2010-01-01

166

Obtaining alveolar macrophages from small laboratory rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple apparatus is described for harvesting, if necessary under sterile conditions, alveolar mac- rophages from rats, mice, guineapigs and golden hamsters. The lung is an important interface between body and external environment, and is threatened continually by different environmental pollutants. The 2 major defence mechanisms of the lung are the mechanical clearance of particles by the ciliated epithelial

C. Moolenbeek

1982-01-01

167

On-site laboratory support of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory remedial investigation/feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

In 1987, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) was begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL had established a number of waste area groupings (WAGs), each of which was to be studied and characterized separately. Although the nature and extent of contamination at the WAGs vary widely, samples from each WAG might be radiologically and/or chemically contaminated. To comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations regarding the shipment of hazardous and radioactive materials, all samples are screened for radioactivity before shipment to independent laboratories for further analysis. In 1989 a Close Support Laboratory (CSL) was established at the RI/FS Field Operations Facility at ORNL. The CSL began as a screening facility and has evolved into a laboratory where high-quality analytical results on a number of different parameters are usually available within 24 hours of sampling. CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, volatile organic analysis (VOA), and wet chemistry.

Burn, J.L.E.; Brooksbank, R.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dillener, J.L. [CH2M Hill, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jeskie, T.R. [Peer Consultants, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1992-10-01

168

Laboratory Railgun for Terminal Ballistics and Arc Armature Research Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual design was developed for a laboratory railgun suitable for both rac armature research and terminal ballistics studies. High utility and easy maintenance were the key design considerations. Parametric trade-off studies were conducted to evalua...

D. L. Vrable S. N. Rosenwasser K. J. Cheverton

1987-01-01

169

A Science Librarian in the Laboratory: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A science librarian in the laboratory can become a "point of access" for database instruction and provide a learning opportunity for students to develop their information literacy skills. A case study describes how a librarian in an organic chemistry laboratory helps the class run smoothly and identifies the science librarian as an ally and a…

Tomaszewski, Robert

2011-01-01

170

LABORATORY STUDIES OF PRIORITY POLLUTANT TREATABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated several methods currently available to reduce the level of pollutants in an industrial plant wastewater stream. Its purpose was to screen these treatment processes. As a result of this screening, further in-depth evaluations should be considered. The study...

171

Immunotoxicity testing in non-rodent species.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the immunotoxicity potential of some pharmaceuticals, including immunomodulatory chemicals and biologics, cannot be limited to testing in rodents. Thus, immune function tests have also been applied in studies with non-human primates and more recently dogs that assess various components of the immune system. These assays include TDAR responses with various immunogens, lymphocyte phenotyping, natural-killer cell activity, delayed-type hypersensitivity, and macrophage function assays. Approaches for incorporating immune function testing in non-rodent species, results from these tests, their interpretation and limitations with respect to drug safety assessment will be reviewed. PMID:18958726

Haggerty, Helen G

2007-04-01

172

The Laboratory and Clinical Studies of Sulfonamides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports the results of antibacterial, pharmacologic and clinical studies on the sulfonamides, trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfonamide-TMP combination manufactured in China. Bacterial sensitivity tests of these drugs were carried out on 3,549 strains...

W. Fu Z. Meifang Z. Jingde Z. Zhilin G. Yaming

1980-01-01

173

Geomagnetic field detection in rodents  

SciTech Connect

In addition to behavioral evidence for the detection of earth-strength magnetic fields (MF) by rodents, recent investigations have revealed that electrophysiological and biochemical responses to MF occur in the pineal organ and retina of rodents. In addition, ferrimagnetic deposits have been identified in the ethmoidal regions of the rodent skull. These findings point to a new sensory phenomenon, which interfaces with many fields of biology, including neuroscience, psychophysics, behavioral ecology, chronobiology and sensory physiology.

Olcese, J.; Reuss, S.; Semm, P.

1988-01-01

174

Vermicomposting of Winery Wastes: A Laboratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean countries, millions of tons of wastes from viticulture and winery industries are produced every year. This study describes the ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to compost different winery wastes (spent grape marc, vinasse biosolids, lees cakes, and vine shoots) into valuable agricultural products. The evolution of earthworm biomass and enzyme activities was tracked for 16 weeks of

ROGELIO NOGALES; CELIA CIFUENTES; EMILIO BENÍTEZ

2005-01-01

175

Liver Dysfunction and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signalling in Early Sepsis: Experimental Studies in Rodent Models of Peritonitis  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatic dysfunction and jaundice are traditionally viewed as late features of sepsis and portend poor outcomes. We hypothesized that changes in liver function occur early in the onset of sepsis, yet pass undetected by standard laboratory tests. Methods and Findings In a long-term rat model of faecal peritonitis, biotransformation and hepatobiliary transport were impaired, depending on subsequent disease severity, as early as 6 h after peritoneal contamination. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling was simultaneously induced at this time point. At 15 h there was hepatocellular accumulation of bilirubin, bile acids, and xenobiotics, with disturbed bile acid conjugation and drug metabolism. Cholestasis was preceded by disruption of the bile acid and organic anion transport machinery at the canalicular pole. Inhibitors of PI3K partially prevented cytokine-induced loss of villi in cultured HepG2 cells. Notably, mice lacking the PI3K? gene were protected against cholestasis and impaired bile acid conjugation. This was partially confirmed by an increase in plasma bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA] and taurodeoxycholic acid [TDCA]) observed in 48 patients on the day severe sepsis was diagnosed; unlike bilirubin (area under the receiver-operating curve: 0.59), these bile acids predicted 28-d mortality with high sensitivity and specificity (area under the receiver-operating curve: CDCA: 0.77; TDCA: 0.72; CDCA+TDCA: 0.87). Conclusions Liver dysfunction is an early and commonplace event in the rat model of sepsis studied here; PI3K signalling seems to play a crucial role. All aspects of hepatic biotransformation are affected, with severity relating to subsequent prognosis. Detected changes significantly precede conventional markers and are reflected by early alterations in plasma bile acids. These observations carry important implications for the diagnosis of liver dysfunction and pharmacotherapy in the critically ill. Further clinical work is necessary to extend these concepts into clinical practice. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Westermann, Martin; Lambeck, Sandro; Lupp, Amelie; Rudiger, Alain; Dyson, Alex; Carre, Jane E.; Kortgen, Andreas; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jurgen; Sponholz, Christoph; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Hilger, Ingrid; Claus, Ralf A.; Riedemann, Niels C.; Wetzker, Reinhard; Singer, Mervyn; Trauner, Michael; Bauer, Michael

2012-01-01

176

Laboratory studies with some older anticoccidials.  

PubMed

Features of the anticoccidial activity of nicarbazin, amprolium, zoalene, sulphadimidine, diaveridine, Darvisul, spiramycin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline have been re-investigated both in vivo and in cell culture using Eimeria tenella. Of the drugs studied, only spiramycin was appreciably coccidiocidal, although nicarbazin and amprolium showed possibly slower coccidiocidal activity. In order to show activity against a particular stage in the life-cycle, higher concentrations of drug than those usually recommended for field usage had in most cases to be used. Under these conditions, parasites were usually inhibited as multinucleate 1st generation schizonts. With delayed medication, effects against 2nd generation parasites were in most cases found, and in many cases, although the parasites never matured to give viable merozoites, the large degenerating forms produced were able to cause extensive tissue destruction and haemorrhage. Methodology in this type of study is discussed in relation to more active and more recent anticoccidials, and some further experiments with robenidine reported. PMID:1012748

Ryley, J F; Wilson, R G

1976-12-01

177

Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

2011-11-01

178

Laboratory studies of water column separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental studies of water column separation following an upstream valve closure are presented. Different geometrical arrangements with transparent PVC pipes are installed immediately downstream of the closing valve, namely, horizontal pipes, vertical pipes flowing down, and humpback profile pipes, the last two being used in order to obtain full pipe section vapor cavities. Maximum over pressures at water column rejoining, and maximum cavity lengths and duration, are compared with theoretical values and with previous experiments with horizontal pipes. Good agreement is found between theory and experiments, and interesting visual material is obtained.

Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.

2013-12-01

179

Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.  

PubMed

Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

2006-07-01

180

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY LABORATORY INTERCOMPARISON STUDIES PROGRAM, 1978-1979  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's intercomparison studies program for laboratories involved in environmental radiation measurements is described. The types of environmental samples distributed, the analyses required for each sample, the distribution schedule, and the sta...

181

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY LABORATORY INTERCOMPARISON STUDIES PROGRAM, FY 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's intercomparison studies program for laboratories involved in environmental radiation measurements is described. The types of environmental samples distributed, the analysis required for each sample, the distribution schedule, and the sta...

182

Patient evaluation. Laboratory and imaging studies.  

PubMed

The evaluation of urolithiases, in terms of calculus detection and evaluation of the morphology and function of the kidneys, continues to be refined with advances in imaging technology. The most significant recent advance is use of helical or spiral CT scan for the accurate delineation of renal and ureteral calculi in the acute setting. This may provide an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method of patient evaluation. The alternative approach is to use plain abdominal radiography to detect renal or ureteral calculi. Noncontrast-enhanced helical or spiral CT scanning has its greatest impact in patients with negative abdominal radiographs or in those patients with suspected urinary colic in whom renal but not ureteral calculi are seen. A supplemental intravenous urogram can be used, as appropriate, to evaluate renal function and degree of obstruction on both the involved and uninvolved side. Combined abdominal radiography and sonography may be used for calculus detection and demonstration of obstruction. Sonography is an operator-dependent technique requiring expertise, experience, and adequate imaging equipment for satisfactory results. Physiologic study of renal blood flow and urinary dynamics using Doppler techniques are possible, though considered to be in the realm of clinical investigation at this time. Sonography has a valuable role in the serial evaluation of chronic stone formers with a history of recurrent urinary infections related to obstruction or reflux. Radiography, fluoroscopy, and sonography are the imaging, methods used in ESWL treatment in preprocedure and postprocedure. PMID:9048855

Begun, F P; Foley, W D; Peterson, A; White, B

1997-02-01

183

Experiments on seed predation by rodents and ants in the Israeli desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of non-native seeds by seed-eating rodents and ants was studied experimentally in the field. It was found that patterns of granivory in the Israeli deserts are very similar to those reported for the same groups in the deserts of North America. Rodents are more efficient than ants at finding and harvesting seeds. Only rodents can find and harvest seeds

Zvika Abramsky

1983-01-01

184

The Touchscreen Cognitive Testing Method for Rodents: How to Get the Best out of Your Rat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The touchscreen testing method for rodents is a computer-automated behavioral testing method that allows computer graphic stimuli to be presented to rodents and the rodents to respond to the computer screen via a nose-poke directly to the stimulus. The advantages of this method are numerous; however, a systematic study of the parameters that…

Bussey, Timothy J.; Padain, Tina L.; Skillings, Elizabeth A.; Winters, Boyer D.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Saksida, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

185

The spatio-temporal distribution of a rodent reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The rodent Psammomys obesus is the main reservoir host for Leishmania major, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia, much of North Africa and mid-western Asia. An understanding of the population dynamics of this rodent is essential to establish a preventive control strategy based on the early prediction of rodent outbreaks. 2. The study of P. obesus

E. Fichet-Calvet; I. Jomaa; B. Zaafouri; R. W. Ashford; R. Ben-Ismail; P. DELATTREx

2000-01-01

186

Segmentation of Rodent Whole-Body Dynamic PET Images: An Unsupervised Method Based on Voxel Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account

Renaud Maroy; Raphaël Boisgard; Claude Comtat; Vincent Frouin; Pascal Cathier; Edouard Duchesnay; Freédéric Dolle; Peter E. Nielsen; Régine Trébossen; Bertrand Tavitian

2008-01-01

187

Problems associated with the control of rodents in tropical Africa  

PubMed Central

As elsewhere in the world, rodents are responsible for very considerable economic losses in tropical Africa because of their depredations on both growing crops and stored food products. Unfortunately, few accurate data are available on the extent of these losses but there is evidence that they are considerable. The public health importance of rodents, both as reservoirs and vectors of disease in tropical Africa, is also great; plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, and Lassa fever are among the diseases associated with rodent hosts. Scientifically based rodent control programmes have been carried out in very few areas of Africa and there is urgent need for studies and demonstrations on rodent control in both urban and rural areas. The problems likely to be encountered are reviewed and methods of control proposed.

Gratz, N. G.; Arata, A. A.

1975-01-01

188

Rodent models for human polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women, causing infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and ovulation, distinctive multicystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism, together with metabolic abnormalities including obesity, hyperinsulinism, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of PCOS is unclear, and decisive clinical studies are limited by ethical and logistic constraints. Consequently treatment is palliative rather than curative and focuses on symptomatic approaches. Hence, a suitable animal model could provide a valuable means with which to study the pathogenesis of the characteristic reproductive and metabolic abnormalities and thereby identify novel and more effective treatments. So far there is no consensus on the best experimental animal model, which should ideally reproduce the key features associated with human PCOS. The prenatally androgenized rhesus monkey displays many characteristics of the human condition, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, increased adiposity, and insulin insensitivity. However, the high cost of nonhuman primate studies limits the practical utility of these large-animal models. Rodent models, on the other hand, are inexpensive, provide well-characterized and stable genetic backgrounds readily accessible for targeted genetic manipulation, and shorter reproductive life spans and generation times. Recent rodent models display both reproductive and metabolic disturbances associated with human PCOS. This review aimed to evaluate the rodent models reported to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the distinct rodent models used to investigate this complex endocrine disorder. PMID:22337333

Walters, Kirsty A; Allan, Charles M; Handelsman, David J

2012-05-01

189

Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS): A case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 70's, a refurbishment of the analytical laboratories serving the Materials Division at NASA Lewis Research Center was undertaken. As part of the modernization efforts, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was to be included. Preliminary studies indicated a custom-designed system as the best choice in order to satisfy all of the requirements. A scaled down version of the original design has been in operation since 1984. The LIMS, a combination of computer hardware, provides the chemical characterization laboratory with an information data base, a report generator, a user interface, and networking capabilities. This paper is an account of the processes involved in designing and implementing that LIMS.

Crandall, Karen S.; Auping, Judith V.; Megargle, Robert G.

1987-01-01

190

Piroplasms from Taiwanese Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Piroplasms from naturally infected bandicoot rats, Bandicota indica (Hodgson), and spiny rats, Rattus coxinga (Swinhoe), from Taiwan caused parasitemias in a wide range of laboratory animals after syringe passage in laboratory rats. Bandicoot and spiny ra...

P. F. D. Van Peenen, S. J. Chang, A. R. Banknieder, F. J. Santana

1977-01-01

191

Analytical evaluation of laboratories wishing to perform environmental characterization studies  

SciTech Connect

Laboratories competing to analyze bivalve mollusks under contract to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Mussel Watch Project were required to undergo analytical tests of their ability to quantify environmental contaminants as part of the contract evaluation process. During the 1989 selection process laboratories that appeared to qualify on the basis of their written proposals were provided a gravimetrically prepared solution with unknown quantities of an undefined number of organic contaminants that are regularly quantified for the Mussel Watch Project. In 1994, competing laboratories were once again tested but this time using matrix materials for the quantification of both trace elements and organic contaminants. Three laboratory groups participated in the exercises. For the 1989 gravimetrically prepared solutions, all participating laboratories were able to identify the contaminants present and in all but two cases were able to report values to within {+-}25% of the known values. In 1994, all laboratories were within the acceptance criteria for the quantification of trace elements in the homogenate sample. Analytical laboratory testing is an important first step to ensure that environmental characterization studies are successful.

Lauenstein, G.G.; Cantillo, A.Y. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States). National Status and Trends Program

1997-07-01

192

Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which deserve more attention in future epidemiological studies.

Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

2014-01-01

193

Extremely low frequency fields and cancer: laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. However, no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, although several are suggestive of potential health impacts. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Several approaches are outlined in the experimental approach to this question. With specific reference to the radiofrequencies (RF) associated with wireless technology, even less research has been carried out than with ELF. Particularly, in regard to research on carcinogenesis and RF exposure in animals, little is known This section addresses laboratory studies in animals exposed to extremely low-power-frequency EMF, the relevance of which, to RF, is unknown. However, the approaches used with ELF may be useful in guiding laboratory research on the issue of RF exposure and cancer. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss studies investigating the potential relationship between ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposure and the risk of cancer.

Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

1998-10-01

194

Final report of the Multiprogram Laboratory Panel Energy Research Advisory Board. Volume II. Support studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume II - support studies for nine national laboratories include: report of statistical data on the multiprogram laboratories; examples of national laboratory use in foreign countries; domestic models for national laboratory utilization; relationships of laboratories with industry and universities; uses of laboratories for training industrial R and D personnel; legal mandates and constraints on the national laboratories; with appendices on

I. Spiewak; M. P. Guthrie; J. P. Nichols; E. L. Preston; C. D. West; T. J. Wilbanks; B. Y. Wilkes; A. C. Zerby

1982-01-01

195

Thirteen week rodent feeding study with grain from molecular stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran protected (DP-ØØ4114-3) maize.  

PubMed

The results from a subchronic feeding study conducted in Sprague–Dawley rats fed with diets containing grain from 4114 (OECD unique identifier: DP-ØØ4114-3) maize that was untreated (4114) or sprayed in field with glufosinate ammonium (4114GLU) in a design similar to previous studies are reported. The test material, 4114 maize, is a hybrid maize produced by transformation with a DNA construct encoding 4 different transgenic proteins for resistance to lepidopteran pests, coleopteran pests, and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate ammonium. There were a total of 144 rats divided into 12 groups of 12 rats/sex/group. All experimental diets were formulated by Purina Mills, LLC (St. Louis, MO) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet® Certified Rodent LabDiet® 5002. The incorporation rate of maize grain in all diets was 32% (wt/wt). No biologically significant, treatment related differences in body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, or organ weight) were observed in rats consuming the diets containing 4114 maize grain compared with rats fed conventional maize diets. A number of histologic observations were noted in this study but were background lesions and representative of what would be expected for rats of this age and strain. An independent panel of experts determined certain observations to be spontaneous and not related to the test diet. Accordingly, these results support the conclusion that 4114 maize grain is as safe and nutritious as conventional maize grain. PMID:23261672

Delaney, Bryan; Karaman, Sule; Roper, Jason; Hoban, Denise; Sykes, Greg; Mukerji, Pushkor; Frame, Steven R

2013-03-01

196

Roles of dental development and adaptation in rodent evolution.  

PubMed

In paleontology, many changes affecting morphology, such as tooth shape in mammals, are interpreted as ecological adaptations that reflect important selective events. Despite continuing studies, the identification of the genetic bases and key ecological drivers of specific mammalian dental morphologies remains elusive. Here we focus on the genetic and functional bases of stephanodonty, a pattern characterized by longitudinal crests on molars that arose in parallel during the diversification of murine rodents. We find that overexpression of Eda or Edar is sufficient to produce the longitudinal crests defining stephanodonty in transgenic laboratory mice. Whereas our dental microwear analyses show that stephanodonty likely represents an adaptation to highly fibrous diet, the initial and parallel appearance of stephanodonty may have been facilitated by developmental processes, without being necessarily under positive selection. This study demonstrates how combining development and function can help to evaluate adaptive scenarios in the evolution of new morphologies. PMID:24051719

Rodrigues, Helder Gomes; Renaud, Sabrina; Charles, Cyril; Le Poul, Yann; Solé, Floréal; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Michaux, Jacques; Tafforeau, Paul; Headon, Denis; Jernvall, Jukka; Viriot, Laurent

2013-01-01

197

The efficacy of the flocoumafen wax block bait to control the field rodents Microtus guentheri and Meriones tristrami  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of wax block baits, treated with 0.005% w\\/w second-generation anticoagulant flocoumafen, for control of the field rodents Microtus guentheri and Meriones tristrami, was studied in laboratory no-choice experiments. The LD50 for M. guentheri was 4.73mgkg?1 with 95% confidence limits 1.52–8.59mgkg?1. Total mortality of M. guentheri could be achieved with a dose of 4 wax blocks per animal in

Shmuel Moran

2001-01-01

198

Rodent Water Dispensing System for Use in Hypobaric Chambers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A water dispensing system for rodents has been developed for use in chronic research studies involving hypobaric chambers. The system removes an existing problem that has restricted long-term animal exposures due to limitations inherent in the typical wat...

J. A. Devine A. Cymerman

1986-01-01

199

Besnoitiosis in Rodents from Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rod...

G. E. Dagle R. R. Adee T. F. Winsor

1977-01-01

200

Invasive rodent eradication on islands.  

PubMed

Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response programs. PMID:17883491

Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie

2007-10-01

201

A Field and Laboratory Study of Fluoride Uptake by Oysters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uptake and concentration of fluoride in the tissues of oysters was studied under laboratory conditions. Experimental animals were maintained for up to two months in water fluoride levels of 0.5, 2, 8, 32, and 128 ppm. It was found that oysters did acc...

D. J. Moore

1969-01-01

202

Laboratory Studies of Steam Stripping of LNAPL-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam injection for in situ remediation of soils contaminated by light nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPLs). Several parametric studies were performed with various combinations of soils, LNAPLs, and steam injection conditions. An increase in steam injection pressure produced a significant increase in LNAPL recovery efficiency. An increase in steam injection pressure from

A. Hadim; F. H. Shah; G. P. Korfiatis

1996-01-01

203

Laboratory of Nuclear Studies (Osako University, Japan). Annual Report, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major accelerators of the Osaka University Laboratory of Nuclear Studies (OULNS) are the variable energy cyclotron that can run up to 28 MeV and the 5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. Works of nuclear physics have been performed by means of the inbeam e...

1982-01-01

204

Laboratory and community studies of aircraft noise effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise effects programs objective is to develop aircraft noise criteria and noise reduction methods for achieving greater community and passenger acceptance of air transportation systems. The approach consists of laboratory tests to subjectively evaluate the properties of aircraft-generated noise that are responsible for causing annoyance and field surveys to study the broader problems of community and passenger acceptability. The

D. G. Stephens; C. A. Powell

1978-01-01

205

Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

2012-01-01

206

LABORATORY STUDY OF LIMESTONE REGENERATION IN DUAL ALKALI SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a series of open- and closed-loop laboratory bench scale experiments which were carried out to study parameters which affect the reaction of limestone with dual alkali flue gas desulfurization system process liquors. It gives details of several sets of operat...

207

Isolation of Pasteurella pneumotropica from rodents in South Africa.  

PubMed Central

Four thousand, five hundred and sixteen rodents of 27 species were captured in widely separated localities in South Africa over a period of ten years. Samples of spleen, lung, heart, liver and rectal tissue with faeces were tested for the presence of zoonotic bacteria and 109 isolations of Pasteurella pneumotropica were made from 11 species. Latent infection with the organism was found to be widespread although there were temporal fluctuations in prevalence. Field and laboratory evidence suggest that P. pneumotropica may be associated with, but not the primary cause of, rodent epizootics in the wild.

Shepherd, A. J.; Leman, P. A.; Barnett, R. J.

1982-01-01

208

What can we get from 'barrels': the rodent barrel cortex as a model for studying the establishment of neural circuits.  

PubMed

Sensory inputs triggered by external stimuli are projected into discrete arrays of neuronal modules in the primary sensory cortex. This whisker-to-barrel pathway has gained in popularity as a model system for studying the development of cortical circuits and sensory processing because its clear patterns facilitate the identification of genetically modified mice with whisker map deficits and make possible coordinated in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological studies. Numerous whisker map determinants have been identified in the past two decades. In this review, we summarize what have we learned from the detailed studies conducted in various mutant mice with cortical whisker map deficits. We will specifically focus on the anatomical and functional establishment of the somatosensory thalamocortical circuits. PMID:22103423

Wu, Chia-Shan; Ballester Rosado, Carlos J; Lu, Hui-Chen

2011-11-01

209

Theoretical and practical considerations behind the use of laboratory animals for the study of Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

In the present manuscript we review a substantial body of literature describing several pre-clinical animal models designed and developed with the purpose of investigating the biological determinants of Tourette syndrome (TS). In order to map the animal models onto the theoretical background upon which they have been devised, we first define phenomenological and etiological aspects of TS and then match this information to the available pre-clinical models. Thus, we first describe the characteristic symptoms exhibited by TS patients and then a series of hypotheses attempting to identify the multifactorial causes of TS. With respect to the former, we detail the phenomenology of abnormal repetitive behaviors (tics and stereotypies), obsessive-compulsive behaviors and aberrant sensory-motor gating. With respect to the latter, we describe both potential candidate vulnerability genes and environmental factors (difficult pregnancies, psychosocial stressors and infections). We then discuss how this evidence has been translated in pre-clinical research with respect to both dependent (symptoms) and independent (etiological factors) variables. Thus, while, on the one hand, we detail the methodologies adopted to measure abnormal repetitive and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and sensory-motor gating, on the other hand, we describe genetic engineering studies and environmental modulations aimed at reproducing the proposed biological determinants in laboratory rodents. A special emphasis is placed upon "programming" events, occurring during critical stages of early development and exerting organizational delayed consequences. In the final section, we outline a heuristic model with the purpose of integrating clinical and pre-clinical evidence in the study of TS. PMID:23583771

Macrì, Simone; Proietti Onori, Martina; Laviola, Giovanni

2013-07-01

210

A novel variable delay Go/No-Go task to study attention, motivation and working memory in the head-fixed rodent  

PubMed Central

In order to parse the causal elements underlying complex behaviors and decision-making processes, appropriate behavioral methods must be developed and used in concurrence with molecular, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches. Presented is a protocol for a novel Go/No-Go behavioral paradigm to study the brain attention and motivation/reward circuitry in awake, head-restrained rodents. This experimental setup allows: (1) Pharmacological and viral manipulation of various brain regions via targeted guide cannula; (2) Optogenetic cell-type specific activation and silencing with simultaneous electrophysiological recording and; (3) Repeated electrophysiological single and multiple unit recordings during ongoing behavior. The task consists of three components. The subject first makes an observing response by initiating a trial by lever pressing in response to distinctive Go or No-Go tones.  Then, after a variable delay period, the subject is presented with a challenge period cued by white noise during which they must respond with a lever press for the Go condition or withhold from lever pressing for the duration of the cue in the No-Go condition. After correctly responding during the challenge period (Challenge) and a brief delay, a final reward tone of the same frequency as the initiation tone is presented and sucrose reward delivery is available and contingent upon lever pressing. Here, we provide a novel procedure and validating data set that allows researchers to study and manipulate components of behavior such as attention, motivation, impulsivity, and reward-related working memory during an ongoing operant behavioral task while limiting interference from non task-related behaviors.

Cooper, Donald C

2014-01-01

211

Diffuse Interstellar Bands: A Combined Laboratory-Astronomical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse Interstellar Bands: A Combined Laboratory-Astronomical Study Abstract A comprehensive exposition of accumulated experimental laboratory and astronomical spectroscopic DIB data implicates the following molecules: (1) the ultra-thermodynamically stable metal-organic molecule magnesium-tetrabenzoporphyrin (MgTBP) situated within (2) a paraffin matrix (referred to as either grains or dust), and (3) a low concentration of pyridine (also within the grains) whose transmission window at 2175 Å accounts for the ubiquitous UV bump. It is proposed that pyridine coordinates to MgTBP to produce the species responsible for the DIB features. The strongest DIB at 4428.19Å is matched precisely with the most prominent laboratory-measured absorption Soret band of MgTBP at 4428.2Å, including its FWHM value; likewise the next strongest DIB at 6284Å correlates with the MgTBP Q band. Over 27 DIBs are matched with low-temperature laboratory Shploskii data of MgTBP in such matrices, to a precision of 1Å. The most recent DIB catalog using HD204827 is provided by L. M. Hobbs et al. (ApJ 680,1256-1270,2008). This catalog lists weak, narrow DIBs consistent with laboratory Shpolskii spectral data. The DIB-laboratory correlations include minimum linewidths and evidence of crystal electric field effects that act to remove the degeneracy of MgTBP's first and second electronic states resulting in a clear display of vibronic spectral bands whose interpretation is now possible using the published complete vibrational data set of MgTBP (see F. M. Johnson Spectrochimica Acta Part A 65 (2006) 1154-1179.)

Johnson, Fred M.

2009-05-01

212

The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber), when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. METHODS: Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for

Ray A Matulka; Michael R Lyon; Simon Wood; Palma Ann Marone; Daniel J Merkel; George A Burdock

2009-01-01

213

Do farming practices influence population dynamics of rodents? A case study of the multimammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in crop fields in Morogoro, Tanzania, to investigate how the popu- lation dynamics of multimammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, was influenced by the commonly practised land preparation methods and cropping systems. Two land pre- paration methods (tractor ploughing and slash and burn) and two cropping systems (mono-cropping with maize and inter-cropping with maize and beans)

A. W. Massawe; W. Rwamugira; H. Leirs; R. H. Makundi; Loth S. Mulungu

2006-01-01

214

Neurochemical study of amino acids in rodent brain structures using an improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

The analysis of amino acid levels is crucial for neuroscience studies because of the roles of these molecules as neurotransmitters and their influence on behavior. The present study describes the distribution and levels of 16 amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, sarcosine, serine, valine, and threonine) in brain tissues (prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum) and the serum. Neurochemical analysis was performed on Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice using an efficient method for extraction, a fast microwave-assisted derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The amino acid concentration varied across brain regions for 14 of the 16 analyzed molecules, with detection limits ranging from 0.02±0.005?molL(-1) to 7.07±0.05?molL(-1). In rats, the concentrations of alanine, glycine, methionine, serine and threonine were higher in prefrontal cortex than in other areas, whereas in mice, the concentrations of glutamic acid, leucine and proline were highest in the hippocampus. In conclusion, this study provides a cerebral profile of amino acids in brain regions and the serum of rats and mice. PMID:24321291

Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; de Paiva, Maria José Nunes; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina; Menezes, Helvécio Costa; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Gomez, Renato Santiago

2014-01-01

215

Short-term exposure of rodents to diesel exhausts: usefulness for studies of genotoxic and immunotoxic effects.  

PubMed

An exposure facility was tested with regard to the information obtainable from short-term animal experiments for the assessment of health hazards from automotive engine exhausts. Indicators of immunotoxicity and genotoxicity were studied in guinea pigs and mice, respectively, exposed for 2 weeks, 8 h/day, to ten times diluted exhausts from a one-cylinder research diesel engine running at constant load. Regulated and non-regulated pollutants were determined. Besides increased number of lavageable cells in the airways, exposed guinea pigs exhibited, after immunization and challenge to ovalbumin, reduced leukotrienes B4 and C4 in lavage fluid and reduced anti-ovalbumin IgG in serum. Absence of increased CYP1A activity indicated that the exposure was below the threshold for induction of these enzymes. Instead a certain reduction of this activity indicated interaction with active enzyme sites. In vivo doses of some reactive metabolites of low molecular mass were measured by adducts to hemoglobin. Doses from aliphatic epoxides were low, in accordance with low hydrocarbon levels in the exhaust. The levels of hemoglobin adducts from aldehydes showed no clearcut influences of exposure. Genetic effects determined by DNA fingerprint analysis were indicated. It is concluded that repeated dose inhalation exposure of small numbers of animals is a useful mode of exposure for studying parameters that may elucidate toxic effects of air pollutants emitted from automotive engines, with a possibility to evaluate engine and fuel with regard to health hazards. PMID:10227576

Nilsen, A; Trønnes, T; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U; Nilsen, O G; Helleberg, H; Kautiainen, A; Hedenskog, M; Törnqvist, M

1999-03-01

216

BASAL AND HYPERCAPNIA-ALTERED CEREBROVASCULAR PERFUSION PREDICT MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN AGING RODENTS: AN MRI STUDY USING FAIR AND BOLD IMAGING  

PubMed Central

With increasing age, a subset of otherwise healthy individuals undergoes impairments in learning and memory that have been termed mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The enhanced neuronal activity associated with learning and memory requires increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) to specific brain regions. However, the interactions between cerebral blood flow and MCI remain unclear. In this study, we address whether baseline or hypercapnia-induced (increased blood CO2 levels) changes in CBF are modified with age, and whether these measures are predictive of cognitive status in rodents. Adult and aged rats were evaluated using a hippocampally-dependent task in a water maze. Aged rats were classified as memory-impaired or memory-intact based on performance comparisons with adult rats. Cerebral blood flow was assessed using flow-alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), before and after breathing 10% CO2. The transition period between CO2 concentrations was examined with blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI. Separation of aged animals into memory-intact and impaired categories revealed increased basal perfusion in the dorsal hippocampus of memory-impaired versus memory-intact aged animals. Linear regression revealed that higher hippocampal perfusion was correlated with impaired memory in aged animals, and a logistic regression indicated that hippocampal perfusion predicted spatial memory ability. Several brain regions of aged rats demonstrated an attenuation of the perfusion increase normally observed in adult rats under hypercapnia. Memory-impaired animals were the primary contributor to this effect, as their perfusion response to hypercapnia was significantly reduced compared to adult animals. Aged, memory-intact animals were not significantly different from adults. BOLD MRI demonstrated a reduced response in aged animals to hypercapnia, with impaired animals being the primary contributor to the effect. A logistic regression model based on basal and hypercapnia perfusion correctly predicted cognitive status in 83.3% of animals tested. Our results indicate that age-related changes in vascular reactivity and perfusion are important contributing factors in memory impairment.

Mitschelen, M.; Garteiser, P.; Carnes, B.A.; Farley, J. A.; Doblas, S.; DeMoe, J.H.; Warrington, J.P.; Yan, H.; Nicolle, M.M.; Towner, R.; Sonntag, W.E.

2009-01-01

217

Rodent models of TDP-43: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Recently, missense mutations in the gene TARDBP encoding TDP-43 have been linked to familial ALS. The discovery of genes encoding these RNA binding proteins, such as TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, raised the notion that altered RNA metabolism is a major factor underlying the pathogenesis of ALS. To begin to unravel how mutations in TDP-43 cause dysfunction and death of motor neurons, investigators have employed both gain- and loss-of-function studies in rodent model systems. Here, we will summarize major findings from the initial sets of TDP-43 transgenic and knockout rodent models, identify their limitations, and point to future directions toward clarification of disease mechanism(s) and testing of therapeutic strategies that ultimately may lead to novel therapy for this devastating disease.

Tsao, William; Jeong, Yun Ha; Lin, Sophie; Ling, Jonathan; Price, Donald L.; Chiang, Po-Min; Wong, Philip C.

2013-01-01

218

Sleep-Wake Sensitive Mechanisms of Adenosine Release in the Basal Forebrain of Rodents: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Adenosine acting in the basal forebrain is a key mediator of sleep homeostasis. Extracellular adenosine concentrations increase during wakefulness, especially during prolonged wakefulness and lead to increased sleep pressure and subsequent rebound sleep. The release of endogenous adenosine during the sleep-wake cycle has mainly been studied in vivo with microdialysis techniques. The biochemical changes that accompany sleep-wake status may be preserved in vitro. We have therefore used adenosine-sensitive biosensors in slices of the basal forebrain (BFB) to study both depolarization-evoked adenosine release and the steady state adenosine tone in rats, mice and hamsters. Adenosine release was evoked by high K+, AMPA, NMDA and mGlu receptor agonists, but not by other transmitters associated with wakefulness such as orexin, histamine or neurotensin. Evoked and basal adenosine release in the BFB in vitro exhibited three key features: the magnitude of each varied systematically with the diurnal time at which the animal was sacrificed; sleep deprivation prior to sacrifice greatly increased both evoked adenosine release and the basal tone; and the enhancement of evoked adenosine release and basal tone resulting from sleep deprivation was reversed by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400 W. These data indicate that characteristics of adenosine release recorded in the BFB in vitro reflect those that have been linked in vivo to the homeostatic control of sleep. Our results provide methodologically independent support for a key role for induction of iNOS as a trigger for enhanced adenosine release following sleep deprivation and suggest that this induction may constitute a biochemical memory of this state.

Sims, Robert Edward; Wu, Houdini Ho Tin; Dale, Nicholas

2013-01-01

219

Sleep-wake sensitive mechanisms of adenosine release in the basal forebrain of rodents: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Adenosine acting in the basal forebrain is a key mediator of sleep homeostasis. Extracellular adenosine concentrations increase during wakefulness, especially during prolonged wakefulness and lead to increased sleep pressure and subsequent rebound sleep. The release of endogenous adenosine during the sleep-wake cycle has mainly been studied in vivo with microdialysis techniques. The biochemical changes that accompany sleep-wake status may be preserved in vitro. We have therefore used adenosine-sensitive biosensors in slices of the basal forebrain (BFB) to study both depolarization-evoked adenosine release and the steady state adenosine tone in rats, mice and hamsters. Adenosine release was evoked by high K(+), AMPA, NMDA and mGlu receptor agonists, but not by other transmitters associated with wakefulness such as orexin, histamine or neurotensin. Evoked and basal adenosine release in the BFB in vitro exhibited three key features: the magnitude of each varied systematically with the diurnal time at which the animal was sacrificed; sleep deprivation prior to sacrifice greatly increased both evoked adenosine release and the basal tone; and the enhancement of evoked adenosine release and basal tone resulting from sleep deprivation was reversed by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400 W. These data indicate that characteristics of adenosine release recorded in the BFB in vitro reflect those that have been linked in vivo to the homeostatic control of sleep. Our results provide methodologically independent support for a key role for induction of iNOS as a trigger for enhanced adenosine release following sleep deprivation and suggest that this induction may constitute a biochemical memory of this state. PMID:23326515

Sims, Robert Edward; Wu, Houdini Ho Tin; Dale, Nicholas

2013-01-01

220

Safety Studies on Intrahepatic or Intratumoral Injection of Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing Interferon-? in Rodents and Nonhuman Primates  

PubMed Central

Abstract Toxicology studies were performed in rats and rhesus macaques to establish a safe starting dose for intratumoral injection of an oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus expressing human interferon-? (VSV-hIFN?) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). No adverse events were observed after administration of 7.59?×?109 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) of VSV-hIFN? into the left lateral hepatic lobe of Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels increased and platelet counts decreased in the virus-treated animals on days 1 and 2 but returned to pretreatment levels by day 4. VSV-hIFN? was also injected into normal livers or an intrahepatic McA-RH7777 HCC xenograft established in Buffalo rats. Buffalo rats were more sensitive to neurotoxic effects of VSV; the no observable adverse event level (NOAEL) of VSV-hIFN? in Buffalo rats was 107 TCID50. Higher doses were associated with fatal neurotoxicity and infectious virus was recovered from tumor and brain. Compared with VSV-hIFN?, toxicity of VSV-rIFN? (recombinant VSV expressing rat IFN-?) was greatly diminished in Buffalo rats (NOAEL, >1010 TCID50). Two groups of two adult male rhesus macaques received 109 or 1010 TCID50 of VSV-hIFN? injected directly into the left hepatic lobe under computed tomographic guidance. No neurological signs were observed at any time point. No abnormalities (hematology, clinical chemistry, body weights, behavior) were seen and all macaques developed neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies. Plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, and hIFN-? remained below detection levels by ELISA. On the basis of these studies, we will be proposing a cautious approach to dose escalation in a phase I clinical trial among patients with HCC.

Jenks, Nathan; Myers, Rae; Greiner, Suzanne M.; Thompson, Jill; Mader, Emily K.; Greenslade, Andrew; Griesmann, Guy E.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Rakela, Jorge; Borad, Mitesh J.; Vile, Richard G.; Barber, Glen N.; Meier, Thomas R.; Blanco, Michael C.; Carlson, Stephanie K.; Russell, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

221

Acetate as an active metabolite of ethanol: studies of locomotion, loss of righting reflex, and anxiety in rodents  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that a number of the central effects of ethanol are mediated via ethanol metabolites: acetaldehyde and acetate. Ethanol is known to produce a large variety of behavioral actions such anxiolysis, narcosis, and modulation of locomotion. Acetaldehyde contributes to some of those effects although the contribution of acetate is less known. In the present studies, rats and mice were used to assess the acute and chronic effects of acetate after central or peripheral administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the comparison between central (intraventricular, ICV) and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of acute doses of acetate on locomotion. CD1 male mice were used to study acute IP effects of acetate on locomotion, and also the effects of chronic oral consumption of acetate (0, 500, or 1000 mg/l, during 7, 15, 30, or 60 days) on ethanol- (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 4.5 g/kg, IP) induced locomotion, anxiolysis, and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In rats, ICV acetate (0.7–2.8 ?moles) reduced spontaneous locomotion at doses that, in the case of ethanol and acetaldehyde, had previously been shown to stimulate locomotion. Peripheral acute administration of acetate also suppressed locomotion in rats (25–100 mg/kg), but not in mice. In addition, although chronic administration of acetate during 15 days did not have an effect on spontaneous locomotion in an open field, it blocked ethanol-induced locomotion. However, ethanol-induced anxiolysis was not affected by chronic administration of acetate. Chronic consumption of acetate (up to 60 days) did not have an effect on latency to, or duration of LORR induced by ethanol, but significantly increased the number of mice that did not achieve LORR. The present work provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that acetate should be considered a centrally-active metabolite of ethanol that contributes to some behavioral effects of this alcohol, such as motor suppression.

Pardo, Marta; Betz, Adrienne J.; San Miguel, Noemi; Lopez-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce

2013-01-01

222

Neutrino Nuclear Responses For Neutrino Studies In Nuclear Femto Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos are key particles for particle and astro-nuclear physics. Majorana neutrino masses and phases, solar and supernova neutrino productions and oscillations, and neutrino nuclear synthesis and fundamental weak interactions are well studied in nuclei as femto laboratories. Here neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for the neutrino studies. This reports briefly experimental studies of neutrino nuclear responses, charge exchange reactions on Ga to study nuclear responses for solar and {sup 51}Cr neutrinos, and {beta}{sup +} neutrino responses for {beta}{beta}-{nu} matrix elements and astro {nu} interactions by photon and muon probes.

Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047, Japan and Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Brehova, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-12-16

223

DNA-based and geometric morphometric analysis to validate species designation: a case study of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys bicolor.  

PubMed

The genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) shows several taxonomic inconsistencies. In this study, we used an integrative approach including DNA sequences, karyotypes, and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the taxonomic validity of a nominal species, Ctenomys bicolor, which was described based on only one specimen in 1912 by Miranda Ribeiro, and since then neglected. We sampled near the type locality assigned to this species and collected 10 specimens. A total of 820 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene were sequenced and analyzed together with nine other species and four morphotypes obtained from GenBank. Bayesian analyses showed that C. bicolor is monophyletic and related to the Bolivian-Matogrossense group, a clade that originated about 3 mya. We compared the cranial shape through morphometric geometrics of C. bicolor, including the specimen originally sampled in 1912, with other species representative of the same phylogenetic group (C. boliviensis and C. steinbachi). C. bicolor shows unique skull traits that distinguish it from all other currently known taxa. Our findings confirm that the specimen collected by Miranda Ribeiro is a valid species, and improve the knowledge about Ctenomys in the Amazon region. PMID:24301764

Stolz, J F B; Gonçalves, G L; Leipnitz, L; Freitas, T R O

2013-01-01

224

To Investigate Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Potential of Safrole in Rodents by in-vivo and in-vitro Study.  

PubMed

In the present investigation anti-diabetic and in-vitro antioxidant potential of safrole were evaluated (100 and 200?mg/kg p.o.) in acute and chronic Streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ) induced antihyperglycemic rat model. The oral administration of safrole for 30 days affects the level of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids, high density lipoprotein (HDL), body weight, insulin level, liver glycogen content, antioxidant parameters, lipase, ?-amylase in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of safrole at dose 100 & 200?mg/kg p.o. significantly improve the diabetic condition in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In enzymatic assay, the IC50 value of the safrole for ?-amylase and lipase was found to be 702.78 and 861.35??g/ml respectively which was found comparable with the standard drug (ascorbic acid) as 252.12??g/ml. Further studies can be performed on safrole for mechanistic and toxicological aspects so that it can be investigated as a new substance for the management of various diseases. PMID:24132706

Rani, S; Sharma, S; Kumar, S

2014-06-01

225

DHA effect on chemotherapy-induced body weight loss: an exploratory study in a rodent model of mammary tumors.  

PubMed

Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (P< 0.01) in rats fed the control diet, it did not induce body weight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect. PMID:23035949

Hajjaji, Nawale; Couet, Charles; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe

2012-01-01

226

Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.  

PubMed

Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans. PMID:24639295

Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

2014-05-01

227

Laboratory studies of steam stripping of LNAPL?contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench?scale laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam injection for in situ remediation of soils contaminated by light nonaqueous?phase liquids (LNAPLs). Several parametric studies were performed with various combinations of soils, LNAPLs, and steam injection conditions.An increase in steam injection pressure produced a significant increase in LNAPL recovery efficiency. An increase in steam injection pressure from 12.4

A. Hadim; F. H. Shah; G. P. Korfiatis

1993-01-01

228

Laboratory study of potential induced degradation of silicon photovoltaic modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard system architecture of PV installations exposes solar modules to bias voltages of several hundred volts. Recently it became apparent that high bias voltages can have negative effects on the long-term performance of standard screen-printed crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper focuses on the study of this potential induced degradation effect (PID) under laboratory conditions. A corona-discharge assembly was

M. Schutze; M. Junghanel; M. B. Koentopp; S. Cwikla; S. Friedrich; J. W. Muller; P. Wawer

2011-01-01

229

Tracking genome organization in rodents by Zoo-FISH.  

PubMed

The number of rodent species examined by modern comparative genomic approaches, particularly chromosome painting, is limited. The use of human whole-chromosome painting probes to detect regions of homology in the karyotypes of the rodent index species, the mouse and rat, has been hindered by the highly rearranged nature of their genomes. In contrast, recent studies have demonstrated that non-murid rodents display more conserved genomes, underscoring their suitability for comparative genomic and higher-order systematic studies. Here we provide the first comparative chromosome maps between human and representative rodents of three major rodent lineages Castoridae, Pedetidae and Dipodidae. A comprehensive analysis of these data and those published for Sciuridae show (1) that Castoridae, Pedetidae and Dipodidae form a monophyletic group, and (2) that the European beaver Castor fiber (Castoridae) and the birch mouse Sicista betulina (Dipodidae) are sister species to the exclusion of the springhare Pedetes capensis (Pedetidae), thus resolving an enduring trifurcation in rodent higher-level systematics. Our results together with published data on the Sciuridae allow the formulation of a putative rodent ancestral karyotype (2n = 50) that is thought to comprise the following 26 human chromosomal segments and/or segmental associations: HSA1pq, 1q/10p, 2pq, 2q, 3a, 3b/19p, 3c/21, 4b, 5, 6, 7a, 7b/16p, 8p/4a/8p, 8q, 9/11, 10q, 12a/22a, 12b/22b, 13, 14/15, 16q/19q, 17, 18, 20, X and Y. These findings provide insights into the likely composition of the ancestral rodent karyotype and an improved understanding of placental genome evolution. PMID:18266061

Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang; Dobigny, Gauthier; Romanenko, Svetlana A; Biltueva, Larisa S; Perelman, Polina L; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Alkalaeva, Elena Z; Serdukova, Natalya A; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Murphy, William J; Robinson, Terence J

2008-01-01

230

Systematic studies of Oryzomyine rodents (Muridae, Sigmodontinae): diagnoses and distributions of species formerly assigned to Oryzomys 'capito'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the morphological species-boundaries and geographic distributions of ten Neotropical Oryzomys based on analyses of museum specimens (skins and skulls, examples preserved in fluid, chromosomal spreads, and information about collection sites from skin tags, field catalogs, and other sources). These species have been regarded as members of an Oryzomys capito complex and for a long time were consolidated into a single entity identified as O. capito. Our study documents the following: 1. Defining the limits of species within the O. capito complex first requires a comprehensive review and rigorous definition of O. capito itself. We consider Fischer's (1814) Mus megacephalus to be valid and available, designate a neotype to bear the name, and reinstate it as a senior synonym of capito Olfers (1818). We then provide a working definition of O. megacephalus and its close relative, O. laticeps, derived from analyses of morphometric variation, estimates of geographic distributions, and evaluations of synonyms. In our view, O. megacephalus occurs in Amazonia but also extends into eastern Paraguay; its synonyms are capito Olfers (1818), cephalotes Desmarest (1819), velutinus Allen and Chapman (1893), goeldi Thomas (1897), modestus Allen (1899), and perenensis Allen (1901). Oryzomys laticeps Lund (1840) occurs in the Atlantic Forest region of eastern Brazil. We designate a lectotype for laticeps and allocate the names saltator Winge (1887) and oniscus Thomas (1904) as synonyms. 2. We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of Oryzomys yunganus Thomas (1902). Its range covers tropical evergreen rainforest formations in the Guiana region and the Amazon Basin where, as documented by voucher specimens, it has been collected at the same localities as O. megacephalus, O. nitidus, and O. tern of carotid arterial circulation, occlusal patterns of second upper and lower molars, cranial proportions, and chromosomal features. Appreciable intraspecific geographic variation occurs in diploid number of chromosomes and frequency of occurrence of the hypothenar plantar pad, but sampling inadequacies obscure the significance of this variation. Large body size is characteristic of populations in the western Amazon Basin and in the tepui region of eastern Venezuela; smaller size characterizes populations in the Guianas and along the eastern margin of the Amazon Basin. No other scientific name has been correctly associated with the species. Samples from Mirador, Palmera, and Mera in the western Andean foothills of central Ecuador possess a combination of pelage, cranial, and dental traits that distinguish them from all samples of O. yunganus. These specimens are the basis for a new species we describe here, one that is more closely related to O. yunganus than to any other member of the former O. 'capito' complex. 3. We redescribe Oryzomys bolivaris (reviewed by Pine, 1971, under the name O. bombycinus), amplify its geographic range, and contrast it with O. talamancae and O. alfaroi, two sympatric congeners often confused with it. A distinctive set of morphological traits allows unambiguous identification of specimens belonging to O. bolivaris. It is a trans-Andean species recorded from very wet tropical evergreen rainforests extending from eastern Honduras and Nicaragua through Costa Rica and Panama to western Colombia and Ecuador. Allen's (1901) bolivaris is the oldest name for this species; castaneus Allen (1901), rivularis Allen (1901), bombycinus Goldman (1912), alleni Goldman (1915), and orinus Pearson (1939) are synonyms. 4. We revise the definition of Oryzomys talamancae Allen (1891) provided by Musser and Williams (1985), document additional specimens, describe karyotypes from Ecuadoran and Venezuelan samples, and contrast its morphology, chromosomes, and distribution with those of O. alfaroi and O. megacephalus. The geographic distribution of O. talamancae is also trans-Andean, but it inh

Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D; Brothers, E.M.; Gardner, A.L.

1998-01-01

231

Evidence for novel hepaciviruses in rodents.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species). Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8%) of 1,465 European bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and 10 (1.9%) of 518 South African four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%). Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage efforts to develop rodent surrogate models for HCV. PMID:23818848

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Lukashev, Alexander N; Gmyl, Anatoly; Coutard, Bruno; Adam, Alexander; Ritz, Daniel; Leijten, Lonneke M; van Riel, Debby; Kallies, Rene; Klose, Stefan M; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Rupp, Daniel; Hoffmann, Bernd; Schlegel, Mathias; Kümmerer, Beate M; Krüger, Detlev H; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar; Cottontail, Veronika M; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Osterrieder, Klaus; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Matthee, Sonja; Beer, Martin; Kuiken, Thijs; Reusken, Chantal; Leroy, Eric M; Ulrich, Rainer G; Drosten, Christian

2013-01-01

232

Inducible rodent models of acquired podocyte diseases.  

PubMed

Glomerular diseases remain the leading cause of chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Significant advances in our understanding of human glomerular diseases have been enabled by the development and better characterization of animal models. Diseases of the glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) account for the majority of proteinuric diseases. Rodents have been extensively used experimentally to better define mechanisms of disease induction and progression, as well as to identify potential targets and therapies. The development of podocyte-specific genetically modified mice has energized the research field to better understand which animal models are appropriate to study acquired podocyte diseases. In this review we discuss inducible experimental models of acquired nondiabetic podocyte diseases in rodents, namely, passive Heymann nephritis, puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, adriamycin nephrosis, liopolysaccharide, crescentic glomerulonephritis, and protein overload nephropathy models. Details are given on the model backgrounds, how to induce each model, the interpretations of the data, and the benefits and shortcomings of each. Genetic rodent models of podocyte injury are excluded. PMID:18784259

Pippin, Jeffrey W; Brinkkoetter, Paul T; Cormack-Aboud, Fionnualla C; Durvasula, Raghu V; Hauser, Peter V; Kowalewska, Jolanta; Krofft, Ronald D; Logar, Christine M; Marshall, Caroline B; Ohse, Takamoto; Shankland, Stuart J

2009-02-01

233

Molecular detection of divergent trypanosomes among rodents of Thailand.  

PubMed

Herpetosoma is a homogenous subgenus of several dozen named species that are often described as morphologically indistinguishable T. lewisi-like parasites. These trypanosomes normally infect rodents and utilize fleas as vectors. Although this trypanosome subgenus is considered non-pathogenic to normal hosts, some of them are on rare occasion reported in association with human disease. Recently, a T. lewisi-like infection was detected in a sick Thai infant, thus the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of T. lewisi infections among different rodents indigenous to Thailand in order to identify possible sources of human cases. Blood was collected from a total of 276 rodents trapped from urban and rural areas of three Thai provinces between 2006 and 2007. These samples were processed for DNA isolation and tested with a PCR assay universal for the genus Trypanosoma, followed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) sequence analysis to identify infections in positive samples. Herpetosoma known as T. lewisi-like trypanosomes were present among Rattus (14.3%) and Bandicota (18.0%) rodent species and salivarian trypanosomes closely related to T. evansi were detected in Leopoldamys (20%) and Rattus (2.0%) species. Herpetosoma were prevalent among rodents associated with both human and sylvatic habitats, while three of the four salivaria-positive rodents were from a forest biotope. A Herpetosoma ITS-1 sequence amplified from one of these samples was 97.9% identical to that reported for T. lewisi in an experimentally infected rat and 96.4% identical to the sequence amplified from blood from a Thai infant. Habitats where rodents were collected significantly affect rodent infection, at least for T. lewisi, suggesting that the degree of anthropization may influence the transmission of Trypanosoma spp. These results suggest that multiple Herpetosoma species or strains are enzootic to Thailand, and that Rattus and Bandicota species are possible sources of human exposure to these parasites. PMID:17904918

Jittapalapong, S; Inpankaew, T; Sarataphan, N; Herbreteau, V; Hugot, J P; Morand, S; Stich, R W

2008-07-01

234

Sensitization to rodents (mouse/rat) in urban atopic populations without occupational exposure living in Campania district (Southern Italy): a multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background Up to now very few data on allergic sensitization to rodent allergens in Western Europe and Italy are available, and there are no information at district level. The aim of this report was to investigate clinical significance and characteristics of allergic sensitization to mouse/rat (M/Rt) allergens in atopic subjects living in Campania district (Southern Italy). Methods Allergists from the whole Campania district were required to report the results of skin prick tests of at least 100 consecutive subjects. In 1,477 consecutive outpatients, we selected all subjects with an immediate skin reaction to M/Rt dander. Clinical history including a careful evaluation of the modality of exposure and the results of skin-prick tests (SPTs) were recorded. Results Fifty seven patients were sensitized to M/Rt dander (5.78%). Two patients were mono-sensitized. Fourteen patients reported indoor conditions suggesting presence of rodents allergens at home. All patients exhibited low-moderate degree of SPT positivity to M/Rt. High frequency of concomitant allergic sensitization to dust mites was found. Conclusions Our results suggest that the role of allergic sensitization to rodents is not negligible in atopic subjects without occupational exposure living in Campania district area; these values are higher in comparison to those previously found in Naples area. Highly atopic individuals should be tested by SPTs/evaluation of serum specific IgE to rodents in the case they should begin an occupational exposure to M/Rt or keep these animals as pets.

2013-01-01

235

Immunological Mechanisms Mediating Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses, similar to several emerging zoonotic viruses, persistently infect their natural reservoir hosts, without causing overt signs of disease. Spillover to incidental human hosts results in morbidity and mortality mediated by excessive proinflammatory and cellular immune responses. The mechanisms mediating the persistence of hantaviruses and the absence of clinical symptoms in rodent reservoirs are only starting to be uncovered. Recent studies indicate that during hantavirus infection, proinflammatory and antiviral responses are reduced and regulatory responses are elevated at sites of increased virus replication in rodents. The recent discovery of structural and non-structural proteins that suppress type I interferon responses in humans suggests that immune responses in rodent hosts could be mediated directly by the virus. Alternatively, several host factors, including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, and genetic factors, are reported to alter host susceptibility and may contribute to persistence of hantaviruses in rodents. Humans and reservoir hosts differ in infection outcomes and in immune responses to hantavirus infection; thus, understanding the mechanisms mediating viral persistence and the absence of disease in rodents may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of disease in humans. Consideration of the coevolutionary mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence and rodent host survival is providing insight into the mechanisms by which zoonotic viruses have remained in the environment for millions of years and continue to be transmitted to humans.

Easterbrook, Judith D.; Klein, Sabra L.

2008-01-01

236

A Laboratory Study of Heterogeneity and Scaling in Geologic Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rocks and soils, the bulk geophysical and transport properties of the matrix and of fracture systems are determined by the juxtaposition of geometric features at many length scales. For sedimentary materials the length scales are: the pore scale (irregularities in grain surface roughness and cementation), the scale of grain packing faults (and the resulting correlated porosity structures), the scale dominated by sorting or winnowing due to depositional processes, and the scale of geomorphology at the time of deposition. We are studying the heterogeneity and anisotropy in geometry, permeability, and geophysical response from the pore (microscopic), laboratory (mesoscopic), and backyard field (macroscopic) scales. In turn these data are being described and synthesized for development of mathematical models. Eventually, we will perform parameter studies to explore these models in the context of transport in the vadose and saturated zones. We have developed a multi-probe physical properties scanner which allows for the mapping of geophysical properties on a slabbed sample or core. This device allows for detailed study of heterogeneity at those length scales most difficult to quantify using standard field and laboratory practices. The measurement head consists of a variety of probes designed to make local measurements of various properties, including: gas permeability, acoustic velocities (compressional and shear), complex electrical impedance (4 electrode, wide frequency coverage), and ultrasonic reflection (ultrasonic impedance and permeability). We can thus routinely generate detailed geophysical maps of a particular sample. We are testing and modifying these probes as necessary for use on soil samples. As a baseline study we have been characterizing the heterogeneity of a bench-size Berea sandstone block. Berea Sandstone has long been regarded as a laboratory standard in rock properties studies, owing to its uniformity and ``typical'' physical properties. We find that both permeability and velocity exhibit complex heterogeneity at the centimeter scale. While some correlation with the outcropping of the bedding is apparent, much of the heterogeneity is not clearly associated with visual features. For the study of soil heterogeneity at a wide range of scales, we are focusing on a local glacial deposit. This deposit is a glacial kame terrace of fluvial origin with multi-scale sedimentary structures comprised of unconsolidated sands, clays, and gravels. There are also many joints and faults in the unconsolidated sediments, allowing study of these as potential fluid flow conduits or barriers. We have obtained undisturbed soil samples from this site, allowing detailed laboratory study using similar methods to those described for the sandstone block.

Brown, S.; Boitnott, G.; Bussod, G.; Hagan, P.

2004-05-01

237

A Laboratory Study of Heterogeneity and Scaling in Geologic Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rocks and soils, the bulk geophysical and transport properties of the matrix and of fracture systems are determined by the juxtaposition of geometric features at many length scales. For sedimentary materials the length scales are: the pore scale (irregularities in grain surface roughness and cementation), the scale of grain packing faults (and the resulting correlated porosity structures), the scale dominated by sorting or winnowing due to depositional processes, and the scale of geomorphology at the time of deposition. We are studying the heterogeneity and anisotropy in geometry, permeability, and geophysical response from the pore (microscopic), laboratory (mesoscopic), and backyard field (macroscopic) scales. In turn these data are being described and synthesized for development of mathematical models. Eventually, we will perform parameter studies to explore these models in the context of transport in the vadose and saturated zones. We have developed a multi-probe physical properties scanner which allows for the mapping of geophysical properties on a slabbed sample or core. This device allows for detailed study of heterogeneity at those length scales most difficult to quantify using standard field and laboratory practices. The measurement head consists of a variety of probes designed to make local measurements of various properties, including: gas permeability, acoustic velocities (compressional and shear), complex electrical impedance (4 electrode, wide frequency coverage), and ultrasonic reflection (ultrasonic impedance and permeability). We can thus routinely generate detailed geophysical maps of a particular sample. With the exception of the acoustic velocity, we are testing and modifying these probes as necessary for use on soil samples. As a baseline study we have been characterizing the heterogeneity of a bench-size Berea sandstone block. Berea Sandstone has long been regarded as a laboratory standard in rock properties studies, owing to its uniformity and ``typical'' physical properties. We find that both permeability and velocity exhibit complex heterogeneity at the centimeter scale. While some correlation with the outcropping of the bedding is apparent, much of the heterogeneity is not clearly associated with visual features. For the study of soil heterogeneity at a wide range of scales, we are focusing on a local glacial deposit. This deposit is a glacial kame terrace of fluvial origin with multi-scale sedimentary structures comprised of unconsolidated sands, clays, and gravels. There are also many joints and faults in the unconsolidated sediments, allowing study of these as potential fluid flow conduits or barriers. We have obtained undisturbed soil samples from this site, allowing detailed laboratory study using similar methods to those described for the sandstone block.

Brown, S.; Boitnott, G.; Smith, M.

2003-12-01

238

Oral disorders of exotic rodents.  

PubMed

Our dental knowledge of rodents is still patchy but their increasing popularity and advances in technology allow us to make good strides toward better understanding. Cutting incisors with nail clippers and treating incisor problems without examining cheek teeth is no longer acceptable. Good practice dictates that a thorough examination is performed, a diagnosis is made, and treatment is planned and executed appropriately. Dentistry is expanding at a tremendous rate; the next few years should provide plenty of opportunities to solve most of the remaining problems with dental disease in rodents. PMID:14534975

Legendre, Loïc F

2003-09-01

239

METABOLIC AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF THE RAT MAINTAINED IN ACRYLIC OR WIRE-SCREEN CAGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory rodents are usually housed and studied in cages with walls and floor made of ventilated metal or solid plastic materials. It should be recognized that a rodent's thermoregulatory requirements will vary in metal and plastic cages; and it is likely that its metabolic res...

240

Laboratory and community studies of aircraft noise effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise effects programs objective is to develop aircraft noise criteria and noise reduction methods for achieving greater community and passenger acceptance of air transportation systems. The approach consists of laboratory tests to subjectively evaluate the properties of aircraft-generated noise that are responsible for causing annoyance and field surveys to study the broader problems of community and passenger acceptability. The program is organized into two major thrusts: community acceptance and passenger acceptance. The community acceptance includes subjective response studies of single and multiple aircraft overflights as well as longer term community noise exposure. Emphasis is on the development of units and indices which accurately quantify annoyance. The passenger acceptance program includes studies to determine acceptably levels of interior noise and vibration for speech intelligibility and comfort of crew and passengers. Selected results from several recent studies are presented to indicate the nature, scope, and methods of the research program.

Stephens, D. G.; Powell, C. A.

1978-01-01

241

Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheng, Chin-Min

242

Neutrino Nuclear Responses for Neutrino Studies in Nuclear Femto Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental properties of neutrinos and neutrino nuclear interactions are of great interest from particle and astro-nuclear physics view points. They are well studied in nuclear femto laboratories, where neutrino nuclear responses are crucial. Neutrino masses and neutrino natures are studied by neutrino-less double beta decays (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) in nuclei. Here neutrino nuclear responses are required to extract neutrino properties from 0{nu}{beta}{beta} rates. Neutrino nuclear responses are sensitive to nuclear spin isospin correlations and nuclear structures. They are experimentally studied by nuclear probes for charge exchange nuclear reactions, photon EM probes for photo-nuclear reactions, and lepton probes for muon and neutrino capture reactions.

Ejiri, Hiroyasu [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Brehova, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-11-24

243

A new dust generator for laboratory dust emission studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to develop a cheap and replicable dust generator for production and investigation of fugitive dusts. We call the device the Easy Dust Generator (EDG). The EDG was constructed with common materials widely available in any laboratory so that it can be replicating anywhere in the world. In order to evaluate the performance of EDG, six repetitions of dust emissions on clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam soils were measured. According to Gill et al. (2006), the EDG is a "Class C" dust generator. The emission curves obtained with EDG were similar to those obtained with other "Class C" dust generators such as the Lubbock dust generation sampling and analysis systems (LDGASS) and the Southard Laboratory dust generator, but with some differences in the absolute values. Maximum PM10 concentration was higher in fine texture than in coarse-textured soils. The average PM10 concentration and PM10 emissions per grams of soil ordered in the sequence loamy-sand < sandy loam < silt loam < clay loam. These results are in agreement with previous studies where PM10 emissions were higher in fine soils than in coarse soils. The standard deviation (SD) of the averaged PM10 concentration of all analyzed soils varied between 10% and 13%, being these values similar to those reported using other dust generator (from 6% to 24%). We concluded that the EDG can be reproduced anywhere in the world by using common materials and reliable PM10 emission measurements with good repeatability.

Mendez, Mariano J.; Panebianco, Juan E.; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

2013-03-01

244

Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite  

SciTech Connect

This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

1982-06-01

245

Laboratory Based Case Studies: Closer to the Real World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case-based laboratories offer students the chance to approximate real science. Based on interesting stories that pose problems requiring experimental solutions, they avoid the cookbook approach characteristic of traditional undergraduate laboratory instruction. Instead, case-based laboratories challenge students to develop, as much as possible,…

Dinan, Frank J.

2005-01-01

246

Laboratory Based Case Studies: Closer to the Real World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Case-based laboratories offer students the chance to approximate real science. Based on interesting stories that pose problems requiring experimental solutions, they avoid the cookbook approach characteristic of traditional undergraduate laboratory instruction. Instead, case-based laboratories challenge students to develop, as much as possible, their own experimental procedures, and to think about and interpret the significance of the results they obtain.

Dinan, Frank J.

2005-10-01

247

Qualitative and quantitative study on drainage networks at laboratory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although simulated drainage networks at the laboratory scale would represent highly-simplified models of natural drainages, they would provide a significant contribute to the comprehension of the complex dynamics governing the fluvial systems. Laboratory experiments also give the advantage to detect transient growth phases shedding some light on the knowledge of temporal and spatial landform evolution. Perhaps, pioneering laboratory experiments on

G. Oliveto; D. Palma; A. di Domenico

2009-01-01

248

Native Rodent Species Are Unlikely Sources of Infection for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in Madre de Dios, Peru  

PubMed Central

An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V.) braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail) were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%), Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%), and Proechimys spp. (12%). All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V.) braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region.

Shender, Lisa A.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

2014-01-01

249

Prospective Power Calculations for the Four Lab Study of A Multigenerational Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Rodent Bioassay Using A Complex Mixture of Disinfection By-Products in the Low-Response Region  

PubMed Central

In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA’s Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90%) to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss.

Dingus, Cheryl A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Narotsky, Michael G.

2011-01-01

250

Nitrogen miscible displacement of light crude oil; A laboratory study--  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive laboratory study of N{sub 2} miscible flooding for enhanced recovery of light crude oil was performed. The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) of N{sub 2} is a major constraint to its EOR application, so an empirical correlation for MMP estimation was developed and found to be reliable. Supporting work included many in-house slim-tube displacement determinations of MMP and the compilation and analysis of previously published data. The reservoir fluid composition, especially the amounts of the methane and ethane-through-pentane fractions, was found to be the major determining factor for miscibility. High-pressure coreflooding tests with sandstone cores were performed to evaluate the effects of gravity stability and injection mode on the N{sub 2} miscible process. N{sub 2}-gas miscible flooding successfully recovered most of the oil from laboratory cores. Gravity-stable and gravity-unstable displacements gave different oil recoveries, as did secondary and tertiary N{sub 2} displacements.

Hudgins, D.A.; Llave, F.M.; Chung, F.T.H. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (US))

1990-02-01

251

Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in urban rodents: a survey in Niamey, Niger  

PubMed Central

A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of Niamey, Niger. A low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. However, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal Mastomys natalensis, Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, while garden-associated Arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. This is in line with previous studies on tropical rodents - that we reviewed here - which altogether show that Toxoplasma seroprevalence in rodent is highly variable, depending on many factors such as locality and/or species. Moreover, although we were not able to decipher statistically between habitat or species effect, such a contrast between Nile grass rats and the other rodent species points towards a potentially important role of environmental toxoplasmic infection. This would deserve to be further scrutinised since intra-city irrigated cultures are extending in Niamey, thus potentially increasing Toxoplasma circulation in this yet semi-arid region. As far as we are aware of, our study is one of the rare surveys of its kind performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and the first one ever conducted in the Sahel.

Mercier, Aurelien; Garba, Madougou; Bonnabau, Henri; Kane, Mamadou; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Darde, Marie-Laure; Dobigny, Gauthier

2013-01-01

252

Assays of homeopathic remedies in rodent behavioural and psychopathological models.  

PubMed

The first part of this paper reviews the effects of homeopathic remedies on several models of anxiety-like behaviours developed and described in rodents. The existing literature in this field comprises some fifteen exploratory studies, often published in non-indexed and non-peer-reviewed journals. Only a few results have been confirmed by multiple laboratories, and concern Ignatia, Gelsemium, Chamomilla (in homeopathic dilutions/potencies). Nevertheless, there are some interesting results pointing to the possible efficacy of other remedies, and confirming a statistically significant effect of high dilutions of neurotrophic molecules and antibodies. In the second part of this paper we report some recent results obtained in our laboratory, testing Aconitum, Nux vomica, Belladonna, Argentum nitricum, Tabacum (all 5CH potency) and Gelsemium (5, 7, 9 and 30CH potencies) on mice using ethological models of behaviour. The test was performed using coded drugs and controls in double blind (operations and calculations). After an initial screening that showed all the tested remedies (except for Belladonna) to have some effects on the behavioural parameters (light-dark test and open-field test), but with high experimental variability, we focused our study on Gelsemium, and carried out two complete series of experiments. The results showed that Gelsemium had several effects on the exploratory behaviour of mice, which in some models were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), in all the dilutions/dynamizations used, but with complex differences according to the experimental conditions and test performed. Finally, some methodological issues of animal research in this field of homeopathy are discussed. The "Gelsemium model" - encompassing experimental studies in vitro and in vivo from different laboratories and with different methods, including significant effects of its major active principle gelsemine - may play a pivotal rule for investigations on other homeopathic remedies. PMID:19945676

Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Conforti, Anita

2009-10-01

253

Laboratory simulation of space aerodynamic phenomena - Satellite wake studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reasons for and the results of laboratory simulation studies of space plasma flow over obstacles are discussed in the context of satellite-ionosphere interactions and of forthcoming Skylab experiments. So far, it appears that ions passing through the plasma sheath are focused onto the wake axis, thereby creating an enhanced ion current which peaks at approximately a 'Mach' number of radii downstream from floating spherical bodies. The location of the peak enhancement shows a hyperbolic dependence on body potential, while its structure depends on the body cross-sectional geometry rather than on the axial dimension. There is a corresponding enhancement of the electron current coexistent with the ion-current enhancement. An electron temperature enhancement can sometimes occur in the near-wake 'ion void' region with a magnitude inversely proportional to charged particle density. Some supplementary experiments are suggested to support the planned Skylab experiments.

Samir, U.; Oran, W. A.; Stone, N. H.

1974-01-01

254

Materials damage due to acid deposition - A laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory tests is being carried out which supports a field study of materials damage due to acid deposition which is being carried out at present in California. Galvanized steel, nickel, two types of house paint and concrete are exposed in 28-day tests to humid air containing 1 ppm of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/, a mixture of these three pollutants or aerosols such as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or HNO/sub 3/. Also exposed in the test chamber are nickel and zinc atmospheric corrosion rate monitors (ACRMs) which supply a continuous record of the instantaneous corrosion rate and the time-of-wetness, t/sub w/. The results obtained so far show that the pollutants affect corrosion rates and t/sub w/ by varying degrees, with SO/sub 2/ having by far the largest effect.

Mansfield, F.; Jeanjaquet, S.L.; Vijayakumar, R.

1987-01-01

255

NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

256

Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter  

SciTech Connect

North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

1980-01-01

257

Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat).

Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

2004-01-01

258

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN MALE RODENTS  

PubMed Central

The hormonal factors and neural circuitry that control copulation are similar across rodent species, although there are differences in specific behavior patterns. Both estradiol (E) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) contribute to the activation of mating, although E is more important for copulation and DHT, for genital reflexes. Hormonal activation of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is most effective, although implants in the medial amygdala (MeA) can also stimulate mounting in castrates. Chemosensory inputs from the main and accessory olfactory systems are the most important stimuli for mating in rodents, especially in hamsters, although genitosensory input also contributes. Dopamine agonists facilitate sexual behavior, and serotonin (5-HT) is generally inhibitory, though certain 5-HT receptor subtypes facilitate erection or ejaculation. Norepinephrine agonists and opiates have dose-dependent effects, with low doses facilitating and high doses inhibiting behavior.

Hull, Elaine M.; Dominguez, Juan M.

2007-01-01

259

Laboratory Scale Antifoam Studies for the STTPB Process  

SciTech Connect

Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration, and washing steps. Conclusions are if air entrainment in the slurry is carefully avoided, little or no foam will be generated during normal operations during precipitation, concentration, and washing of the precipitate. Three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated KTPB slurry using the proposed STTPB process precipitation, concentration and washing steps. In all cases little or no foam formed during normal operations of precipitation, concentration and washing. Foam was produced by purposely-introducing gas sub-surface into the slurry. Once produced, the IIT B52 antifoam was effective in defoaming the slurry. In separate foam column tests, all antifoam/defoam agents were effective in mitigating foam formation and in defoaming a foamed 10 wt % insoluble solids slurry. Based on the results in this report as well as foam column studies at IIT, it is recommended that IIT B52 antifoam at the 1000 ppmV level be used in subsequent STTPB work where foaming is a concern. This study indicates that the addition of antifoam agent hinders the recovery of NaTPB during washing. Washing precipitate with no antifoam agent added had the highest level of NaTPB recovery, but had the shortest overall washing time ({approximately}19 hours) compared to 26-28 hours for antifoam runs. The solubilities of the three candidate antifoam/defoam agents were measured in a 4.7 M sodium salt solution. The Surfynol DF-110D defoamer was essentially insoluble while the two IIT antifoamers; Particle Modifier (PM) and B52 were soluble to at least the 2000 ppmV level.

Baich, M.A.

2001-02-13

260

[Intraocular pressure measurement in rodents].  

PubMed

The ability to measure intraocular pressure in rodents is very important for the advancement of glaucoma research. This review article describes various currently used methods, such as, microcannulation, servo-null micropipette, Tonopen tonometer, rebound tonometer, Goldmann applanation tonometer, Schiötz indentation tonometer, pneumatonometer, and optic interferometry tonometer. Their principles of operation, advantages and limitations, as well as a calibration method are also discussed. PMID:18953904

Pang, Iok-hou; Wang, Wan-heng; Millar, J Cameron; Clark, Abbot F

2008-05-01

261

Persistence of brodifacoum in cockroach and woodlice: implications for secondary poisoning during rodent eradications.  

PubMed

When planning rodent eradications, that normally involve the use of the anticoagulant poison brodifacoum, it is imperative to minimise impacts on other "non-target" species that dwell alongside the targeted rodents and may indeed be the intended beneficiaries of the eradication. Such impacts can arise either from primary poisoning when the non-target species ingest bait pellets containing toxicant or by secondary poisoning when the non-target species eats prey that has itself eaten brodifacoum. Cockroaches and woodlice, likely to scavenge bait pellets, are widely distributed on tropical and sub-tropical islands where they are eaten by ground-dwelling birds. Combining work on Henderson Island, South Pacific, site of a recent rat eradication project, and UK laboratory experiments, our study first measured brodifacoum concentrations in cockroaches given temporary ad lib access to poison bait pellets, approximately mimicking the aftermath of bait distribution for a rodent eradication. In two separate experiments using different species/exposure times, the mean brodifacoum concentrations among cockroaches immediately after bait exposure was 262±s.e. 131 and 477±168µgkg(-1) wet weight. Values decreased quickly in the following 2 weeks, and then continued to decline at a slower rate over the following 4 weeks in the more prolonged laboratory experiment. A supplementary experiment with woodlice recorded a similar brodifacoum concentration in the animals at the end of the exposure period, 223±66µgkg(-1), and a similar time course for the post-exposure decline. In the context of rails (Rallidae), a group of birds known to be particularly susceptible to primary brodifacoum poisoning, these results suggested that, in terms of acute exposure, individual birds would need to eat a minimum of their own body weight (and more commonly 2-5 times that) of live cockroaches before facing a 50% risk of death. Therefore, we conclude that in eradication scenarios, acute secondary poisoning is of lower concern for these birds than primary poisoning. PMID:24008155

de L Brooke, M; Cuthbert, R J; Harrison, G; Gordon, C; Taggart, M A

2013-11-01

262

Partnering at the National Laboratories: Catalysis as a Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The role of the national laboratories, particularly the defense program laboratories, since the end of the cold war, has been a topic of continuing debate. The relationship of national laboratories to industry spurred debate which ranged from designating the labs as instrumental to maintaining U.S. economic competitiveness to concern over the perception of corporate welfare to questions regarding the industrial globalization and the possibility of U.S. taxpayer dollars supporting foreign entities. Less debated, but equally important, has been the national laboratories' potential competition with academia for federal research dollars and discussions detailing the role of each in the national research enterprise.

JACKSON,NANCY B.

1999-09-14

263

Qualitative and quantitative study on drainage networks at laboratory scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although simulated drainage networks at the laboratory scale would represent highly-simplified models of natural drainages, they would provide a significant contribute to the comprehension of the complex dynamics governing the fluvial systems. Laboratory experiments also give the advantage to detect transient growth phases shedding some light on the knowledge of temporal and spatial landform evolution. Perhaps, pioneering laboratory experiments on drainage network evolution were carried out in 1977 at REF (Rainfall Erosion Facility) of Colorado State University by Schumm and co-workers. This study deals with an analysis of physical experiments simulating the evolution and the development of drainage networks. To this purpose, some experiments were carried out at University of Basilicata by using a 1.5 m by 1.5 m box-basin-simulator with an outlet incised in the middle of the downslope-end side. The experimental landscape was made of a weakly cohesive soil mainly constituted by clay and silt. A system of microsprinklers generated an almost uniform artificial precipitation. Simulations were performed at a constant rainfall rate with intensity of 100 mm/h. In total four experiments were carried out. Three of those were conducted by ensuring consistent initial conditions except for the initial landscape planar slope of 9%, 5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The remaining experiment was performed with a landscape slope of 9% again, but with the (surface) base-level coinciding with the base of the outlet (i.e. streams could not erode below the base-level). Despite the central outlet constraint, the generated stream system for the 9% plane exhibited trellis-like drainage patterns with many short tributaries joining the main stream at nearly right angles. For the 5% experiment still sub-parallel drainage patterns were formed but mainly in the centre of the watershed. Channels were clearly shallower than those of the 9% experiment. For the gentler slope of 0.6% dendritic drainage patterns developed with tributaries entering the main channel at acute angles (less than 90Ë? ). Digital elevation models (DEM) of the evolving landscape were achieved through detailed soil surveys with a laser pointer or a laser scanner. Then, the drainage networks were extracted from the DEMs by using the D8 algorithm. Based on the data collected, the scaling properties of the simulated networks are analysed and compared with those of natural basins. Findings are provided mainly in terms of Hortonian laws, fractal dimensions and informational entropy. Scaling properties and space filling tendencies are discussed and peculiar differences between quasi-equilibrium and transient stages are also highlighted. Experimental evidences are also provided on the interaction between the base-level and growing mechanisms.

Oliveto, G.; Palma, D.; di Domenico, A.

2009-04-01

264

Observations on the food habits of some African rodents.  

PubMed

Food habits of four common species of African rodents: the giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), the black house rat (Rattus rattus), the multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) and the pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides) were studied on the basis of stomach content analysis, habitat sampling and experimental trials with caged animals. Vegetable items (especially grass, grains and tubers) formed the bulk of the food of all the species. Oil-palm nuts and kernels were also common in the guts of C. gambianus and M. natalensis. Animal food components of all the rodent species comprised mainly insects (especially ants, crickets etc.). Vertebrate flesh and scales were also well represented in the guts of C. gambianus. Domestic and miscellaneous food items were recorded from R. rattus, most of which were trapped in human and animal shelters. Inorganic gut contents, primarily sand grains, were found in sizeable quantities in more than 70% of the rodents examined. Results of experimental feeding trials with caged rodents showed close correlation with those recorded from field samples, especially in terms of food choices and the relative quantities consumed. The ecological and practical implications of these observations are discussed in the light of the importance of the rodents as agricultural and domestic pests. PMID:7323341

Iwuala, M O; Braide, E I; Maduka, N

1980-12-01

265

Identification of Rodent Homologs of Hepatitis C Virus and Pegiviruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV or GB virus C) are globally distributed and infect 2 to 5% of the human population. The lack of tractable-animal models for these viruses, in particular for HCV, has hampered the study of infection, transmission, virulence, immunity, and pathogenesis. To address this challenge, we searched for homologous viruses in small mammals, including wild rodents. Here we report the discovery of several new hepaciviruses (HCV-like viruses) and pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) that infect wild rodents. Complete genome sequences were acquired for a rodent hepacivirus (RHV) found in Peromyscus maniculatus and a rodent pegivirus (RPgV) found in Neotoma albigula. Unique genomic features and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that these RHV and RPgV variants represent several novel virus species in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera within the family Flaviviridae. The genetic diversity of the rodent hepaciviruses exceeded that observed for hepaciviruses infecting either humans or non-primates, leading to new insights into the origin, evolution, and host range of hepaciviruses. The presence of genes, encoded proteins, and translation elements homologous to those found in human hepaciviruses and pegiviruses suggests the potential for the development of new animal systems with which to model HCV pathogenesis, vaccine design, and treatment.

Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Hjelle, Brian; Cullen, John M.; Burbelo, Peter D.; Chauhan, Lokendra V.; Duraisamy, Raja; Sanchez Leon, Maria; Jain, Komal; Vandegrift, Kurt Jason; Calisher, Charles H.; Rice, Charles M.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2013-01-01

266

Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds  

PubMed Central

The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other’s buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees.

Jansen, Patrick A.; Hirsch, Ben T.; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland

2012-01-01

267

Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds.  

PubMed

The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other's buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees. PMID:22802644

Jansen, Patrick A; Hirsch, Ben T; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland

2012-07-31

268

Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarises the activities of the chemotherapy group for 13 months (12 months initial contract plus one month's extension). The work reported on also includes results obtained from the completion of studies commenced in Liverpool under the cont...

W. Peters

1981-01-01

269

Laboratory Study of the Rotational Spectrum of 2-BUTANONE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent observations of the Orion-KL region in the ? = 1.3 mm window reveal that ˜55% of the observed transitions cannot be assigned to previously identified molecules. In addition, the strongest unidentified transitions have peak intensities on the order of 7 K. This provides strong evidence that new molecules of astrochemical interest need to be studied in the laboratory in order to compare to interstellar spectra. A starting point for this work is to target complex organic molecules that are structurally-similar to molecules that have already been detected in interstellar environments. We have therefore collected the microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter spectra of 2-butanone [also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), CH_3COCH_2CH_3]. MEK is a likely candidate for detection in the ISM because it contains similar functional groups to known and highly abundant interstellar molecules such as ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone. The microwave spectrum of MEK was acquired with the chirped-pulse waveguide Fourier Transform Microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer at New College of Florida; and the millimeter and submillimeter spectrum was acquired with the direct absorption flow cell spectrometer at Emory University. We have collected the spectrum of MEK from 8 GHz to 1 THz and assigned the ground vibrational state spectrum of MEK from 8 GHz to 500 GHz using the ERHAM program. We will report here on the laboratory characterization and assignment of the MEK spectrum. We will also report on the analysis of observational lines surveys in the context of the identification of new, complex organic molecules such as MEK.

Kroll, Jay A.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus; Shipman, Steven T.

2012-06-01

270

Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

1982-08-01

271

Laboratory Studies of Supersonic Magnetized Plasma Jets and Radiative Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I will focus on laboratory plasma experiments producing magnetically driven supersonic plasma jets and on the interaction of these jets with ambient media. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that the critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, the Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. In the experiments the jets are driven and collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields and it is found that the level of MHD instabilities in the jets strongly depends on the strength of the field represented by the ratio of the thermal to magnetic field pressures (plasma beta). The experiments show the possibility of formation of episodic outflows, with periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities [1,2]. We also found that it is possible to form quasi-laminar jets which are “indirectly” collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields, but this requires the presence of the lower density halo plasma surrounding the central jet [3]. Studies of the radiative shocks formed in the interaction of the supersonic magnetized plasma flows with ambient plasma will be also presented, and the development of cooling instabilities in the post-shock plasma will be discussed. This research was sponsored by EPSRC Grant No. EP/G001324/1 and by the OFES DOE under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-SC-0001063. References 1. A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009) 2. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, S.V. Lebedev, S.N. Bland et al., Physics of Plasmas, 17, 112708 (2010). 3. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, M. Bocchi, S.V. Lebedev et al., Physics of Plasmas, 19, 022708 (2012).

Lebedev, Sergey

2013-06-01

272

Laboratory Studies of the Formation of Carbon Aerosols on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere of Titan is composed primarily of nitrogen and methane. Active organic chemistry occurs in the atmosphere producing an organic haze. During the Cassini/Huygens flyby mission, aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene, C6H6) were detected in the ionosphere at concentrations higher than expected. Benzene is a required precursor for larger aromatic species (e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) that may be part of aerosol particles. There is still debate about the interpretation of the results, and the implications for the characterization of the chemical haze, making it more urgent than ever to understand the formation and destruction processes of large carbon molecules in Titan's atmosphere. Photochemical modeling of the production of complex organic compounds in Titan's atmosphere is not fully understood. The modeled chemical pathway strongly enhances the PAH pathway to form, as do laboratory experiments on forming tholins (popular analogs to Titan's haze particles). The recent Cassini/Huygens results indicate that given the observed level of benzene in Titan's atmosphere, PAHs may be a major pathway for aerosol production. This motivated our project to investigate the role of PAHs, and nitrogen-containing PAHs (NPAHs), in the pathways from gas phase molecules to organic aerosols, in the laboratory. Combined cavity ring down spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectrometry studies of the products formed in discharge experiments, that allow in situ investigations of the formation of large molecular species and their conversion process into aerosols, are performed in order to understand and quantify the formation and destruction processes in Titan's atmosphere. The data will be used to constrain photochemical models of organic synthesis on Titan. We will describe the preliminary results from these experiments to address the issues in the characterization of Titan's haze. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by NASA SMD (Planetary Atmospheres Program). C. R. acknowledges the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP).

Ricketts, Claire L.; Salama, F.

2008-09-01

273

Sleep laboratory studies on single dose effects of suriclone.  

PubMed Central

1. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled sleep laboratory study single doses of suriclone, a new non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic binding to benzodiazepine receptors, were investigated with respect to sleep and awakening. 2. Sixteen healthy young volunteers spent 10 nights in the sleep laboratory: 1 adaptation night, 1 baseline night and 4 drug nights (placebo; 0.2 mg, 0.4 mg suriclone; 2 mg lorazepam as reference drug) and 4 subsequent wash-out nights (drug-interval: 1 week). Somnopolygraphic investigations (22.30 h to 06.00 h) were commenced 0.5 h after drug-intake. A self-rating scale for sleep and awakening quality as well as psychometric tests were completed in the morning. 3. Hypnotic effects were most pronounced after lorazepam in regard to total sleep time and sleep efficiency. After lorazepam as well as after 0.4 mg suriclone nocturnal awakenings decreased significantly as compared with placebo, which was reflected in an improved subjective sleep quality after both dosages. Suriclone 0.2 mg did not induce any alterations in all night sleep. 4. In the morning, well-being, drowsiness and reaction time performance deteriorated after lorazepam as compared with placebo but not after suriclone. The latter was significantly superior to lorazepam with respect to subjective awakening quality, well-being, emotional rapport, drowsiness and attention. 5. Blood pressure and pulse remained unchanged after all of the drugs. Critical flicker frequency and muscle strength decreased only after lorazepam as compared with placebo.

Saletu, B; Frey, R; Grunberger, J; Krupka, M; Anderer, P; Musch, B

1990-01-01

274

Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses.

Devalapalli, A. P.; Lesher, A.; Shieh, K.; Solow, J. S.; Everett, M. L.; Edala, A. S.; Whitt, P.; Long, Renee R.; Newton, N.; Parker, W.

2006-01-01

275

Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

Saykally, Richard James

2003-01-01

276

Dynamic axle and wheel loads identification: laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two methods have been reported by Zhu and Law to identify moving loads on the top of a bridge deck. One is based on the exact solution (ESM) and the other is based on the finite element formulation (FEM). Simulation studies on the effect of different influencing factors have been reported previously. This paper comparatively studies the performances of these two methods with experimental measurements obtained from a bridge/vehicle system in the laboratory. The strains of the bridge deck are measured when a model car moves across the bridge deck along different paths. The moving loads on the bridge deck are identified from the measured strains using these two methods, and the responses are reconstructed from the identified loads for comparison with the measured responses to verify the performances of these methods. Studies on the identification accuracy due to the effect of the number of vibration mode used, the number of measuring points and eccentricities of travelling paths are performed. Results show that the ESM could identify the moving loads individually or as axle loads when they are travelling at an eccentricity with the sensors located close to the travelling path of the forces. And the accuracy of the FEM is dependent on the amount of measured information used in the identification.

Zhu, X. Q.; Law, S. S.

2003-12-01

277

Modeling Natural Photic Entrainment in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco  

PubMed Central

Subterranean rodents spend most of the day inside underground tunnels, where there is little daily change in environmental variables. Our observations of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) in a field enclosure indicated that these animals perceive the aboveground light-dark cycle by several bouts of light-exposure at irregular times during the light hours of the day. To assess whether such light-dark pattern acts as an entraining agent of the circadian clock, we first constructed in laboratory the Phase Response Curve for 1 h light-pulses (1000lux). Its shape is qualitatively similar to other curves reported in the literature and to our knowledge it is the first Phase Response Curve of a subterranean rodent. Computer simulations were performed with a non-linear limit-cycle oscillator subjected to a simple model of the light regimen experienced by tuco-tucos. Results showed that synchronization is achieved even by a simple regimen of a single daily light pulse scattered uniformly along the light hours of the day. Natural entrainment studies benefit from integrated laboratory, field and computational approaches.

Flores, Danilo E. F. L.; Tomotani, Barbara M.; Tachinardi, Patricia; Oda, Gisele A.; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.

2013-01-01

278

Pilot Study of a CAI Laboratory in German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons are made between two introductory German sections at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, one of which had a conventional language laboratory and the other a computer assisted instruction laboratory. A brief description of the instructional arrangements is followed by descriptions of experimental comparisons, making up the…

Morrison, H.W.; Adams, E.N.

1968-01-01

279

Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL\\/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to

C. D. Massey; D. L. Miller; S. D. Carson

1995-01-01

280

Responses of Herbivorous Rodents to Habitat Disturbance on the North Slope of Alaska: Final Report, July 1984 to 31 December 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Herbivorous rodents were studied in the vicinity of Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Results indicate that herbivorous microtine rodents (lemmings and voles) respond to disturbance of their habitats in predictable ways in relation to changes in t...

G. O. Batzli

1987-01-01

281

Cyanobacterial Calcite Precipitation - Laboratory Study on Different Spatial Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lacustrine calcite precipitation with sedimentation rates up to 1 mm per year can result in large carbonate deposits. Varved lake sediments high in calcite content are now intensively studied as high-resolution continental archives for environmental change. Especially in oligotrophic hardwater lakes, eukaryotic and prokaryotic picoplankton was found to be important in the overall process of calcite precipitation. Rates and mechanisms of bacteria-surface mediated precipitation reactions, however, remain poorly understood. For interpreting geochemical and isotopic information stored in sediments, it is essential to know the carbonate precipitation mechanisms and the governing environmental factors. Thus, laboratory experiments with picoplankton under controlled conditions were combined with electron and atomic force microscopy in order to obtain insights into the details of the calcite precipitation mechanisms of cyanobacteria. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of such laboratory studies and investigating the influence of environmental parameters as a first step. Under carefully controlled chemical and physical conditions, precipitation of calcite was induced by adding cultures of picocyanobacteria to supersaturated solutions of CaCO3 at different CaCl2/NaHCO3 ratios. The cell suspensions were purged with an artificial atmosphere at constant CO2 concentration. Abiotic solutions were used as reference systems. Chemical conditions such as pH, calcium and carbonate concentrations were continuously monitored by ion selective electrodes. The influence of supersaturation in the range of ? = 2 - 20 on biogenic precipitation was quantified at different ratios of calcium (0.7 - 48 mM) /carbonate (6 ? M - 35 ? M). In a series of bulk experiments it was possible to detect critical values of supersaturation for the onset of precipitation both with and without cells, both in the range of ? = 5 - 10. The morphology of the precipitates was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Both, initial crystals (<500 nm) and larger grown crystals (>10 ? m) showed rhombohedral and hexagonal-prism shapes characteristic for calcite. Ultrathin-sections ( ˜100nm) of the cyanobacteria cells and the attached calcite crystals were prepared by Focused Ion Beam. This technique allowed us to preserve the cell wall - crystal interface as intact as possible in order to perform Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis of the sections. Using TEM-Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy, carbon bonds in both calcite crystals and cyanobacteria cells were detected and identified. The carbon absorption spectra are significantly different to discriminate the organic and inorganic carbon. Thus, the absorption peaks are the fingerprints of the analyzed material and can be used to analyze the transition zone between the cell and the particle.

Obst, M.; Mavrocordatos, D.; Gasser, P.; Dittrich, M.

2003-12-01

282

A numerical, laboratory, and field study of riverbed filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverbed filtration is an appealing alternative to conventional riverbank and surface water intake systems, offering advantages of high flow rates, natural filtering, and undiminished performance under ice conditions. Its proper functioning requires careful study and monitoring of river flow dynamics, subsurface characteristics, and the interactions between these surface water and groundwater components. A research effort has been underway at INRS to develop principles and guidelines for the design, operation, and maintenance of riverbed filtration systems. A pilot system has just been completed in the Montmorency River near Quebec City (Canada). The installation consists of 4 horizontal wells (or drains), each of 20 m length and 30 cm diameter, placed 4 m apart, at a depth of 1.5 m within the riverbed sediments, and in a direction orthogonal to river flow. The housing trench for each drain is 2 m wide and 2.10 m deep and is composed of 90 cm of gravel topped with 70 cm of sifted alluvial sediments and a 50 cm protective layer of pebbles extracted from the sifted sediments. The average annual water level in the river is 1.2 m, while its mean head during low flow periods is 90 cm. The pilot installation is instrumented with multilevel pressure and temperature sensors and several flowmeters for continuous monitoring in both drainage and backwash modes. In gravity drainage (water intake) mode, the yield is expected to exceed the municipal demand criterion of 35 000 m3/d. Backwash operations, needed to unclog the trenches of fine sediments that can accumulate during water intake, are considered critical to maintaining the design performance targets for the system. Prior to construction of the pilot system, flow patterns, pressure responses, and turbidity behavior in both drainage and backwash modes were extensively studied in laboratory (sand column and sand box) and numerical (SEEP2D) experiments. These tests were fundamental to defining the design parameters and instrumentation features of the pilot system. More detailed lab and numerical simulation studies will be undertaken in tandem with the pilot system operation. The presentation will give an overview of the findings from the prior laboratory and numerical experiments and present initial results from the operation of the pilot system.

Racine, C.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.; Paniconi, C.

2012-04-01

283

A qualitative case study of instructional support for web-based simulated laboratory exercises in online college chemistry laboratory courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study fills a gap in the research literature regarding the types of instructional support provided by instructors in online introductory chemistry laboratory courses that employ chemistry simulations as laboratory exercises. It also provides information regarding students' perceptions of the effectiveness of that instructional support. A multiple case study methodology was used to carry out the research. Two online introductory chemistry courses were studied at two community colleges. Data for this study was collected using phone interviews with faculty and student participants, surveys completed by students, and direct observation of the instructional designs of instructional support in the online Blackboard web sites and the chemistry simulations used by the participating institutions. The results indicated that the instructors provided multiple types of instructional support that correlated with forms of effective instructional support identified in the research literature, such as timely detailed feedback, detailed instructions for the laboratory experiments, and consistency in the instructional design of lecture and laboratory course materials, including the chemistry lab simulation environment. The students in one of these courses identified the following as the most effective types of instructional support provided: the instructor's feedback, opportunities to apply chemistry knowledge in the chemistry lab exercises, detailed procedures for the simulated laboratory exercises, the organization of the course Blackboard sites and the chemistry lab simulation web sites, and the textbook homework web sites. Students also identified components of instructional support they felt were missing. These included a desire for more interaction with the instructor, more support for the simulated laboratory exercises from the instructor and the developer of the chemistry simulations, and faster help with questions about the laboratory exercises or experimental calculations. Students believed that having this additional instructional support would lead to increased understanding of the laboratory exercises, allowing them to complete them with less difficulty, and giving them increased access to the instructor. Recommendations for the instructors of these two courses include: increased participation in the online course environment, increased emphasis on laboratory safety, and increased emphasis on the differences between simulated and real life chemistry laboratory experiments.

Schulman, Kathleen M.

284

Animal research. Activists win big on rodent, bird rules.  

PubMed

A federal judge last month ruled that animal-rights activists have the legal right to challenge U.S. Department of Agriculture rules that exempt the vast majority of research animals from federal regulation. Observers say that the ruling almost guarantees that the agency will extend regulations governing animal handling and housing to thousands of academic and industry laboratories that work with rodents and birds. Those new rules, say animal-care experts, could impose costly new requirements on labs that don't meet standards set by the private Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. PMID:10939943

Malakoff, D

2000-07-21

285

Laboratory study of selected personal inhalable aerosol samplers.  

PubMed

Assessment of inhalable dust exposure requires reliable sampling methods in order to measure airborne inhalable particles' concentrations. Many inhalable aerosol samplers can be used but their performances widely vary and remain unknown in some cases. The sampling performance of inhalable samplers is strongly dependent on particle size and ambient air velocity. Five inhalable aerosol samplers have been studied in two laboratory wind tunnels using polydisperse glass-beads' test aerosol. Samplers tested were IOM sampler (UK), two versions of CIP 10-I sampler, v1 and v2 (F), 37-mm closed face cassette sampler (USA), 37-mm cassette fitted up with an ACCU-CAP insert (USA), and Button sampler (USA). Particle size-dependent sampling efficiencies were measured in a horizontal wind tunnel under a 1 m s(-1) wind velocity and in a vertical tunnel under calm air, using a specific method with Coulter(R) counter particle size number distribution determinations. Compared with CEN-ISO-ACGIH sampling criteria for inhalable dust, the experimental results show fairly high sampling efficiency for the IOM and CIP 10-I v2 samplers and slightly lower efficiencies for the Button and CIP 10-I v1 samplers. The closed face cassette (4-mm orifice) produced the poorest performances of all the tested samplers. This can be improved by using the ACCU-CAP internal capsule, which prevents inner wall losses inside the cassette. Significant differences between moving air and calm air sampling efficiency were observed for all the studied samplers. PMID:20147627

Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Wrobel, Richard; Kauffer, Edmond; Witschger, Olivier

2010-03-01

286

Can shrub cover increase predation risk for a desert rodent?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous research indicates that predation risk may influence activity patterns, habitat partitioning, and community structure of nocturnal desert rodents. Shrub microhabitat is typically considered safer than open microhabitat for these small mammals. We investigated predation risk for Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), which are diurnal desert rodents that detect predators visually and use burrows for refuge. Our results suggested that shrub cover may increase risk for these squirrels by decreasing their ability to escape from predators. Our field experiment indicated that running speeds of juvenile squirrels were lower in shrub (Ceratoides lanata) habitat than in open areas. Shrub cover was also associated with shorter predator-detection distances (mammalian and avian) and fewer refuges (burrow entrances per hectare) than in open areas in one year but not in another. Our study demonstrated that the visual and locomotive obstruction of vegetative cover may increase predation risk for diurnal desert rodents and that elements of habitat-dependent risk may be temporally dynamic.

Schooley, R. L.; Sharpe, Peter B.

1996-01-01

287

Imaging Conditioned Fear Circuitry Using Awake Rodent fMRI  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful method for exploring emotional and cognitive brain responses in humans. However rodent fMRI has not previously been applied to the analysis of learned behaviour in awake animals, limiting its use as a translational tool. Here we have developed a novel paradigm for studying brain activation in awake rats responding to conditioned stimuli using fMRI. Using this method we show activation of the amygdala and related fear circuitry in response to a fear-conditioned stimulus and demonstrate that the magnitude of fear circuitry activation is increased following early life stress, a rodent model of affective disorders. This technique provides a new translatable method for testing environmental, genetic and pharmacological manipulations on emotional and cognitive processes in awake rodent models.

Brydges, Nichola M.; Whalley, Heather C.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Merrifield, Gavin D.; Wood, Emma R.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Wynne, Sara-Madge; Day, Mark; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue; Steele, Douglas; Marshall, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Holmes, Megan C.

2013-01-01

288

Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

2012-01-01

289

Unexpected primitive rodents in the Quaternary of Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the most primitive taxon of a clade formed by Dinomyidae-Neoepiblemidae-Heptaxodontidae. Evidence of the close relationships among these families also is presented herein. The new fossils reinforce previous hypotheses about the survival of primitive Brazilian taxa after their extinction in the Pampas and Patagonia of southern South America. They also show that the diversity of caviomorph rodents during the Quaternary was greater than supposed and that an important Quaternary extinction, not previously detected, affected several lineages. With the available evidence, it is not possible to determine if these rodents indicate a warm pulse or a particular biogeographic situation in Entre Ríos.

Vucetich, María G.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Verzi, Diego H.; Noriega, Jorge I.; Tonni, Eduardo P.

2005-10-01

290

THE USE OF CHEMICALS TO CONTROL FIELD RODENTS AND OTHER PREDATORS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS ARE (1) USE OF CHEMICALS FOR RODENT CONTROL AND ERADICATION, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND COMPUTATIONS, (3) RODENT

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

291

Wide Distribution and Genetic Diversity of "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in Rodents from China  

PubMed Central

“Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” was detected by PCR in 4.0% (34/841) of the rodents tested in this study. The 34 rodents represented nine species from seven regions of China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial groEL and nearly entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of the agent revealed genetic diversity, which was correlated with its geographic origins.

Li, Hao; Jiang, Jiafu; Tang, Fang; Sun, Yi; Li, Zengde; Zhang, Weilong; Gong, Zhengda; Liu, Kun; Yang, Hong

2013-01-01

292

A study of technology transfer arrangements for national laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of technology to industrial partners and users is a complex task. The interactions between federal laboratories and industry and the market knowledge and ability to assess the needs of business users are beyond the charter of a federal laboratory. Therefore, new organizational mechanisms are required in order to obtain full commercial value from the laboratories' efforts. This paper will analyze cases of new ventures emerging from technology developed within federal laboratories. Seven models will be identified for technology transfer. These are the Information Dissemination Model, the Licensing Model, the Venture Capital Model, the Large Company-Joint Venture Model, the Incubator-Science Park Model, the Ferret Model, and the Agriculture Extension Model. Out of 13 laboratories, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Partnership will be identified as having the greatest potential for successful implementation. The arrangement is a proposed consortium of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California, venture capitalists, industrial firms, and federal and state agencies. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Dorf, R.C.; Worthington, K.K.F.

1987-08-25

293

Prospects for biological control of rodent populations*  

PubMed Central

Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population.

Wodzicki, Kazimierz

1973-01-01

294

Effect of cage-change frequency on rodent breeding performance.  

PubMed

Many people who work in laboratory rodent breeding facilities believe that disrupting certain sensitive rodent lines will result in increased breeding failures and loss of newborn pups. To evaluate this hypothesis, the authors assessed the effect of cage-change frequency on the breeding performances of a mouse strain (C57BL/6NTac) and a rat stock (NTac:NIH-Whn) that were thought to be sensitive to disruption. As per recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, personnel changed one half of the breeding cages weekly, regardless of the presence of newborn pups. The other breeding cages were also changed weekly, unless newborn pups were present, in which case the cages were not changed until the following week. The authors assessed breeding performance by calculating the production efficiency index (the total number of pups that survived to weaning divided by the total number of actively breeding females). Breeding performance did not differ significantly between rodents whose cages were changed weekly and those whose pups were not disturbed. PMID:20485357

Sanderson, Amy E; Multari, Heather M; Lohmiller, Jeffrey J; Boutin, Samuel R

2010-06-01

295

DNA vaccines for HFRS: Laboratory and clinical studies.  

PubMed

DNA vaccines can be constructed to produce specific immunogens while avoiding the risks associated with propagating infectious viruses. Plasmid DNA vaccines have well established manufacturing procedures and are safe in that they are replication defective, cannot revert to virulence and cannot be transmitted from person-to-person or into the environment. In addition, DNA vaccines can be combined to form multivalent formulations and can be delivered by a variety of methods. Because of these numerous advantages, we have developed DNA vaccines expressing the envelope glycoprotein genes of hantaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). We have demonstrated that these DNA vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies in multiple laboratory animal species when delivered to skin or muscle tissues. Moreover, these vaccines delivered as active vaccines or passive vaccines (e.g., transfer of sera from vaccinated rabbits or nonhuman primates), protected hamsters from infection with HFRS-causing hantaviruses. Early clinical studies of HFRS vaccines expressing Hantaan virus or Puumala virus genes have been completed and show promise for further development. Despite these advantages, issues relating to inconsistent immunogenicity and immune interference remain to be addressed. PMID:24370868

Schmaljohn, Connie S; Spik, Kristin W; Hooper, Jay W

2014-07-17

296

Intrinsic bioremediation of trichloroethylene and chlorobenzene: field and laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Activities at a former fire training area at Robins Air Force Base in Georgia, USA resulted in contamination of groundwater with a mixture of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorobenzene (CB). Results from the field investigation suggest that intrinsic bioremediation process is occurring, which caused the decrease in TCE and CB concentrations, and increase in TCE degradation byproducts [e.g., dichloroethylene isomers (DCEs), vinyl chloride (VC)] concentrations. Contaminated groundwater samples collected from this site were used to conduct microbial enumeration tests, and used as the inocula for microcosm establishment. Results from the microbial enumeration study indicate that methanogenesis was the dominant biodegradation pattern within the source and mid-plume areas, and the aerobic biodegradation process dominated the downgradient area. Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using CB as the primary substrate to enhance the intrinsic biodegradation of TCE. Microcosm results suggest that CB can serve as the primary substrate (electron donor), and enhance TCE biodegradation to less-chlorinated compounds under both aerobic cometabolism and reductive dechlorination conditions. PMID:10502607

Kao, C M; Prosser, J

1999-10-01

297

ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

298

Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China.  

PubMed

We report results of the first study to investigate the distribution and diversity of Bartonella in rodents from Thailand. Whole blood from 195 rodents, representing six species, was tested for the presence of Bartonella species using standard culture techniques. Isolates were obtained from 17 (8.7%) of the samples, and 14 of those isolates represented distinct strains, based upon partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other Bartonella species indicated that five unique isolates from Bandicota indica form a cluster that may represent a new Bartonella species. Two additional isolates from B. indica clustered together, and were nearly identical to an isolate from Apodemus draco collected in southern China. Importantly, a number of the isolates from Thailand rodents are closely related to B. grahamii and B. elizabethae, species which have been associated with human illness. PMID:15100459

Castle, Kevin T; Kosoy, Michael; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Phelan, Lori; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Monkanna, Taweesak; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Chandranoi, Kirkvich; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E

2004-04-01

299

Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

1992-01-01

300

Environmental Management Plan Study and Report: MDOT - Materials Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this EMP was to develop and implement a comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for MDOT Materials Laboratories. This goal was achieved through performance of environmental audits to identify potential environmental impacts, and by identif...

2012-01-01

301

Analytical Study of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (Acpl) Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design specifications of the research laboratory as a Spacelab facility are discussed along with the types of planned experiments. These include cloud formation, freezing and scavenging, and electrical phenomena. A summary of the program conferences i...

M. H. Davis

1977-01-01

302

LMF laboratory microfusion capability study: Phase 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on Laboratory Microfusion capability (LMC); Utility of an LMC; LMC Development Issues; LMC Requirements; Siting, Safety, and Environmental Criteria; Staffing and Management Issues; and Major Cost Factors. 8 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

303

Beneficiation of Coal by Selective Flocculation, A Laboratory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted a laboratory scale investigation of the process of selective flocculation with the objective of developing a method to effect separations on suspensions consisting predominately of ultra-fine-size (minus-400-mesh) particles o...

R. E. Hucko

1977-01-01

304

The Study of a Cobalt Complex--A Laboratory Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an 8-week project involving the synthesis of cobalt compounds. Once synthesized, compounds are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Background information, laboratory procedures, and results/discussion are provided for three project experiments. (Author/JN)

Loehlin, James H.; And Others

1982-01-01

305

Photochemical Aging of Organic Aerosols: A Laboratory Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosols (OA) are either emitted directly (primary OA) or formed (secondary OA) in the atmosphere and consist of an extremely complex mixture of thousands of organic compounds. Although the scientific community has put significant effort, in the past few decades, to understand organic aerosol (OA) formation, evolution and fate in the atmosphere, traditional models often fail to reproduce the ambient OA levels. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed, in traditional laboratory chamber experiments, from the gas phase oxidation of known precursors, such as ?-pinene, is semi-volatile and with an O:C ratio of around 0.4. In contrast, OA found in the atmosphere is significantly less volatile, while the O:C ratio often ranges from 0.5 to 1. In conclusion, there is a significant gap of knowledge in our understanding of OA formation and photochemical transformation in the atmosphere. There is increased evidence that homogeneous gas phase aging by OH radicals might be able to explain, at least in part, the significantly higher OA mass loadings observed and also the oxidation state and volatility of OA in the atmosphere. In this study, laboratory chamber experiments were performed to study the role of the continued oxidation of first generation volatile and semi-volatile species by OH radicals in the evolution of the SOA characteristics (mass concentration, volatility, and oxidation state). Ambient air mixtures or freshly formed SOA from ?-pinene ozonolysis were used as the source of organic aerosols and semi-volatile species. The initial mixture of organic aerosols and gas phase species (volatile and semi-volatile) was then exposed to atmospheric concentrations of OH radicals to study the aging of aerosols. Experiments were performed with various OH radical sources (H2O2 or HONO) and under various NOx conditions. A suite of instruments was employed to characterize both the gas and the aerosol phase. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) were used to measure the organic aerosol mass production and oxidation degree (O:C ratio) following OH aging. A thermodenuder system was used to measure the volatility distribution change as organic aerosol aged upon continuous oxidation. Organic gas phase species were characterized with a Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) while NOx and O3 were measured with the use of corresponding analyzers. Results from this study show that organic mass production occurs upon exposure to OH radicals indicating that continuous OH aging of semi-volatile is probably responsible for at least some of the gap between observed and modeled OA levels in the atmosphere. Additionally, this chemical aging process leads to a decrease in volatility and an increase in O:C ratio while the level of change in both properties depends on OH exposure. The atmospheric implications of this study are discussed.

Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Gkatzelis, Georgios I.; Psichoudaki, Magdalini; Louvaris, Evangelos; Pandis, Spyros N.

2014-05-01

306

Pet Rodents and Fatal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis in Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

In April 2005, 4 transplant recipients became ill after receiving organs infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV); 3 subsequently died. All organs came from a donor who had been exposed to a hamster infected with LCMV. The hamster was traced back through a Rhode Island pet store to a distribution center in Ohio, and more LCMV-infected hamsters were discovered in both. Rodents from the Ohio facility and its parent facility in Arkansas were tested for the same LCMV strain as the 1 involved in the transplant-associated deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of virus sequences linked the rodents from the Ohio facility to the Rhode Island pet store, the index hamster, and the transplant recipients. This report details the animal traceback and the supporting laboratory investigations.

Pavlin, Boris I.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Comer, James A.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Oliver, Jennifer B.; Sealy, Tara K.; Vincent, Martin J.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Tumpey, Abbigail J.; Wagoner, Kent D.; Glauer, R. David; Smith, Kathleen A.; Winpisinger, Kim A.; Parsely, Melody S.; Wyrick, Phil; Hannafin, Christopher H.; Bandy, Utpala; Zaki, Sherif; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

2007-01-01

307

Transfection of rodent malaria parasites.  

PubMed

Gene manipulation is an invaluable tool to investigate and understand the biology of an organism. Although this technology has been applied to both the human and rodent malarial parasites (RMP), Plasmodium berghei in particular offers a more robust system due to a higher and more efficient transformation rate. Here, we describe a comprehensive transfection and selection protocol using P. berghei including a variant negative selection protocol administering 5-fluorocytosine to the animals in drinking water. Additionally, we discuss and assess the latest advances in gene manipulation technologies developed in RMP to gain a better understanding of Plasmodium biology. PMID:22990773

Philip, Nisha; Orr, Rachael; Waters, Andrew P

2013-01-01

308

Performance of dust allergen carpet samplers in controlled laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Allergens and other pollutants in house dust are collected using a variety of dust samplers that are assumed to operate similarly. This factorial design study compared sampler performance under controlled environmental conditions. House dust with known particle sizes (212-90, 90-45, and <45??m) and allergen concentrations were sampled from new carpet squares with varying denier, pile height and pile densities. Dust mass and allergen recovery for total dust mites (Der p 1 and Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) were assessed using the Eureka Mighty Mite (EURK), the High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS), or the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) method. Allergen concentrations were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and dust mass results were corrected for carpet fiber shedding. Samplers were compared by exploring mass collection efficiency (CE=fiber corrected dust mass/applied dust mass) and concentration ratio (CR=allergen concentration in collected sample/allergen concentration in test dust). Test dust allergen concentrations varied by particle size fraction due to varying laboratory performance over time. The EURK and HVS samplers had CEs of 41-63% in the small and medium particle size fractions, and collected less than 20% of the available dust from the large size fraction. The AIHA CE ranged from 10% to 17% in the medium and small particle size fractions, but collected little dust in the largest particle size fraction. The AIHA and HVS samplers were more likely to acquire more representative and less variable allergen CRs compared with the EURK method. Health studies that use allergen concentration as an exposure metric need to consider the implications of sampler performance when interpreting links to health outcomes and development of health-based standards for allergens in house dust. PMID:23281430

Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Wang, Mei; McKenzie, Lisa M; Hwang, Jooyeon; Ja Cho, Sook; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

2013-07-01

309

Los Alamos National Laboratory W76 Pit Tube Lifetime Study  

SciTech Connect

A metallurgical study was requested as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) W76-1 life-extension program (LEP) involving a lifetime analysis of type 304 stainless steel pit tubes subject to repeat bending loads during assembly and disassembly operations at BWXT/Pantex. This initial test phase was completed during the calendar years of 2004-2006 and the report not issued until additional recommended tests could be performed. These tests have not been funded to this date and therefore this report is considered final. Tubes were reportedly fabricated according to Rocky Flats specification P14548 - Seamless Type 304 VIM/VAR Stainless Steel Tubing. Tube diameter was specified as 0.125 inches and wall thickness as 0.028 inches. A heat treat condition is not specified and the hardness range specification can be characteristic of both 1/8 and 1/4 hard conditions. Properties of all tubes tested were within specification. Metallographic analysis could not conclusively determine a specified limit to number of bends allowable. A statistical analysis suggests a range of 5-7 bends with a 99.95% confidence limit. See the 'Statistical Analysis' section of this report. The initial phase of this study involved two separate sets of test specimens. The first group was part of an investigation originating in the ESA-GTS [now Gas Transfer Systems (W-7) Group]. After the bend cycle test parameters were chosen (all three required bends subjected to the same amount of bend cycles) and the tubes bent, the investigation was transferred to Terri Abeln (Metallurgical Science and Engineering) for analysis. Subsequently, another limited quantity of tubes became available for testing and were cycled with the same bending fixture, but with different test parameters determined by T. Abeln.

Abeln, Terri G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-25

310

Rock fragment movement in shallow rill flow - A laboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies concerning rill erosion mainly deal with the erosion and transport of fine material. The transport of rock fragments is examined mostly for mountain rivers. But there are important differences between the conditions and processes in rivers and in rills: (1) In most cases, the river cuts into a coarse substrate, where fine material is sparse, whereas rill erosion occurs on arable land. So the main part of the substrate is fine material and only single rock fragments influence the processes. (2) In rivers, the water depth is relatively high. There are a lot of studies about hydraulic parameters in such flows, but there is almost nothing known about hydraulic conditions in surface runoff events of a few centimeters. Additionally, little information exists about the rock fragment movement as a part of rill erosion processes on arable land. This knowledge should be increased because rock fragments cause non-stationary water turbulences in rills, which enhance the erosive force of flowing water. Field experiments can only show the fact that a certain rock fragment has moved: The starting point and the final position can be estimated. But the moving path and especially the initiation of the movement is not detectable under field conditions. Hence, we developed a laboratory setup to analyze the movement of rock fragments depending on rock fragment properties (size, form), slope gradient, flow velocity and surface roughness. By observing the rock fragments with cameras from two different angles we are able (1) to measure the rotation angles of a rock fragment during the experiment and (2) to deduce different rock fragment movement patterns. On this poster we want to present the experimental setup, developed within the scope of a master thesis, and the results of these experiments.

Becker, Kerstin; Wirtz, Stefan; Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Remke, Alexander; Iserloh, Thomas; Brings, Christine; Casper, Markus; Ries, Johannes B.

2014-05-01

311

No effect of running and laboratory housing on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild caught long-tailed wood mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in laboratory rodents have raised hopes for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases and mood disorders, as AHN can be modulated by physical exercise, stress and environmental changes in these animals. Since it is not known whether cell proliferation and neurogenesis in wild living mice can be experimentally changed, this study investigates the responsiveness

Thomas Hauser; Fabienne Klaus; Hans-Peter Lipp; Irmgard Amrein

2009-01-01

312

Phosphate release from seasonally flooded soils: a laboratory microcosm study.  

PubMed

Phosphorus derived from agricultural practices has been targeted as a leading cause of water quality degradation in Lake Champlain. Mobilization of P from seasonally flooded agricultural soils is a concern. Using 14 soils from a research farm in New York's Champlain Valley, we characterized the available P status, extractable Fe and Al, P sorption capacities, and soluble phosphate release in flooded laboratory microcosms. Quantities of NH4-acetate available P ranged from 3 to 100 mg kg(-1) and fluoride-extractable P from 10 to 211 mg kg(-1). Flooding soils induced significant release of phosphate to the porewater over a 60- to 90-d period in 13 of the 14 soils studied. Porewater phosphate increases ranged from 2.2 to 27.0 times the initial phosphate concentrations. However, floodwater phosphate increases were much lower, with a maximum of 3.6 times the initial concentration. Average porewater phosphate concentrations over the flooding period ranged from 0.046 to 7.0 mg L(-1) and average floodwater P from 0.032 to 3.70 mg L(-1). Ammonium-acetate P and the degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) were highly correlated with the average porewater and floodwater phosphate concentration. Average ratio of porewater to floodwater phosphate concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 3.3. Five soils that were lower in fluoride-extractable P had increasing porewater phosphate accompanied by increasing porewater Fe2+ and decreasing floodwater phosphate. Results suggest that P solubility and mobility were a function of both the available P status and redox cycling. PMID:11215671

Young, E O; Ross, D S

2001-01-01

313

Micromechanics of friction studied nanoseismically on laboratory faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Careful analysis of high frequency seismic waves (nanoseismic waves) emanating from a laboratory-scale frictional interface reveals seismic radiation which occurs in discrete bursts. Using an array of thirteen sensors, we are able to study the focal mechanism and force time history of the discrete events, which we interpret to be rupture or fracture of asperities. The rapid rise time (~1 ?s) of recorded waves enables spatio-temporal location of the sources to be resolved to ~1 mm/ ~1 ?s accuracy. The evolution of asperity rupture is mapped as the interface transitions from "stick" to "slip," which provides clues to the micromechanics of friction and the dynamics of fault rupture and the production of earthquakes. We compare and contrast the results of sliding friction tests on basalt and PMMA, using a direct shear apparatus instrumented with pm-scale sensitivity broadband (~8kHz - ~2MHz) displacement sensors, shown in Figure 1. Recorded signals are in excellent agreement with synthetic seismograms calculated using generalized ray theory, shown in Figure 2(c). The system is absolutely calibrated using both the impact of a tiny (1 mm) ball on the specimen surface and the sudden fracture of a thin-walled glass capillary tube loaded on its side. For the basalt sample, the focal mechanisms of the discrete nanoseismic sources imply fracture of asperities that carried both shear and normal forces about 10-100 mN in magnitude, less than .01% of the total load carried by the interface. The focal mechanisms of the PMMA sample indicate that the rupture of asperities releases only shear load, typically at greater magnitude. Figure 1. Schematic of the experimental setup. Figure 2. Typical results from basalt: a, shear force is slowly increased until the block slips. Nanoseismic signals are recorded simultaneously. b, Details of the slip shown with greater time magnification. c, Nanoseismic signals recorded for one discrete event shown alongside synthetic seismograms (thick lines).

McLaskey, G. C.; Glaser, S. D.

2010-12-01

314

Role of the Rodent Acrosome and Perforatorium in Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the morphology of spermatozoa recovered from the female genital tract shortly after coitus, including spermatozoa entering and within eggs, in five rodent species. Elevation and loss of the acrosome was observed to occur in actively motile golden-hamster spermatozoa found in the cumulus oophorus and tubal fluid. Motile spermatozoa lacking the acrosome were also seen

C. R. Austin; M. W. H. Bishop

1958-01-01

315

Interspecific competition in small rodents: from populations to individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of interspecific competition in shaping animal and plant communities has formed one of the major issues in ecology for decades. Small mammals, mainly rodents, have been among the model systems used for research on interspecific competition. Most studies within small mammal systems in the past have examined effects of competition on population attributes such as on population size,

Jana A. Eccard; Hannu Ylönen

2003-01-01

316

Unexpected primitive rodents in the Quaternary of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the

María G. Vucetich; Emma C. Vieytes; Diego H. Verzi; Jorge I. Noriega; Eduardo P. Tonni

2005-01-01

317

Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.  

PubMed

We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted. PMID:24447689

Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

2014-02-01

318

Anti-erosion stone bunds influence rodent dynamics and crop damage in Ethiopian highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas of subsistence agriculture, a variety of soil conservation methods have been implemented in the last few decades to improve crop yields, however these can have unintended consequences such as providing habitat for rodent pests. We studied rodent population dynamics and estimated crop damage in high and low stone bund density fields for four cropping seasons in Tigray highlands, northern Ethiopia. Stone bunds are physical structures for soil and water conservation, and potentially habitat for rodents. We used a general model to relate the proportion of crop damage to rodent abundance, stone bund density and crop stages. We found a positive correlation between rodent abundance and crop damage, and significant variation in rodent abundance and crop damage between high and low stone bund density fields. Furthermore, crop damage also varied significantly between crop stages. We concluded that Mastomys awashensis and Arvicanthis dembeensis were the two most important crop pests in the highlands causing significant damage. Fields with high stone bund density (~10 m average distance apart) harbor more rodents and endure a significantly higher proportion of crop damage compared to fields with lower stone bund density (~15 m average distance apart). The fact that rodent abundances peaked during the reproductive stage of the crop and around harvest implies the need for management intervention before these crop stages are attained.

Meheretu, Yonas; Welegerima, Kiros; Teferi, Mekonen; Yirga, Gidey; Haile, Mitiku; Sluydts, Vincent; Bauer, Hans; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

2014-05-01

319

Dissociative Electron Attachment to Hydrocarbons. A Laboratory Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory studies of PAHs continue to be essential if we are to interpret the wealth and variety of processes contributing to star formation. In the realm of gas-phase kinetics reactions involving negative ions are being studied to help modellers understand the role of these species in interstellar chemistry. Observations have shown that PAHs molecules are abundant and ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies, play an important role in its physical and chemical characteristics and form a key link between small hydrocarbon species and large carbonaceous grains. There is therefore considerable interest in the mechanisms by which these molecules and their anions may form. One method is electron induced chemistry within the icy mantles on the surface of dust grains. In particular it has been recently shown that functional group dependence exists in electron attachment processes giving rise to site selective fragmentation of molecules at the C-H, O-H and N-H bonds at energies well beyond the threshold for the breaking of any of these bonds allowing novel forms of chemistry that have little or no activation barriers, such as are necessary in the ISM. In this poster we present the results of recent studies on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to PAHs using an improved version of a Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) spectrometer comprised of a magnetically collimated and low energy pulsed electron gun, a Faraday cup, an effusive molecular beam, a pulsed field ion extraction, a time of flight analyzer and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector consisting of microchannel plate and a phosphor screen. The VMI spectrometer measures the kinetic energy and angular distribution of the fragment anions produced in the dissociative electron attachment process. Kinetic energy measurements provide information on the internal energies of the fragment anions and determine the dissociation limits of the parent negative ion resonant states responsible for the dissociative electron attachment process. Angular distribution measurements provide information about the symmetry of these negative ion resonant states. We shall present the details, results and conclusions of these measurements during the conference for some illustrative hydrocarbons.

Szymanska, E.; Mason, N. J.

2011-05-01

320

The Miocene rodents of Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vra?evi?i, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.

Markovic, Z.

2009-04-01

321

Rodent communities in an exurbanizing southwestern landscape (U.S.A.).  

PubMed

Ranches are being converted to exurban housing developments in the southwestern United States, with potentially significant but little-studied impacts on biological diversity. We captured rodents on 48 traplines in grasslands, mesquite savannas, and oak savannas in southeastern Arizona that were grazed by livestock, embedded in exurban housing developments, grazed and embedded in development, or neither grazed nor embedded in development. Independent of habitat or development, rodent species richness, mean rank abundance, and capture rates of all rodents combined were negatively related to presence of livestock grazing or to its effects on vegetative ground cover Exurban development had no obvious effects on rodent variety or abundance. Results suggest southwester.n exurban developments can sustain a rich assemblage of grassland and savanna rodents if housing densities are low and houses are embedded in a matrix of natural vegetation with little grazing. PMID:16922240

Bock, Carl E; Jones, Zach E; Bock, Jane H

2006-08-01

322

Coxiella burnetii in Rodents on Heixiazi Island at the Sino-Russian Border  

PubMed Central

This work is a molecular epidemiologic study to detect the incidence of Coxiella burnetii in rodents on Heixiazi Island at the Sino-Russian border of Heilongjiang Province. Liver tissues were extracted and processed to test the incidence of C. burnetii infection using polymerase chain reaction analysis. In total, 18% (66 of 370) of rodents tested positive for infection. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that infection with C. burnetii was associated significantly with weight and month of capture, and infection was found in all rodent species that were observed; there was no significant difference of sex on the infection of C. burnetii. Though phylogenetic analysis disclosed heterogeneity in the nucleotide sequences isolated from the island rodents, the majority of observed strains were among the most common strains found worldwide. This is the first report on the incidence of C. burnetii in rodents on Heixiazi Island at the Sino-Russian border.

Liu, Lijuan; Baoliang, Xu; Yingqun, Fu; Ming, Li; Yu, Yang; Yong, Hou; Shasha, Wang; Manxia, Hu; Tianyu, Guo; Chao, Jiang; Xiaohong, Sun; Jing, Wang

2013-01-01

323

Microbial Evolution at High Pressure: Deep Sea and Laboratory Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated hydrostatic pressures are present in deep-sea and deep-Earth environments where this physical parameter has influenced the evolution and characteristics of life. Piezophilic (high-pressure-adapted) microbes have been isolated from diverse deep-sea settings, and would appear likely to occur in deep-subsurface habitats as well. In order to discern the factors enabling life at high pressure my research group has explored these adaptations at various levels, most recently including molecular analyses of deep-sea trench communities, and through the selective evolution of the model microbe Escherichia coli in the laboratory to progressively higher pressures. Much of the field work has focused on the microbes present in the deeper portions of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT)and in the Peru-Chile Trench (PCT), from 6-8.5 km below the sea surface (~60-85 megapascals pressure). Culture-independent phylogenetic data on the Bacteria and Archaea present on particles or free-living, along with data on the microeukarya present was complemented with genomic analyses and the isolation and characterization of microbes in culture. Metagenomic analyses of the PRT revealed increased genome sizes and an overrepresentation at depth of sulfatases for the breakdown of sulfated polysaccharides and specific categories of transporters, including those associated with the transport of diverse cations or carboxylate ions, or associated with heavy metal resistance. Single-cell genomic studies revealed several linneages which recruited to the PRT metagenome far better than existing marine microbial genome sequences. analyses. Novel high pressure culture approaches have yielded new piezophiles including species preferring very low nutrient levels, those living off of hydrocarbons, and those adapted to various electron donor/electron acceptor combinations. In order to more specifically focus on functions enabling life at increased pressure selective evolution experiments were performed with Escherichia coli during laboratory cultivation. More than 60 subcultures were obtained at progressively increasing hydrostatic pressures ranging from 28 - 62 megapascals. A strain isolated from the 63rd subculture displayed dramatically improved growth over the parental strain at 59 megapascals but reduced growth rate relative to the parental strain at atmospheric pressure. The mutant also produced far more unsaturated fatty acids than its parent and also acquired the ability to upregulate these fatty acids species at elevated pressure. Solexa sequencing revealed mutations within an operon (acpP operon) governing unsaturated fatty acid production, and these have been examined as a function of generation at high pressure. These and other results indicate that a large number and variety of microbes are adapted to life at high pressure, that the selective constraints of pressure increases up to ~60 megapascals are not so severe as to preclude the rapid evolution to a piezotolerant phenotype, and that the production of increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids correlates with adaptation to this stressor. This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (EF-0801793 and EF-0827051) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA SSC NNX10AR13G).

Bartlett, D. H.

2011-12-01

324

20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section...Workers Housing Standards § 654.415 Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other...

2013-04-01

325

Insecticide-Treated Rodent Baits for Sand Fly Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rodent baits containing systemic insecticides are potential tools to interrupt the cycle of transmission of Leishmania parasites by killing sand flies that take bloodmeals from rodents as adults. Bio-indicators that can be used in conjunction with rodent-...

J. D. Bast J. W. Clark R. W. Stout S. W. Gordon T. M. Mascari

2013-01-01

326

The role of phylogeny in desert rodent community assembly.  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular genetics and phylogenetic reconstruction have the potential to transform ecology by providing new insights into the historical evolution of ecological communities. This study by Stevens and collaborators complements decades of previous research on desert rodents, by combining data from a field study and a phylogenetic tree for Mojave Desert rodents to address patterns and processes of community assembly. The number of coexisting rodent species is positively correlated, and the average phylogenetic distance among these species is negatively correlated with perennial plant species richness. As rodent species diversity increases along a gradient of increasing environmental heterogeneity, communities are composed of increasingly related species: there is a consistent pattern of phylogenetic structure from over-dispersed through random to clumped. I discuss this pattern in the light of complementary results of previous studies. This paper is noteworthy for calling attention to still unanswered questions about how the historical events of speciation, colonization, extinction, and trait evolution and their relationship to past climates and vegetation have given rise to current patterns of community organization. PMID:22324970

Brown, James H

2012-03-01

327

Study on experimental table wireless control system of open laboratory based on ZigBee technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

One kind of experimental table wireless control system of open laboratory is studied based on ZigBee technology. Test result indicates the system can satisfy the requirement of real-time monitoring experimental table in open laboratory. The application of system can insure the reliability of data transmission, coat down the maintenance resource of equipment and it is helpful to manage open laboratory.

Lian Yuxin; Wu Jianqiang; Meng Tao; Shi Gengsu

2009-01-01

328

COMPARISON OF FIELD- AND LABORATORY-DEVELOPED ESTUARINE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FOR TOXICANT-EXPOSURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The structures of macrobenthic communities that colonized sand-filled boxes in laboratory and field were compared to learn if laboratory-developed assemblages of animals used in toxicity studies realistically simulate those in nature. Laboratory boxes were colonized for eight wee...

329

The Study of Biobehavioral Rhythms in a Psychology Laboratory Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a laboratory experiment where students measured their heart rate, blood pressure, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Measures showed significant circadian heart rhythm variations. They were strongly correlated and peaked at different times. Discusses the implications of this and students' reactions to the experiment. (MJP)

Rowland, David L.; Wesselhoft, Theresa

1998-01-01

330

Laboratory studies on seismic and electrical properties of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of seismic wave velocities and electrical properties of Apollo lunar samples and similar material of terrestrial origin are discussed in this paper. Measurements of the electrical properties show that in the frequency range above a few hundred Hz the outer region of the Moon may be considered as a low loss dielectric. This observation supports a longstanding speculation

Dae H. Chung

1972-01-01

331

Laboratory Studies on Seismic and Electrical Properties of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of seismic wave velocities and electrical properties of Apollo lunar samples and similar material of terrestrial origin are discussed in this paper. Measurements of the electrical properties show that in the frequency range above a few hundred Hz the outer region of the Moon may be considered as a low loss dielectric. This observation supports a longstanding speculation

Dae H. Chung

1972-01-01

332

Laboratory Studies of Waves and Instabilities in Dusty Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmas containing dust grains are found in many geophysical and astrophysical environments such as planetary rings, comet tails, noctilucent clouds, and the interstellar medium. `Dusty plasmas' are also present in devices used for plasma processing of semiconductors, in the exhaust of rocket engines, and in fusion devices. In typical laboratory experiments a micron-sized dust grain, having a mass of about

R. L. Merlino

1997-01-01

333

Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes.

Not Available

1984-12-01

334

Sodium\\/sulfur battery studies at SNL (Sandia National Laboratories)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, Sandia National Laboratories has managed the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored programs for the development of the sodium\\/sulfur battery technology. Two DOE offices have provided support for these programs: the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ultimate goal of these ongoing efforts is to develop and demonstrate high

J. W. Braithwaite; J. M. Freese

1989-01-01

335

Laboratory Study of High-beta Plasma Shock Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plasma wind tunnel has been used to generate shock waves at rest in the laboratory reference frame. The upstream pressure ratio beta is in the range 1 to 3, and the Mach number based on the fast magnetosonic wave speed is 3 to 5. The shock wave is forme...

D. L. Morse W. W. Destler

1970-01-01

336

Feeding responses of Asplanchna brightwelli (rotifera): laboratory and field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-reared A. brightwelli were offered 16 different prey rotifer species from the genera Anuraeopsis, Brachionus, Epiphanes, Filinia, Hexarthra, Lecane, Lepadella, Pompholyx, Proalides and Trichocerca. Feeding responses (prey encounter, escape, capture, rejection and ingestion) were recorded. In general, the predator's ingestion time was positively correlated with prey length. B. falcatus and H. intermedia were never captured. Once captured, smaller rotifer species

S. S. S. Sarma

1993-01-01

337

Tethered variable gravity laboratory study: Low gravity process identification report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are described performable in the variable gravity environment, and the related compatible/beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of Fluid Mechanics (static and dynamic), Materials Sciences (Crystal Growth, Metal and Alloy Solidification, Glasses, etc.), and Life Sciences, so as to assess the relevance of a variable G-level laboratory.

Briccarello, M.

1989-01-01

338

Lunar and Planetary Laboratory studies of Jupiter. II.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of Jovian belts, zones and atmospheric features as identified by an analysis of photographs of the planet at the Laboratory. The topics include the circulation of the Jovian atmosphere, the rotation periods of zones and belts, the Great Red Spot shown by methane photographs, and some high altitude photographs of terrestrial atmospheric conditions. Hypothetical mechanisms controlling the atmospheric conditions on Jupiter are considered.

Kuiper, G. P.

1972-01-01

339

Case Study: Steam System Improvements At Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dupont's Marshall Laboratory is an automotive paint research and development facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The campus is comprised of several buildings that are served by Trigen-Philadelphia Energy Corporation's district steam loop. In 1996, Dupont management announced that it was considering moving the facility out of Philadelphia primarily due to the high operating cost compared to where they were considering relocating.

Andrew W. Larkin

2003-01-01

340

Regional specification of rodent and human neurospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural precursor cells were isolated from various regions of the developing rat and human brain and grown in culture as aggregates termed neurospheres. We asked whether cells within human and rodent neurospheres are identical, or whether they have species specific characteristics or differences based on their region of origin. Under our culture conditions, rodent neurospheres isolated from the cortex (ctxNS)

T Ostenfeld; Etienne Joly; Yu-Tzu Tai; Anna Peters; Maeve Caldwell; Eric Jauniaux; C. N Svendsen

2002-01-01

341

Oldest fossil record of gliding in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

EOMYIDAE is an extinct family of rodents with a wide distribution in North America, Europe and Asia1-3. Of the modern rodent groups, eomyids are most closely related to New World pocket mice (heteromyids) and pocket gophers (geomyids)4. Eomyids occurred from the late Eocene through the Pliocene, spanning a time period of about 40 million years. From Europe alone, 11 genera

G. Storch; B. Engesser; M. Wuttke

1996-01-01

342

Development and characterization of rodent cardiac phantoms: comparison with in vivo cardiac imaging  

PubMed Central

The increasing availability of rodent models of human cardiovascular disease has led to a need to translate noninvasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the clinic to the animal laboratory. The aim of this study was to develop phantoms simulating the short-axis view of left ventricular motion of rats and mice, thus reducing the need for live animals in the development of MRI. Cylindrical phantoms were moulded from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Cryogel and attached via stiff water-filled tubing to a gear pump. Pulsatile distension of the phantoms was effected by suitable programming of the pump. Cine MRI scanning was carried out at 7 T and compared with in vivo rodent cardiac imaging. Suitable pulsatile performance was achieved with phantoms for which the PVA material had been subjected to two freeze–thaw cycles, resulting in T1 and T2 relaxation time constants of 1656±124 ms and 55±10 ms, respectively. For the rat phantom operating at 240 beats per min (bpm), the dynamic range of the outer diameter was from 10.3 to 12.4 mm with the wall thickness varying between 1.9 and 1.2 mm. Corresponding figures for the mouse phantom at 480 bpm were outer diameter range from 5.4 to 6.4 mm and wall thickness from 1.5 to 1.2 mm. Dynamic cardiac phantoms simulating rodent left ventricular motion in the short-axis view were successfully developed and compared with in vivo imaging. The phantoms can be used for future development work with reduced need of live animals.

Fortune, Steven; Jansen, Maurits A.; Anderson, Tom; Gray, Gillian A.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Hoskins, Peter R.; Marshall, Ian

2012-01-01

343

The lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus: a unique rodent model for evolution and development.  

PubMed

Tetrapods that have evolved the ability to run or bound at great speeds over long distances have repeatedly converged on specific morphological limb adaptations, including the loss of lateral digits, elongation of limb segments, and fusion of individual elements. Many of the more familiar cursorial animals, such as horses and deer, are large and do not lend themselves well to experimental embryonic analyses. However, a group of lesser-known bipedal rodents, the three-toed jerboas, has become an exceptional model for studying the developmental and molecular mechanisms shaping these limb morphologies. The lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, represents the most derived subfamily of jerboas and shows loss of the anterior and posterior hindlimb digits, fusion of the three central metatarsals, and dramatic elongation of the hindlimb relative to the forelimb with disproportionate elongation of the metatarsals. In addition, several unique physiological and morphological characteristics make these excellent animals for evolutionary studies. As small docile rodents, they are amenable to rearing in a laboratory setting and, along with several related species with a variety of skeletal morphologies, are plentiful enough in the wild to support field collections. The close evolutionary relationship to Mus musculus and the development of genomic resources for J. jaculus support comparative developmental and molecular analyses. PMID:22135653

Cooper, Kimberly L

2011-12-01

344

Rodent Models for Metabolic Syndrome Research  

PubMed Central

Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.

Panchal, Sunil K.; Brown, Lindsay

2011-01-01

345

Ions, isotopes, and metal cyanides: Observational and laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry in the interstellar medium is very different from the processes which take place in terrestrial settings. Environments such as circumstellar envelopes, molecular clouds, and comets contain diverse and complex chemical networks. The low temperatures (10 50 K) and densities (1 10 6 cm-3) allow normally unstable molecules to exist in significant quantities. At these temperatures, the rotational energy levels of molecules are populated, and thus these species can be detected by millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The detection and quantification of interstellar molecules, including metal cyanides and molecular ions, is the basis of this dissertation work. While conducting observations of CN and 13CN to determine the 12C/13C ratio throughout the Galaxy, it was found that the ratios in photon- dominated regions (PDRs) were much higher than those in nearby molecular clouds. This can be explained by isotope-selective photodissociation, in which the 12CN molecules are self-shielded. However, the chemistry in these regions is poorly understood, and other processes may be occurring. In order to understand one of the chemical networks present in PDRs, observations of HCO+, HOC +, and CO+ were made toward several of these sources. Previous studies indicated that the HCO+/HOC+ ratio was much lower in PDRs, due to the presence of CO+. The new observations indicate that there is a strong correlation between CO + and HOC+ abundances, which suggests that other molecular ions which have not been detected in molecular clouds may be present in PDRs. There is a significant obstacle to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, however. The laboratory spectra are virtually unknown for many of these species, due to their inherent instability. Thus, techniques which can selectively detect ionic spectra must be utilized. One such method is velocity modulation, which incorporates an AC electrical discharge to produce and detect ions. Previously, velocity modulation spectroscopy was employed only at infrared wavelengths. The final phase of this dissertation work was to design, build and test a velocity modulation spectrometer which functions at millimeter/sub-mm wavelengths. This system was then used to measure the previously unknown pure rotational spectrum of SH+ (X3E- ).

Savage, Chandra Shannon

2004-11-01

346

[Neurosteroidogenesis and exploratory responses in rodents].  

PubMed

We have studied the influence of intraperitoneal introduction of a selective blocker of mitochondrial translocation protein 18kD PK11195 (5 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 and 10 mg/kg), finasteride (5 and 15 mg/kg), and neurosteroid pregnenolone (20 mg/kg) on the exploratory behavior of male BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, and Wistar rats in open-field test. It is found that treatment with PK11195 weakens the exploratory behavior in open-field test in mice of both strains. Finasteride and indomethacin decrease the exploratory responses in rodents regardless of the species or type of stress emotional response phenotype. Pregnenolone possesses activating effect in open-field in open-field test, but enhances the inhibitory effect of finasteride in BALB/c mice. PMID:24791332

2014-01-01

347

Rodent Models of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Of Mice and Men  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. The progressive nature of ALD is well described however the complex interactions under which these pathologies evolve remain to be fully elucidated. Clinically there are no clear biomarkers or universally accepted, effective treatment strategies for ALD. Experimental models of ALD are an important component in identifying underlying mechanisms of alcohol-induced injury to develop better diagnostic markers, predictors of disease progression, and therapeutic targets to manage, halt, or reverse disease progression. Rodents remain the most accessible model for studying ALD pathology. Effective rodent models must mimic the natural history of ALD while allowing examination of complex interactions between multiple hepatic, and non-hepatic, cell types in the setting of altered metabolic or oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammatory responses, and sensitivity to cytotoxic stress. Additionally, mode and duration of alcohol delivery influences hepatic response and presents unique challenges in understanding disease pathology. This review provides an overview of rodent models of ALD, their strengths and weaknesses relative to human disease states, and provides insight of the potential to develop novel rodent models to simulate the course of human ALD.

Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Schrum, Laura W.; Schmidt, C. Max; McKillop, Iain H.

2012-01-01

348

Pas1 haplotype-dependent genetic predisposition to lung tumorigenesis in rodents: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Rodent species and strains show wide variations in susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis. In mice, hierarchical clustering of 29 inbred laboratory strains by pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus polymorphisms separated the strains into either an A/J- or a C57BL/6J-type Pas1 haplotype. A pooled analysis (including >8500 mice) of studies on spontaneous and chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in these strains revealed a significantly higher risk of spontaneous lung tumors [odds ratio (OR) 12.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.00-16.45] as well as of chemically induced lung tumors (OR 15.14; 95% CI 12.51-18.31) in the A/J-type haplotype. Strain differences were observed with six different carcinogens, suggesting that Pas1 locus activity is carcinogen-independent. Thus, the present meta-analysis indicates a link between the genetic control of spontaneous and chemically induced lung tumor susceptibility in mice. The Pas1 susceptibility allele is frequent in the population of inbred mouse strains, whereas a counterpart appears to be absent or rare in rat and hamster strains. These findings might help in the interpretation of results of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays and assessing the risk of lung carcinogenesis from chemicals. PMID:15471897

Manenti, Giacomo; Dragani, Tommaso A

2005-05-01

349

High Prevalence of Helicobacter Species Detected in Laboratory Mouse Strains by Multiplex PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Pyrosequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori ,a s well as by other gastric and intestinal Helicobacter spp., but some murine enteric Helicobacter spp. cause hepatobiliary and intestinal tract diseases in specific inbred strains of laboratory mice. To identify these murine Helicobacter spp., we developed an assay based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel

Hans-Olof Nilsson; Ibn-Sina Ouis; Unne Stenram; Anthony P. Moran; Torkel Wadstrom; Waleed Abu Al-Soud

2004-01-01

350

Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

2000-01-01

351

Digestive responses of two omnivorous rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and P. alstoni) feeding on epigeous fungus (Russula occidentalis).  

PubMed

The sporocarps of hypogeous and epigeous fungi are important dietary items for forest dwelling rodents in temperate and tropical forests throughout the world. However, results of some pioneering works have demonstrated that fungi cannot be considered as nutritionally high-quality food items for some mycophagous small rodents. According to these studies, when mycophagous rodents feed on fungus, they showed a minimal digestibility, but whether this applies to most rodent species that include fungi in their diets is unknown. In this study, we experimentally evaluated body mass changes and feed preferences in captive deer (Peromyscus maniculatus) and volcano (P. alstoni) mice when fed on epigeous fungus (Russula occidentalis). In experiment 1, the animals were fed with fungus as the only feedstuff in comparison to regular rodent chow and oat. In experiment 2, the animals were fed with fungus in a free-choice arrangement together with equal amounts of rodent chow and oat. Both species lost approximately 15% of their body mass within 4 days when fed on fungus alone, but gained 5-10% body mass during the same time period when ingesting oat and rodent chow, respectively, as the only feedstuff. However, in contrast, in the free-choice arrangement with all three feedstuffs, both species gained 20-30% body mass, and showed the highest feed preference for fungus followed by oat and rodent chow. In addition, apparent digestibility of energy and nitrogen were analyzed in both rodent species, which were 50-60% for fungus, whereas approximately 90-94% for rodent chow and oat. According to our results, animals need to supplement their diets with alternative high-quality food items in order to maintain and increase their body mass, suggesting that epigeous fungi are only of moderate nutritional value for small rodents. Futures studies should focus on exploring the importance of a mixture of fungal species in the diet of small mycophagous rodents. PMID:17653726

D'Alva, T; Lara, C; Estrada-Torres, A; Castillo-Guevara, C

2007-10-01

352

Case Study: Formal Inspections at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology is a federally funded research and development center operating under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). JPL's charter emphasizes the exploration of the solar system including observations of Earth as well as other stellar systems and extra-solar-system bodies. Within JPL, the Software Product Assurance (SPA) Section helps to ensure the operational integrity of the software within the system. SPA evaluates the operational requirements, the acceptability and readiness of all software, hardware/software interfaces, and the integrity of the completed software before its final release into the operational environment.

Kelly, J. C.; Welz, L. W.

1993-01-01

353

Industrywide studies report: a walk through survey of Ross Laboratories (Division of Abbott Laboratories), Columbus, Ohio. [Ethylene oxide  

SciTech Connect

A walk-through survey was conducted at Ross Laboratories, a Division of Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio in August, 1985. The purpose of the survey was to determine the feasibility of including the facility in a NIOSH industry wide mortality/industrial hygiene survey of ethylene oxide. The facility produced infant formula and infant related products, including nipples. The company had a full time nurse on the first and second shifts. A physician was available on a contract basis. New employees were given preemployment physicals. Employees received annual physicals until 1982 after which they became optional. The physicals did not include any components relating to ethylene-oxide exposure. The authors conclude that the personnel records are not adequate to identify a cohort of exposed individuals at the facility. The facility will not be included in the NIOSH study.

Greife, A.; Steenland, K.

1985-10-02

354

[Alcoholic hepatitis: clinical, laboratorial and histological study of 50 cases].  

PubMed

The clinical, laboratorial and histological aspects of 50 cases of alcoholic hepatitis were analysed, as well as the follow-up of 24 patients. The mean age of the 50 patients was 42,9 years (range: 25 to 65 years); 44 were males. The beginning of the symptomatology was insidious in great number of cases. The hepatomegaly was most habitual clinical signal (92% of cases). The jaundice was observed in 58% of the cases. Twenty six per cent of the patients had not manifestation of advanced hepatopaty at the moment of diagnosis. The most constant laboratorial alteration (except the increase of gama-glutamil-transpeptidase, dosed in rare cases) was the increase of SGOT (94%). Histological examination showed necrosis and inflammatory exudate in all cases; steatosis in 98%; Mallory bodies in 78%; fibrosis in 84%; cirrhosis in 44%. In the group of patients that came to the obit at the first internation, jaundice, digestive bleeding, encephalopathy, infection, leucocitosis and decreased prothrombin activity. The follow-up of 24 cases (3 months to 5 years) showed aggravation of illness and frequent evolution to cirrhosis in patient that maintained the alcohol ingestion. PMID:7181721

Gonçalves, C S; Pereira, F E; Boni, E S; Buaiz, V; Zanotti, W M; Zanandréa, B

1982-01-01

355

Studies on perilla, agarwood, and cinnamon through a combination of fieldwork and laboratory work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldwork is one of the primary methods for studying medicinal plants and materials, and information thus obtained can be\\u000a valuable for experiments performed in the laboratory. Meanwhile, results of experiments in the laboratory can be brought back\\u000a to the field for verification and further investigation. A combination of field and laboratory work has led to effective progress\\u000a in studies of

Michiho Ito

2008-01-01

356

[Study on turnaround time of biological analysis in urgent need in hospital laboratories].  

PubMed

We have assessed turnaround time (TAT) for urgent laboratory analysis. Twelve hospital laboratories participated to this study. All laboratories have organized a classification of a management system of urgent analyses. The TAT reporting were relatively homogeneous for 12 laboratories. We have defined TAT as time of specimen receipt in the laboratory to time of results reporting. This TAT divides into 4 groups: close to 50 minutes for analyses as TP, D-dimeres, CRP (C Protein Reactive), HCG, troponin, alcoholhemia, K, lipase; 35 minutes for the cytology of cerebrospinal fluid; 25 minutes for complete blood cell count and 15 minutes for blood gases. All laboratories have accepted to TAT as a quality indicator. Quality indicator data should be collected in time to identify and correct problems to implemente effective interventions and to standardize processes among clinical laboratories. PMID:21159586

Roubille, Martine; Szymanowicz, Anton; Cartier, Brigitte; Albinet, Hélène; Carlier, Alain; Goux, Alain; Lefevre, Fabrice; Pellae, Isabelle; Rozand, Isabelle; Billion, Patrick; Burtin, Marie Laure; Mas, Philippe

2010-01-01

357

Household characteristics associated with rodent presence and Leptospira infection in rural and urban communities from Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Rodents are well-recognized reservoirs of Leptospira, contributing to its maintenance in endemic areas and playing a role in the public health risk associated with the infection. This study sought to provide some insights into rodent populations from Chile and their Leptospira carriage. In total, 393 rodents were trapped in 177 households. Higher rodent counts were associated with year 2 of the study, rainfall, and number of rodent signs. There was an inverse correlation with the number of cats. The number of rodents was higher in villages compared with slums (rate ratio = 3.23) but modified by average household age. Eighty rodents (20.4%) tested positive for Leptospira: 19.7% on the farms, 25.9% in villages, and 12.3% in the slums. Prevalence was 22.5% in Mus musculus, 20.7% in Rattus rattus, 21.1% in wild rodents, and 10.3% in R. norvegicus. Seasonal and temporal effects were the major determinants of Leptospira infection in rodent populations. PMID:24445209

Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Mason, Meghan; Encina, Carolina; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Berg, Sergey

2014-03-01

358

Laboratory measurements in support of radar studies of Titan seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from Cassini RADAR instrument observations of Titan's lakes and seas show tantalizing hints that in some locations the radar signals might penetrate the liquids, returning measurable reflections from the solid surfaces beneath. At the microwave frequencies used by the RADAR instrument, non-polar liquid alkanes such as methane, ethane, and propane are fairly transparent, supporting the possibility that propagation through the liquids at Titan occurs. But relatively small amounts of other species dissolved in a liquid can strongly influence its microwave absorption coefficient. The dissolution of small amounts of sodium chloride in water, which increases the absorption coefficient by orders of magnitude, illustrates the potential of this effect. At Titan it is almost certain that some of the organic materials observed on the surface, and possibly other species, would dissolve in the methane-ethane mixture thought to constitute the bulk of the seas and lakes. If the microwave propagation constants of the liquids were known, Cassini RADAR data could provide estimates of depth profiles for areas yielding lake-bottom returns, and lower limits to depth for those areas where returns are absent. But the effects of anticipated dissolved species on the microwave properties of liquid alkane mixtures are largely unknown. Laboratory measurements could provide the key to inferring the lake-depth implications of Cassini RADAR results. There are multiple laboratory techniques available for measuring refractive indices and absorption coefficients of liquid samples at microwave frequencies. In the case of liquids relevant to Titan, the primary challenge is to maintain the samples and experimental apparatus at temperatures and pressures that keep the samples in the liquid phase, but this is not an impossible task. Other considerations include ensuring that the composition of a sample within the apparatus is well known. Notably, it is important that all surfaces in contact with the samples at any stage of the experiments do not affect the composition of the samples. An opportunity might arise to conduct such measurements as an extension of a task recently funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute. That task calls for measuring the solubility of expected Titan materials, including but not limited to species found in tholins, in liquid methane-ethane mixtures. If such solutions are to be generated for that task, it would be prudent to use them for microwave experiments also. This presentation will describe candidate techniques for making these measurements and suggest possible applications to the Cassini data. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

Spilker, T. R.; Hodyss, R. P.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Reh, K. R.

2009-04-01

359

Study of polyelectrolytes for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To assess the safety of a potential radioactive waste repository, analysis of the fluid solution containing low levels of activity need to be performed. In some cases, the radioactivity would be so weak (3--30 pCi/L) that the solution must be concentrated for measurement. For this purpose, Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are synthesizing some water soluble polyelectrolytes, which, because they are strong complexing agents for inorganic cations, can concentrate the radioelements in solution. To assist in characterization of these polyelectrolytes, the author has performed experiments to determine physico-chemical constants, such as pKa values and stability constants. The complexation constants between both polyelectrolytes and europium were determined by two methods: solvent extraction and ion exchange. Results are presented.

Labonne, N. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1994-11-01

360

Feasibility study of an orbiting laboratory for testing CSI technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for an orbiting laboratory for testing Controls-Structures Integration (CSI) technology is described. The CSI-Star concept reflects a lower cost, higher risk approach. The concept supports demonstration and validation testing for critical CSI technologies at a cost of $20M to $26M with a 1-year reliability of approximately 0.9. The Ball Aerospace QuickStar bus is the carrier for the CSI test article. QuickStar is launched as a secondary payload on the McDonnell Douglas Delta 2. The QuickStar/Delta 2 approach is flight proven. The CSI test article is a 20 foot, 1 Hz, truss beam which is deployed from the QuickStar bus. The test article is well instrumented for quality system identification. The laboratory provides three layers of active control consisting of global vibration suppression along the truss beam, vibration isolation between the beam and instrument platforms, and vibration compensation through the use of gimbaled platforms which point lasers relative to optical sensor targets. The configuration simulates the dynamics of multi-instrument science platforms such as those of the Earth Observation System (EOS) while maintaining strong ties to astrophysics missions such as the Optical Interferometer. Uplink/downlink services and a reprogrammable computer provide flexibility for long-term investigations by members of the CSI community (NASA, DoD, academia, and industry). CSI-Star fills the gap between short-term experiments, which have been conducted primarily on the Shuttle, and future science missions which require the technology. The on-orbit maturity of CSI technology must be established to obtain acceptance by project managers and to promote injection of the technology into future science missions.

Bicos, Andrew S.; Loboda, Gregory G.

1993-01-01

361

Behavioral testing in rodent models of orofacial neuropathic and inflammatory pain  

PubMed Central

Orofacial pain conditions are often very debilitating to the patient and difficult to treat. While clinical interest is high, the proportion of studies performed in the orofacial region in laboratory animals is relatively low, compared with other body regions. This is partly due to difficulties in testing freely moving animals and therefore lack of reliable testing methods. Here we present a comprehensive review of the currently used rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain adapted to the orofacial areas, taking into account the difficulties and drawbacks of the existing approaches. We examine the available testing methods and procedures used for assessing the behavioral responses in the face in both mice and rats and provide a summary of some pharmacological agents used in these paradigms to date. The use of these agents in animal models is also compared with outcomes observed in the clinic.

Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; Avendano, Carlos

2012-01-01

362

Differentiation in seed hoarding among three sympatric rodent species in a warm temperate forest.  

PubMed

Although seed hoarding by rodents has been extensively studied, differentiation in seed-hoarding behaviors among sympatric rodent species has not been well investigated. Using semi-natural enclosures, we demonstrated that three sympatric rodent species showed clear differentiation in food selection, scatter versus larder hoarding behaviors and eating behaviors when offered seeds of four plant species from a warm temperate forest in northern China. The large field mouse Apodemus peninsulae preferred seeds of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and Liaodong oak (Quercus liaotungensis), whereas the Chinese white-bellied rat Niviventor confucianus preferred seeds of cultivated walnut and Liaodong oak, and the David's rock squirrel Sciurotamias davidianus preferred seeds of cultivated walnut, wild apricot and Liaodong oak. All three rodents showed larder hoarding of seeds from all four plant species, but the large field mouse showed scatter hoarding of wild apricot, and the David's rock squirrel showed scatter hoarding of Liaodong oak and wild walnut. Acorns of Liaodong oak, which have a soft seed hull, were more often eaten in situ, whereas wild walnuts, which have a hard seed hull and more tannin, were less hoarded by all rodent species. Differentiation in the scatter versus larder hoarding behaviors of sympatric rodent species suggests that sympatric rodents play different roles in the regeneration of different sympatric plant species. PMID:21396061

Lu, Jiqi; Zhang, Zhibin

2008-06-01

363

Current review of in vivo GBM rodent models: emphasis on the CNS-1 tumour model  

PubMed Central

GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) is a highly aggressive brain tumour with very poor prognosis despite multi-modalities of treatment. Furthermore, recent failure of targeted therapy for these tumours highlights the need of appropriate rodent models for preclinical studies. In this review, we highlight the most commonly used rodent models (U251, U86, GL261, C6, 9L and CNS-1) with a focus on the pathological and genetic similarities to the human disease. We end with a comprehensive review of the CNS-1 rodent model.

Jacobs, Valerie L; Valdes, Pablo A; Hickey, William F; De Leo, Joyce A

2011-01-01

364

A laboratory and full-scale study on the fragmentation behavior of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock fines produced in rock blasting and crushing processes is a major problem for aggregate producers. Laboratory and full-scale studies were carried out to explore the possible relationship between fines production and water content of rock material. The Brazilian tensile test was selected for the laboratory study while a cone crusher machine was employed for the full-scale trials. Results of

B. Bohloli; E. Hoven

2007-01-01

365

Effect of leachate recirculation on landfill gas production and leachate quality: A controlled laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a laboratory study conducted during 1992-1994 at Argonne National Laboratory. The study examined biogas production and leachate chemistry in parallel anaerobic assays run under either leachate recycle or leachate drainage regimes over a period of 400 days. A standardized synthetic refuse (paper, grass, food) was used in an experimental design which evaluated two elevated

J. Bogner; K. Spokas

1995-01-01

366

A Comparison of Science Laboratory Classrooms in Asia, Australia, South Pacific and USA: An International Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to compare the science laboratory learning environments of secondary schools across both developed and developing countries (Australia, Brunei, Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, United States, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa). The study used a version of the Science Laboratory Learning…

Giddings, Geoffrey; Waldrip, Bruce G.

367

Seven Principles of Instructional Content Design for a Remote Laboratory: A Case Study on ERRL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the results of a study of the requirements for developing a remote radio frequency (RF) laboratory for electrical engineering students. It investigates students' preferred usage of the technical content of a state-of-the-art RF laboratory. The results of this study are compared to previous findings, which dealt with other user…

Cagiltay, N. E.; Aydin, E.; Aydin, C. C.; Kara, A.; Alexandru, M.

2011-01-01

368

Verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by PCV2 on commercial swine farms.  

PubMed

The porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Few studies have been done regarding PCV2 infection in other species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PCV2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in Brazil. Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated PCV2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. Viral DNA was detected in tissues by nested PCR assay. Partial sequences of PCV2 genomes detected in the rodents had strong identity with gene sequences of PCV2 isolates from pigs. These results show that the studied peridomestic rodent species can be naturally infected by PCV2. However, further studies are needed to confirm PCV2 transmission from rodents to pigs. PMID:23141170

Pinheiro, Albanno Leonard Braz Campos; Bulos, Luiz Henrique Silva; Onofre, Thiago Souza; de Paula Gabardo, Michelle; de Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Guedes, Roberto Maurício Carvalho; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

2013-06-01

369

Correlation of Sperm and Endocrine Measures with Reproductive Success in Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report compares the statistical precision and biological sensitivity of multiple indicies of reproductive function to infertility in the male rodent. The studies discussed include those that examined reproductive function in the male following perinat...

L. E. Gray J. Ostby J. Ferrell R. Sigmon R. Cooper

1989-01-01

370

COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

371

Guinea-zilla? World's largest rodent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Roughly the size of a buffalo, a giant rodent that roamed the banks of an ancient Venezuelan river some 8 million years ago, dining on sea grass and dodging crocodiles, was an evolutionary sibling to modern-day guinea pigs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-07-03

372

Advanced Fast Ignition Studies at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid progress has been demonstrated in cone-guided (or cone-focused) advanced fast ignition concepts. Simultaneous compression to high density and significant heating at laser powers equivalent to those needed for full-scale fast ignition have been observed at Osaka University, albeit with pulse duration and laser energy 1/20 of those required for fusion energy gain. Work at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory this year has concentrated on two very important and necessary objectives related to these new observations: confirmation of the results at an independent laboratory using similar laser conditions and, perhaps more importantly, understanding energy transport in dense plasmas. The latter is vital to making quantitative predictions needed to scale the results to full-scale ignition and energy gain. The idea of the campaign was to use the full 1.0 kJ nanosecond-duration infrared output power of Vulcan to drive the compression in 6-beam cubic symmetry. At stagnation, the compressed plasma is heated using the Vulcan 100 TW beam. The experiment was divided between diagnosing the density of the compression and the effects of heating the plasma. The results of the compression experiment indicate that the stagnation time was 3ns after the peak of the drive pulse and the compressed areal density achieved experimentally of 40mg^2 for a 6-micron wall thickness, 500-micron diameter copper-doped deuterated polymer shell is in agreement with hydrodynamic simulations. The response of the plasma to heating pulses of 80J in 1ps and 10 ps will be presented. In addition, beam-fusion neutron spectroscopy can be a powerful tool in the understanding the ion dynamics and energy transport associated with ultra-intense laser plasma interactions. Evidence will be presented for an anisotropic transfer of energy to accelerated deuterons when deuterated polymer targets are irradiated with the Vulcan 100 TW beam. The potential for directly inferring resistive electric fields using these nuclear reactions by use of buried layers will be discussed, and the first results of experiments from the Vulcan PW laser will be presented. This work was performed in collaboration with colleagues from the UC Davies, General Atomics, Lawrence Livermore, Univesity of Rochester, Osaka Univesity, Imperial College, London, AWE plc and the Queens University Belfast. It was supported by the UK Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council, the US National Science Foundation and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Norreys, Peter

2003-10-01

373

Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish  

SciTech Connect

Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine were administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.

Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Gerstenberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Biosciences; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, MI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

1996-03-01

374

Camera trapping: a contemporary approach to monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation priority ecosystems.  

PubMed

Invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. Insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. Few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species persist. This study investigates the effectiveness of camera trapping for monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation areas, and the influence of habitat features and density of colonial-nesting seabirds on rodent relative activity levels to provide insights into their potential impacts. A total of 276 camera sites were established and left in situ for 8 days. Identified species were recorded in discrete 15 min intervals, referred to as 'events'. In total, 19 804 events were recorded. From these, 31 species were identified comprising 25 native species and six introduced. Two introduced rodent species were detected: the black rat (90% of sites), and house mouse Mus musculus (56% of sites). Rodent activity of both black rats and house mice were positively associated with the structural density of habitats. Density of seabird burrows was not strongly associated with relative activity levels of rodents, yet rodents were still present in these areas. Camera trapping enabled a large number of rodents to be detected with confidence in site-specific absences and high resolution to quantify relative activity levels. This method enables detection of multiple species simultaneously with low impact (for both target and non-target individuals); an ideal strategy for monitoring trap-adverse invasive rodents in high conservation areas. PMID:24599307

Rendall, Anthony R; Sutherland, Duncan R; Cooke, Raylene; White, John

2014-01-01

375

Natural Host Relationships and Genetic Diversity of Rodent-Associated Hantaviruses in Southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Hantaviruses are rodent-borne RNA viruses that have caused hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in several Brazilian regions. In the present study, geographical distribution, seroprevalence, natural host range, and phylogenetic relations of rodent-associated hantaviruses collected from seven counties of Southeastern Brazil were evaluated. Methods: ELISA, RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis were used in this study. Results: Antibodies to hantavirus were detected in Bolomys

Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa; Marcos Lázaro Moreli; Alessandra Abel Borges; Gelse Mazzoni Campos; Márcia Cristina Livonesi; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo; Aramis Augusto Pinto

2008-01-01

376

Rodent Allergen in Los Angeles Inner City Homes of Children with Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have examined the presence of mouse allergen in inner city children with asthma. Researchers have found high\\u000a levels of rodent allergen in homes sampled in the northeast and midwest United States, but there has been considerable variation\\u000a between cities, and there have been few studies conducted in western states. We evaluated the frequency of rodent sightings\\u000a and detectable

Jill Berg; Rob McConnell; Joel Milam; Judith Galvan; Jenny Kotlerman; Peter Thorne; Craig Jones; Ronald Ferdman; Peyton Eggleston; Cynthia Rand; Mary Ann Lewis; John Peters; Jean Richardson

2008-01-01

377

Laboratory studies of Kapton degradation in an oxygen ion beam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a preliminary laboratory investigation of the degradation of the widely used polyimide Kapton under oxygen ion bombardment. Recent space shuttle flights have shown that Kapton and some other materials exposed to the apparent ram flow of residual atmosphere (at orbital velocity in low Earth orbit) lose mass and change their optical properties. It was hypothesized that these changes are caused by chemical interaction with atomic oxygen, aided by the 5-eV impact energy of atmospheric oxygen atoms in the ram. The reaction rate under O(+) bombardment seemed to be independent of incident energy over a wide range of energies. Although the flux of thermal ions in this experiment was much greater than the accelerated flux, the observed Kapton degradation was limited to the beam area and ram flow direction. This is consistent with an activation energy above the thermal energies but well below the beam energies. The results reproduce well the material loss, optical changes, SEM surface structure, and ram directionality of the samples returned by the shuttle. These factors, along with the lack of degradation under argon ion bombardment, are convincing evidence for ram flow oxidation as the mechanism of degradation.

Ferguson, D. C.

1985-01-01

378

Laboratory studies on antimycin A as a fish toxicant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Liquid and sand formulations of antimycin A were tested in laboratory waters of various temperature, hardness, pH, and turbidity against 31 species of fresh-water fish of various sizes and life stages. Each formulation of toxicant was lethal under all water conditions to fish eggs, fry, fingerlings, and adult fish. Trouts are the most sensitive and catfishes the least sensitive. Of the 31 species, 24 succumb to 5 p.p.b. or less of the toxicant; only certain catfishes survive 25 p.p.b, The order of toxicity to various species of fish suggests that antimycin has possibilities for selective or partial control of certain unwanted fish. Although toxic to fish under ice, antimycin is more active in warm water than in cold. It is slightly more active in soft water than in hard; it is more active and persists far longer in water at pH 5 to 8 than at pH 9 or 10. It is active on fish in either clear and turbid waters, and it can be detoxified by potassium permanganate, The results contributed to registration of antimycin A in Fintrol-5 formulation as a fish toxicant.

Berger, Bernard L.; Lennon, Robert E.; Hogan, James W.

1969-01-01

379

Laboratory studies of molecular growth in the Titan ionosphere.  

PubMed

Experimental simulations of the initial steps of the ion-molecule reactions occurring in the ionosphere of Titan were performed at the synchrotron source Elettra in Italy. The measurements consisted of irradiating gas mixtures with a monochromatic photon beam, from the methane ionization threshold at 12.6 eV, up to and beyond the molecular nitrogen dissociative ionization threshold at 24.3 eV. Three gas mixtures of increasing complexity were used: N(2)/CH(4) (0.96/0.04), N(2)/CH(4)/C(2)H(2) (0.96/0.04/0.001), and N(2)/CH(4)/C(2)H(2)/C(2)H(4) (0.96/0.04/0.001/0.001). The resulting ions were detected with a high-resolution (1 T) FT-ICR mass spectrometer as a function of time and VUV photon energy. In order to interpret the experimental results, a Titan ionospheric model was adapted to the laboratory conditions. This model had previously allowed the identification of the ions detected in the Titan upper atmosphere by the ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Comparison between observed and modeled ion densities validates the kinetic model (reactions, rate constants, product branching ratios) for the primary steps of molecular growth. It also reveals differences that we attribute to an intense surface chemistry. This result implies that heterogeneous chemistry on aerosols might efficiently produce HCN and NH(3) in the Titan upper atmosphere. PMID:19769328

Thissen, Roland; Vuitton, Veronique; Lavvas, Panayotis; Lemaire, Joel; Dehon, Christophe; Dutuit, Odile; Smith, Mark A; Turchini, Stefano; Catone, Daniele; Yelle, Roger V; Pernot, Pascal; Somogyi, Arpad; Coreno, Marcello

2009-10-22

380

Estimating the duration of sexual behavior: a laboratory analog study.  

PubMed

Estimate of male orgasm latency, a common parameter of the sex history, is hypothetically subject to retrospective distortion. This investigation attempted to assess the degree and direction of the distortion using a laboratory analog procedure. Groups of sophomore medical students were shown a movie depicting a couple engaging in continuous foreplay and coitus. About half were asked to estimate the length of the foreplay and coitus periods in minutes. The other half were required to judge whether time periods were average, below average, or above average in duration for people of their own age. Subjects tended to overestimate the length of the coitus period in the film, but not the foreplay period. Females tended to estimate both periods as significantly longer than males. Nearly half of the group judged the foreplay period to be average, and over 60% judged the coital period to be average. Less than 23% thought that the coital period was below average. Married subjects tended to regard both time periods as above average, compared to single subjects. A possible inference from this investigation is that the mean young adult male orgasm latency is probably in the range of 2-3 minutes. PMID:6639328

Levitt, E E

1983-08-01

381

Study of a Bordetella hinzii Isolate from a Laboratory Mouse  

PubMed Central

Bordetella hinzii isolated from the trachea and lungs of a laboratory mouse with a respiratory infection was identified based on its phenotypic and genetic traits. The mouse showed sneezing with a chattering sound but without nasal discharge, and histopathologic examination revealed rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchopneumonia. The isolate was a gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, short rod-shaped organism that produced alkali from malonate. The results of biochemical identification, an alkali production test from malonate, and partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (1523 bp) were consistent with those reported previously for B. hinzii. The isolate induced sneezing in ICR mice and sneezing and slight to severe dyspnea in NOD-SCID mice after experimental infection. Histopathologic examination revealed catarrhal rhinitis and bronchopneumonia in both strains of mice and interstitial pneumonia in NOD-SCID mice. In light of these findings, B. hinzii was deemed to be a novel causative agent of respiratory disease in mice. This report describes the first isolation of B. hinzii from a mouse and confirms the organism's pathogenicity in mice.

Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Yasuda, Masahiko; Goto, Kazuo; Takakura, Akira; Itoh, Toshio

2008-01-01

382

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and Mouse Bioassay in Rodents of Ahvaz District, Southwestern Iran  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is obligate coccidian zoonotic parasite. Felidae family is definitive and wide ranges of warm-blooded vertebrates are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Rodents are measured as an important source of T. gondii infection for the definitive host. Thus, this study aimed to investigate Toxoplasm infection in rodents of Ahvaz district, southwest of Iran. A total of 100 rodents (73 Rattus norvegicus, 21 Rattus rattus, and 6 Mus musculus) were collected and studied by GRA6PCR and mouse bioassay. The finding indicated that 6 out of 100 (6%) and 2 out of 100 (2%) samples were positive by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively. The results show notable chronic infection in the rodent and potential transmission of the infection among animal and men in the region. Accordingly, this study recommended investigating of the T. gondii infection in definitive and other intermediate hosts in other points of Khuzestan province, Southwest, Iran.

Saki, J.; Khademvatan, S.

2014-01-01

383

Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.  

PubMed

Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control. PMID:23971813

Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

2013-09-01

384

A SURVEY OF LABORATORY AND STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO FARMWORKER EXPOSURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing internally valid, and perhaps generalizable, farmworker exposure studies is a complex process that involves many statistical and laboratory considerations. Statistics are an integral component of each study beginning with the design stage and continuing to the final da...

385

Laboratory Studies of Magnetically Driven, Radiatively Cooled Supersonic Plasma Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the recent experiments with radiatively cooled jets performed on the pulsed power MAGPIE facility (1.5MA, 250ns) at Imperial College will be presented. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. The main part of the presentation will concentrate on the dynamics of magnetically driven jets, in particular on formation of episodic outflows [1]. The experimental results show the periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities. Experimental data on the energy balance in the magnetically driven jets, the conversion of the Poynting flux energy into kinetic energy of the outflow, will be also presented. *) In collaboration with A. CIARDI, F.A. SUZUKI-VIDAL, S.N. BLAND, M. BOCCHI, G. BURDIAK, J.P. CHITTENDEN, P. de GROUCHY, G. HALL, A. HARVEY-THOMSON, A. MAROCCHINO, G. SWADLING, A. FRANK, E. G. BLACKMAN, C. STEHLE, M. CAMENZIND. This research was sponsored by EPSRC, by the OFES DOE, by the NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-02NA00057 and by the European Community's Marie Curie Actions within the JETSET network under Contract No. MRTNCT- 2004 005592. References [1] A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009).

Lebedev, Sergey V.

2010-05-01

386

Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Northwestern Argentina  

PubMed Central

We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)–endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats.

Levis, Silvana; Calderon, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St. Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Barquez, Ruben M.; Enria, Delia

2003-01-01

387

Experimental infections by Brucella suis type 4 in Alaskan rodents.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of nine species of rodents and one species of lagomorph to Brucella suis type 4 was studied experimentally. The rodent species included: guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Scandinavian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), brown lemming (L. sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilis), varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx stevensoni and D. rubricatus), yellow-cheeked vole (Microtus xanthognathus), flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and ground squirrel (Citellus parryii). The lagomorph, Lepus americanus (varying hare), was also studied. All of these species were readily infected by intraperitoneal inoculations of brucellae. Pathologic responses were not marked in most of these species. However, both species of varying lemmings responded dramatically to infections initiated by about as few as two cfu. All individuals of both species that were not killed eventually died from the infection. PMID:7463596

Miller, L G; Neiland, K A

1980-10-01

388

Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest.  

PubMed

Scatter-hoarding rodents are effective dispersal agents for many plant species. Several studies have shown that rodents repeatedly re-cache seeds. The re-caching process often has a significant impact on final seedling establishment, but the factors determining its occurrence are poorly understood. In this study, we followed the fate of 3564 artificial seeds that varied in size, nutrient content and tannin content. Seeds cached closer to their original releasing plots were more likely to be re-cached, and to a further distance. Larger seeds were more likely to be re-cached than smaller ones, while nutrient and tannin content had little effect. Most plant species that depend on scatter-hoarding rodents for seed dispersal bear relatively large seeds, and large seeds are usually more likely to be dispersed and to establish seedlings, suggesting that the caching preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents may have played an important role in the evolution of large seeds. PMID:24759374

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T

2014-01-01

389

Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest  

PubMed Central

Scatter-hoarding rodents are effective dispersal agents for many plant species. Several studies have shown that rodents repeatedly re-cache seeds. The re-caching process often has a significant impact on final seedling establishment, but the factors determining its occurrence are poorly understood. In this study, we followed the fate of 3564 artificial seeds that varied in size, nutrient content and tannin content. Seeds cached closer to their original releasing plots were more likely to be re-cached, and to a further distance. Larger seeds were more likely to be re-cached than smaller ones, while nutrient and tannin content had little effect. Most plant species that depend on scatter-hoarding rodents for seed dispersal bear relatively large seeds, and large seeds are usually more likely to be dispersed and to establish seedlings, suggesting that the caching preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents may have played an important role in the evolution of large seeds.

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T.

2014-01-01

390

Microbial transformations of substituted benzenes during infiltration of river water to groundwater: Laboratory column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial transformations of dimethyl- and dichlorobenzenes have been studied in laboratory aquifer columns simulating saturated-flow conditions typical for a river water\\/groundwater infiltration system. The behavior of all compounds in the laboratory was qualitatively the same as that observed at a field site. Both dimethyl- and dichlorobenzenes were biotransformed under aerobic conditions, the dimethylbenzenes faster than the chlorinated analogues. Evidence

Elmar P. Kuhn; Patricia J. Colberg; Jerald L. Schnoor; Oskar Wanner; Alexander J. P. Zehnder; Rene P. Schwarzenbach

1985-01-01

391

Oxyacetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant

Michael Courtney; Amy Courtney

2011-01-01

392

A Matched-Pairs Study of Interactive Computer Laboratory Activities in a Liberal Arts Math Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details the culmination of a large, multi-year study on the effects of an interactive computer laboratory component in a large liberal arts math course at a state university. After several semesters of piloting these laboratory activities in the course, one of two sections, taught by the same senior instructor, was randomly selected to…

Butler, Frederick; Butler, Melanie

2011-01-01

393

Laboratory studies on the velocity of fragments from impact disruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity distribution of fragments from impact disruption was experimentally determined as a step toward better understanding of the collisional evolution of planetary bodies. Ejection velocity and rotational frequency of fragments larger than approximately 1 mm were investigated by taking 16 mm pictures. Basalt, alumina, and gypsum spheres of 4 cm to approximately 8 cm in diameter were shattered by nylon spheres 7 mm in diameter at velocity of 1 km sec(exp -1) to approximately 4 km sec(exp -1). In order to investigate the velocity of fine fragments 1 micrometer to approximately 100 micrometers in size, new impact disruption experiments of basalt blocks were performed, where thin films and foils were exposed to the ejecta as a secondary target. The velocity of fragments was estimated by the size distribution of holes perforated on the secondary target. A comprehensive compilation of velocity data is proposed. The results are reported with emphasis on the relation to the dimension of the fragments. For large fragments of the three target materials, similar relations between the velocity in the center of mass system and the size are obtained. The velocity dispersion of a given fragment size is within about one order of magnitude. The slopes of log-log relations of the velocity versus the size range from -1 to -1/2. Although the size-velocity relation of smaller fragments depends on the ejection angle, the results suggest that the systematic relation of mm- to approximately cm-sized fragments can be extrapolated to smaller sized fragments. The rotational frequency decreases with increasing size of the fragment. It is shown that the laboratory data and data on the crate ring on the Moon can be conformed to a single dimensionless size-velocity relation, V(s) = V* (Y,rho,C) (s/a)(exp -xi) (1/2 less than or equal to xi less than or equal to 1), where V(s), V* (Y,rho,C), Y, rho, C, and a denote the representative velocity of fragments of size s, a function with dimension of velocity, strength of the target, target density, sound velocity of the target, and the size of the projectile, respectively.

Nakamura, Akiko M.

1993-07-01

394

Laboratory infrared studies of molecules of atmospheric and astrophysical interest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nineteen reprints on the molecular species are compiled. Much of the work was done by using the Doppler-limited resolution provided by diode lasers. The diode laser was used as a source to a grating spectrometer which has been used earlier for high resolution studies. This technique provided many advantages. Wherever possible, the studies have been directed to intensity determinations of infrared bands.

Rao, N. N.

1982-01-01

395

Beyond the rodent model: Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifespan extension and reduction of age-related disease by calorie restriction (CR) are among the most consistent findings\\u000a in gerontological research. The well known effects of CR have been demonstrated many times in rodents and other short-lived\\u000a species. However, effects of CR on aging in longer-lived species, more closely related to humans, were unknown until recently.\\u000a Studies of CR and aging

Donald K. Ingram; George S. Roth

1997-01-01

396

Mating strategies of a nocturnal, desert rodent ( Dipodomys spectabilis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mating system of a nocturnal, desert rodent, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) was studied through direct observation, live-trapping, and radiotelemetry over a 13-month period from August 1986 to August 1987. Mating behavior varied from exclusive matings between male and female neighbors to competitive mate searching and direct male competition. In summer matings and early in a November

Jan A. Randall

1991-01-01

397

Preliminary data on the biodiversity of rodents and insectivores (Mammalia) in the periphery of Kisangani (D. R. Congo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the species diversity of rodents and insectivores s.l. as observed in the forests around Kisangani (D.R. Congo) between 1979 and 2003. 7736 specimens were collected using Victor snap traps, Sherman live traps and pitfalls. In total, 49 small mammals species (36 rodents and 18 shrews) were identified of which 42 were actually captured and 7 more were

I. Mukinzi; P. G. B. Katuala; J. Kennis; M. Gambalemoke; N. Kadange; A. M. Dudu

2005-01-01

398

Crepuscular Rhythms of EEG Sleep-Wake in a Hystricomorph Rodent, Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-wake circadian rhythms are well documented for nocturnal rodents, but little is known about sleep regulation in diurnal or crepuscular rodent species. This study examined the circadian sleep-wake rhythms in Octodon degus by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Recordings were made from animals housed with or without running wheels in the cages. In a 24-h light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12),

Martien J. H. Kas; Dale M. Edgar

1998-01-01

399

Diffusion tensor imaging of cocaine treated rodents  

PubMed Central

Studies in cocaine-dependent human subjects have shown differences in white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) compared to non-drug using controls. It is not known whether the FA differences seen on DTI in white matter regions of cocaine-dependent humans result from a pre-existing predilection for drug use or purely from cocaine abuse. To study the effect of cocaine on brain white matter, DTI was performed on 24 rats after continuous infusion of cocaine or saline for 4 weeks, followed by brain histology. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed 18% decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium of corpus callosum (CC) in cocaine-administered animals relative to saline controls (P = 0.0001). On histology, significant increase in neurofilament expression (125%, P=0.0044) and decrease in myelin basic protein (40%, P = 0.031) was observed in the same region in cocaine-administered animals. This study supports the hypothesis that chronic cocaine use alters white matter integrity in human CC. Unlike humans, where the FA in the genu differed between cocaine users and non-users, the splenium was affected in rats. These differences between rodent and human findings could be due to a several factors that include differences in the brain structure and function between species and/or the dose, timing, and duration of cocaine administration.

Narayana, Ponnada A.; Ahobila-Vajjula, Pallavi; Ramu, Jaivijay; Herrera, Juan; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

2009-01-01

400

Laboratory studies into the cosmic origins of organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a novel merged-beams apparatus to study the cosmic origins of organic chemistry. Here we report rate coefficients measurements for reactions of atomic C with H+3. These data are important for astrochemical models.

de Ruette, N.; Miller, K. A.; O'Connor, A. P.; Stützel, J.; Urbain, X.; Savin, D. W.

2014-04-01

401

Behavior of Concrete Specimens Reinforced with Composite Materials: Laboratory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between FRP composite and concrete by addressing the most important variables in terms of FRP properties. Type of fibers, thickness of the laminates, fiber orientation and FRP strengtheni...

B. K. Green D. I. Kachlakev W. A. Barnes

2000-01-01

402

FIELD AND LABORATORY OPERATIONS REPORT FOR THE OREGON WETLANDS STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Oregon Wetlands Study (OWS) was designed to provide detailed characterizations of natural, created, and restored freshwater wetlands which is located in the urban environment of Portland, Oregon. his document discusses training the elementary, middle and high school teachers ...

403

Learning Style and Laboratory Preference: A Study of Middle School Technology Education Teachers in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory instruction has long been a cornerstone of technology education pedagogy. The French realized the potential for technical laboratory instruction within general education in 1865 (Bennett, 1926). By the 1880s, the United States also realized the benefits of the technical laboratory for general education (Anderson, 1926). Despite these early roots and the continued practice of utilizing laboratory instruction within technology education, there is little research to support this teaching method. McCrory (1987) noted that there were no studies on laboratories (excluding machine safety) or new technology education equipment during the period 1980-1986. Laboratory studies during the period 1987-1993 concentrated on curriculum and did not focus on new instructional methods and strategies (Zuga, 1994). The adoption of modular technology education has only heightened the need for research on laboratory instructional methods. Since the middle of the 1980s, modular technology education has grown considerably. Brusic and LaPorte (2000) found that almost half of the technology education teachers they surveyed in Virginia taught in some type of modular lab. Despite such emerging research, opinions concerning the merit of modular technology education, especially commercially created packages, dominate the field of technology education. To address these opinions, this study investigated whether the preference for a conventional or modular laboratory is influenced by the learning style of the teacher. Target Audience: Middle School Faculty/Administrators

Reed, Philip A.

2009-08-26

404

A Fully Automated High-Throughput Training System for Rodents  

PubMed Central

Addressing the neural mechanisms underlying complex learned behaviors requires training animals in well-controlled tasks, an often time-consuming and labor-intensive process that can severely limit the feasibility of such studies. To overcome this constraint, we developed a fully computer-controlled general purpose system for high-throughput training of rodents. By standardizing and automating the implementation of predefined training protocols within the animal’s home-cage our system dramatically reduces the efforts involved in animal training while also removing human errors and biases from the process. We deployed this system to train rats in a variety of sensorimotor tasks, achieving learning rates comparable to existing, but more laborious, methods. By incrementally and systematically increasing the difficulty of the task over weeks of training, rats were able to master motor tasks that, in complexity and structure, resemble ones used in primate studies of motor sequence learning. By enabling fully automated training of rodents in a home-cage setting this low-cost and modular system increases the utility of rodents for studying the neural underpinnings of a variety of complex behaviors.

Poddar, Rajesh; Kawai, Risa; Olveczky, Bence P.

2013-01-01

405

Leishmania species: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Many rodent species act as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas. In the present study a simple and reliable assay based on nested PCR was developed for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites from rodent skin samples. We designed Leishmania-specific primers that successfully amplified ITS regions of Leishmania major, Leishmania gerbilli and Leishmania turanica using nested PCR. Out of 95 field collected Rhombomys opimus, 21 were positive by microscopic examination and 48 by nested PCR. The percentage of gerbils infected with L. major, L. gerbilli and L. turanica was 3.2%, 1.1% and 27.4%, respectively. In 15.8% of the rodents, we found mixed natural infections by L. major and L. turanica, 1.1% by L. major and L. gerbilli, and 2.1% by the three species. We concluded that this method is simple and reliable for detecting and identifying Leishmania species circulating in rodent populations.

Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mirhendi, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Rassi, Yavar; Bates, Paul; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdoli, Hamid; Jalali-zand, Niloufar; Jafari, Reza; Shareghi, Niloufar; Ghanei, Maryam; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

2010-01-01

406

Laboratory studies of methods for the treatment and disposal of the waste stream from the silver-recovery facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Studies have shown that the waste stream, resulting from the process used to recover silver from spent photographic solutions at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Plant facilities can be disposed of via ORNL's sewage treatment plant. The results of laboratory studies of alternative treatment methods are discussed. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

Parrott, J.R. Jr.; Strandberg, G.W.

1988-05-01

407

Inter-laboratory study to improve the quality of the analysis of nutrients in rainwater chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of an inter-laboratory study conducted for the analysis of nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)) in natural rainwater. For this purpose, rainwater samples were collected and aggregated in Singapore and homogenized. These samples were immediately filtered through 0.45 ?m membrane filters and autoclaved for 15 min at 80 °C in order to stabilize the nutrients. The homogeneity and the stability of nutrients were rigorously tested for a period of three months initially. Upon ensuring the homogeneity and stability, the samples were distributed to 15 different laboratories from various countries around the world (Australia, Brazil, India, Mauritius, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Taiwan, and USA). Almost all laboratories have reported the analytical results for nitrate whereas only 8 of the 15 laboratories reported results for other nutrients such as ammonium, phosphate, TN, and TP. The discrepancy was mainly due to the presence of these nutrients in low concentration levels (particularly ammonium ion and phosphate). Not all the laboratories were equipped with analytical capabilities to conduct the analysis of nutrients in low concentration levels. Further, the uncertainty associated with the analysis of TN and TP restricted the number of laboratories that could report their analytical data on nutrients. All 14 laboratories reported nitrate-nitrogen results which were in good agreement with each other (0.68 ± 0.07 mg l -1). Similarly, the results of TN and TP were also comparable among at least 8 laboratories. This inter-laboratory study on the analysis of nutrients in natural rainwater, conducted for the first time, provided an opportunity to the participating laboratories to assess and improve their laboratory performance, thereby, improving the quality of their analytical data.

Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; He, Jun

408

Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning