Science.gov

Sample records for laboratory sewer system

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  3. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  4. Post-rehabilitation flow monitoring and analysis of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Littlefield, D.C.; Villegas, M.

    1996-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated by the University of California under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Livermore site, approximately 50 miles southeast of San Francisco, occupies 819 acres. So far, there have been three phases in an assessment and rehabilitation of the LLNL sanitary sewer system. A 1989 study that used data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows. A Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, from October of 1991 to March of 1996, in which the system was assessed and rehabilitated. The third study is the post-rehabilitation assessment study that is reported in this document. In this report, the sanitary sewer system is described, and the goals and results of the 1989 study and the SSR project are summarized. The goals of the post-rehabilitation study are given and the analytical procedures and simulation model are described. Results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work or study are given. Field operations are summarized in Appendix A. References are provided in Appendix B.

  5. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  6. EXFILTRATION IN SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focused on the quantification of leakage of sanitary and industrial sewage from sanitary sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estimating exfiltration amounts utilized groundwater talbe information to identify areas of the country where the hydraulic gradient...

  7. HANDBOOK: SEWER SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of our Nation's sewer systems date back to the 19th Century when brick sewers were common. hese and more recent sewer systems can be expected to fail in time, but because they are placed underground, signs of accelerated deterioration and capacity limitations are not readily...

  8. Real-time sewer effluent monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, S.; Yamauchi, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has upgraded its early sewer monitoring system from the 1970's. LLNL must insure that its waste water is of a consistent and acceptable nature for the City of Livermore's community sewer system. The Sewer Monitor UpGrade system (SMUG) is now monitoring the Lab's sewer effluent. SMUG monitors the effluent for pH, flow rate, metals, and alpha, beta and gamma emitting isotopes. It turns on the appropriate alarms if present alarm levels are exceeded. The hardware consists of DEC Micro VAX II/GPX that has been repackaged by Nuclear Data Company as the Genie 9900 Data Acquisition and Display System. The gamma detector, three XRFAs, pH meter, and flow rate meter are commercially available. The metals sample cells are custom built at the Lab. The operating system is the VMS version 5.4. The application software is written in DEC's Fortran-77 and MACRO, and Nuclear Data software library. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Corrosion and odor management in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Jing; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Sewers emit hydrogen sulfide and various volatile organic sulfur and carbon compounds, which require control and mitigation. In the last 5-10 years, extensive research was conducted to optimize existing sulfide abatement technologies based on newly developed in-depth understanding of the in-sewer processes. Recent advances have also led to low-cost novel solutions targeting sewer biofilms. Online control has been demonstrated to greatly reduce the chemical usage. Dynamic models for both the water, air and solid (concrete) phases have been developed and used for the planning and maintenance of sewer systems. Existing technologies primarily focused on 'hotspots' in sewers. Future research should aim to achieve network-wide corrosion and emission control and management of sewers as an integrated component of an urban water system. PMID:25827114

  10. GATE AND VACUUM FLUSHING OF SEWER SEDIMENT: LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of a traditional gate-flushing device and a newly-designed vacuum-flushing device in removing sediment from combined sewers and CSO storage tanks. A laboratory hydraulic flume was used to simulate a reach of sewer or storag...

  11. SEWER SEDIMENT GATE AND VACUUM FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of a traditional gate-flushing device and a newly designed vacuum-flushing device in removing sediments from combined sewers and CSO storage tanks. A laboratory hydraulic flune was used to simulate a reach of sewer or storag...

  12. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  13. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  14. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  15. Handbook: Sewer system infrastructure analysis and rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Handbook provides guidance on the evaluation and rehabilitation of existing sewers. It presents information on typical problems, procedures and methods for rehabilitation, case study information, budgetary costs, advantages and disadvantages of rehabilitation techniques, and application of these techniques and materials/equipment used in rehabilitation. It also guides the reader in understanding the importance of, and ways for, conducting the sewer system evaluation and identifying the rehabilitation procedure that best suits a particular problem.

  16. Groundwater intrusion into leaky sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, H; Aksoy, H

    2010-01-01

    Vast volumes of groundwater are drained by urban sewer systems. This unwanted flow component intrudes into sewer systems through leaky joints or connected house drains. However, unlike urban storm drainage, it has a high seasonal variation corresponding to groundwater storage and long slow recessions similar to baseflow in rivers also fed by shallow groundwater exfiltrating into the surface waters. By applying the nonlinear reservoir algorithm as used for baseflow separation from total flow in a river, groundwater flow is separated from daily measured influents to treatment plants in Lower Saxony and Baden-Württemberg, Germany and in the Terkos Lake watershed near Istanbul, Turkey. While waste water flows vary only moderately within a year, separated intruded groundwater flows show recessions and seasonal variations correlated to baseflow in neighbouring rivers. It is possible to conclude that recession characteristics of treatment plant influents allow quantification and prediction of groundwater intrusion into sewer systems. PMID:20595758

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution.An optimized combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) control system requires a manage...

  18. OPIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution. A strategy should be adopted to develop an optimized combined sewer overfl...

  19. Demonstration of Innovative Sewer System Inspection Technology SewerBatt

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative a sewer line assessment technology that is designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of a technology that is suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less th...

  20. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  1. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Auguet, O; Pijuan, M; Batista, J; Borrego, C M; Gutierrez, O

    2015-10-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7±72.3 mg S-H2S liter(-1) day(-1)), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9±15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6±16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  2. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Auguet, O.; Pijuan, M.; Batista, J.; Gutierrez, O.

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7 ± 72.3 mg S-H2S liter−1 day−1), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9 ± 15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6 ± 16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  3. STORM-SEWER FLOW MEASUREMENT AND RECORDING SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, Frederick A.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system were undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of FHWA. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, and electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic bubbler and pressure transducer head-measuring systems. Tracer dilution and acoustic-flowmeter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the instruments and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer dilution systems.

  4. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental factors. (b) A sewer system evaluation will generally be used to determine whether or not... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  5. COMPUTER TOOLS FOR SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM CAPACITY ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a major source of operating problems, causing poor performance of many sewer systems. RDII is the main cause of SSOs to customer basements, streets, or nearby streams and can a...

  6. Characterization of Washoff Behavior of In-Sewer Deposits in Combined Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, WeonJae; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    In-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems (CSSs) are closely related with the behavior of first foul flush and combined sewer overflows. The artificial flushing experiment separating the washoff of in-sewer deposits from the inflow of surface pollutants was carried out to simulate first foul flush in a CSS. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant including chemical pollutants, bacterial indicators, and enteric viruses were intensively investigated. By using several morphological analyses, some of which were suggested through this study, the characteristics of first foul flush were examined. As a result, the washoff behaviors of each pollutant were characterized according to their (i) event load ratios (ELRs), (ii) time-series concentration and load curves, (iii) concentration vs. flow rate curves, and (iv) dimensionless runoff concentrations (DRCs). The first foul flush patterns of each parameter were categorized into 3 typical groups: the strong-, partial-, and no first foul flush group. The order of these groups signifies their different physicochemical properties of in-sewer deposits in CSSs, their strength of first foul flush phenomena, and the washoff priority as well. PMID:27225785

  7. First flush in a combined sewer system.

    PubMed

    Barco, Janet; Papiri, Sergio; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-03-01

    Pollutant first flush was examined in an urban catchment with area of 12.7 ha and drained by a combined sewer system located in northern Italy. A total of 23 rainfall-runoff events were monitored and 281 samples were analyzed. The selected quality parameters were biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, settleable solids, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, lead, and zinc, specific conductivity and hydrocarbons. A subset of representative storms was selected for first flush analysis. The catchment presented a strong first flush for almost all storms and most constituents. The analysis shows that treating the maximum amount of the early part of the runoff is a better strategy than treating a constant flow rate. Best management practices that can treat or store the first runoff are favored in this kind of system for these water quality parameters. PMID:18191441

  8. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWER SEDIMENT GATE-FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of gate-flushing tanks, simulated in a laboratory flume, to remove sediments from combined sewers and storage tanks. A significant amount of sediment/debris/sludge may accumulate at the bottom of a sewer during dry weather o...

  9. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWER SEDIMENT GATE FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of gate flushing tanks, simulated in a laboratory flume, to remove sediments from combined sewers and storage tanks. A significant amount of sediment/debris/sludge may accumulate at the bottom of a sewer during dry weather o...

  10. Use of sanitary sewers as wastewater pre-treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warith, M.A.; Kennedy, K.; Reitsma, R.

    1998-12-31

    As wastewater travels through a sewer system it undergoes changes in composition. The changes in composition may be caused by chemical, physical and/or biological processes. At present engineers do not take into consideration the impacts of these processes on the wastewater quality when designing wastewater treatment systems. However, the impact of these processes on the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the wastewater can be significant. In the case of the biological processes, microorganisms present in the water as it travels through the sewer system are similar to those found in an activated sludge process. Given that the microorganism population and the hydraulic retention time often resembles that of an activated sludge process, it would seem only reasonable to look further into the possibility of using sewers as wastewater treatment systems. Furthermore, the plug flow regime of a sanitary sewer is inherently beneficial in terms of wastewater treatment as it is not subject to short-circuiting. The first part of this paper provides a technical review of the processes which take place in a sewer system and the resulting degradation of some of the more significant substances found in wastewater. The contribution of both the suspended biomass and the attached biomass to the degradation of substrate is also examined. The second part of this paper examines the use of the Toxchem computer model to predict the processes which are taking place in the sewer under a variety of conditions. The goal being to determine the magnitude of the degradation of substrate and dissolved oxygen depletion in a sewer system. In obtaining a better understanding of the processes that are taking place in sewer systems, engineers will be able to more accurately predict the degradation of substrates in sanitary sewer systems. This will result in a reduction in the size of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs).

  11. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - DISCHARGES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system discharges as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impa...

  12. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - LAND APPLICATION AREAS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system land applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...

  13. Factors That Influence Properties of FOG Deposits and Their Formation in Sewer Collection Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages, which eventually lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer ...

  14. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  15. Developments in a methodology for the design of engineered invert traps in combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Buxton, A; Tait, S; Stovin, V; Saul, A

    2002-01-01

    Sediments within sewers can have a significant effect on the operation of the sewer system and on the surrounding natural and urban environment. One possible method for the management of sewer sediments is the use of slotted invert traps. Although invert traps can be used to selectively trap only inorganic bedload material, little is known with regard to the design of these structures. This paper presents results from a laboratory investigation comparing the trapping performance of three slot size configurations of a laboratory-scale invert trap. The paper also presents comparative results from a two-dimensional computational model utilising stochastic particle tracking. This investigation shows that particle tracking consistently over-predicts sediment retention efficiencies observed within the laboratory model. PMID:11989888

  16. THE CONSTRUCTION, TECHNICAL EVALUATION, AND FRICTIONAL DETERMINATION OF AN ALUMINUM STORM SEWER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program consisted of analysis of the effect upon the quantity of sewerage flows in a portion of the existing combined system as a result of the construction of a demonstration aluminum storm sewer system, laboratory testing of flow characteristics of aluminum pipe, design and...

  17. SEWER SYSTEM EVALUATION, REHABILITATION AND NEW CONSTRUCTION. A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Manual of Practice has been prepared for use by local authorities and consulting engineers for the investigation of sewer systems for infiltration/inflow. This Manual discusses three areas: sewer system evaluation, sewer rehabilitation, and design of new systems to minimize ...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  1. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act... transportation and treatment for each defined source of infiltration/inflow. (b) A report shall summarize the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey....

  2. DEMONSTRATE REAL TIME AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a real time automatic control model that could be used in connection with a combined sewer system to minimize overflows during storms. The model was applied to the North Shore Outfall Consolidation Project in San Francisco. This ...

  3. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  4. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  5. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  6. LAWRENCE AVENUE UNDERFLOW SEWER SYSTEM: MONITORING AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new and bold concept in design of urban drainage systems was developed as a step forward in the solution of combined sewer overflow problems. A deep tunnel in bed rock about 200 to 250 feet (61 to 76 m) below the surface was designed and constructed for the Lawrence Avenue drai...

  7. EXFILTRATION IN SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many municipalities throughout the US have sewerage systems (separate and combined) that may experience exfiltration of untreated wastewater. This study was conducted to focus on the magnitude of the exfiltration problem from sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estima...

  8. EXFILTRATION IN SEWER SYSTEMS: IS IT A NATIONAL PROBLEM?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many municipalities throughout the US have sewerage systems (separate and combined) that may experience exfiltration of untreated wastewater. This study was conducted to focus on the magnitude of the exfiltration problem from sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estima...

  9. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, A; Bosch, Ll; Kiser, M A; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2015-02-01

    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a CSS using overflow duration and rain volume data, (2) characterizing the performance of CSO structures with statistics, (3) evaluating the compliance of a CSS with government guidelines, and (4) generating decision tree models to provide support to managers for making decisions about system maintenance. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a CSS in La Garriga, Spain. The rain volume breaking point from which CSO structures started to overflow ranged from 0.6 mm to 2.8 mm. The structures with the best and worst performance in terms of overflow (overflow probability, order, duration and CSO ranking) were characterized. Most of the obtained decision trees to predict overflows from rain data had accuracies ranging from 70% to 83%. The results obtained from the proposed methodology can greatly support managers and engineers dealing with real-world problems, improvements, and maintenance of CSSs. PMID:25461106

  10. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS. PMID:25839834

  11. Risk assessment of sewer condition using artificial intelligence tools: application to the SANEST sewer system.

    PubMed

    Sousa, V; Matos, J P; Almeida, N; Saldanha Matos, J

    2014-01-01

    Operation, maintenance and rehabilitation comprise the main concerns of wastewater infrastructure asset management. Given the nature of the service provided by a wastewater system and the characteristics of the supporting infrastructure, technical issues are relevant to support asset management decisions. In particular, in densely urbanized areas served by large, complex and aging sewer networks, the sustainability of the infrastructures largely depends on the implementation of an efficient asset management system. The efficiency of such a system may be enhanced with technical decision support tools. This paper describes the role of artificial intelligence tools such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for assisting the planning of operation and maintenance activities of wastewater infrastructures. A case study of the application of this type of tool to the wastewater infrastructures of Sistema de Saneamento da Costa do Estoril is presented. PMID:24552736

  12. Model adaptation in a central controller for a sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla; Mol, Bart

    2013-04-01

    For small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain, central control of the sewer system may have problems during dry weather. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. Under those conditions the level in the wet well (local storage at the pumping station) should be kept below the entrance pipe but above the top of the intake of the pump. The pumps are dimensioned to cope with the combined flow of foul water and precipitation run off so their capacity is relatively large when compared wityh the volume available in the wet well. Under local control this is not a major problem because the effective controller time step is very short. For central control the control time step can become a problem. Especially when there is uncertainty about the relation between level and volume in the wet well. In this paper we describe a way to dynamically adapt the level to volume relation based on dry weather behaviour. This is important because a better estimate of this volume will reduce the number of on/off cycles for the pumps. It will also allow detection and correction for changes in pump performance due to aging.

  13. Benchmarking laboratory observation uncertainty for in-pipe storm sewer discharge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Marcus F.; McDonald, Walter M.; Dymond, Randel L.

    2016-03-01

    The uncertainty associated with discharge measurement in storm sewer systems is of fundamental importance for hydrologic/hydraulic model calibration and pollutant load estimation, although it is difficult to determine as field benchmarks are generally impractical. This study benchmarks discharge uncertainty in several commonly used sensors by laboratory flume testing with and without a woody debris model. The sensors are then installed in a field location where laboratory benchmarked uncertainty is applied to field measurements. Combined depth and velocity uncertainty from the laboratory ranged from ±0.207-0.710 in., and ±0.176-0.631 fps respectively, and when propagated and applied to discharge estimation in the field, resulted in field discharge uncertainties of between 13% and 256% of the observation. Average daily volume calculation based on these observations had uncertainties of between 58% and 99% of the estimated value, and the uncertainty bounds of storm flow volume and peak flow for nine storm events constituted between 31-84%, and 13-48% of the estimated value respectively. Subsequently, the implications of these observational uncertainties for stormwater best-management practice evaluation, hydrologic modeling, and Total Maximum Daily Load development are considered.

  14. Control of sulfide and methane production in anaerobic sewer systems by means of Downstream Nitrite Dosage.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Olga; Pijuan, Maite; Borrego, Carles M; Gutierrez, Oriol

    2016-04-15

    Bioproduction of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) under anaerobic conditions in sewer pipes causes detrimental effects on both sewer facilities and surrounding environment. Among the strategies used to mitigate the production of both compounds, the addition of nitrite (NO2(-)) has shown a greater long-term inhibitory effect compared with other oxidants such as nitrate or oxygen. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a new method, the Downstream Nitrite Dosage strategy (DNO2D), to control H2S and CH4 emissions in sewers. Treatment effectiveness was assessed on H2S and CH4 abatement on the effluent of a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer. The experiment was divided in three different periods: system setup (period 1), nitrite addition (period 2) and system recovery (period 3). Different process and molecular methods were combined to investigate the impact of NO2(-) addition on H2S and CH4 production. Results showed that H2S load was reduced completely during nitrite addition when compared to period 1 due to H2S oxidation but increased immediately after nitrite addition stopped. The H2S overproduction during recovery period was associated with the bacterial reduction of different sulfur species (elemental sulfur/thiosulfate/sulfite) accumulated within the sewer biofilm matrix. Oxidation of CH4 was also detected during period 2 but, contrary to sulfide production, re-establishment of methanogenesis was not immediate after stopping nitrite dosing. The analysis of bulk and active microbial communities along experimental treatment showed compositional changes that agreed with the observed dynamics of chemical processes. Results of this study show that DNO2D strategy could significantly reduce H2S and CH4 emissions from sewers during the addition period but also suggest that microbial agents involved in such processes show a high resilience towards chemical stressors, thus favoring the re

  15. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  16. Laboratory investigation on the performances of baffles for the capture of sewer floatables.

    PubMed

    Campisano, A

    2009-01-01

    The use of baffles in sewer systems enables the capture of floatables, which could be responsible for both malfunctioning of water treatment plants and aesthetic pollution of receiving bodies when discharges through combined sewer overflow devices occur. An experimental contribution to the understanding of capturing processes of floatable elements by means of baffle devices is presented in this paper. Experiments were carried out using different baffle configurations. The limit equilibrium conditions of various types of floatables, i.e the condition beyond which upstream intercepted floatables start to escape the baffle, were investigated. The dimensional analysis was used in order to generalize the results of the experiments and to compare the capturing performances of analysed baffle configurations. PMID:19587399

  17. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  18. Design and performance evaluation of a simplified dynamic model for combined sewer overflows in pumped sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Daal-Rombouts, Petra; Sun, Siao; Langeveld, Jeroen; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Clemens, François

    2016-07-01

    Optimisation or real time control (RTC) studies in wastewater systems increasingly require rapid simulations of sewer systems in extensive catchments. To reduce the simulation time calibrated simplified models are applied, with the performance generally based on the goodness of fit of the calibration. In this research the performance of three simplified and a full hydrodynamic (FH) model for two catchments are compared based on the correct determination of CSO event occurrences and of the total discharged volumes to the surface water. Simplified model M1 consists of a rainfall runoff outflow (RRO) model only. M2 combines the RRO model with a static reservoir model for the sewer behaviour. M3 comprises the RRO model and a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir characteristics were derived from FH model simulations. It was found that M2 and M3 are able to describe the sewer behaviour of the catchments, contrary to M1. The preferred model structure depends on the quality of the information (geometrical database and monitoring data) available for the design and calibration of the model. Finally, calibrated simplified models are shown to be preferable to uncalibrated FH models when performing optimisation or RTC studies.

  19. Real-time control of sewer systems using turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Lacour, C; Schütze, M

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control (RTC) of urban drainage systems has been proven useful as a means to reduce pollution by combined sewer overflow discharges. So far, RTC has been investigated mainly with a sole focus on water quantity aspects. However, as measurement techniques for pollution of wastewater are advancing, pollution-based RTC might be of increasing interest. For example, turbidity data sets from an extensive measurement programme in two Paris catchments allow a detailed investigation of the benefits of using pollution-based data for RTC. This paper exemplifies this, comparing pollution-based RTC with flow-based RTC. Results suggest that pollution-based RTC indeed has some potential, particularly when measurements of water-quality characteristics are readily available. PMID:22049758

  20. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    PubMed

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. PMID:24317022

  1. TYPE A SERVICE AREAS IN THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS, NEUSE RIVER WATERHSED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Type ``A' Sewer Systems as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impa...

  2. TYPE P SERVICE AREAS IN THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital ``P' Sewer System as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impact ana...

  3. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  4. TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital location and information of sewer treatment plants as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitat...

  5. PIPE NETWORK FOR THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital sewer pipe network as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impact an...

  6. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems Using the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox can serve as the foundation of wastewater collection system infrastructure research, among several applications, for analyzing monitored flow data to prioritize where to inspect, monitor, and to assess the performa...

  7. PUMPING STATIONS FOR THE SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital location and information of sewer pumps as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning,...

  8. Separate and combined sewer systems: a long-term modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    Sewer systems convey mostly dry weather flow, coming from domestic and industrial sanitary sewage as well as infiltration flow, and stormwater due to meteoric precipitations. Traditionally, in urban drainage two types of sewer systems are adopted: separate and combined sewers. The former convey dry and wet weather flow separately into two different networks, while the latter convey dry and wet weather flow together. Which is the best solution in terms of cost-benefit analysis still remains a controversial subject. The present study was aimed at comparing the pollution loads discharged to receiving bodies by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) for different kinds of sewer systems (combined and separate). To accomplish this objective, a comparison between the two systems was carried out using results from simulations of catchments characterised by different dimensions, population densities and water supply rate. The analysis was based on a parsimonious mathematical model able to simulate the sewer system as well as the WWTP during both dry and wet weather. The rain series employed for the simulations was six years long. Several pollutants, both dissolved and particulate, were modelled. The results confirmed the uncertainties in the choice of one system versus the other, emphasising the concept that case-by-case solutions have to be undertaken. Further, the compared systems showed different responses in terms of effectiveness in reducing the discharged mass to the RWB in relation to the particular pollutant taken into account. PMID:19657150

  9. Statistical evaluation of a radar rainfall system for sewer system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieux, B. E.; Vieux, J. E.

    2005-09-01

    Urban areas are faced with mounting demands for managing waste and stormwater for a cleaner environment. Rainfall information is a critical component in efficient management of urban drainage systems. A major water quality impact affecting receiving waterbodies is the discharge of untreated waste and stormwater during precipitation, termed wet weather flow. Elimination or reduction of wet weather flow in metropolitan sewer districts is a major goal of environmental protection agencies and often requires considerable capital improvements. Design of these improvements requires accurate rainfall data in conjunction with monitored wastewater flow data. Characterizing the hydrologic/hydraulic performance of the sewer using distant rain gauges can cause oversizing and wasted expenditures. Advanced technology has improved our ability to measure accurately rainfall over large areas. Weather radar, when combined with rain gauge measurements, provides detailed information concerning rainfall intensities over specific watersheds. Knowing how much rain fell over contributing areas during specific periods aids in characterizing inflow and infiltration to sanitary and combined sewers, calibration of sewer system models, and in operation of predictive real-time control measures. Described herein is the design of a system for managing rainfall information for sewer system management, along with statistical analysis of 60 events from a large metropolitan sewer district. Analysis of the lower quartile rainfall events indicates that the expected average difference is 25.61%. Upper quartile rainfall events have an expected average difference of 17.25%. Rain gauge and radar accumulations are compared and evaluated in relation to specific needs of an urban application. Overall, the events analyzed agree to within ± 8% based on the median average difference between gauge and radar.

  10. Development and testing of highway storm-sewer flow measurement and recording system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Kaehrle, W.R.; Hardee, Jack; Cordes, E.H.; Landers, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of measuring instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic-bubbler pressure transducer head measuring systems. Tracer-dilution and acoustic flow meter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the above instruments as well as from a tipping-bucket rain gage and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer-dilution systems. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  12. Characterization of microflora and transformation of organic matters in urban sewer system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ding; Sun, Guangxi; Wang, Baobao; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted using a pilot sewer system consisting of 35 sequential sections, totalling 1200 m of gravity pipe. Urban sewage flowed into the sewer system at a constant flow rate until it reached physical and microbiological steady states. Microflora in the biofilm that attached to the inner surface along the pipe length were analysed. The organic compositions in both the liquid and gaseous phases of the sewer system were monitored. The results showed that typical fermentation bacteria, such as bacteroidetes and bacillus, were abundant in the system, indicating that the anoxic environment (DO = 0.3 mg/L) was suitable for fermentative bacterial growth. This resulted in a substantial reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) along the pipe length and an increase of the biodegradable oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) ratio from 0.68 at the beginning of the sewer system to 0.84 at the end of the sewer system; this was an indication of a transformation of organic matters from less-biodegradable to more-biodegradable products. Via molecular weight (MW) analysis, it was further identified that the larger organic molecules (MW > 10,000 Da) were transformed into products with smaller molecular weights. Regarding the fermentation products, the concentrations of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) increased dramatically in the initial 600-m sections and then remained constant for the later sections except for the end section of the sewer; acetic acid was found to be the primary product of the VFAs. Gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were found to increase along the length of the sewer system, whereas the concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen (H2) were high at the beginning of the sewer and then decreased in the rear sections of the sewer system. It could thus be concluded that in an urban wastewater sewer system, fermentative microflora could perform important roles in contributing to organic matter removal and

  13. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions. PMID:23932104

  14. Demonstration of Innovative Sewer System Inspection Technology: SL-RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative sewer line assessment technologies that are designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of technologies that are suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less ...

  15. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel

    2016-04-15

    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges. PMID:26820929

  16. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found. PMID:21902021

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of bacterial communities within a combined sewer system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Sekar, Raju; Shepherd, Will J; Osborn, Andrew M; Tait, Simon; Biggs, Catherine A

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the temporal and spatial variability of bacterial communities within a combined sewer system in England. Sampling was conducted over 9 months in a sewer system with intensive monitoring of hydraulic conditions. The bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene-targeted terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. These data were related to the hydraulic data as well as the sample type, location, and time. Temporal and spatial variation was observed between and within wastewater communities and biofilm communities. The bacterial communities in biofilm were distinctly different from the communities in wastewater and exhibited greater spatial variation, while the wastewater communities exhibited variability between different months of sampling. This study highlights the variation of bacterial communities between biofilm and wastewater, and has shown both spatial and temporal variations in bacterial communities in combined sewers. The temporal variation is of interest for in-sewer processes, for example, sewer odor generation, as field measurements for these processes are often carried out over short durations and may therefore not capture the influence of this temporal variation of the bacterial communities. PMID:27063341

  18. 40 CFR 35.2122 - Approval of user charge system and proposed sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of user charge system and... Treatment Works § 35.2122 Approval of user charge system and proposed sewer use ordinance. If the project is... obtain the Regional Administrator's approval of its user charge system (§ 35.2140) and proposed...

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S STORM AND COMBINED SEWER PROGRAM COLLECTION SYSTEM RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-the-art and assessment of the USEPA's Storm and Combined Sewer Program collection system research pertaining to management alternatives for wet- and dry-weather wastewater transport and interception is presented. These include: maintenance; catchbasins; new sewer desig...

  20. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas With and Without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff discharge into waterbodies potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme pre...

  1. Getting the max out of past investments in sewer systems by using RTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; van Loenen, Arnejan; van Leeuwen, Elgard; van Nooyen, Ronald; van Velzen, Edwin

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a project in which water quality improvements of surface waters are realised by replacing local control of sewer pumps by central control. The paper focuses on the effect of implementation of real-time control in a specific group of sewer systems in the Netherlands, namely the systems that have been upgraded in the past as a result of new standards. Since these upgrades were often solely based on straightforward so-called upgrade rules and theoretical simulation studies, a thorough analysis of the real life systems by means of measurements to study the system performance or calibrate the models was rarely performed. As a result the potential of many systems is not used to the full. Because of the structure of these systems, (suboptimal distribution of storage and pump capacities) the effect of RTC is much larger than would be expected in the case of a completely new design. But because of implementation of RTC, it was required to do this thorough analysis of the sewer systems. This study focuses on the estimation of this additional RTC effect. RTC both improves the return on past investments and provides the benefits of central information and control. The project considered the sewer systems in the Hoeksche Waard area, south of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Three RTC improvements have been implemented whereby the abovementioned effects have been achieved. There were many technological challenges to overcome during the project, such as relatively high rates of data communication needed for in systems with relatively small storage capacities, connections to multiple types of SCADA and information systems, the integration of meteo forecasts and the RTC backup architecture based on the use of multiple control modes. The potential of the RTC has been proved as such in the HoekscheWaard area. On the basis of this implementation in a typical dutch sewer system, we expect RTC to have the same potential at a national scale.

  2. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System using Green Infrastructure - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) submitted an Integrated Overflow Abatement Plan (IOAP) addressing combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows. Many of the solutions involve gray infrastructure, such as large, end-of...

  3. An Automated Intelligent Fault Detection System for Inspection of Sewer Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrary, Alireza; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Masumi

    Automation is an important issue in industry, particularly in inspection of underground facilities. This paper describes an intelligent system for automatically detecting faulty areas in a sewer pipe system based on images. The proposed system can detect various types of faults and be implemented in a real time system. The present paper describes system architecture and focuses on two modules of image preprocessing and detection of faulty areas. The proposed approach demonstrates high performance in detection and reduction of time and cost.

  4. REPORT ON COMPUTER TOOLS FOR PREDICTING RAINFALL DERIVED INFILTRATION/INFLOW IN SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS AND SWMM MODELING FOR SSO CONTROL PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 SSO events per year. Because of concerns o...

  5. Sewer Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    Outlined are practices and procedures that should be followed in order to protect and fully realize the benefits of sewer systems and also to maximize service and minimize inconveniences to the public. Written in practical terms, the manual is designed to be of immediate use to municipal employees and others involved in sewer maintenance…

  6. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system--A field study.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Burkhardt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72-95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag2S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters<100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag2S. Ag2S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (<0.5 μg L(-1)) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (>95%). PMID:25582606

  7. A review of sulfide emissions in sewer networks: overall approach and systemic modelling.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Lucie; Springer, Fanny; Lipeme-Kouyi, Gislain; Buffiere, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The problems related to hydrogen sulfide in terms of deterioration of sewer networks, toxicity and odor nuisance have become very clear to the network stakeholders and the public. The hydraulic and (bio)chemical phenomena and parameters controlling sulfide formation, emission and their incidences in sewer networks are very complex. Recent research studies have been developed in gravity and pressure sewers and some transfer models have been published. Nevertheless, the models do not take into account all the physical phenomena influencing the emission process. After summing up the main scientific knowledge concerning the production, oxidation, transfer and emission processes, the present review includes: (i) a synthetic analysis of sulfide and hydrogen sulfide emission models in sewer networks, (ii) an estimation of their limit, (iii) perspectives to improve the modelling approach. It shows that sulfide formation and uptake models still need refinements especially for some phenomena such as liquid to gas mass transfer. Transfer models that have been published so far are purposely simplified and valid for simple systems. More efforts have to be undertaken in order to better understand the mechanisms and the dynamics of hydrogen sulfide production and emission in real conditions. PMID:27003062

  8. Nutrient Input and Dynamics in a Restored Urban Stream Impacted by Mixed Sewer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Export and retention of nutrients in urban watersheds remains poorly constrained. Available data is often based on studies conducted on large-scale, forested and mixed use watersheds rather than small urbanized systems. Additionally, there is a lack of data on the amount and impact of nutrients introduced into urban waterways as the result of stream-sewer interactions and a varied flow regime. In order to address this knowledge gap, water was sampled during baseflow (bi-weekly from April 2007 to present) and stormflow from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA) impacted by both Sanitary Sewer and Combined Sewer Overflow (SSO and CSO, respectively) networks. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream, drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized as 38% impervious. Analysis of post-restoration water quality data suggests that atmospheric deposition and sewage both contribute nutrient pollution to the stream. We estimate input of atmospheric nitrate deposition to the watershed is 18.96 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1, yet a preliminary nitrogen budget suggests that nitrate export from the basin is consistently higher (~30 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1). Mean baseflow nitrate concentrations are substantially higher during the wetter portions of 2008 (12.07 mg NO3 -/L) as compared to the drier 2007 year (7.3 mg NO3 -/L). This suggests increased stream/sewer interactions during wetter periods. These results document the effect of Sanitary Sewer systems on an urban stream and highlight the challenges inherent in improving urban water quality through physical stream restorations.

  9. A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

    2009-04-01

    During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The

  10. Methane emission from sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that sewer systems produce and emit a significant amount of methane. Methanogens produce methane under anaerobic conditions in sewer biofilms and sediments, and the stratification of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria may explain the simultaneous production of methane and sulfide in sewers. No significant methane sinks or methanotrophic activities have been identified in sewers to date. Therefore, most of the methane would be emitted at the interface between sewage and atmosphere in gravity sewers, pumping stations, and inlets of wastewater treatment plants, although oxidation of methane in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant has been reported recently. Online measurements have also revealed highly dynamic temporal and spatial variations in methane production caused by factors such as hydraulic retention time, area-to-volume ratio, temperature, and concentration of organic matter in sewage. Both mechanistic and empirical models have been proposed to predict methane production in sewers. Due to the sensitivity of methanogens to environmental conditions, most of the chemicals effective in controlling sulfide in sewers also suppress or diminish methane production. In this paper, we review the recent studies on methane emission from sewers, including the production mechanisms, quantification, modeling, and mitigation. PMID:25889543

  11. COMBINED-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO), along with sanitary-sewer overflow and stormwater are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater t...

  12. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane L; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-05-15

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation and control problem of sewer systems. PMID:25840844

  13. Fuzzy neural network for flow estimation in sewer systems during wet weather.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Shen, Wei; Chang, Jian; Gong, Ning

    2006-02-01

    Estimation of the water flow from rainfall intensity during storm events is important in hydrology, sewer system control, and environmental protection. The runoff-producing behavior of a sewer system changes from one storm event to another because rainfall loss depends not only on rainfall intensities, but also on the state of the soil and vegetation, the general condition of the climate, and so on. As such, it would be difficult to obtain a precise flowrate estimation without sufficient a priori knowledge of these factors. To establish a model for flow estimation, one can also use statistical methods, such as the neural network STORMNET, software developed at Lyonnaise des Eaux, France, analyzing the relation between rainfall intensity and flowrate data of the known storm events registered in the past for a given sewer system. In this study, the authors propose a fuzzy neural network to estimate the flowrate from rainfall intensity. The fuzzy neural network combines four STORMNETs and fuzzy deduction to better estimate the flowrates. This study's system for flow estimation can be calibrated automatically by using known storm events; no data regarding the physical characteristics of the drainage basins are required. Compared with the neural network STORMNET, this method reduces the mean square error of the flow estimates by approximately 20%. Experimental results are reported herein. PMID:16566517

  14. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  15. Stable isotopes of water as a natural tracer for infiltration into urban sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, O.; Gresch, M.; de Bénédittis, J.; Prigiobbe, V.; Gujer, W.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate understanding of the hydraulic interaction between leaky sewers and groundwater is essential for the sustainable management of both sewer systems and aquifers in urbanized areas. Undesirable infiltration of groundwater into sewers can contribute over 50% of the total discharge and is detrimental to treatment plant efficiency. On the other hand, in many European cities groundwater surface levels seem to be particularly controlled by the drainage effect of permeable sewer systems. However, nowadays methods for the quantification of these exchange processes are still subject to considerable uncertainties due to their underlying assumptions. The frequently used assumption that the night time minimum in the diurnal wastewater hydrograph is equal to the "parasitic discharge" has to be reconsidered to today's patterns of human life as well as to the long residence time of wastewater in the sewer networks of modern cities. The suitability of stable water isotopes as a natural tracer to differentiate the origin of water in the sewer ("real" wastewater or infiltrating groundwater) is currently investigated in three different catchment areas. The studies are carried out within the framework of the European research project APUSS (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems): 1) The village of Rümlang (Zürich, Switzerland) is predominantly served with drinking water from the Lake Zürich. A large fraction of the lakes water is derived from precipitation in the Alps. This drinking water represents the intrinsic provenience of the wastewater with an δ18O value around -11,5 per mill and δ^2H value around -82 per mill vs. SMOW. In contrast, the local groundwater is originating from precipitation in a moderate altitude of about 450 m above sea level and shows comparatively enriched mean δ18O values of -9,7 per mill and δ^2H values of -70 per mill with only small natural variations. The isotopic separation between these

  16. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively. PMID:22319257

  17. Septic systems, but not sanitary sewer lines, are associated with elevated estradiol in male frog metamorphs from suburban ponds.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Max R; Giller, Geoffrey S J; Skelly, David K; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    Suburban neighborhoods are a dominant type of human land use. Many housing regions globally rely on septic systems, rather than sanitary sewers, for wastewater management. There is evidence that septic systems may contaminate waterbodies more than sewer lines. There is also mounting evidence that human activities contaminate waterways with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which alter wildlife sexual development. While endocrine disruption is often associated with intense activities such as agriculture or wastewater treatment plant discharges, recent evidence indicates that endocrine disruption is pervasive in frogs from suburban neighborhoods. In conjunction with other putative EDC sources, one hypothesis is that wastewater is contaminating suburban waterways with EDCs derived from pharmaceuticals or personal care products. Here, we measure estradiol (E2) in metamorphosing green frogs (Rana clamitans) from forested ponds and suburban ponds adjacent to either septic tanks or sanitary sewers. We show that E2 is highest in male frogs from septic neighborhoods and that E2 concentrations are significantly lower in male frogs from forested ponds and from ponds near sewers. These results indicate that septic tanks may be contaminating aquatic ecosystems differently than sewer lines. This pattern contrasts prior work showing no difference in EDC contamination or morphological endocrine disruption between septic and sewer neighborhoods, implying that suburbanization may have varying effects at multiple biological scales like physiology and anatomy. PMID:26795918

  18. Estimation of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand for combined sewer systems using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively. PMID:22319257

  19. Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater - A review.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Ashley, Richard M; Viklander, Maria

    2015-09-15

    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers. PMID:26182992

  20. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for central control of sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Dutch sewer networks consist of multiple sub-networks that serve both to collect waste water and as a link in the transport chain of waste water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Within sub-networks transport is by gravity driven flow. The sub-networks are linked by pumping stations. If the network of pipes also serves to collect precipitation then the system is called a combined system. For some of these networks it may be beneficial to implement central control. We study whether the graph theoretical concept of stable allocations can be used as a basis for the algorithm underlying such a central conrol system.

  1. Degradation of methanethiol in anaerobic sewers and its correlation with methanogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Shihu; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    Methanethiol (MT) is considered one of the predominant odorants in sewer systems. Therefore, understanding MT transformation in sewers is essential to sewer odor assessment and abatement. In this study, we investigated the degradation of MT in laboratory anaerobic sewers. Experiments were carried out in seven anaerobic sewer reactors with biofilms at different stages of development. MT degradation was found to be strongly dependent on the methanogenic activity of sewer biofilms. The MT degradation rate accelerated with the increase of methanogenic activity of sewer biofilms, resulting in MT accumulation (i.e. net production) in sewer reactors with relatively low methanogenic activities, and MT removal in reactors with higher methanogenic activities. A Monod-type kinetic expression was developed to describe MT degradation kinetics in anaerobic sewers, in which the maximum degradation rate was modeled as a function of the maximum methane production rate through a power function. It was also found that MT concentration had a linear relationship with acetate concentration, which may be used for preliminary assessment of MT presence in anaerobic sewers. PMID:25437340

  2. Modelling the effects of on-site greywater reuse and low flush toilets on municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-15

    On-site greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WET) reduce urban freshwater demand. Research on GWR and WET has generally overlooked the effects that GWR may have on municipal sewer systems. This paper discusses and quantifies these effects. The effects of GWR and WET, positive and negative, were studied by modelling a representative urban sewer system. GWR scenarios were modelled and analysed using the SIMBA simulation system. The results show that, as expected, the flow, velocity and proportional depth decrease as GWR increases. Nevertheless, the reduction is not evenly distributed throughout the day but mainly occurs during the morning and evening peaks. Examination of the effects of reduced toilet flush volumes revealed that in some of the GWR scenarios flows, velocities and proportional depths in the sewer were reduced, while in other GWR scenarios discharge volumes, velocities and proportional depths did not change. Further, it is indicated that as a result of GWR and installation of WET, sewer blockage rates are not expected to increase significantly. The results support the option to construct new sewer systems with smaller pipe diameters. The analysis shows that as the penetration of GWR systems increase, and with the installation of WET, concentrations of pollutants also increase. In GWR scenarios (when toilet flush volume is not reduced) the increase in pollutant concentrations is lower than the proportional reduction of sewage flow. Moreover, the results show that the spatial distribution of houses reusing GW does not significantly affect the parameters examined. PMID:23220603

  3. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide concentration and control in a sewer system.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Eugenio Recio; Johnson, Drew; Shipley, Heather

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on monitoring hydrogen sulphide (dissolved and atmospheric) generation and wastewater volumetric flow in a 21.4 km sewer line of the City of San Antonio, Texas. The results were used to evaluate daily and seasonal trends of atmospheric and dissolved sulphide, and to better apply sulphide control using ferrous sulphate to prevent odour and sewer pipe deterioration. As part of this study, the evaluation of a cost-effective dosing strategy with ferrous sulphate was performed to better control the sulphide contents in wastewater. Dosing studies were performed in the laboratory to find the required ratio of ferrous sulphate for acceptable sulphide removal. The results indicate a 1.25 mole ratio requirement, to reduce sulphide by 93%. Over a typical daily diurnal cycle, necessary dosing rates to maintain sulphide concentrations below 2mg varied between 0 and 36,777 mold(-1) with a daily average rate of 14,438 mol d(-1). If, instead of dosing at the maximum required rate, dosing was matched over the diurnal cycle, chemical savings would amount to 22,339 mold(-1) while achieving sulphide control. The approximate cost of the ferrous sulphate solution dosed is $0.14 per mol and this amount of chemical savings translates into roughly $2923 per day. Actual dosing cost for the hypothetical average day will be $1889 per day. These cost savings can easily recoup the required instrumentation costs to achieve this diurnal dose matching. PMID:22856291

  4. Performance assessment of separate and combined sewer systems in metropolitan areas in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Cang; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    To assess the performance of urban drainage systems in metropolitan areas in southern China, 12 urban drainage systems, including nine separate sewer systems (SSSs) and three combined sewer systems (CSSs) were monitored from 2008 to 2012 in Shanghai and Hefei. Illicit connection rates of SSS were determined. The results indicate that serious illicit connections exist for most SSSs. Annual volume balance for two SSSs with serious illicit connection was assessed with a hydraulic model to determine the dry weather overflow volume. Although interception facilities have been implemented in SSSs, for some systems with serious illicit connections, a considerable volume of dry weather overflow still existed. Combined with monitoring of dry/wet weather flow quality, the pollutant load caused by wet/dry weather overflow was quantified. The results revealed that there was no obvious advantage of having SSSs over CSSs in terms of pollutant control. The serious pollution caused by illicit connections and insufficient management occurs in many cities in China. The performance assessment of separate and CSSs in Shanghai and Hefei provides important lessons and practical experience that can be applied to the construction and management of urban drainage system in China as well as other developing countries. PMID:24473315

  5. Continuous measurement of dissolved sulfide in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Sutherland-Stacey, L; Corrie, S; Neethling, A; Johnson, I; Gutierrez, O; Dexter, R; Yuan, Z; Keller, J; Hamilton, G

    2008-01-01

    Sulfides are particularly problematic in the sewage industry. Hydrogen sulfide causes corrosion of concrete infrastructure, is dangerous at high concentrations and is foul smelling at low concentrations. Despite the importance of sulfide monitoring there is no commercially available system to quantify sulfide in waste water. In this article we report on our use of an in situ spectrometer to quantify bisulfide in waste water and additional analysis with a pH probe to calculate total dissolved sulfide. Our results show it is possible to use existing commercially available and field proven sensors to measure sulfide to mg/l levels continuously with little operator intervention and no sample preparation. PMID:18309215

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Diurnal fluctuation of indicator microorganisms and intestinal viruses in combined sewer system.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Managaki, S; Furumai, H; Nakajima, F

    2009-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) has been considered to be a source of pathogenic microorganisms for aquatic environment. For the effective control and treatment of CSOs, the microbial behavior in combined sewer system (CSS) needs to be investigated. In this study, whole-day extensive monitoring of indicator microorganisms and intestinal viruses in dry weather flow (DWF) was conducted at a small residential urban drainage area with CSS. All indicator bacteria represented similar diurnal variations in the two different monitoring campaigns; their concentrations gradually decreased to the minimum at the dawn (around 5 a.m.), increased sharply to the maximum around 7 to 8 a.m., and remained rather constant from noon to midnight. On the other hand, neither coliphages nor intestinal viruses showed any concentration peaks in the morning. The maximum/minimum load ratios ranged from 18 to 42 for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli, whereas those ratios for coliphages, enteroviruses and noroviruses G2 showed greater values than those for indicator bacteria. These results indicate that the diurnal variation patterns of bacterial and viral concentrations in DWF should be considered, which affect the discharge characteristics of each microorganism and the loads of bacteria and viruses in CSOs significantly vary with the overflow time as well. PMID:19934500

  8. Assessment of flood hazard in a combined sewer system in Reykjavik city centre.

    PubMed

    Hlodversdottir, Asta Osk; Bjornsson, Brynjolfur; Andradottir, Hrund Olof; Eliasson, Jonas; Crochet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Short-duration precipitation bursts can cause substantial property damage and pose operational risks for wastewater managers. The objective of this study was to assess the present and possible future flood hazard in the combined sewer system in Reykjavik city centre. The catchment is characterised by two hills separated by a plain. A large portion of the pipes in the aging network are smaller than the current minimum diameter of 250 mm. Runoff and sewer flows were modelled using the MIKE URBAN software package incorporating both historical precipitation and synthetic storms derived from annual maximum rainfall data. Results suggest that 3% of public network manholes were vulnerable to flooding during an 11-year long rainfall sequence. A Chicago Design Storm (CDS) incorporating a 10-minute rainfall burst with a 5-year return period predicted twice as many flooded manholes at similar locations. A 20% increase in CDS intensity increased the number of flooded manholes and surface flood volume by 70% and 80%, respectively. The flood volume tripled if rainfall increase were combined with urban re-development, leading to a 20% increase in the runoff coefficient. Results highlight the need for reducing network vulnerabilities, which include decreased pipe diameters and low or drastically varying pipe grades. PMID:26442488

  9. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    -202. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie GmbH, Hannover. Karpf, C. & Krebs, P. (2013). Modelling of groundwater infiltration into sewer systems. Urban Water Journal, 10:4, 221-229, DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2012.724077. Kolditz, O., Bauer, S. et al. (2012). OpenGeoSys: an open source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Env. Earth Sci. 67(2):589-599. Wolf, L., Held, I., Eiswirth, M., & Hötzl, H. (2004). Impact of leaky sewers on groundwater quality. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 32(4-5), 361-373. doi:10.1002/aheh.200400538. Wolf, L. (2006). Influence of leaky sewer systems on groundwater resources beneath the city of Rastatt, Germany. Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe.

  10. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  11. Understanding the Spatial Formation and Accumulation of Fats, Oils & Grease Deposits in the Sewer Collection System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially...

  12. The impacts of climate change and urbanisation on drainage in Helsingborg, Sweden: Combined sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semadeni-Davies, Annette; Hernebring, Claes; Svensson, Gilbert; Gustafsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    SummaryAssessment of the potential impact of climate change on water systems has been an essential part of hydrological research over the last couple of decades. However, the notion that such assessments should also include technological, demographic and land use changes is relatively recent. In this study, the potential impacts of climate change and continued urbanisation on waste and stormwater flows in the combined sewer of central Helsingborg, South Sweden, have been assessed using a series of DHI MOUSE simulations run with present conditions as well as two climate change scenarios and three progressive urbanisation storylines. At present, overflows of untreated wastewater following heavy rainfalls are a major source of pollution to the coastal receiving waters and there is a worry that increased rainfall could exacerbate the problem. Sewer flows resulting from different urbanisation storylines were simulated for two 10-year periods corresponding to present (1994-2003) and future climates (nominally 2081-2090). In all, 12 simulations were made. Climate change was simulated by altering a high-resolution rainfall record according to the climate-change signal derived from a regional climate model. Urbanisation was simulated by altering model parameters to reflect current trends in demographics and water management. It was found that city growth and projected increases in precipitation, both together and alone, are set to worsen the current drainage problems. Conversely, system renovation and installation of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) has a positive effect on the urban environment in general and can largely allay the adverse impacts of both urbanisation and climate change.

  13. Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-05-15

    Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. PMID:24631876

  14. SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roy D. Clark

    1995-01-13

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface sanitary sewer system on the North Portal, and addresses the requirements for the collection of sanitary sewage from each of the proposed surface buildings. A sewage treatment system will be defined that meets the needs of the North Portal, conforms to the existing site conditions, and meets the needs of the state and local permitting agencies.

  15. SEWER PIPELINE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater collection systems are an extensive part of the nation's infrastructure. In the United States, approximately 150 million people are served by about 19,000 municipal wastewater collection systems representing about 500,000 miles of sewer pipe (not including privately o...

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Five Odor Reducing Agents for Sewer System Odors Using an On-Line Total Reduced Sulfur Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il; Lee, Hyunjoo; Shin, Joungdu; Kim, Hyunook

    2012-01-01

    Sewer odors have been a concern to citizens of the Metropolitan Seoul region, which has installed combined sewer systems (CSSs) in 86% of its area. Although a variety of odorants are released from sewers, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) have been recognized as major ones. A number of technologies have been proposed to monitor or control odors from sewers. One of the most popular strategies adopted for the control of sewage odor is by applying a commercial odor-reducing agent into the sewer. In this study, the effectiveness of five different commercial odor-reducing agents (i.e., an odor masking agent, an alkaline solution, two microbial agents, and a chemical oxidant) was evaluated by continuously monitoring VSCs released from the sewer with an on-line total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer before and after each agent was sprayed into CSSs at five different locations of the city. In short, when the effectiveness of odor treatment was tested in the sewer system using five commercial odor reducing treatments, only the chemical oxidant was good enough to reduce the odor in terms of TRS levels measured before and after the application (p < 0.01). PMID:23223148

  17. Development and implementation of a real-time control strategy for the sewer system of the city of Vienna.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, L; Beeneken, T

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the realization of a real-time control for the Vienna sewer system. The project is scheduled for completion for 2004. The 3.5 year project comprises all planning stages starting with the recording of data up to the planning of measuring and controlling units. The concrete steps of the planning stages are explained. A measuring system including 25 rainfall measurements, 40 flow measurements and 20 water level measurements is implemented as an online system. This measuring system is designed to achieve two objectives, on the one hand the real-time control and on the other hand the calibration of the model that is used for the hydrodynamic sewer system simulation. The approx. 53,000 pipes have served to generate a coarse network of no more than approx. 2600 pipes. The area data were derived with high accuracy from available aerial photograph interpretations. With simulation runs of a rule-based control software the system operation was examined. A self-learning system will improve the rule basis. A forecasting model that uses weather observation radar will additionally influence the controlling decisions. The findings from the investigations are immediately considered in the planning of measuring and control units. The simulated results for the first phase of implementation, which demonstrate the benefit of RTC for the Vienna sewer system, are explained. PMID:16248195

  18. A case independent approach on the impact of climate change effects on combined sewer system performance.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    Design and construction of urban drainage systems has to be done in a predictive way, as the average lifespan of such investments is several decades. The design engineer has to predict many influencing factors and scenarios for future development of a system (e.g. change in land use, population, water consumption and infiltration measures). Furthermore, climate change can cause increased rain intensities which leads to an additional impact on drainage systems. In this paper we compare the behaviour of different performance indicators of combined sewer systems when taking into account long-term environmental change effects (change in rainfall characteristics, change in impervious area and change in dry weather flow). By using 250 virtual case studies this approach is--in principle--a Monte Carlo Simulation in which not only parameter values are varied but the entire system structure and layout is changed in each run. Hence, results are more general and case-independent. For example the consideration of an increase of rainfall intensities by 20% has the same effect as an increase of impervious area of +40%. Such an increase of rainfall intensities could be compensated by infiltration measures in current systems which lead to a reduction of impervious area by 30%. PMID:19759458

  19. Multivariate probability distribution for sewer system vulnerability assessment under data-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Padulano, R; Siciliano, D

    2016-01-01

    The lack of geometrical and hydraulic information about sewer networks often excludes the adoption of in-deep modeling tools to obtain prioritization strategies for funds management. The present paper describes a novel statistical procedure for defining the prioritization scheme for preventive maintenance strategies based on a small sample of failure data collected by the Sewer Office of the Municipality of Naples (IT). Novelty issues involve, among others, considering sewer parameters as continuous statistical variables and accounting for their interdependences. After a statistical analysis of maintenance interventions, the most important available factors affecting the process are selected and their mutual correlations identified. Then, after a Box-Cox transformation of the original variables, a methodology is provided for the evaluation of a vulnerability map of the sewer network by adopting a joint multivariate normal distribution with different parameter sets. The goodness-of-fit is eventually tested for each distribution by means of a multivariate plotting position. The developed methodology is expected to assist municipal engineers in identifying critical sewers, prioritizing sewer inspections in order to fulfill rehabilitation requirements. PMID:26901717

  20. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  1. Loading and removal of PAHs in a wastewater treatment plant in a separated sewer system.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori

    2015-09-01

    The loading and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured and estimated in a wastewater treatment plant in a separated sewer system in a suburban area of Japan. The influent 16 PAHs concentration was 219 ± 210 ng L(-1), whereas the effluent concentration was 43.5 ± 42.5 ng L(-1) (mean ± sd). No clear diurnal or weekly fluctuation was observed. However, evaluation of long-term changes revealed PAH fluctuations continuing for more than 1 week. Half of the PAHs (63%) were biologically or chemically transformed, or vaporized in the treatment plant, while the remainder were discharged with effluent (28%) and excess sludge (9%). Measurement of the per capita loading of the treatment plant revealed values of 142 ± 53 and 28 ± 11 μg person(-1)day(-1) (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for influent and effluent, respectively. Isomer ratio analysis revealed that the PAHs originated from a mixture of petroleum, petroleum combustion, and burning of biomass residues. PMID:26026633

  2. Remote infrared thermal sensing of sewer voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Many sewers in America's cities are more than 125 years old and are subject to structural failure. In one year alone, St. Louis, Missouri had 4,000 sewer collapses that carried an astronomical repair tag. When a sewer caves in, it often takes the street, sidewalks, and surrounding buildings along with it endangering public health and safety. The ideal situation would be to repair a sewer before such cave-ins occur, as emergency repairs are far more costly than preventive measures. The question addressed by this paper is how to detect unseen problem areas in sewer systems before collapses occur. At the present, progressive sewer administrations may use crawl crews or remote controlled video cameras to inspect sewers at suspected problem locations. This can be extremely costly, dangerous, and not very accurate, as a void around the outside of the sewer is often invisible from within. Thus, even a crawl crew can fail to detect most voids. Sewer districts and independent engineering firms have found infrared thermography, a nondestructive testing method, to be extremely accurate in finding sewer voids, and accompanying pipeline leaks, before they can cause expensive and dangerous problems. Infrared thermography is a non-contact, remote sensing method, with the potential for surveying large areas quickly and efficiently.

  3. MODELS TO ESTIMATE VOLATILE ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from municipal sewers are usually omitted from hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventories. This omission may result from a lack of appreciation for the potential emission impact and/or from inadequate emission estimation procedures. This paper presents an analys...

  4. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System Using Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    A green infrastructure (GI) design approach was used in CSO Basin #130, a 17-acre sewershed in the Butchertown section of Louisville, Kentucky, to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs). For the design year, the modeled design was expected to reduce the CSO frequency from 34 to ...

  5. [Sewer gas induced myocardial toxicity].

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Dante; Sabanchiev, Avi; Rosner, Ehud; Turgeman, Yoav

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 19 year-old worker who collapsed after acute exposure to sewer gas. He rapidly developed cardiorespiratory failure with electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and laboratory findings of myocardial involvement. The mainstay of the therapy was mainly supportive treatment with a successful outcome. PMID:25189024

  6. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality. PMID:23957532

  7. In-place rehabilitation of process sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Arles, K.R.; Faller, C.C.

    1996-07-01

    The majority of petrochemical manufacturing facilities have thousands of feet of existing underground gravity sewers that convey the site`s industrial wastes to treatment facilities. The integrity of these sewer systems is a serious concern to owners. A potential consequence of leaks is soil and groundwater contamination. Prior to 1992, only two options were available to remedy this situation. The sewer systems could be replaced with either a new dual-walled, monitored underground pipe system via direct bury, or with an above ground pumped system. In 1992, Engineering, in conjunction with several trenchless technology vendors, developed and demonstrated modified relining systems that can rehabilitate existing sewers and result in monitored dual-walled gravity sewer systems. These proven systems have since been enhanced, upgraded, and installed at two operating facilities. With thorough sewer investigation and assessments, industry now has viable, cost effective options to rehabilitate underground chemical process sewers. These upgraded sewer systems provide the environmental security of monitored dual-walled pipe, enhanced flow characteristics, and retain accessibility for maintenance and inspections.

  8. Storm water management in an urban catchment: effects of source control and real-time management of sewer systems on receiving water quality.

    PubMed

    Frehmann, T; Nafo, I; Niemann, A; Geiger, W F

    2002-01-01

    For the examination of the effects of different storm water management strategies in an urban catchment area on receiving water quality, an integrated simulation of the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water is carried out. In the sewer system real-time control measures are implemented. As examples of source control measures the reduction of wastewater and the reduction of the amount of impervious surfaces producing storm water discharges are examined. The surface runoff calculation and the simulation of the sewer system and the WWTP are based on a MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment. The impact of the measures on the receiving water is simulated using AQUASIM. It can be shown that the examined storm water management measures, especially the source control measures, can reduce the combined sewer overflow volume and the pollutant discharge load considerably. All examined measures also have positive effects on the receiving water quality. Moreover, the reduction of impervious surfaces avoids combined sewer overflow activities, and in consequence prevents pollutants from discharging into the receiving water after small rainfall events. However, the receiving water quality improvement may not be seen as important enough to avoid acute receiving water effects in general. PMID:12380970

  9. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26065785

  10. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  11. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. PMID:26841228

  12. Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Richard H; Östman, Marcus; Olofsson, Ulrika; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system. PMID:24768701

  13. SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensive...

  14. CONTROL OF SEWER OVERFLOWS BY POLYMER INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past, the operator of a sewage collection system has had three alternatives for dealing with overloaded sanitary sewers; ignoring them, diverting them to storm sewers and streams, or pumping to other locations. An EPA-sponsored research program entitled, 'Polymers for Sewe...

  15. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  16. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network. PMID:26022395

  17. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  18. SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 SSO events per year. Becau...

  19. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  20. Isolation of heavy metal influx to the Cookeville sanitary sewer system and impact on municipal sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.; Borup, M.B.; Adams, V.D.; Prehn, M.P. )

    1989-04-01

    The city of Cookeville, Tennessee, has been experiencing problems with municipal sludge management. Of particular concern was the high concentration of regulated trace metals in the sludge. Primarily, cadmium limited the amount of sludge which was spread on the available cropland in 1985. The purpose of this project was to determine the major sources of heavy metal influx to the city's sanitary sewer system and the potential effects of heavy metals on sludge management. In general, the findings of the study indicate that city enforcement of existing State of Tennessee and city industrial pretreatment requirements will most likely extend the useful life of the currently available 388 ha land application sites to as much as ten years for certain sites. Cadmium governed the annual sludge application rates to the agricultural land. One plating industry discharged over 90% of the cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc mass to the sanitary sewer. In addition, during 1986, the average concentration of most of the trace metals monitored in the municipal sludge deceased from levels reported in 1985.

  1. Innovative use of lamella clarifiers for central stormwater treatment in separate sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Lamella settlers have been used in the past few years for the sedimentation of particles in wastewater and stormwater applications. A new and very innovative approach for the treatment of stormwater flows is proposed which extends the portfolio of solutions beyond traditional settling tanks. Surface runoff is stored in a sewer or a basin and finally treated in a small but continuously operated lamella clarifier. The low throughput flow will yield good treatment efficiency at a small footprint. The possibilities of using existing storage volume in a storm sewer, as well as the structural flexibility of the arrangement are decisive benefits. As a large operational advantage, the lamellae may be cleaned mechanically, e.g. by pivoting under water. Finally, the flow and the sludge which will be sent to the downstream treatment plant will be minimized. A new comparative simulation method is proposed in order to assess an equivalent degree of stormwater treatment, either by achieving an equal annual volume of treated stormwater or, more directly, an equal amount of spilled pollutant load. The new solution is compared with a traditional settling tank according to current German design rules. Additionally, a case study from a real installation will be presented. PMID:24759518

  2. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    PubMed

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-01-01

    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks. PMID:24759538

  3. Space-Derived Sewer Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The QuadraScan Longterm Flow Monitoring System is a second generation sewer monitor developed by American Digital Systems, Inc.'s founder Peter Petroff. Petroff, a former spacecraft instrumentation designer at Marshall Space Flight Center, used expertise based on principles acquired in Apollo and other NASA programs. QuadraScan borrows even more heavily from space technology, for example in its data acquisition and memory system derived from NASA satellites. "One-time" measurements are often plagued with substantial errors due to the flow of groundwater absorbed into the system. These system sizing errors stem from a basic informational deficiency: accurate, reliable data on how much water flows through a sewer system over a long period of time is very difficult to obtain. City officials are turning to "permanent," or long-term sewer monitoring systems. QuadraScan offers many advantages to city officials such as the early warning capability to effectively plan for city growth in order to avoid the crippling economic impact of bans on new sewer connections in effect in many cities today.

  4. A novel approach to model dynamic flow interactions between storm sewer system and overland surface for different land covers in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Wang, Chia-Ho; Chen, Albert S.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we developed a novel approach to simulate dynamic flow interactions between storm sewers and overland surface for different land covers in urban areas. The proposed approach couples the one-dimensional (1D) sewer flow model (SFM) and the two-dimensional (2D) overland flow model (OFM) with different techniques depending on the land cover type of the study areas. For roads, pavements, plazas, and so forth where rainfall becomes surface runoff before entering the sewer system, the rainfall-runoff process is simulated directly in the 2D OFM, and the runoff is drained to the sewer network via inlets, which is regarded as the input to 1D SFM. For green areas on which rainfall falls into the permeable ground surface and the generated direct runoff traverses terrain, the deduction rate is applied to the rainfall for reflecting the soil infiltration in the 2D OFM. For flat building roofs with drainage facilities allowing rainfall to drain directly from the roof to sewer networks, the rainfall-runoff process is simulated using the hydrological module in the 1D SFM where no rainfall is applied to these areas in the 2D OFM. The 1D SFM is used for hydraulic simulations in the sewer network. Where the flow in the drainage network exceeds its capacity, a surcharge occurs and water may spill onto the ground surface if the pressure head in a manhole exceeds the ground elevation. The overflow discharge from the sewer system is calculated by the 1D SFM and considered a point source in the 2D OFM. The overland flow will return into the sewer network when it reaches an inlet that connects to an un-surcharged manhole. In this case, the inlet is considered as a point sink in the 2D OFM and an inflow to a manhole in the 1D SFM. The proposed approach was compared to other five urban flood modelling techniques with four rainfall events that had previously recorded inundation areas. The merits and drawbacks of each modelling technique were compared and discussed. Based on the

  5. U.S. EPA Issues Technical Guides and Computer Tools for Sewer Condition and Capacity Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation's sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers more than100 years old. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events per year...

  6. Advances in Sewer Condition and Capacity Assessment – Development and Applications of EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) ev...

  7. [Identifying dry-weather flow and pollution load sources of separate storm sewer systems with different degrees of illicit discharge].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-ying; Feng, Cang; Li, Tian; Wang, Ling

    2009-12-01

    Dry-weather flow quantity and quality of three representative separate storm sewer systems in Shanghai-H, G, N were studied. Based on survey of operating status of the pumping stations as well as characteristics of the drainage systems, it was obtained that the interception sewage volumes per unit area in the three systems were 3610 m3/(km2 x d), 1550 m3/(km2 x d), 2970 m3/(km2 x d) respectively; the sanitary wastewater included accounted for 25%, 85% and 71% respectively; the interception volume of H was mainly composed of infiltrated underground water, so the dry-weather flow pollution was slighter, and the interception volumes of G, N were both mainly composed of sanitary wastewater, so the dry-weather which were flow pollution was relatively serious. The water characteristics of potential illicit discharge sources of dry-weather which were flow-grey water, black water and underground water were preliminarily explored, so that treating three parameters-LAS/ NH4+ -N, NH4+ -N/K, Mg/K as tracer parameters of grey water, black water and underground water was put forward. Moreover, the water characteristics of grey water and sanitary wastewater including black water were summarized: the feature of grey water was LAS/NH4+ -N > 0.2, NH4+ -N/K <1, and sanitary wastewater was LAS/NH4+ -N < 0.2, NH4+ -N/K >1. Based on the above, the applications of flow chart method and CMBM method in dry-weather flow detection of monitored storm systems were preliminarily discussed, and the results were basically same as that obtained in flow quantity and quality comprehensive analysis. The research results and methods can provide guidance for analysis and diagnosis of dry-weather flow sources and subsequent reconstruction projects in similar separate storm sewer systems at home. PMID:20187382

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Indirect sulfur reduction via polysulfide contributes to serious odor problem in a sewer receiving nitrate dosage.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Nitrate dosing is commonly used to control hydrogen sulfide production in sewer systems. However, quick rebound of the sulfide concentration after nitrate depletion has been observed and results in more serious odor and corrosion problem. To investigate the mechanism of sulfide regeneration in the nitrate-free period, a laboratory-scale sewer reactor was run for 30 days to simulate sulfide production and oxidation with intermittent nitrate addition. The results show that nitrate addition substantially reduced the sulfide concentration, but the produced elemental sulfur was then quickly reduced back to sulfide in nitrate-free periods. This induced more and more sulfide production in the sewer reactor. Elemental sulfur and polysulfide reductions were found in the sewage in nitrate-free periods, showing their contributions to the sulfide regeneration. Through batch tests, polysulfide was confirmed as the key intermediate for accelerating sulfur reduction during the nitrate-free period in the sewer. Sulfide production rates significantly increased by 65% and 59% in the presences of tetrasulfide and sulfur with sulfide, respectively, at the beginning of the test. While polysulfide formation was prevented by the ferrous chloride addition, the sulfur reduction rate remarkably decreased from 12.8 mgS/L-h to 1.8 mgS/L-h. This indicates that direct sulfur reduction was significantly slower than the indirect sulfur reduction via polysulfide; the latter process could be the cause for the quick rebound of the sulfide concentration in the sewer with intermittent nitrate dosing. Thus, the pathways of sulfur transformations in a sewer, both in the presence and absence of nitrate, were proposed. Microbial community analysis results reveal that some common sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera in sewer sediment were possible sulfur reducers. According to this finding, the effect and strategy of nitrate dosing for hydrogen sulfide control in sewers should be re-evaluated and re

  10. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  11. A simple model of flow-rate attenuation in sewer systems. Application to urban stormwater source control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Guido; Tassin, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In urban stormwater management, "soft" solutions are being widely applied, including stormwater source control. However, no specific resource-effective model is available to assess their effects at the city-scale. As a consequence, source control regulations are often based on simplistic hydrologic assumptions. In this paper, we apply a top-down modeling approach to this problem, and we develop a simple model of flow-rate attenuation in the sewer system, using a numerical empirical approach. Then, we apply the model to source control regulations, assessing which type of regulation is more effective depending on relative positions in a catchment. We show that a model requiring only two types of information about a catchment (concentration time and pluviometry) can provide relevant information on source control effectiveness. This information could be helpful, for example, to define a stormwater zoning.

  12. Infrared Thermal Sensing Of Sewer Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1984-03-01

    The deterioration of sewer systems and their associated infrastructure is one of the most serious problems facing city, state, federal, and world authorities. As an example, three large sewer voids in the St. Louis Metropolitan area caused over $2,000,000 in repair costs in only one year. The detection of voids in and around underground sewer lines, as well as the detection of effluent leakages is necessary when determining the priority of structures for repair. At the present time sewer voids are sometimes detected by manual methods which are expensive, time consuming, and not extremely accurate. Most of the time, the void is not detected until the street caves in. Infrared thermography has been found to be capable of detecting voids around underground sewer systems because under certain conditions, temperature differentials exist between various types of materials, effluents, and cavities. This paper describes the problem of deteriorating sewer systems, the field tests used to detect sewer voids, the equipment used in the field tests, the theories used to design the tests, various complicating factors, and anticipated future refinements on the procedure.

  13. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

    2013-05-28

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Tracer tests and uncertainty propagation to design monitoring setups in view of pharmaceutical mass flow analyses in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Klepiszewski, Kai; Venditti, Silvia; Koehler, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The development of a strategic approach to manage pollution of surface waters with pharmaceutical residues is in centre of interest in Europe. In this context a lack of reliable standard procedures for sampling and subsequent assessment of pharmaceutical mass flows in the water cycle has been identified. Authoritative assessment of relevant substance concentrations and flows is essential for environmental risk assessments and reliable efficiency analysis of measures to reduce or avoid emissions of drugs to water systems. Accordingly, a detailed preparation of monitoring campaigns including an accuracy check for the sampling configuration provides important information on the reliability of the gathered data. It finally supports data analysis and interpretation for evaluations of the efficiency of measures as well as for cost benefit assessments. The precision of mass flow balances is expected to be particularly weak when substances with high short-term variations and rare upstream emissions are considered. This is especially true for substance flow analysis in sewers close to source because of expectable highly dynamic flow conditions and emission patterns of pollutants. The case study presented here focusses on the verification of a monitoring campaign in a hospital sewer in Luxembourg. The results highlight the importance for a priori accuracy checks and provide a blueprint for well-designed monitoring campaigns of pharmaceutical trace pollutants on the one hand. On the other hand, the study provides evidence that the defined and applied continuous flow proportional sampling procedure enables a representative monitoring of short-term peak loads of the x-ray contrast media iobitridol close to source. PMID:27110888

  16. SEWER AND TANK SEDIMENT FLUSHING: CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the report summarized here is to demonstrate that sewer system and storage tank flushing that reduces sediment deposition and accumulation is of prime importance to optimizing performance, maintaining structural integrity, and minimizing pollution of receiving wa...

  17. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  18. Online dissolved methane and total dissolved sulfide measurement in sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Fluggen, Markus; O'Halloran, Kelly; Murthy, Sudhir; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using short-term manual sampling of sewage followed by off-line laboratory gas chromatography (GC) measurement have shown that a substantial amount of dissolved methane is produced in sewer systems. However, only limited data has been acquired to date due to the low frequency and short span of this method, which cannot capture the dynamic variations of in-sewer dissolved methane concentrations. In this study, a newly developed online measuring device was used to monitor dissolved methane concentrations at the end of a rising main sewer network, over two periods of three weeks each, in summer and early winter, respectively. This device uses an online gas-phase methane sensor to measure methane under equilibrium conditions after being stripped from the sewage. The data are then converted to liquid-phase methane concentrations according to Henry's Law. The detection limit and range are suitable for sewer application and can be adjusted by varying the ratio of liquid-to-gas phase volume settings. The measurement presented good linearity (R² > 0.95) during field application, when compared to off-line measurements. The overall data set showed a wide variation in dissolved methane concentration of 5-15 mg/L in summer and 3.5-12 mg/L in winter, resulting in a significant average daily production of 24.6 and 19.0 kg-CH₄/d, respectively, from the network with a daily average sewage flow of 2840 m³/day. The dissolved methane concentration demonstrated a clear diurnal pattern coinciding with flow and sulfide fluctuation, implying a relationship with the wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total dissolved sulfide (TDS) concentration in sewers can be determined simultaneously with the same principle. PMID:25462721

  19. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Urso, L; Kaiser, J C; Andersson, K G; Andorfer, H; Angermair, G; Gusel, C; Tandler, R

    2013-04-01

    After an accidental radioactive contamination by aerosols in inhabited areas, the radiation exposure to man is determined by complex interactions between different factors such as dry or wet deposition, different types of ground surfaces, chemical properties of the radionuclides involved and building development as well as dependence on bomb construction e.g. design and geometry. At short-term, the first rainfall is an important way of natural decontamination: deposited radionuclides are washed off from surfaces and in urban areas the resulting contaminated runoff enters the sewer system and is collected in a sewage plant. Up to now the potential exposure caused by this process has received little attention and is estimated here with simulation models. The commercial rainfall-runoff model for urban sewer systems KANAL++ has been extended to include transport of radionuclides from surfaces through the drainage to various discharge facilities. The flow from surfaces is modeled by unit hydrographs, which produce boundary conditions for a system of 1d coupled flow and transport equations in a tube system. Initial conditions are provided by a map of surface contamination which is produced by geo-statistical interpolation of γ-dose rate measurements taking into account the detector environment. The corresponding methodology is implemented in the Inhabited Area Monitoring Module (IAMM) software module as part of the European decision system JRODOS. A hypothetical scenario is considered where a Radiation Dispersal Device (RDD) with Cs-137 is detonated in a small inhabited area whose drainage system is realistically modeled. The transition of deposited radionuclides due to rainfall into the surface runoff is accounted for by different nuclide-specific entrainment coefficients for paved and unpaved surfaces. The concentration of Cs-137 in water is calculated at the nodes of the drainage system and at the sewage treatment plant. The external exposure to staff of the

  20. Influence of characteristics on combined sewer performance.

    PubMed

    Möderl, M; Kleidorfer, M; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    Elements of combined sewer systems are among others sub-catchments, junctions, conduits and weirs with or without storage units. The spatial distribution and attributes of all these elements influence both system characteristics and sewer performance. Until today, little work has been done to analyse the influence of such characteristics in a case unspecific approach. In this study, 250 virtual combined sewer systems are analysed by defining groups of systems, which are representative for their different characteristics. The set was created with a further development of the case study generator (CSG), a tool for automatic generation of branched sewer systems. Combined sewer overflow and flooding is evaluated using performance indicators based on hydrodynamic simulations. The analysis of system characteristics, like those presented in this paper, helps researchers to understand coherences and aids practitioners in designing combined sewers. For instance, it was found that characteristics that have a positive influence on emission reduction frequently have a negative influence on flooding avoidance and vice versa. PMID:22797234

  1. An integrated modelling concept for immission-based management of sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and river.

    PubMed

    Erbe, V; Schütze, M

    2005-01-01

    Today's planning standards deal with the individual urban drainage components (sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water) separately, i.e. they are often designed and operated as single components. As opposed to this, an integral handling considers the drainage components jointly. This novel approach allows a holistic and more sustainable planning of urban drainage systems. This paper presents an integrated modelling concept. The aim is to analyse fluxes through the total wastewater system and to integrate pollution-based control in the upstream direction, that is, e.g., managing the combined water retention tanks as a function of state variables in the WWTP or the receiving water. All models of the different subsystems are based on the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) concept of IWA, including River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWOM). Simulations can be done in truly parallel mode using the simulation environment SIMBA. The integrated modelling concept is applied to the river Dhuenn and the urban wastewater system of the municipality of Odenthal (Germany). An optimised operation of the system using RTC proves to be a very effective measure. PMID:16248185

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Storm water modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, Christopher

    1996-05-01

    Storm water modeling is important to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for compliance with regulations that govern water discharge at large industrial facilities. Modeling is also done to study trend in contaminants and storm sewer infrastructure. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate rainfall events at LLNL. SWMM is a comprehensive computer model for simulation of urban runoff quantity and quality in storm and combined sewer systems. Due to time constraints and ongoing research, no modeling was completed at LLNL. With proper information about the storm sewers, a SWMM simulation of a rainfall event on site would be beneficial to storm sewer analyst.

  4. Application of small community sewer system for improving the quality of the water resource in Korea.

    PubMed

    Myung, G N; Yu, M J

    2003-01-01

    An existing SBR plant in a rural area was retrofitted from a conventional fill-and-draw system to an intermittent-aeration system for additional nitrogen removal. This study indicated that organic and nitrogen removal efficiency was improved over that before the retrofitting. But effluent phosphorus concentration was increased gradually with the operating time. In the latter period of investigation, phosphorus concentration in effluent was higher than influent. It was regarded that an excessively accumulated phosphorus was released again under the anaerobic conditions of the sludge storage tank. The application of the electro-coagulation process was investigated as an alternative method in order to prevent phosphorus from re-releasing. A laboratory test for electro-coagulation indicated that T-P removal was more stable than the biological method only. In addition, it was confirmed that T-N and organic materials as well as T-P were removed simultaneously by the electrochemical reaction in the bioreactor combined with electrolysis by more than the bioreactor only. PMID:14753522

  5. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    PubMed

    Schaarup-Jensen, K; Rasmussen, M R; Thorndahl, S

    2009-01-01

    In urban drainage modelling long-term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties with regards to long-term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO volumes. Traditionally, long-term rainfall series, from a local rain gauge, are unavailable. In the present case study, however, long and local rain series are available. 2 rainfall gauges have recorded events for approximately 9 years at 2 locations within the catchment. Beside these 2 gauges another 7 gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity can be handled, e.g. by introducing an "averaging procedure" based on the variability within the set of statistics. All simulations are performed by means of the MOUSE LTS model. PMID:19587406

  6. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  7. Development and evaluation of a decision-supporting model for identifying the source location of microbial intrusions in real gravity sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Assuming a scenario of a hypothetical pathogenic outbreak, we aimed this study at developing a decision-support model for identifying the location of the pathogenic intrusion as a means of facilitating rapid detection and efficient containment. The developed model was applied to a real sewer system (the Campbell wash basin in Tucson, AZ) in order to validate its feasibility. The basin under investigation was divided into 14 sub-basins. The geometric information associated with the sewer network was digitized using GIS (Geological Information System) and imported into an urban sewer network simulation model to generate microbial breakthrough curves at the outlet. A pre-defined amount of Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is an indicator of fecal coliform bacteria, was hypothetically introduced into 56 manholes (four in each sub-basin, chosen at random), and a total of 56 breakthrough curves of E. coli were generated using the simulation model at the outlet. Transport patterns were classified depending upon the location of the injection site (manhole), various known characteristics (peak concentration and time, pipe length, travel time, etc.) extracted from each E. coli breakthrough curve and the layout of sewer network. Using this information, we back-predicted the injection location once an E. coli intrusion was detected at a monitoring site using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The results showed that ANNs identified the location of the injection sites with 57% accuracy; ANNs correctly recognized eight out of fourteen expressions with relying on data from a single detection sensor. Increasing the available sensors within the basin significantly improved the accuracy of the simulation results (from 57% to 100%). PMID:23770478

  8. Assessment of the ecotoxicological risk of combined sewer overflows for an aquatic system using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach.

    PubMed

    Gooré Bi, Eustache; Monette, Frederic; Gasperi, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Very few tools are available for assessing the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on receiving aquatic environments. The main goal of the study was to assess the ecotoxicological risk of CSOs for a surface aquatic ecosystem using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach. Wastewater samples from the city of Longueuil, Canada CSO were collected for various rainfall events during one summer season and analyzed for a large panel of substances (n = 116). Four bioassays were also conducted on representative organisms of surface aquatic systems (Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analytical data did not reveal any ecotoxicological risk for St. Lawrence River organisms, mainly due to strong effluent dilution. However, the substance approach showed that, because of their contribution to the ecotoxicological hazard posed by the effluent, total phosphorus (Ptot), aluminum (Al), total residual chlorine, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), pyrene, ammonia (N-NH4 (+)), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) require more targeted monitoring. While chronic ecotoxicity tests revealed a potential impact of CSO discharges on P. promelas and C. dubia, acute toxicity tests did not show any effect on D. magna or O. mykiss, thus underscoring the importance of chronic toxicity tests as part of efforts aimed at characterizing effluent toxicity. Ultimately, the study leads to the conclusion that the coupled "substance and bioassay" approach is a reliable and robust method for assessing the ecotoxicological risk associated with complex discharges such as CSOs. PMID:25315929

  9. An expert system with radial basis function neural network based on decision trees for predicting sediment transport in sewers.

    PubMed

    Ebtehaj, Isa; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an expert system with a radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) based on decision trees (DT) is designed to predict sediment transport in sewer pipes at the limit of deposition. First, sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of each parameter on predicting the densimetric Froude number (Fr). The results indicate that utilizing the ratio of the median particle diameter to pipe diameter (d/D), ratio of median particle diameter to hydraulic radius (d/R) and volumetric sediment concentration (C(V)) as the input combination leads to the best Fr prediction. Subsequently, the new hybrid DT-RBF method is presented. The results of DT-RBF are compared with RBF and RBF-particle swarm optimization (PSO), which uses PSO for RBF training. It appears that DT-RBF is more accurate (R(2) = 0.934, MARE = 0.103, RMSE = 0.527, SI = 0.13, BIAS = -0.071) than the two other RBF methods. Moreover, the proposed DT-RBF model offers explicit expressions for use by practicing engineers. PMID:27386995

  10. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  11. Environmental compliance Modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents a post-rehabilitation monitoring and modeling study of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study evaluated effectiveness of sewer system rehabilitation efforts and defined benchmarks for environmental success. A PCSWMM model for the sanitary sewer system was developed and applied to demonstrate the success of a $5 million rehabilitation effort. It determined that rainfall-dependent inflow and infiltration (RDI&I) had been reduced by 88%, and that system upgrades adequately manage predicted peak flows. An ongoing modeling and analysis program currently assists management in evaluating the system`s needs for continuing maintenance and further upgrades. This paper also summarizes a 1989 study that evaluated data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows, and the Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, which took place from 1991 through 1995.

  12. SSOAP - A USEPA Toolbox for Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Control Planning - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified a need to use proven methodologies to develop computer tools that help communities properly characterize rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems and develop sanitary sewer...

  13. FLOCCULATION-FLOTATION AIDS FOR TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the flocculation/flotation characteristics of combined sewer overflow through laboratory and field testing. The concept involves the introduction of chemicals and buoyant flotation aids into the overflow and the subsequent cofloccu...

  14. SSOAP - A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause serio...

  15. Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby receiving waters and can also ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams. RDII can also cause se...

  17. SSOAP - A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause seriou...

  18. Review of Sewer Design Criteria and RDII Prediction Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause serio...

  19. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (UVAS plus) installed in the overflow chamber as well as two flowmeters placed in the outflow sewer were used. In order to check the data from sensors, laboratory tests of combined wastewater quality were conducted simultaneously. For the analysis of the total pollutant load emitted from the overflow, the raw data was denoised using the Savitzky-Golay method. Comparing the load calculated from the analytical results to online smoothed measurements, negligible differences were found, which confirms the usefulness of applying the sensors in the combined sewer system. Online monitoring of the quantity and quality of wastewater emitted by the combined sewer overflows to water receivers, provides a considerable amount of data very useful for combined sewerage upgrading based on computer modelling, and allows for a significant reduction of laboratory analysis. PMID:27488195

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Dynamic online sewer modelling in Helsingborg.

    PubMed

    Hernebring, C; Jönsson, L E; Thorén, U B; Møller, A

    2002-01-01

    Within the last decade, the sewer system in Helsingborg, Sweden has been rehabilitated in many ways along with the reconstruction of the WWTP Oresundsverket in order to obtain a high degree of nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In that context a holistic view has been applied in order to optimise the corrective measures as seen from the effects in the receiving waters. A sewer catchment model has been used to evaluate several operation strategies and the effect of introducing RTC. Recently, a MOUSE ONLINE system was installed. In this phase the objective is to establish a stable communication with the SCADA system and to generate short-term flow forecasts. PMID:11936663

  2. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR STORM-GENERATED SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary sewer systems, it is often less expensive to use alterantives to sewerline rehabilitation for infiltration/inflow (I/I) and ...

  3. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR STORM-GENERATED SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensiv...

  4. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF GRAVITY STORM SEWER DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for optimizing the design of urban storm sewer systems. Previous efforts to optimize gravity sewers have met with limited success because classical optimization methods require that the problem be well behaved, e.g. describ...

  6. Control Strategy for Storm-Generated Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers a strategy for the abatement of pollution from sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary sewer systems, it is often less expensive to use alternatives to sewerline rehabilitation for infiltration/inflow (I/I) and associated ...

  7. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  8. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  9. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  10. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  11. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR CONTROL PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging with some sewers dating back over 100 years. There are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems nationwide serving an estimated 150 million people and comprising about 800,000 km (500,000 mi) of municipally ...

  12. From sewer to saviour - targeting the lymphatic system to promote drug exposure and activity.

    PubMed

    Trevaskis, Natalie L; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Porter, Christopher J H

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system serves an integral role in fluid homeostasis, lipid metabolism and immune control. In cancer, the lymph nodes that drain solid tumours are a primary site of metastasis, and recent studies have suggested intrinsic links between lymphatic function, lipid deposition, obesity and atherosclerosis. Advances in the current understanding of the role of the lymphatics in pathological change and immunity have driven the recognition that lymph-targeted delivery has the potential to transform disease treatment and vaccination. In addition, the design of lymphatic delivery systems has progressed from simple systems that rely on passive lymphatic access to sophisticated structures that use nanotechnology to mimic endogenous macromolecules and lipid conjugates that 'hitchhike' onto lipid transport processes. Here, we briefly summarize the lymphatic system in health and disease and the varying mechanisms of lymphatic entry and transport, as well as discussing examples of lymphatic delivery that have enhanced therapeutic utility. We also outline future challenges to effective lymph-directed therapy. PMID:26471369

  13. A Review of Advanced Sewer System Design Technologies (WERF Report INFR4SG09d)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This document seeks to collect into one place current and new technologies about sewerage system design. The document organizes the information found in the 295 documents that were reviewed into six subject areas: Advanced Onsite Technologies; Alternative Wastewater C...

  14. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas with and without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003–2007

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanlin; Wang, Shiliang; Messier, Kyle P.; Wade, Timothy J.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff are released into water bodies, potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme precipitation associated with climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess whether the association between heavy rainfall and rate of emergency room (ER) visits for gastrointestinal (GI) illness differed in the presence of CSOs. Methods For the study period 2003–2007, time series of daily rate of ER visits for GI illness and meteorological data were organized for three exposure regions: a) CSOs impacting drinking water sources, b) CSOs impacting recreational waters, c) no CSOs. A distributed lag Poisson regression assessed cumulative effects for an 8-day lag period following heavy (≥ 90th and ≥ 95th percentile) and extreme (≥ 99th percentile) precipitation events, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. Results The association between extreme rainfall and rate of ER visits for GI illness differed among regions. Only the region with drinking water exposed to CSOs demonstrated a significant increased cumulative risk for rate (CRR) of ER visits for GI for all ages in the 8-day period following extreme rainfall: CRR: 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.28) compared with no rainfall. Conclusions The rate of ER visits for GI illness was associated with extreme precipitation in the area with CSO discharges to a drinking water source. Our findings suggest an increased risk for GI illness among consumers whose drinking water source may be impacted by CSOs after extreme precipitation. Citation Jagai JS, Li Q, Wang S, Messier KP, Wade TJ, Hilborn ED. 2015. Extreme precipitation and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in areas with and without combined sewer systems: an analysis of Massachusetts data, 2003–2007. Environ Health Perspect 123:873–879;

  15. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  16. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  17. Integrated operation of sewer system and WWTP by simulation-based control of the WWTP inflow.

    PubMed

    Seggelke, K; Rosenwinkel, K H; Vanrolleghem, P A; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    In recent years numerical modelling became a standard procedure to optimise urban wastewater systems design and operation by integration. For dynamic control of the wastewater teatment plant (WWTP) inflow, a model-based predictive concept is introduced aiming at improving the receiving water quality. An on-line simulator running parallel to the real WWTP operation reflects the actual state of operation and provides this model information to a prognosis tool which determines the best option for the WWTP inflow. The investigations showed that it is possible to reduce the NH4-N peak concentrations in the receiving water by dynamic WWTP inflow control based on predictive scenario analysis. PMID:16248196

  18. MANUAL: REAL TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managers, engineers, and operators of combined urban sewer systems are faced with difficult problems related to the operation and maintenance of their facilities. In addition to the issues related to the operation and upkeep of the system, many sewerage agencies are facing increa...

  19. Prediction of sulphide build-up in filled sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Tee, Kong Fah

    2014-08-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent worldwide on the repair and maintenance of sewer networks and wastewater treatment plants. The production and emission of hydrogen sulphide has been identified as a major cause of corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. Accurate prediction of sulphide build-up in a sewer system helps engineers and asset managers to appropriately formulate strategies for optimal sewer management and reliability analysis. This paper presents a novel methodology to model and predict the sulphide build-up for steady state condition in filled sewer pipes. The proposed model is developed using a novel data-driven technique called evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) and it involves the most effective parameters in the sulphide build-up problem. EPR is a hybrid technique, combining genetic algorithm and least square. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a better prediction for the sulphide build-up as compared with conventional models. PMID:24956763

  20. Importance of anthropogenic climate impact, sampling error and urban development in sewer system design.

    PubMed

    Egger, C; Maurer, M

    2015-04-15

    Urban drainage design relying on observed precipitation series neglects the uncertainties associated with current and indeed future climate variability. Urban drainage design is further affected by the large stochastic variability of precipitation extremes and sampling errors arising from the short observation periods of extreme precipitation. Stochastic downscaling addresses anthropogenic climate impact by allowing relevant precipitation characteristics to be derived from local observations and an ensemble of climate models. This multi-climate model approach seeks to reflect the uncertainties in the data due to structural errors of the climate models. An ensemble of outcomes from stochastic downscaling allows for addressing the sampling uncertainty. These uncertainties are clearly reflected in the precipitation-runoff predictions of three urban drainage systems. They were mostly due to the sampling uncertainty. The contribution of climate model uncertainty was found to be of minor importance. Under the applied greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B) and within the period 2036-2065, the potential for urban flooding in our Swiss case study is slightly reduced on average compared to the reference period 1981-2010. Scenario planning was applied to consider urban development associated with future socio-economic factors affecting urban drainage. The impact of scenario uncertainty was to a large extent found to be case-specific, thus emphasizing the need for scenario planning in every individual case. The results represent a valuable basis for discussions of new drainage design standards aiming specifically to include considerations of uncertainty. PMID:25644630

  1. Benchmarking management of sewer systems: more to learn than cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Beenen, A S

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine municipalities in the Netherlands conducted a pilot study to develop and try out a methodology to compare the quality of their sewerage management. The participants chose a multidimensional benchmarking with an emphasis on the aim of improving the working processes within sewerage management. A second goal was accountability to the stakeholders. The benchmarking methodology was based as well on analysing data within a "balanced-score-card" system as on intensive exchange of knowledge and experiences. The pilot resulted in a state of the art overview of the quality of sewerage management in the Netherlands. However, above all, it resulted in the shocking fact that the work is carried out in many different ways which cannot be explained by technical reasons or local circumstances. To pinpoint best practices and actually implement these improvements the learning process must continue after the analysis and presentation of the data. A start has been made to form regional specialist networks for further discussion and exchange of experiences. PMID:16477987

  2. Online-simulation of the WWTP to minimise the total emission of WWTP and sewer system.

    PubMed

    Seggelke, K; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the application of a WWTP-Online-Simulation with the objective to reduce the total emission into the receiving waters is explained. Apart from an introduction and a short description of the possible reduction potentials, first results of the current research project (financed by the German ministry BMBF) are presented. Results of the pilot plant with different experiments of increased stormwater inflow than usual and different control strategies showed the possibility to treat stormwater up to the quadruple dry-weather flow while still meeting the effluent values. However, this is not always guaranteed, and thus a monitoring system with integrated control strategies which is adapted to the load case "stormwater" with prognosis load cases becomes necessary. In the presented example, the simulation (Activated Sludge Model 2d) achieved an excellent match with the measured effluent values of the aeration tank (NH4-N, NO3-N) over a period of several months. The most important prerequisites for good (online-) simulation results are the exact knowledge of the plant and the plausibility and alternative concepts for the measured values in case of sensor failure. PMID:11902459

  3. An Environmental Innovation: The Sewer Mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the effort to clean up America's waters, there is a little-known complicating factor: because they leak, sewer systems in many American cities are causing rather than preventing pollution of rivers and lakes. Fixing the leaks is difficult because their locations are unknown. Maintenance crews can't tear up a whole city looking for cracks in the pipes; they must first determine which areas are most likely suspects. An aerospace spinoff is providing help in that regard. The problem starts with heavy rains. Rainwater naturally flows into the sewers from streets, but sewage systems are designed to accommodate it. However, they are not designed to handle the additional flow of "groundwater", rain absorbed by the earth which seeps into the sewers through leaks in pipes and sewer walls. After a storm, groundwater seepage can increase the waterflow to deluge proportions, with the result that sewage treatment plants are incapable of processing the swollen flow. When that happens the sluices must be opened, dumping raw sewage into rivers and lakes.

  4. Sulfide and methane production in sewer sediments: Field survey and model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Tugtas, A Evren; Sharma, Keshab R; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Sewer sediment processes have been reported to significantly contribute to overall sulfide and methane production in sewers, at a scale comparable to that of sewer biofilms. The physiochemical and biological characteristics of sewer sediments are heterogeneous; however, the variability of in-sediments sulfide and methane production rates among sewers has not been assessed to date. In this study, five sewer sediment samples were collected from two cities in Australia with different climatic conditions. Batch assays were conducted to determine the rates of sulfate reduction and methane production under different flow velocity (shear stress) conditions as well as under completely mixed conditions. The tests showed substantial and variable sulfate reduction and methane production activities among different sediments. Sulfate reduction and methane production from sewer sediments were confirmed to be areal processes, and were dependent on flow velocity/shear stress. Despite of the varying characteristics and reactions kinetics, the sulfate reduction and methane production processes in all sediments could be well described by a one-dimensional sewer sediment model recently developed based on results obtained from a laboratory sewer sediment reactor. Model simulations indicated that the in-situ contribution of sewer sediment emissions could be estimated without the requirement of measuring the specific sediment characteristics or the sediment depths. PMID:26650449

  5. Assessing the Impacts of Pulp Loading from Non-Dispersible Materials on Downstream Sewer Systems (WERF Report INFR1R14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:This study subjected wipes from five different manufacturers to a variety of tests to determine if changes to their physical characteristics occur when introduced into a sewer systemand what effect the shredded material (pulp) has on the downstream sewer. Shredded and no...

  6. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  7. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  8. Impact of oxygen injection on CH4 and N2O emissions from rising main sewers.

    PubMed

    Ganigué, Ramon; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Oxygen injection is a commonly used mitigation strategy for sulfide control in sewers. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is also produced in sewers. Oxygen injection may reduce methane generation/emission, but could potentially lead to N2O production due to the development of a nitrifying microbial community. The impact of oxygen dosing for sulfide control in sewers on CH4 and N2O production was assessed in this study in laboratory sewer reactors. Results showed that oxygen injection is able to reduce CH4 formation in sewers, although full control of CH4 was not achieved, likely due to partial oxygen penetration into sewer biofilm. The experimental results also revealed a nitrogen loss of around 5 mN/L. However, no significant N2O accumulation was detected. PMID:24975803

  9. An analysis of the Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) subproject of the sanitary sewer rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, W.; Siemiatkoski, S.

    1994-01-25

    The comprehensive rehabilitation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sanitary Sewer System centers around a Cured-in-Place Pipe project. Driven by regulatory requirements to eliminate the potential for exfiltration, a careful condition assessment of the existing infrastructure was conducted. Under programmatic constraints to maintain continuous operations, the INLINER USA cured-in-place pipe system was selected as the appropriate technology, and the project is currently under contract.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of resin materials to acid-conditioned enamel is a clinically proven technique in preventative, restorative, and orthodontic procedures. Laboratory evaluations of etched-enamel resin bonding have shown excellent bond strengths and the virtual elimination of marginal microleakage. Adhesion to dentin has been more of a challenge. Earlier-generation dentin bonding systems did not yield high bond strengths in the laboratory or prevent marginal microleakage. Newer-generation adhesive systems generally use a dentin conditioner to modify or remove the smear layer and a subsequent application of an adhesive resin bonding agent. Laboratory evaluations of newer systems have shown bond strengths that approach or actually exceed that of etched enamel resin bonding. Bond strengths have improved with the evolution of dentin bonding systems, and microleakage from the cementum/dentin margin has been significantly reduced or prevented with the newer systems. Although laboratory testing of adhesive systems provides a mechanism to screen and compare newly developed systems, clinical trials are essential to document long-term clinical performance. PMID:1470553

  11. The Indiana Laboratory System: Focus on Environmental Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Kara R.; Matheson, Shelley R.; Lovchik, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) Laboratories are working to improve Indiana's state public health laboratory system. Environmental laboratories are key stakeholders in this system, but their needs have been largely unaddressed prior to this project. In an effort to identify and engage these laboratories, the ISDH Laboratories organized and hosted the First Annual Environmental Laboratories Meeting. The focus of this meeting was on water-testing laboratories throughout the state. Meeting objectives included issue identification, disaster recovery response, and communication efforts among system partners. Common concerns included the need for new technology and updated methods, analyst training, certification programs for analysts and sample collectors, electronic reporting, and regulation interpretation and inspection consistency. Now that these issues have been identified, they can be addressed through a combination of laboratory workgroups and collaboration with Indiana's regulatory agencies. Participants were overwhelmingly positive about the meeting's outcomes and were willing to help with future laboratory system improvement projects. PMID:23997304

  12. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  13. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  14. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  15. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  16. Wastewater-Enhanced Microbial Corrosion of Concrete Sewers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhou, Mi; Chiu, Tsz Ho; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2016-08-01

    Microbial corrosion of concrete in sewers is known to be caused by hydrogen sulfide, although the role of wastewater in regulating the corrosion processes is poorly understood. Flooding and splashing of wastewater in sewers periodically inoculates the concrete surface in sewer pipes. No study has systematically investigated the impacts of wastewater inoculation on the corrosion of concrete in sewers. This study investigated the development of the microbial community, sulfide uptake activity, and the change of the concrete properties for coupons subjected to periodic wastewater inoculation. The concrete coupons were exposed to different levels of hydrogen sulfide under well-controlled conditions in laboratory-scale corrosion chambers simulating real sewers. It was evident that the periodic inoculation induced higher corrosion losses of the concrete in comparison to noninoculated coupons. Instantaneous measurements such as surface pH did not reflect the cumulative corrosion losses caused by long-term microbial activity. Analysis of the long-term profiles of the sulfide uptake rate using a Gompertz model supported the enhanced corrosion activity and greater corrosion loss. The enhanced corrosion rate was due to the higher sulfide uptake rates induced by wastewater inoculation, although the increasing trend of sulfide uptake rates was slower with wastewater. Increased diversity in the corrosion-layer microbial communities was detected when the corrosion rates were higher. This coincided with the environmental conditions of increased levels of gaseous H2S and the concrete type. PMID:27390870

  17. A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in these systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and the resulting high flows...

  18. A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause seriou...

  19. Impact of water source management practices in residential areas on sewer networks - a review.

    PubMed

    Marleni, N; Gray, S; Sharma, A; Burn, S; Muttil, N

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged drought which has occurred everywhere around the world has caused water shortages, leading many countries to consider more sustainable practices, which are called source management practices (SMPs) to ensure water availability for the future. SMPs include the practices of water use reduction, potable water substitution and wastewater volume reduction such as water demand management, rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling and sewer mining. Besides the well known advantages from SMPs, they also contribute to the alteration of wastewater characteristics which finally affect the process in downstream infrastructure such as sewerage networks. Several studies have shown that the implementation of SMPs decreases the wastewater flow, whilst increasing its strength. High-strength wastewater can cause sewer problems such as sewer blockage, odour and corrosion. Yet, not all SMPs and their impact on existing sewer networks have been investigated. Therefore, this study reviews some examples of four common SMPs, the wastewater characteristics and the physical and biochemical transformation processes in sewers and the problems that might caused by them, and finally the potential impacts of those SMPs on wastewater characteristics and sewer networks are discussed. This paper provides sewer system managers with an overview of potential impacts on the sewer network due to the implementation of some SMPs. Potential research opportunities for the impact of SMPs on existing sewers are also identified. PMID:22277221

  20. Long-term pollution simulation in combined sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Masse, B; Zug, M; Tabuchi, J P; Tisserand, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of long term pollution simulations on the example of the sewerage system of Grand-Couronne. This modelling work is part of a study where objective is to develop a method to define the reference flow of a WWTP. The model HYDROWORKS DM has been successfully validated in hydraulics and pollution for the sewer network, for long time simulations. A conceptual model has been built to model the pollution in the tank at the outlet of the combined system. One synthetic year of rain has been used to simulate the working of the "up stream system" of the WWTP (combined sewer + tank + separate sewer + pre-treatments) and has been successfully validated by measurements of the 1998-1999 year. If this paper is focused on the "up stream system", the SIMBA/SIMBAD WWTP model has been successfully calibrated and validated too, and the combination represents a fully validated "Integrated Model" for the sewerage system. PMID:11385878

  1. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchen; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhu, David Z; Shi, Hanchang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards, and requires expensive programs for its prevention. The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments. The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments. The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated. The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment. The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide) ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions of efficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss. The optimal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems. PMID:25597685

  2. Quantitative assessment of the groundwater-sewer network interaction in Bucharest city (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhemacha, M. A.; Diaconescu, A.; Bica, I.; Gogu, C. R.; Gaitanaru, D.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater management in urban area must take account of every possible and relevant phenomena arising from the complex interaction between subsurface water, surface water, and urban infrastructure. In Bucharest, the need of the sewer system rehabilitation initiated a study of the interaction between groundwater and the sewer network. Recent conclusions show that the sewer network acts mainly like a drainage system for the groundwater. However, it could be easily proven that several sewer segments located mainly in the unsaturated zone contaminate the groundwater by leakage. The groundwater infiltration in the sewer conduits can cause the decrease of the groundwater level leading to structures instability problems as well as to the increase flow-rates of the sewer system. The last one affects seriously the wastewater treatment plants efficiency. The sewer network leakage cause groundwater pollution and locally could increase the groundwater level triggering buildings instability or other urban operational problems. The current study focuses on the consequences of sealing a part of the sewer system and so disturbing the existing groundwater behavior which may lead to serious consequences. In this framework, the analysis results of a groundwater flow model used to quantify the interaction between the groundwater and the sewer network are presented. The two-layers groundwater flow model simulating the Colentina and Mostistea overlaid sedimentary aquifers covers about 75 km2. Its conceptual model relies on a 3D geological model made by using 23 accurate geological cross-sections of the studied domain. The model set-up and its calibration are done using pumping tests data, groundwater hydraulic heads, and water levels of the sewer system. Infiltration rates into sewers are modeled by applying a modified form of Darcy's law that uses the notion of infiltration factor. This last encompasses the hydraulic conductivity of the clogging layer, the infiltration area and the

  3. SEWER AND TANK SEDIMENT FLUSHING: CASE STUDIES (EPA/600/R-98/157)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past studies have identified urban combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater runoff as major contributors to the degradation of many urban lakes, streams, and rivers. Sewage solids deposited in combined sewer (CS) systems during dry weather are major contributors to the CSO-po...

  4. Update on the Status of Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly designed, operated and maintained sanitary sewer system is meant to collect and convey all of the sewage that flows into it to a wastewater treatment plant. However, occasional unintentional discharges of raw sewage from municipal sanitary sewers – called sanitary sewe...

  5. Remote Infrared Thermal Sensing of Sewer Voids, Four-Year Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1988-01-01

    When a sewer caves in, it often takes the street, sidewalks, and surrounding buildings along for the ride. These collapses endanger public health and safety. Repairing a sewer before such a cave-in is obviously the preferred method. Emergency repairs cost far more than prevention measures - often millions of dollars more. Many combined sewers in the St. Louis area, as in many of America's cities, are more than 125 years old and are subject to structural failure. In 1981 alone, St. Louis had 4,000 sewer collapses and an astronomical repair bill. These and similar problems have been described as "a crisis of national proportions. The question addressed by this paper is how to detect unseen problem areas in sewer systems before they give way. At the present, progressive sewer administrations may use crawl crews to inspect sewers when problems are suspected. This can be extremely costly and dangerous, and a void around the outside of the sewer is often invisible from within. Thus, even a crawl crew can fail to detect most voids. Infrared Thermography has been found by sewer districts and independent evaluation engineering firms to be an extremely accurate method of finding sewer voids, before they can cause expensive and dangerous problems. This technique uses a non-contact, remote sensing method, with the potential for surveying large areas quickly and efficiently. This paper reviews our initial paper presented to The International Society for Optical Engineering in October of 1983 and presents an update of our experience, both successes and failures, in several large-scale void detection projects. Infrared Thermographic techniques of non-destructive testing will have major implications for cities and for the engineering profession because it promises to make the crisis of infrastructure repair and rehabilitation more manageable. Intelligent, systematic use of this relatively low cost void detection method, Infrared Thermography, may revolutionize the way sewer

  6. Combined sewer overflow: A management study. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, A.

    1988-01-01

    This project is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In many older cities in the U.S., the capacity of the combined sewer is exceeded on a daily basis due to both-wet weather storm surges and increased volumes of waste generated by new development. As a result, billions of gallons of untreated sewage are discharged on an annual basis into the nation's marine bays and estuaries in episodes called 'combined sewer overflow.' There are two primary reasons for the increasing frequency and severity of overflow episodes: the population of cities in coastal areas are growing at rates that far exceed the ability of the sewer infrastructure to accommodate them; the built-in inefficiencies of the original design of the combined sewer are being exploited by many municipalities to compensate for the increased volumes of sewage associated with the growth in population. Because each combined sewer, the area that it drains, and the receiving water into which it discharges constitutes a unique system, a management strategy should be site-specific. The document proposes a framework within which a site-specific and cost-effective management strategy may be formulated. By necessity, the emphasis is on providing tools and methods rather than explicit solutions.

  7. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. PMID:26798079

  8. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    PubMed

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis. PMID:23752377

  9. Molecular survey of concrete sewer biofilm microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Revetta, Randy P; Iker, Brandon; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Garcia, Jarissa; Sullivan, John; Weast, James

    2011-10-01

    The microbial composition of concrete biofilms within wastewater collection systems was studied using molecular assays. SSU rDNA clone libraries were generated from 16 concrete surfaces of manholes, a combined sewer overflow, and sections of a corroded sewer pipe. Of the 2457 sequences analyzed, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria represented 15%, 22%, 11%, and 4% of the clones, respectively. β-Proteobacteria (47%) sequences were more abundant in the pipe crown than any of the other concrete surfaces. While 178 to 493 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were associated with the different concrete samples, only four sequences were shared among the different clone libraries. Bacteria implicated in concrete corrosion were found in the clone libraries while archaea, fungi, and several bacterial groups were also detected using group-specific assays. The results showed that concrete sewer biofilms are more diverse than previously reported. A more comprehensive molecular database will be needed to better study the dynamics of concrete biofilms. PMID:21981064

  10. SEWER INFILTRATION AND INFLOW CONTROL PRODUCT AND EQUIPMENT GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists and discusses new and existing equipment, materials, and practices available to prevent the entry of unwanted water into the sewer system from infiltration and inflow, and thereby needlessly usurping the capacity of the sewerage system. The report has six section...

  11. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  12. COTTAGE FARM COMBINED SEWER DETENTION AND CHLORINATION STATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cottage Farm Detention and Chlorination Station was placed in operation by the Metropolitan District Commission on April 29, 1971. The station, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, diverts and treats combined sewage flows from the Charles River Valley sewer system (15,600 acr...

  13. Groundwater and stream E. coli concentrations in coastal plain watersheds served by onsite wastewater and a municipal sewer treatment system.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Charles; Finley, Algernon; O'Driscoll, Michael; Manda, Alex; Iverson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWS) were influencing groundwater and surface water Escherichia coli concentrations in a coastal plain watershed. Piezometers for groundwater monitoring were installed at four residences served by OWS and five residences served by a municipal wastewater treatment system (MWS). The residences were located in two different, but nearby (<3 km), watersheds. Effluent from the four septic tanks, groundwater from piezometers, and the streams draining the OWS and MWS watersheds were sampled on five dates between September 2011 and May 2012. Groundwater E. coli concentrations and specific conductivity were elevated within the flow path of the OWS and near the stream, relative to other groundwater sampling locations in the two watersheds. Groundwater discharge in the OWS watershed could be a contributor of E. coli to the stream because E. coli concentrations in groundwater at the stream bank and in the stream were similar. Stream E. coli concentrations were higher for the OWS in relation to MWS watersheds on each sampling date. Water quality could be improved by ensuring OWS are installed and operated to maintain adequate separation distances to water resources. PMID:26540548

  14. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources. PMID:27533854

  15. Identifiability analysis in conceptual sewer modelling.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Leonhardt, G; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    For a sufficient calibration of an environmental model not only parameter sensitivity but also parameter identifiability is an important issue. In identifiability analysis it is possible to analyse whether changes in one parameter can be compensated by appropriate changes of the other ones within a given uncertainty range. Parameter identifiability is conditional to the information content of the calibration data and consequently conditional to a certain measurement layout (i.e. types of measurements, number and location of measurement sites, temporal resolution of measurements etc.). Hence the influence of number and location of measurement sites on the number of identifiable parameters can be investigated. In the present study identifiability analysis is applied to a conceptual model of a combined sewer system aiming to predict the combined sewer overflow emissions. Different measurement layouts are tested and it can be shown that only 13 of the most sensitive catchment areas (represented by the model parameter 'effective impervious area') can be identified when overflow measurements of the 20 highest overflows and the runoff to the waste water treatment plant are used for calibration. The main advantage of this method is very low computational costs as the number of required model runs equals the total number of model parameters. Hence, this method is a valuable tool when analysing large models with a long runtime and many parameters. PMID:22864432

  16. Power Systems Integration Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. At NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), research focuses on developing and testing large-scale distributed energy systems for grid-connected, stand-alone, and microgrid applications. The laboratory can accommodate large power system components such as inverters for photovoltaic (PV) and wind systems, diesel and natural gas generators, battery packs, microgrid interconnection switchgear, and vehicles. Closely coupled with the research electrical distribution bus at the ESIF, the Power Systems Integration Laboratory will offer power testing capability of megawatt-scale DC and AC power systems, as well as advanced hardware-in-the-loop and model-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. Thermal heating and cooling loops and fuel also allow testing of combined heating/cooling and power systems (CHP).

  17. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  18. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  19. USING VISUAL PLUMES PREDICTIONS TO MODULATE COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (CSO) RATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High concentrations of pathogens and toxic residues in creeks and rivers can pose risks to human health and ecological systems. Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) discharging into these watercourses often contribute significantly to elevating pollutant concentrations during wet weat...

  20. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  1. MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives a basic overview of the U.S. government's involvements in developing countermeasures for the abatement of combined sewer overflow pollution. batement or prevention of pollution stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows is one of the most challenging areas in ...

  2. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  3. Rapid detection of sewer defects and blockages using acoustic-based instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Ali, M T Bin; Horoshenkov, K V; Tait, S J

    2011-01-01

    Sewer flooding incidents in the UK are being increasingly associated with the presence of blockages. Blockages are difficult to deal with as although there are locations where they are more likely to occur, they do occur intermittently. In order to manage sewer blockage pro-actively sewer managers need to be able to identify the location of blockages promptly. Traditional closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspection technologies are slow and relatively expensive so are not well suited to the rapid inspection of a network. This is needed if managers are to be able to address sewer blockages proactively. This paper reports on the development of an acoustic-based sensor. The sensor was tested in a full scale sewer pipe in the laboratory and it was shown that it is able to find blockages and identify structural aspects of a sewer pipe such as a manhole and lateral connection. Analysis of the received signal will locate a blockage and also provide information on its character. The measurement is very rapid and objective and so inspections can be carried out at much faster rates than using existing CCTV technologies. PMID:22335114

  4. Quality of local control for simple sewer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Combined sewer networks, where both foul water and storm water are transported through the same system, tend to develop into complex networks due to expansion of towns and villages. The transport capacity of these systems is always limited, so occasional controlled spills into surface water, combined sewer overflows (CSO), are part of the normal operating procedure. Occasionally the ideas and rules present in the original design are not respected when the system is extended to cover a larger area. One way to deal with this problem is to implement central control. Another is to add pipes and hardware to bring the extended system into line with the original rules and ideas. We show that for a design rule often followed in the Netherlands, local control does quite well as long as the rule is respected and there are no large variations in precipitation intensity over the area covered by the system.

  5. Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naddor, Eliezer

    Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  8. NASA Laboratory telerobotic manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  9. Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) manufactures components for fuel cells and electrochemical cells using a variety of manufacturing techniques. Fabricated components include catalysts, thin-film and gas diffusion electrodes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The laboratory supports NREL's fuel cell and electrochemical cell related research. The main focus of the laboratory is to provide support for fuel cell research that is performed in adjacent laboratories. The laboratory enables NREL to manufacture fuel cells in-house using, for example, experimental catalyst developed at NREL. It further enables the creation of MEAs containing artificial defects required for the systematic study of performance and lifetime effects and the evaluation of in-house and externally developed quality control diagnostics for high volume production of fuel cell. Experiments performed in the laboratory focus mainly on the development of alternative fuel cell manufacturing methods.

  10. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-15

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  11. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-25

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  12. A software-based sensor for combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, G; Fach, S; Engelhard, C; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADA-system of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow. PMID:22864433

  13. Sewers as a source and sink of chlorinated-solvent groundwater contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Petkewich, M.D.; Lowery, M.A.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater. The southern plume originates at a nearby, new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. The strong influence of sanitary sewers on source distribution and of storm sewers on plume orientation and discharge at this site indicates that groundwater-contamination investigators should consider the potential influence of sewer systems at their sites. ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Data Acquisition and Control Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Randy; Jensen, Scott; Burrel, Terrence; Spooner, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) Laboratory is a facility at Stennis Space Center that provides an off test-stand capability to develop data-acquisition and control systems for rocket-engine test stands. It is also used to train new employees in state-of-the-art systems, and provides a controlled environment for troubleshooting existing systems, as well as the ability to evaluate the application of new technologies and process improvements. With the SSC propulsion testing schedules, without the DACS Laboratory, it would have been necessary to perform most of the development work on actual test systems, thereby subjecting both the rocket-engine testing and development programs to substantial interference in the form of delays, restrictions on modifications of equipment, and potentially compromising software configuration control. The DACS Laboratory contains a versatile assortment of computer hardware and software, digital and analog electronic control and data-acquisition equipment, and standard electronic bench test equipment and tools. Recently completed Control System development and software verification projects include support to the joint NASA/Air Force Integrated Powerhead Demonstration (IPD) LOX & LH2 PreBurner and Turbopump ground testing programs. In other recent activities, the DACS Laboratory equipment and expertise have supported the off-stand operation of high-pressure control valves to correct valve leak problems prior to installation on the test stand. Future plans include expanding the Laboratory's capabilities to provide cryogenic control valve characterization prior to installation, thereby reducing test stand activation time.

  15. Constructing and dismantling frameworks of disease etiology: the rise and fall of sewer gas in America, 1870-1910.

    PubMed Central

    An, Perry G.

    2004-01-01

    For roughly forty years, from 1870 to 1910, Americans recognized and feared gases emanating from sewers, believing that they were responsible for causing an array of diseases. Fears of sewer gas arose from deeper anxieties toward contact with decomposing organic matter and the vapors emitted from such refuse. These anxieties were exacerbated by the construction of sewers across the country during the mid-to-late-nineteenth century, which concentrated waste emanations and connected homes to one another. The result was the birth of sewer gas and the attribution of sickness and death to it, as well as the development of a host of plumbing devices and, especially, bathroom fixtures, to combat sewer gas. The rise of the germ theory, laboratory science, and belief in disease specificity, however, transformed the threat of sewer gas, eventually replacing it (and the larger fear of miasmas) with the threat of germs. The germ theory framework, by 1910, proved more suitable than the sewer gas framework in explaining disease causation; it is this suitability that often shapes the relationship between science and society. PMID:15829149

  16. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  17. The use of multiple tracers to evaluate the impact of sewered and non-sewered development on coastal water quality in a rural area of Florida.

    PubMed

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Long, Sharon C; Bocca, Thais

    2014-05-01

    When onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) are not sited appropriately or installed properly, wastewater constituents can be a source of adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater, which can lead to potential public health risks. A paired monitoring design developed to compare water quality in sewered and non-sewered areas is presented here. It is suggested as a possible monitoring scheme for assessing the impact of sewer installation projects. As such, two sets of single-family, rural residential Florida neighborhoods were evaluated over a two-year period to gain insight into the effects of small-community use of OSTDS on coastal water quality. One set of two neighborhoods were connected to the sanitary sewer network and the other set of two were served exclusively by OSTDS. Water quality sampling was conducted at the paired sites during seasonal high water table (SHWT) and seasonal low water table (SLWT) events. Measured surface water quality during the SHWT showed indications of environmental impacts from OSTDS in terms of nutrients, microbial pathogen indicators, and other water quality measures, such as turbidity and conductivity. However, during the SLWT events, no obvious impacts attributable to OSTDS were detected. The water quality results indicate that OSTDS impacts may be measureable in rural areas. Other factors, such as microbial indicator survival and regrowth potential, may confound the understanding of water quality impacts of sewer projects. For example, the microbial indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were found to persist over time and therefore did not always represent true comparisons of OSTDS and sewered areas between seasons. The timeframe for evaluating the effects of sewer projects may be longer than anticipated because of this survival and regrowth phenomenon. PMID:24961071

  18. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  3. [International standardization of laboratory information systems].

    PubMed

    Ishigami, T

    1997-06-01

    The standardization of clinical laboratory information systems is one of the most difficult but important subjects for clinical laboratory community and laboratorians. International Standard Organization (ISO) has the projects in this field (JTC1/SC7) which is the part of approach to the international laboratory standardization (ISO/TC 212). US NCCLS and European CEN/TC 251 are working under ISO/TC 212. In the United States, the National Academy for Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) had started recently to organize the international collaboration program on the subject. The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP)'s Council of Laboratory Informatics had joined this program in 1995. NACB/AACC's Ad Hoc Committee which was organized in 1996 is now trying to collect the general opinions ("what and how") through their internet home page. The current status of the works on the standardization of clinical laboratory information systems in the U.S., Europe, and Japan is reviewed briefly in this article. HL7 electronic data exchange specification and clinical testing coding systems such as LOINC coding project and JSCP's coding project are also reviewed. PMID:9306712

  4. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  5. Anatomic pathology laboratory information systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Lyung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-03-01

    The modern anatomic pathology laboratory depends on a reliable information infrastructure to register specimens, record gross and microscopic findings, regulate laboratory workflow, formulate and sign out report(s), disseminate them to the intended recipients across the whole health system, and support quality assurance measures. This infrastructure is provided by the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory Information Systems (APLIS), which have evolved over decades and now are beginning to support evolving technologies like asset tracking and digital imaging. As digital pathology transitions from "the way of the future" to "the way of the present," the APLIS continues to be one of the key effective enablers of the scope and practice of pathology. In this review, we discuss the evolution, necessary components, architecture and functionality of the APLIS that are crucial to today's practicing pathologist and address the demands of emerging trends on the future APLIS. PMID:22313836

  6. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  7. Surface neutralization and H(2)S oxidation at early stages of sewer corrosion: influence of temperature, relative humidity and H(2)S concentration.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Antony P; Keller, Jürg; Bustamante, Heriberto; Bond, Philip L

    2012-09-01

    While the involvement of a range of environmental factors in sewer corrosion is known, a comprehensive understanding of the processes involved and the exact role of individual environmental factors in sewer corrosion is still lacking. The corrosion of concrete in sewer systems is reported to be initiated through chemical reactions (involving H(2)S and CO(2)) that lower the surface pH to a level then conducive for biological activity. However, the specific influence of environmental variables, such as H(2)S level, temperature, and relative humidity etc. remains unclear; although, they are expected to control these initial surface reactions of the concrete sewer pipe. We examined changes in the surface chemistry of concrete during the early stages of corrosion by exposing concrete coupons to thirty-six independent conditions in well-controlled laboratory chambers that simulated conditions typically found in various sewer environments across Australia. The conditions employed were combinations of six H(2)S levels, three gas-phase temperatures and two relative humidity levels. Our results indicate that the role of CO(2) on initial surface pH reduction is insignificant when compared to the influence of H(2)S. Within the first 12 months, a decrease in surface pH by 4.8 units was observed for coupons exposed to 30 °C and 50 ppm H(2)S, while significantly lower pH reductions of 3.5 and 1.8 units were detected for coupons exposed to 25 °C and 18 °C respectively, and 50 ppm H(2)S. Elemental sulphur was found to be the major oxidation product of H(2)S and elevated concentrations were detected at the higher levels of H(2)S, temperature and relative humidity. More significantly, the data obtained from the controlled chamber experiments correlated with those obtained from the field-exposed coupons. Hence, these findings can be extended to real sewer corrosion processes. PMID:22677502

  8. Different approaches for modelling of sewer caused urban flooding.

    PubMed

    Obermayer, A; Guenthert, F W; Angermair, G; Tandler, R; Braunschmidt, S; Milojevic, N

    2010-01-01

    The correct prediction of flooding in urban areas is an important challenge to secure the values and fulfil public regulations. Traditional sewer simulations deliver the basic information for a rudimental flood protection, but the interaction between sewer and surface runoff can only be considered by a bi-directional modelling. Therefore detailed information about the relevant structures on the surface is necessary, which can partially be delivered by airborne laser scan data. This data have to be refined to get as detailed information about the endangered areas as possible. But the plenitude of information leads to high requirements on computer capacity and performance. This paper shows different approaches to predict the sewer caused flooding in urban areas. The approaches have been checked on two testing areas in Germany and the developed tool will be implemented in a commercial software system soon. This approaches, which partially base on each other, make a stepwise refinement of the model and narrowing of the affected areas possible. The developed algorithms to thin the digital terrain model and the well proven method to parallelize the calculation on more than one processing units secure an effective calculating process. PMID:21045347

  9. Systems engineering and integration: Advanced avionics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop the new generation of avionics which will be necessary for upcoming programs such as the Lunar/Mars Initiative, Advanced Launch System, and the National Aerospace Plane, new Advanced Avionics Laboratories are required. To minimize costs and maximize benefits, these laboratories should be capable of supporting multiple avionics development efforts at a single location, and should be of a common design to support and encourage data sharing. Recent technological advances provide the capability of letting the designer or analyst perform simulations and testing in an environment similar to his engineering environment and these features should be incorporated into the new laboratories. Existing and emerging hardware and software standards must be incorporated wherever possible to provide additional cost savings and compatibility. Special care must be taken to design the laboratories such that real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance is not sacrificed in the pursuit of these goals. A special program-independent funding source should be identified for the development of Advanced Avionics Laboratories as resources supporting a wide range of upcoming NASA programs.

  10. [Quality Management System in Pathological Laboratory].

    PubMed

    Koyatsu, Junichi; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Even compared to other clinical laboratories, the pathological laboratory conducts troublesome work, and many of the work processes are also manual. Therefore, the introduction of the systematic management of administration is necessary. It will be a shortcut to use existing standards such as ISO 15189 for this purpose. There is no standard specialized for the pathological laboratory, but it is considered to be important to a pathological laboratory in particular. 1. Safety nianagement of the personnel and environmental conditions. Comply with laws and regulations concerning the handling of hazardous materials. 2. Pre-examination processes. The laboratory shall have documented procedures for the proper collection and handling of primary samples. Developed and documented criteria for acceptance or rejection of samples are applied. 3. Examination processes. Selection, verification, and validation of the examination procedures. Devise a system that can constantly monitor the traceability of the sample. 4. Post-examination processes. Storage, retention, and disposal of clinical samples. 5. Release of results. When examination results fall within established alert or critical intervals, immediately notify the physicians. The important point is to recognize the needs of the client and be aware that pathological diagnoses are always "the final diagnoses". PMID:26591432

  11. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  12. SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERS: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR UNSEWERED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most recently introduced wastewater collection alternative for small unsewered communities is septic tank effluent drains or small diameter gravity sewers (SDGS). Unlike conventional sewers, SDGS only collect settled wastewater. Grit, grease and other troublesome solids which...

  13. A laboratory scale supersonic combustive flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, E.C.; Zerkle, D.K.; Fry, H.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1995-02-01

    A laboratory scale supersonic flow system [Combustive Flow System (CFS)] which utilizes the gaseous products of methane-air and/or liquid fuel-air combustion has been assembled to provide a propulsion type exhaust flow field for various applications. Such applications include providing a testbed for the study of planar two-dimensional nozzle flow fields with chemistry, three-dimensional flow field mixing near the exit of rectangular nozzles, benchmarking the predictive capability of various computational fluid dynamic codes, and the development and testing of advanced diagnostic techniques. This paper will provide a detailed description of the flow system and data related to its operation.

  14. CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

  15. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Facilities: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Combined sewer systems (CSS) collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These c...

  16. Energy Systems Sensor Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems Sensor Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The mission of the Energy Systems Sensor Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate the performance of commercial and developing hydrogen sensor technologies to support the needs of the emerging hydrogen infrastructure. Sensor performance metrics analogous to national and international standards are quantified. Information gained from the sensor testing is provided to the sensor manufacturers to aid in sensor development, to end users to guide sensor selection and deployment, and to committees to support the development of codes and standards. The laboratory also provides support to end-users, including assessment of technologies for applications, information on deployment. Some application scenarios are: (1) Testing and analyzing sensors are over a range of controlled and monitored environmental conditions; (2) Testing the impact of interferants and poisons; (3) Evaluating the life span of sensors with separate dedicated life test fixtures; and (4) Testing of hydrogen sensors for process applications, including responses under high hydrogen concentrations.

  17. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-02-01

    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment. PMID:14637336

  18. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage. PMID:26379202

  19. HSI Prototypes for Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jokstad, Håkon; McDonald, Rob

    2015-09-01

    This report describes in detail the design and features of three Human System Interface (HSI) prototypes developed by the Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program under Contract 128420 through Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The prototypes are implemented for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor simulator and installed in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL. The three prototypes are: 1) Power Ramp display 2) RCS Heat-up and Cool-down display 3) Estimated time to limit display The power ramp display and the RCS heat-up/cool-down display are designed to provide good visual indications to the operators on how well they are performing their task compared to their target ramp/heat-up/cool-down rate. The estimated time to limit display is designed to help operators restore levels or pressures before automatic or required manual actions are activated.

  20. Laboratory Information Systems Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C

    2015-06-01

    The main mission of a laboratory information system (LIS) is to manage workflow and deliver accurate results for clinical management. Successful selection and implementation of an anatomic pathology LIS is not complete unless it is complemented by specialized information technology support and maintenance. LIS is required to remain continuously operational with minimal or no downtime and the LIS team has to ensure that all operations are compliant with the mandated rules and regulations. PMID:26065790

  1. Laboratory Information Systems Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C

    2016-03-01

    The main mission of a laboratory information system (LIS) is to manage workflow and deliver accurate results for clinical management. Successful selection and implementation of an anatomic pathology LIS is not complete unless it is complemented by specialized information technology support and maintenance. LIS is required to remain continuously operational with minimal or no downtime and the LIS team has to ensure that all operations are compliant with the mandated rules and regulations. PMID:26851664

  2. 40 CFR 35.2024 - Combined sewer overflows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined sewer overflows. 35.2024... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2024 Combined sewer... from the State allotment for correction of combined sewer overflows provided that the project is on...

  3. SEWER SEDIMENT AND CONTROL: A MANAGEMENT PRACTICES REFERENCES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewer-solids sediment is one of major sources of pollutants in urban wet-weather flow (WWF) discharges that include combined-sewer overflow (CSO), separate sanitary-sewer overflow (SSO), and stormwater runoff. During low-flow, dry-weather periods, sanitary wastewater solids depo...

  4. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking. PMID:25176297

  5. Cause and effect oriented sewer degradation evaluation to support scheduled inspection planning.

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Hanusch, D; Günther, M; Möderl, M; Muschalla, D

    2015-01-01

    Managing the subsurface urban infrastructure, while facing limited budgets, is one of the main challenges wastewater utilities currently face. In this context targeted planning of inspection and maintenance measures plays a crucial role. This paper introduces a cause and effect oriented sewer degradation evaluation approach to support decisions on inspection frequencies and priorities. Therefore, the application of logistic regression models, to predict the probability of failure categories as an alternative to the prediction of sewer condition classes, was introduced. We assume that analysing the negative effects resulting from different failure categories in extension to a condition class-based planning approach offers new possibilities for targeted inspection planning. In addition, a cross validation process was described to allow for a more accurate prediction of sewer degradation. The described approach was applied to an Austrian sewer system. The results show that the failure category-based regression models perform better than the conventional condition class-oriented models. The results of the failure category predictions are presented with respect to negative effects the failure may have on the hydraulic performance of the system. Finally, suggestions are given for how this performance-oriented sewer section evaluation can support scheduled inspection planning. PMID:26398033

  6. Road transportable analytical laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of DOE contaminated areas requires extensive sampling and analysis. Reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site a full range of analyses meeting high levels of quality assurance and control, would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of cleanup and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping, and manpower associated with sample shipments. Goals of RTAL are to meet the needs of DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. The system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or together, to meet specific site needs: radioanalytical lab, organic chemical analysis lab, inorganic chemical analysis lab, aquatic biomonitoring lab, field analytical lab, robotics base station, decontamination/sample screening module, and operations control center. Goal of this integrated system is a sample throughput of 20 samples/day, providing a full range of accurate analyses on each sample within 16 h (after sample preparation), compared with the 45- day turnaround time in commercial laboratories. A prototype RTAL consisting of 5 modules was built and demonstrated at Fernald(FEMP)`s OU-1 Waste Pits, during the 1st-3rd quarters of FY96 (including the `96 Blizzard). All performance and operational goals were met or exceeded: as many as 50 sample analyses/day were achieved, depending on the procedure, sample turnaround times were 50-67% less than FEMP`s best times, and RTAL costs were projected to be 30% less than FEMP costs for large volume analyses in fixed laboratories.

  7. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory.

  8. Whole-building systems integration laboratory survey

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.B. . Research and Management Foundation)

    1989-09-01

    This report was prepared for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as a subcontracted activity by the Research Management Foundation of the American Consulting Engineers Council. The objective of the survey reported herein was to independently assess the need for a Building System Integration Laboratory from the viewpoint of academicians in the field of building science. The subcontractor-developed questionnaire was sent to 200 professors of architecture and engineering at US universities. In view of this diverse population, the 10% rate of return on the questionnaire was considered acceptable. Although the responses probably do not reflect an unbiased summary of the collective perceptions of the original population surveyed, they do provide a valid insight into the interests and concerns of the academic community with respect to building sciences issues.

  9. Chemical management system at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.; Sherva, B.

    1995-07-01

    The Argonne Chemical Management System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system. PMID:27130121

  12. Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Richard; Gardner, Bradford B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes areas such as: (1) urban runoff quality and quantity; (2) urban hydrology; (3) management practices; and (4) combined sewer overflows. A list of 140 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Multistakeholder Evaluation of Condominial Sewer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, Earthea

    2005-01-01

    A multistakeholder evaluation procedure is presented to address the many challenges in evaluating the performance of condominial sewer projects in Brazil. Condominial sewerage is a promising appropriate technology that is coproduced by users and public agencies, but little is known about project performance. This article shows that…

  14. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  15. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  16. A Solar System Perspective on Laboratory Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary science deals with a wide variety of natural materials in a wide variety of environments. These materials include metals, minerals, ices, gases, plasmas, and organic chemicals. In addition, the newly defined discipline of astrobiology introduces biological materials to planetary science. The environments range from the interiors of planets with megapascal pressures to planetary magnetospheres, encompassing planetary mantles, surfaces, atmospheres, and ionospheres. The interplanetary environment includes magnetic and electrical fields, plasma, and dust. In order to understand planetary processes over these vast ranges, the properties of materials must be known, and most of the necessary information comes from the laboratory. Observations of the bodies and materials in the Solar System are accomplished over the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum by remote sensing from Earth or spacecraft. Comets exemplify this; molecular and atomic identifications are made from the hard ultraviolet to radio wavelengths, while X-rays are emitted as comets interact with the solar wind. Gamma rays from the surfaces of the Moon and asteroids are diagnostic of the mineral and ice content of those bodies; eventually, gamma rays will also be observed by probes to comets. A number of planetary materials are available in the laboratory for extensive Study: rocks from the Moon, Mars, several asteroids, as well as dust from comets (and perhaps the Kuiper Belt) are closely studied at every level, including atomic (isotopic). Even pre-solar interstellar grains isolated from meteorites are scrutinized for composition and crystalline structure. Beyond the materials themselves, various agents and processes have altered them over the 4.6-Gy age of the Solar System. Solar radiation, solar wind particles, trapped magnetospheric particles, cosmic rays, and micrometeoroid impacts have produced chemical, physical, and morphological changes in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of all

  17. Application of morphological segmentation to leaking defect detection in sewer pipelines.

    PubMed

    Su, Tung-Ching; Yang, Ming-Der

    2014-01-01

    As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV) inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED), to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO) and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO), were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines. PMID:24841247

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Rover System Thermal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Keith S.; Kempenaar, Joshua E.; Liu, Yuanming; Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, NASA launched a large (900 kg) rover as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to Mars. The MSL rover is scheduled to land on Mars on August 5, 2012. Prior to launch, the Rover was successfully operated in simulated mission extreme environments during a 16-day long Rover System Thermal Test (STT). This paper describes the MSL Rover STT, test planning, test execution, test results, thermal model correlation and flight predictions. The rover was tested in the JPL 25-Foot Diameter Space Simulator Facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Rover operated in simulated Cruise (vacuum) and Mars Surface environments (8 Torr nitrogen gas) with mission extreme hot and cold boundary conditions. A Xenon lamp solar simulator was used to impose simulated solar loads on the rover during a bounding hot case and during a simulated Mars diurnal test case. All thermal hardware was exercised and performed nominally. The Rover Heat Rejection System, a liquid-phase fluid loop used to transport heat in and out of the electronics boxes inside the rover chassis, performed better than predicted. Steady state and transient data were collected to allow correlation of analytical thermal models. These thermal models were subsequently used to predict rover thermal performance for the MSL Gale Crater landing site. Models predict that critical hardware temperatures will be maintained within allowable flight limits over the entire 669 Sol surface mission.

  19. Remediation of Mercury-Contaminated Storm Sewer Sediments from the West End Mercury Area at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 12061

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, Diana; Douglas, Steven G.

    2012-07-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN has faced an ongoing challenge from mercury entrapped in soils beneath and adjacent to buildings, storm sewers, and process pipelines. Previous actions to reduce the quantity and/or mobilization of mercury-contaminated media have included plugging of building floor drains, cleaning of sediment and sludge from sumps, manholes, drain lines, and storm sewers, lining/relining of storm sewers and replacement of a portion of the storm sewer trunk line, re-routing and removal of process piping, and installation of the Central Mercury Treatment System to capture and treat contaminated sump water. Despite the success of these actions, mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls that discharge to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) continues to pose a threat to long-term water quality. A video camera survey of the storm sewer network revealed several sections of storm sewer that had large cracks, separations, swells, and accumulations of sediment/sludge and debris. The selected remedy was to clean and line the sections of storm sewer pipe that were determined to be primary contributors to the mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls. The project, referred to as the West End Mercury Area (WEMA) Storm Sewer Remediation Project, included cleaning sediment and debris from over 2,460 meters of storm sewer pipe followed by the installation of nearly 366 meters of cure-in-place pipe (CIPP) liner. One of the greatest challenges to the success of this project was the high cost of disposal associated with the mercury-contaminated sludge and wastewater generated from the storm sewer cleaning process. A contractor designed and operated an on-site wastewater pre-treatment system that successfully reduced mercury levels in 191 cubic meters of sludge to levels that allowed it to be disposed at Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) disposal cell as a non-hazardous, low-level waste. The system was also effective at pre-treating over 1

  20. HIGH RATE NUTRIENT REMOVAL FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. BENCH SCALE AND DEMONSTRATION SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high rate physical/chemical treatment system has been evaluated for the removal of suspended solids and the macronutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, from combined sewer overflow. The system utilized a single unit process concept consisting of in-line chemical addition, coagulat...

  1. THE CHOICE OF REAL-TIME CONTROL STRATEGY FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper focuses on the strategies used to operate a collection system in real-time control (RTC) in order to optimize use of system capacity and to reduce the cost of long-term combined sewer overflow (CSO) control. Three RTC strategies were developed and analyzed based on the...

  2. Chromium and copper removed, wastewater can now go to sewer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.W.; Toy, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    Alco Gravure faced a wastewater problem at its printing facility in Broadview, IL. Hexavalent chrome-bearing wastewater was generated during chrome plating and etching and acidic copper wastewater was produced during the plating of rotogravure printing rolls. The chromium and copper levels in the wastewater were too high to discharge to the municipal sewer. At the company's previous location, the wastewater had been stored in underground tanks and periodically removed by a hazardous waste treatment firm. Because the wastewater contained less than 1% heavy metals, volume reduction of the waste became an economic necessity when Alco moved to the Broadview site. A metals precipitation and removal system was chosen with the following equipments: oil/water separator, chrome reduction tank, neutralization tank, clarifier, filter press, and all associated instrumentation, metering pumps, valves, piping and mixers. The system was chosen after company personnel inspected a similar treatment system in a plating operation at a plant across the street from Alco. Since installation in the fall of 1984, the heavy metal treatment system has reduced the volume of waste to less than 1% of the initial wastewater volume. By treating the 99 + % of the aqueous waste for disposal to the municipal water treatment works, significant savings have been achieved in waste disposal costs. Effluent quality exceeds all standards established by the sewer district and by the EPA.

  3. Quantification of groundwater infiltration and surface water inflows in urban sewer networks based on a multiple model approach.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Christian; Krebs, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The management of sewer systems requires information about discharge and variability of typical wastewater sources in urban catchments. Especially the infiltration of groundwater and the inflow of surface water (I/I) are important for making decisions about the rehabilitation and operation of sewer networks. This paper presents a methodology to identify I/I and estimate its quantity. For each flow fraction in sewer networks, an individual model approach is formulated whose parameters are optimised by the method of least squares. This method was applied to estimate the contributions to the wastewater flow in the sewer system of the City of Dresden (Germany), where data availability is good. Absolute flows of I/I and their temporal variations are estimated. Further information on the characteristics of infiltration is gained by clustering and grouping sewer pipes according to the attributes construction year and groundwater influence and relating these resulting classes to infiltration behaviour. Further, it is shown that condition classes based on CCTV-data can be used to estimate the infiltration potential of sewer pipes. PMID:21497364

  4. Priority pollutants in wastewater and combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Garnaud, Stéphane; Rocher, Vincent; Moilleron, Régis

    2008-12-15

    Implementation of the European Water Framework Directive and its affiliated directives requires Member States to improve their understanding of priority pollutants (PPs) in urban areas and obviously within wastewater systems. As a direct consequence, this study is intended to furnish data on both PP occurrence and the significance of concentrations in wastewater during dry and wet periods within combined sewers. Various sampling sites within the Paris combined sewer network were selected; for each sample, a total of 66 determinants, including metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, organotins, volatile organic compounds, chlorobenzenes, phthalates and alkylphenols, were analysed. A broad range of PPs was observed in wastewater during dry as well as wet weather periods. Of the 66 elements investigated, 33 and 40 priority substances could be observed in raw sewage and wet weather effluent, respectively. As expected, a majority of metals were present in all samples, reflecting their ubiquitous nature. For both periods, chlorobenzenes and most of the pesticides always remained below the limit of quantification, while the majority of other organic pollutants assessed were identified within the microg l(-1) range. As highlighted by the larger number of substances detected in wet weather samples and the significance of their concentrations, runoff via atmospheric inputs and/or surface leaching was found to induce a wider range of PPs (n=40) and lead to higher concentrations of certain metals, PAHs, pesticides and other individual compounds. The data generated during this survey, which constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe to report concentrations for a variety of priority substances in wastewater within combined sewers, may be used in the future to identify PPs of potential significance for dry and wet weather periods and targeted for further investigation. PMID:18814902

  5. From Laboratory Manipulations To Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgwell, A.; Schmidt, D.

    2008-12-01

    The apparent incongruence between coccolithophore calcification responses observed across different experimental manipulations, particularly those involving Emiliania huxleyi, raises new challenges particularly for modellers. This is because the global models used for predicting future fossil fuel CO2 uptake by the ocean base their parameterizations for plankton calcification and carbonate export from the ocean surface closely on laboratory results. Predictions of such models will be unreliable if rooted in unrepresentative and/or poorly understood laboratory experiments. The difficulty in making sense of the differing responses reported and thus correctly informing models is compounded by fundamental differences between laboratory culture studies, particularly in the strain (ecotype or likely even genotype) of E. huxleyi cultured. However, two pertinent observations offer the promise of resolving these difficulties: (1) experiments using other coccolithophore species have delineated the existence of a calcification 'optimum' in environmental conditions (pH), and (2) there is an unambiguous direction to the calcification-CO2 response in mesocosm and shipboard incubations. We propose that an equivalence can be drawn between species or even ecosystem integrated phytoplankton calcification rate as a function of pH (or saturation), and widely used descriptions of plankton growth rate vs. temperature (the Eppley curve). An 'Eppley' like calcification formulation provides not only a conceptual framework for reconciling the results of available experimental manipulations of coccolithophores, but also a means of constructing a simple quasi-empirical relationship for describing ocean acidification impacts on planktonic carbonate production in carbon cycle models. The implications of this for future fossil fuel CO2 uptake by the ocean are assessed in an Earth system model.

  6. Biodegradation of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits under various redox conditions relevant to sewer environment.

    PubMed

    He, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Cooney, Michael J; Yan, Tao

    2015-07-01

    Fat, oil and, grease (FOG) deposits are one primary cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). While numerous studies have examined the formation of FOG deposits in sewer pipes, little is known about their biodegradation under sewer environments. In this study, FOG deposit biodegradation potential was determined by studying the biodegradation of calcium palmitate in laboratory under aerobic, nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Over 110 days of observation, calcium palmitate was biodegraded to CO2 under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. An approximate 13 times higher CO2 production rate was observed under aerobic condition than under nitrate-reducing condition. Under sulfate-reducing condition, calcium palmitate was recalcitrant to biodegradation as evidenced by small reduction in sulfate. No evidence was found to support calcium palmitate degradation under methanogenic condition in the simulated sewer environment. Dominant microbial populations in the aerobic and nitrate-reducing microcosms were identified by Illumina seqeuncing, which may contain the capability to degrade calcium palmitate under both aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. Further study on these populations and their functional genes could shed more light on this microbial process and eventually help develop engineering solutions for SSOs control in the future. PMID:25715780

  7. Laboratory robotics systems at the Savannah River Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dyches, G M; Burkett, S D

    1983-01-01

    Many analytical chemistry methods normally used at the Savannah River site require repetitive procedures and handling of radioactive and other hazardous solutions. Robotics is being investigated as a method of reducing personnel fatigue and radiation exposure and also increasing product quality. Several applications of various commercially available robot systems are discussed involving cold (nonradioactive) and hot (radioactive) sample preparations and glovebox waste removal. Problems encountered in robot programming, parts fixturing, design of special robot hands and other support equipment, glovebox operation, and operator-system interaction are discussed. A typical robot system cost analysis for one application is given.

  8. 9. Exterior view, Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Exterior view, Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. The enclosure discussed in CO-88-B-8 is at the right. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Critical review on the stability of illicit drugs in sewers and wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Bade, Richard; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Covaci, Adrian; Bijlsma, Lubertus; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Ort, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) applies advanced analytical methods to quantify drug residues in wastewater with the aim to estimate illicit drug use at the population level. Transformation processes during transport in sewers (chemical and biological reactors) and storage of wastewater samples before analysis are expected to change concentrations of different drugs to varying degrees. Ignoring transformation for drugs with low to medium stability will lead to an unknown degree of systematic under- or overestimation of drug use, which should be avoided. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the stability of commonly investigated drugs and, furthermore, suggest a more effective approach to future experiments. From over 100 WBE studies, around 50 mentioned the importance of stability and 24 included tests in wastewater. Most focused on in-sample stability (i.e., sample preparation, preservation and storage) and some extrapolated to in-sewer stability (i.e., during transport in real sewers). While consistent results were reported for rather stable compounds (e.g., MDMA and methamphetamine), a varying range of stability under different or similar conditions was observed for other compounds (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine and morphine). Wastewater composition can vary considerably over time, and different conditions prevail in different sewer systems. In summary, this indicates that more systematic studies are needed to: i) cover the range of possible conditions in sewers and ii) compare results more objectively. To facilitate the latter, we propose a set of parameters that should be reported for in-sewer stability experiments. Finally, a best practice of sample collection, preservation, and preparation before analysis is suggested in order to minimize transformation during these steps. PMID:26618807

  10. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated. PMID:25616115

  11. Laboratory information management systems for DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Parker, Meaghan; Stones-Havas, Steven; Starger, Craig; Meyer, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In the field of molecular biology, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) have been created to track workflows through a process pipeline. For the purposes of DNA barcoding, this workflow involves tracking tissues through extraction, PCR, cycle sequencing, and consensus assembly. Importantly, a LIMS that serves the DNA barcoding community must link required elements for public submissions (e.g., primers, trace files) that are generated in the molecular lab with specimen metadata. Here, we demonstrate an example workflow of a specimen's entry into the LIMS database to the publishing of the specimen's genetic data to a public database using Geneious bioinformatics software. Throughout the process, the connections between steps in the workflow are maintained to facilitate post-processing annotation, structured reporting, and fully transparent edits to reduce subjectivity and increase repeatability. PMID:22684961

  12. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river.

    PubMed

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume. PMID:12118618

  13. Impact of in-sewer transformation on 43 pharmaceuticals in a pressurized sewer under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damia; Gutierrez, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of 43 pharmaceuticals and 2 metabolites of ibuprofen was evaluated at the inlet and the outlet of a pressure sewer pipe in order to asses if in-sewer processes affect the pharmaceutical concentrations during their pass through the pipe. The target compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few μg/L, which are in the range commonly found in municipal wastewater of the studied area. The changes in concentrations between two sampling points were negligible for most compounds, i.e. from -10 to 10%. A higher decrease in concentrations (25-60 %) during the pass through the pipe was observed for diltiazem, citalopram, clarithromycin, bezafibrate and amlodipine. Negative removal was calculated for sulfamethoxazole (-66 ± 15%) and irbesartan (-58 ± 25%), which may be due to the conversion of conjugates back to their parent compounds in the sewer. The results show that microbial transformation of pharmaceuticals begins in sewer, albeit to different extents for different compounds. Therefore, the in-sewer transformation of pharmaceuticals should be assessed especially when their concentrations are used to estimate and refine the estimation of their per capita consumption in a catchment of interest in the sewage epidemiology approach. PMID:25462720

  14. Phosphate dynamics in an urban sewer: a case study of Nancy, France.

    PubMed

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; Hofmann, A; Frappier, G; Ghanbaja, J; Temgoua, A

    2009-03-01

    The nature of phosphate phases present in suspended matter, biofilm, and sediment of Greater Nancy sewer system was investigated over a period of two years. The phosphate speciation was determined by two approaches: a direct identification of phosphorus mineral phases was conducted by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), whereas a chemical extraction of samples provided an estimate of phosphorus pools defined by the fractionation scheme. Quantitative analysis of 1340 individual particles by TEM-EDXS allowed to draw a picture of phosphate species distributions along the sewer system and over time. Amorphous Ca-phosphates (brushite, whitlockite, octacalcium phosphate, Mg-brushite, hydroxyapatite and carbapatite) were ubiquitous although brushite dominated upstream, and octacalcium phosphate and apatite prevailed downstream and in sediments. Al-Ca-phosphate minerals such as foggite, bearthite, gatumbaite, and crandallite appeared downstream and in biofilms. Ca-phosphate phase assemblages in the different locations of the sewer system were dependent on phase transformations from brushite to hydroxyapatite that were shown to be kinetically driven. The restriction of Al-Ca-phosphates to downstream of the sewer system was most probably related to the lower pHs measured at these sites. The pH dependency was confirmed by stability calculations. Chemical extractions were not reliable. TEM examination of extraction residues revealed the presence of neoformed Al-Ca-phosphate species that invalidated the fractionation scheme. Nonetheless, it confirmed that phosphate phases may undergo significant geochemical changes over a short time scale. PMID:19131087

  15. Mechanisms of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposit Formation in Sewer Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FOG deposits in sewer systems recently have been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. Batch tests were performed to elucidate ...

  16. Estimating sewer leakage from continuous tracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Rieckermann, Jörg; Bares, Vojtech; Kracht, Oliver; Braun, Daniel; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Direct measurements of sewer leakage with continuous dosing of tracers are often considered too imprecise for practical applications. However, no mathematical framework for data analysis is reported in literature. In this paper, we present an improved experimental design and data analysis procedure together with a comprehensive framework for uncertainty assessment. Test runs in a 700 m-long watertight sewer showed no significant bias and a very high precision of the methodology. The standard error in the results was assessed to 2.6% of the labeled flow with a simplified model. It could be reduced to 1.2% when a dynamic data analysis procedure was applied. The major error contribution was caused by transient transport phenomena, which suggests that careful choosing of the experimental time is more important than the choice of a very specific tracer substance. Although the method is not intended to replace traditional CCTV inspections, it can provide complementary information for rational rehabilitation planning. PMID:17363025

  17. Strengthening laboratory systems in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Olmsted, Stuart S; Moore, Melinda; Meili, Robin C; Duber, Herbert C; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Sama, Preethi; Mundell, Ben; Hilborne, Lee H

    2010-09-01

    Considerable resources have been invested in recent years to improve laboratory systems in resource-limited settings. We reviewed published reports, interviewed major donor organizations, and conducted case studies of laboratory systems in 3 countries to assess how countries and donors have worked together to improve laboratory services. While infrastructure and the provision of services have seen improvement, important opportunities remain for further advancement. Implementation of national laboratory plans is inconsistent, human resources are limited, and quality laboratory services rarely extend to lower tier laboratories (eg, health clinics, district hospitals). Coordination within, between, and among governments and donor organizations is also frequently problematic. Laboratory standardization and quality control are improving but remain challenging, making accreditation a difficult goal. Host country governments and their external funding partners should coordinate their efforts effectively around a host country's own national laboratory plan to advance sustainable capacity development throughout a country's laboratory system. PMID:20716792

  18. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  19. Small diameter gravity sewers: self-cleansing conditions and aspects of wastewater quality.

    PubMed

    Dias, S P; Matos, J S

    2001-01-01

    The construction of conventional sewerage systems in small communities, with pipes laid on a uniform slope and manholes regularly spaced, is sometimes not economically feasible, because of the high costs of sewer installation. Under those circumstances, the small diameter gravity sewers (SDGS) have often proven to be substantially less costly than conventional sewers. Typically, in SDGS systems the wastewater from one or more households is discharged into an interceptor tank (or a single compartment septic tank). The settled effluent is discharged afterwards into small diameter sewers operating under gravity. In this paper, special emphasis is given to the analysis of self-cleansing conditions and to the analysis of risks of sulphide generation and occurrence of septic conditions in SDGS systems. For the evaluation of the self-cleansing conditions, the critical velocity and the critical shear stress were computed according to the Shields equation. The forecasting of dissolved oxygen concentrations and sulphide build-up along the lines, for different flow conditions, was done running an established wastewater quality model. PMID:11379122

  20. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

  1. Electronics systems test laboratory testing of shuttle communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. J.; Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    Shuttle communications and tracking systems space to space and space to ground compatibility and performance evaluations are conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL). This evaluation is accomplished through systems verification/certification tests using orbiter communications hardware in conjunction with other shuttle communications and tracking external elements to evaluate end to end system compatibility and to verify/certify that overall system performance meets program requirements before manned flight usage. In this role, the ESTL serves as a multielement major ground test facility. The ESTL capability and program concept are discussed. The system test philosophy for the complex communications channels is described in terms of the major phases. Results of space to space and space to ground systems tests are presented. Several examples of the ESTL's unique capabilities to locate and help resolve potential problems are discussed in detail.

  2. Stand-alone laboratory information systems versus laboratory modules incorporated in the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Sinard, John H; Castellani, William J; Wilkerson, Myra L; Henricks, Walter H

    2015-03-01

    The increasing availability of laboratory information management modules within enterprise electronic health record solutions has resulted in some institutional administrators deciding which laboratory information system will be used to manage workflow within the laboratory, often with minimal input from the pathologists. This article aims to educate pathologists on many of the issues and implications this change may have on laboratory operations, positioning them to better evaluate and represent the needs of the laboratory during this decision-making process. The experiences of the authors, many of their colleagues, and published observations relevant to this debate are summarized. There are multiple dimensions of the interdependency between the pathology laboratory and its information system that must be factored into the decision. Functionality is important, but management authority and gap-ownership are also significant elements to consider. Thus, the pathologist must maintain an active role in the decision-making process to ensure the success of the laboratory. PMID:25724027

  3. Digital holography system for undergraduate student laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buranasiri, P.; Plaipichit, S.; Yindeesuk, W.; Yoshimori, K.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the digital holography (DH) experiment in our optical and communication laboratory course for undergraduate students at Physics department, KMITL. The purposes of DH experiment are presenting our students the meaning and advantage of DH and its applications. The Gabor configurations of in-line DH has been set up for recording a number of samples, which were placed on different distances, simultaneously. Then, the images of all objects have been numerical reconstructed by using computer. The students have been learned that all of reconstructed images have been got from only one time recording, while using the conventional recording technique, sharp images of different objects have been gotten from different recording time. The students also have been learned how to use DH technique for investigation some different kinds of samples on their own of interested such as a human hair or a fingerprint. In our future work, our DH system will be developed to be a portable apparatus for easily showing to children in different areas.

  4. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

  5. Evaluating Usability in a Distance Digital Systems Laboratory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostaras, N.; Xenos, M.; Skodras, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the usability evaluation of a digital systems laboratory class offered to distance-learning students. It details the way in which students can participate remotely in such a laboratory, the methodology employed in the usability assessment of the laboratory infrastructure (hardware and software), and also outlines the main…

  6. Washington Clinical Laboratory Initiative: a vision for collaboration and strategic planning for an integrated laboratory system.

    PubMed

    Counts, J M

    2001-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of public health, hospital, and clinical laboratories in the role of patient care, disease prevention, and surveillance. It also focuses on the coordination and planning that needs to take place between these institutions in order to develop a more cost-effective and responsive laboratory delivery system. The Washington Clinical Laboratory Initiative is an innovative state initiative illustrating that coordinated and integrated strategic planning of public and private sector laboratories can be accomplished within a state. It also has increased interaction, collaboration, and communication between health practitioners, health plans, hospitals, laboratories, government agencies, and academicians. This accomplishment has enabled the establishment of public policy concerning laboratory reimbursement and development of standards of laboratory practice. PMID:11299913

  7. Reduced sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of sewer networks in Australia: geographic (and seasonal) variations.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Le, N M; Kenny, S; Bustamante, H; Stuetz, R M

    2014-01-01

    The management of odorous emissions from sewer networks has become an important issue for sewer system operators resulting in the need to better understand the composition of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs). Gaseous RSCs including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were measured in the atmosphere of selected sewer networks in two major Australian cities (Sydney and Melbourne) during 2011-2012. The RSC concentrations in the sewer air were detected in a highly variable range. H2S and MeSH were found at the highest concentrations, followed by DMS (39.2-94.0 μg/m(3)), CS2 (18.3-19.6 μg/m(3)), DMDS (7.8-49.6 μg/m(3)) and DMTS (10.4-35.3 μg/m(3)). Temporal trends in the occurrence of targeted RSCs were observed and the highest sulfur concentration occurred either in summer or spring, which are typically regarded as the warmer seasons. Statistical significant difference in the magnitude of targeted RSCs was found between samples collected in Sydney and Melbourne. PMID:24647180

  8. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solving these problems, preliminary Receding Horizon Control with Moving Horizon Estimation (RHC/MHE) results, based on flow measurements, were also obtained. In this work, the RHC/MHE algorithm has been extended to take into account both flow and water level measurements and the resulting control loop has been extensively simulated to assess the system performance according different measurement availability scenarios and rain events. All simulations have been carried out using a detailed physically based model of a real case-study network as virtual reality.

  9. Milwaukee Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Murphy, Amy; Becker, Julie N.; Baker, Bevan K.

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) of the Association of Public Health Laboratories aims to improve state public health laboratory (PHL) system performance through continuous quality improvement. We successfully applied this state assessment tool to a local PHL (LPHL) system by tailoring it to reflect local system needs and created an LPHL system definition explaining how a local system differs from, yet complements, a state system. On November 18, 2010, 75 stakeholders from 40 agencies assessed the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, PHL system, capturing themes, strengths and weaknesses of the system, and scores for each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. A Laboratory Advisory Committee analyzed assessment results to identify a strategic focus of research and workforce development and define an action plan, which is now being carried out. Milwaukee's L-SIP process is effectively improving LPHL system research and workforce development while raising community awareness of the system. PMID:23997302

  10. Milwaukee Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP).

    PubMed

    Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Murphy, Amy; Becker, Julie N; Baker, Bevan K

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) of the Association of Public Health Laboratories aims to improve state public health laboratory (PHL) system performance through continuous quality improvement. We successfully applied this state assessment tool to a local PHL (LPHL) system by tailoring it to reflect local system needs and created an LPHL system definition explaining how a local system differs from, yet complements, a state system. On November 18, 2010, 75 stakeholders from 40 agencies assessed the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, PHL system, capturing themes, strengths and weaknesses of the system, and scores for each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. A Laboratory Advisory Committee analyzed assessment results to identify a strategic focus of research and workforce development and define an action plan, which is now being carried out. Milwaukee's L-SIP process is effectively improving LPHL system research and workforce development while raising community awareness of the system. PMID:23997302

  11. Maui Space Surveillance System Satellite Categorization Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiotte, R.; Guyote, M.; Kelecy, T.; Hall, D.; Africano, J.; Kervin, P.

    The MSSS satellite categorization laboratory is a fusion of robotics and digital imaging processes that aims to decompose satellite photometric characteristics and behavior in a controlled setting. By combining a robot, light source and camera to acquire non-resolved images of a model satellite, detailed photometric analyses can be performed to extract relevant information about shape features, elemental makeup, and ultimately attitude and function. Using the laboratory setting a detailed analysis can be done on any type of material or design and the results cataloged in a database that will facilitate object identification by "curve-fitting" individual elements in the basis set to observational data that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Currently the laboratory has created, an ST-Robotics five degree of freedom robotic arm, collimated light source and non-focused Apogee camera have all been integrated into a MATLAB based software package that facilitates automatic data acquisition and analysis. Efforts to date have been aimed at construction of the lab as well as validation and verification of simple geometric objects. Simple tests on spheres, cubes and simple satellites show promising results that could lead to a much better understanding of non-resolvable space object characteristics. This paper presents a description of the laboratory configuration and validation test results with emphasis on the non-resolved photometric characteristics for a variety of object shapes, spin dynamics and orientations. The future vision, utility and benefits of the laboratory to the SSA community as a whole are also discussed.

  12. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet-weather flow (WWF), including combined-sewer overflow (CSO, sanitary-sewer overflow, and stormwater (SW), is a significant contributor of microbial contamination to surface water and ground water. By using effective wastewater or SW disinfection, introduction of pathogen con...

  13. EVALUATION OF TRENCHLESS SEWER CONSTRUCTION AT SOUTH BETHANY BEACH, DELAWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine whether the trenchless method of sewer construction had inherent cost, safety and other advantages over conventional methods of sewer construction. Under similar site conditions, the trenchless method was more cost effective than conve...

  14. 40 CFR 35.927-4 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance. 35.927-4 Section... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-4 Sewer use ordinance. Each applicant for grant assistance for a step 2 or step 3 project...

  15. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP. PMID:25051477

  16. Influence of rainfall estimation error and spatial variability on sewer flow prediction at a small urban scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, A. N. A.; Shepherd, W. J.; Saul, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    Legislative drivers for water quality and urban flood risk are driving a growing need to accurately determine the performance of urban drainage systems in near real time. Rainfall data are clearly a key input to urban drainage system models. Historically rain gauge data have been used, however radar rainfall data are now widely available and benefits from significantly higher spatial coverage than rain gauges in most UK urban catchments. This paper describes a detailed study based on a small (11 km2) urban catchment in West Yorkshire, England. Radar and rain gauge data have been compared and used as the input to hydrodynamic sewer flow simulations, and the results of these simulations have been compared with measured flows in the sewer system. The results showed that for this size of catchment, there can be significant differences in simulated peak flows and combined sewer overflow spill volumes due to inherent uncertainties between the two rainfall estimates.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Fault detection on a sewer network by a combination of a Kalman filter and a binary sequential probability ratio test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatyszek, E.; Voignier, P.; Graillot, D.

    2000-05-01

    One of the aims of sewer networks is the protection of population against floods and the reduction of pollution rejected to the receiving water during rainy events. To meet these goals, managers have to equip the sewer networks with and to set up real-time control systems. Unfortunately, a component fault (leading to intolerable behaviour of the system) or sensor fault (deteriorating the process view and disturbing the local automatism) makes the sewer network supervision delicate. In order to ensure an adequate flow management during rainy events it is essential to set up procedures capable of detecting and diagnosing these anomalies. This article introduces a real-time fault detection method, applicable to sewer networks, for the follow-up of rainy events. This method consists in comparing the sensor response with a forecast of this response. This forecast is provided by a model and more precisely by a state estimator: a Kalman filter. This Kalman filter provides not only a flow estimate but also an entity called 'innovation'. In order to detect abnormal operations within the network, this innovation is analysed with the binary sequential probability ratio test of Wald. Moreover, by crossing available information on several nodes of the network, a diagnosis of the detected anomalies is carried out. This method provided encouraging results during the analysis of several rains, on the sewer network of Seine-Saint-Denis County, France.

  19. Disparities in Water and Sewer Services in North Carolina: An Analysis of the Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the factors that affect access to municipal water and sewer service for unincorporated communities relying on wells and septic tanks. Methods. Using a multisite case study design, we conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 25 key informants from 3 unincorporated communities in Hoke, New Hanover, and Transylvania counties, North Carolina, July through September 2013. Interviewees included elected officials, health officials, utility providers, and community members. We coded the interviews in ATLAS.ti to identify common themes. Results. Financing for water and sewer service emerged as the predominant factor that influenced decisions to extend these services. Improved health emerged as a minor factor, suggesting that local officials may not place a high emphasis on the health benefits of extending public water and sewer services. Awareness of failed septic systems in communities can prompt city officials to extend sewer service to these areas; however, failed systems are often underreported. Conclusions. Understanding the health costs and benefits of water and sewer extension and integrating these findings into the local decision-making process may help address disparities in access to municipal services. PMID:26270307

  20. 2. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking north. The Components Test Laboratory (T-27) is located in the immediate foreground. Immediately uphill to the left of T-27 is the Boiler Chiller Plant (T-28H). To the left of T-28H is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D). Behind the T-28D is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). The twin gantry structure at the left is the Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Laboratory services series: a programmed maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuxbury, D.C.; Srite, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The diverse facilities, operations and equipment at a major national research and development laboratory require a systematic, analytical approach to operating equipment maintenance. A computer-scheduled preventive maintenance program is described including program development, equipment identification, maintenance and inspection instructions, scheduling, personnel, and equipment history.

  2. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  3. EPA SSOAP Toolbox Application for Condition and Capacity Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back more than 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events ...

  4. EPA SSOAP Toolbox Application for Condition and Capacity Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events per ...

  5. Modelling sewer sediment deposition, erosion, and transport processes to predict acute influent and reduce combined sewer overflows and CO(2) emissions.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of solids deposition, erosion, and transport processes in sewer systems has improved considerably in the past decade. This has provided guidance for controlling sewer solids and associated acute pollutants to protect the environment and improve the operation of wastewater systems. Although measures to decrease combined sewer overflow (CSO) events have reduced the amount of discharged pollution, overflows continue to occur during rainy weather in combined sewer systems. The solution lies in the amount of water allotted to various processes in an effluent treatment system, in impact evaluation of water quality and prediction technology, and in stressing the importance of developing a control technology. Extremely contaminated inflow has been a serious research subject, especially in connection with the influence of rainy weather on nitrogen and organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). An intensive investigation of an extremely polluted inflow load to WWTP during rainy weather was conducted in the city of Matsuyama, the region used for the present research on total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Since the inflow during rainy weather can be as much as 400 times that in dry weather, almost all sewers are unsettled and overflowing when a rain event is more than moderate. Another concern is the energy consumed by wastewater treatment; this problem has become important from the viewpoint of reducing CO(2) emissions and overall costs. Therefore, while establishing a prediction technology for the inflow water quality characteristics of a sewage disposal plant is an important priority, the development of a management/control method for an effluent treatment system that minimises energy consumption and CO(2) emissions due to water disposal is also a pressing research topic with regards to the quality of treated water. The procedure to improve water quality must make use of not only water quality and biotic criteria, but also

  6. Parsimonious hydrological modeling of urban sewer and river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Sylvain; Del Giudice, Dario; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryA parsimonious model of flow capable of simulating flow in natural/engineered catchments and at WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant) inlets was developed. The model considers three interacting, dynamic storages that account for transfer of water within the system. One storage describes the “flashy” response of impervious surfaces, another pervious areas and finally one storage describes subsurface flow. The sewerage pipe network is considered as an impervious surface and is thus included in the impervious surface storage. In addition, the model assumes that water discharged from several CSOs (combined sewer overflows) can be accounted for using a single, characteristic CSO. The model was calibrated on, and validated for, the Vidy Bay WWTP, which receives effluent from Lausanne, Switzerland (population about 200,000), as well as for an overlapping urban river basin. The results indicate that a relatively simple approach is suitable for predicting the responses of interacting engineered and natural hydrosystems.

  7. Estimating inflow to a combined sewer overflow structure with storage tank in real time: evaluation of different approaches.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, G; D'Oria, M; Kleidorfer, M; Rauch, W

    2014-01-01

    The performance assessment of storage tanks and combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures in sewer systems requires knowledge of the total inflow from the catchment during rainfall events. Many structures are, however, only equipped with sensors to measure water level and/or outflows. Based on the geometry of the tank, expressed as a level-storage relationship, inflow can be calculated from these data using a simple conceptual storage model. This paper compares a deterministic and a Bayesian approach for estimating the inflow to a CSO structure from measurements of outflows and water level. The Bayesian approach clearly outperforms the deterministic estimation which is very sensitive to measurement errors. Although computationally more demanding, the use of a simple linear storage model allows the online application of the Bayesian approach to repeatedly estimate inflow in short time intervals of a few minutes. The method could thus be used as an online software sensor for inflow to storage structures in sewer systems. PMID:25325537

  8. Feasibility of an intelligent tutoring system for laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Blechner, Michael David; Sordo, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory medicine is not adequately addressed in most medical school curricula. A review of the literature was performed to evaluate the feasibility of an intelligent tutoring system to enhance laboratory medicine training. This appraisal suggests that such a system must integrate basic science and clinical training. A system equipped with a clinical knowledgebase, in the form of an expert system, and a pathophysiology knowledgebase, in the form of multiple semantic networks, could provide such integration. PMID:16779182

  9. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  10. Fire safety evaluation system for NASA office/laboratory buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, H. E.

    1986-11-01

    A fire safety evaluation system for office/laboratory buildings is developed. The system is a life safety grading system. The system scores building construction, hazardous areas, vertical openings, sprinklers, detectors, alarms, interior finish, smoke control, exit systems, compartmentation, and emergency preparedness.

  11. A sewer ventilation model applying conservation of momentum.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Hamer, G; McDonald, A; Witherspoon, J; Loh, E; Parker, W

    2011-01-01

    The work presented herein was completed in an effort to characterize the forces influencing ventilation in gravity sewers and to develop a mathematical model, based on conservation of momentum, capable of accounting for friction at the headspace/pipe interface, drag at the air/water interface, and buoyancy caused by air density differences between a sewer headspace and ambient. Experiments were completed on two full scale sewer reaches in Australia. A carbon monoxide-based tracer technique was used to measure the ventilation rate within the sewer headspaces. Additionally, measurements of pressure, relative humidity, and temperature were measured in the ambient air and sewer headspace. The first location was a five kilometre long sewer outfall beginning at a wastewater treatment plant and terminating at the ocean. The second location was a large gravity sewer reach fitted with ventilation fans. At the first location the headspace was entirely sealed except for openings that were controlled during the experiments. In this situation forces acting on the headspace air manifested mostly as a pressure distribution within the reach, effectively eliminating friction at the pipe wall. At the second location, air was forced to move near the same velocity as the wastewater, effectively eliminating drag at the air/water interface. These experiments allowed individual terms of the momentum equation to be evaluated. Experimental results were compared to the proposed mathematical model. Conclusions regarding model accuracy are provided along with model application guidance and assumptions. PMID:22214094

  12. Dosing free nitrous acid for sulfide control in sewers: results of field trials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keating, Anthony; Corrie, Shaun; O'halloran, Kelly; Nguyen, Lam; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    Intermittent dosing of free nitrous acid (FNA), with or without the simultaneous dosing of hydrogen peroxide, is a new strategy developed recently for the control of sulfide production in sewers. Six-month field trials have been carried out in a rising main sewer in Australia (150 mm in diameter and 1080 m in length) to evaluate the performance of the strategy that was previously demonstrated in laboratory studies. In each trial, FNA was dosed at a pumping station for a period of 8 or 24 h, some with simultaneous hydrogen peroxide dosing. The sulfide control effectiveness was monitored by measuring, on-line, the dissolved sulfide concentration at a downstream location of the pipeline (828 m from the pumping station) and the gaseous H2S concentration at the discharge manhole. Effective sulfide control was achieved in all nine consecutive trials, with sulfide production reduced by more than 80% in 10 days following each dose. Later trials achieved better control efficiency than the first few trials possibly due to the disrupting effects of FNA on sewer biofilms. This suggests that an initial strong dose (more chemical consumption) followed by maintenance dosing (less chemical consumption) could be a very cost-effective way to achieve consistent control efficiency. It was also found that heavy rainfall slowed the recovery of sulfide production after dosing, likely due to the dilution effects and reduced retention time. Overall, intermittent dose of FNA or FNA in combination with H2O2 was successfully demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for sulfide control in rising main sewers. PMID:23764584

  13. Integrated Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Dewayne Randolph

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a user-friendly Integrated GPS lab manual. This manual will help range engineers at NASA to integrate the use of GPS Simulators, GPS receivers, computers, MATLAB software, FUGAWI software and SATELLITE TOOL KIT software. The lab manual will be used in an effort to help NASA engineers predict GPS Coverage of planned operations and analyze GPS coverage of operation post mission. The Integrated GPS Laboratory was used to do GPS Coverage for two extensive case studies. The first scenario was an airplane trajectory in which an aircraft flew from Cape Canaveral to Los Angeles, California. In the second scenario, a rocket trajectory was done whereas a rocket was launched from Cape Canaveral to one thousand kilometers due east in the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Capabilities of the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aerial measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the capabilities of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aircraft for use in environmental radiation surveys, multispectral (visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared) surveys of vegetation and buildings, and photographic documentation of the areas covered by the two other surveys. The report discusses the technical capabilities of the various systems and presents examples of the data from a recent demonstration survey. To provide a view of the types of surveys the Remote Sensing Laboratory has conducted in the past, the appendices describe several of the previous area surveys and emergency search surveys.

  15. A database and model to support proactive management of sediment-related sewer blockages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; McIntyre, Neil; Díaz-Granados, Mario; Maksimović, Cedo

    2012-10-01

    Due to increasing customer and political pressures, and more stringent environmental regulations, sediment and other blockage issues are now a high priority when assessing sewer system operational performance. Blockages caused by sediment deposits reduce sewer system reliability and demand remedial action at considerable operational cost. Consequently, procedures are required for identifying which parts of the sewer system are in most need of proactive removal of sediments. This paper presents an exceptionally long (7.5 years) and spatially detailed (9658 grid squares--0.03 km² each--covering a population of nearly 7.5 million) data set obtained from a customer complaints database in Bogotá (Colombia). The sediment-related blockage data are modelled using homogeneous and non-homogeneous Poisson process models. In most of the analysed areas the inter-arrival time between blockages can be represented by the homogeneous process, but there are a considerable number of areas (up to 34%) for which there is strong evidence of non-stationarity. In most of these cases, the mean blockage rate increases over time, signifying a continual deterioration of the system despite repairs, this being particularly marked for pipe and gully pot related blockages. The physical properties of the system (mean pipe slope, diameter and pipe length) have a clear but weak influence on observed blockage rates. The Bogotá case study illustrates the potential value of customer complaints databases and formal analysis frameworks for proactive sewerage maintenance scheduling in large cities. PMID:22794800

  16. 1. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking northwest. The twin gantry structure in the center is the Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28). To its immediate left in the foreground is a truck well, concrete retaining wall, piping, and stack associated with the oxidizer vault storage area. To the immediate right of T-28 is the concrete Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). At the extreme right is the Long-Term Hydrazine Silo (T-28E). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Teaching Geographic Information Systems in a Soil Physics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, H. D.; Smith, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology in the laboratory section of an upper-level college course in soil physics. The laboratory includes a lecture portion that provides an introduction to GIS and selected applications to soil science, agriculture, and environmental sciences. (LZ)

  18. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a portable laboratory system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface waters for the detection and quantification of hazardous materials, organics, and radioactive contaminants. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analysis on each sample within 16 hours of preparation with high accuracy.

  19. Information Management Systems in the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrer, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses two applications of Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) in the undergraduate laboratory. They are the coulometric titration of thiosulfate with electrogenerated triiodide ion and the atomic absorption determination of calcium using both analytical calibration curve and standard addition methods. (JN)

  20. Systems Technology Laboratory (STL) compendium of utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. J.; Smith, E. J.; Taylor, W. A.; Merwarth, P. D.; Stark, M. E.; Pajerski, R. S.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Green, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Multipurpose programs, routines and operating systems are described. Data conversion and character string comparison subroutine are included. Graphics packages, and file maintenance programs are also included.

  1. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  2. Evaluation of effectiveness of combined sewer overflow control measures by operational data.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Riechel, M; Matzinger, A; Rouault, P; Sonnenberg, H; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Gnirss, R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of combined sewer overflow (CSO) control measures should be validated during operation based on monitoring of CSO activity and subsequent comparison with (legal) requirements. However, most CSO monitoring programs have been started only recently and therefore no long-term data is available for reliable efficiency control. A method is proposed that focuses on rainfall data for evaluating the effectiveness of CSO control measures. It is applicable if a sufficient time-series of rainfall data and a limited set of data on CSO discharges are available. The method is demonstrated for four catchments of the Berlin combined sewer system. The analysis of the 2000-2007 data shows the effect of CSO control measures, such as activation of in-pipe storage capacities within the Berlin system. The catchment, where measures are fully implemented shows less than 40% of the CSO activity of those catchments, where measures have not yet or not yet completely been realised. PMID:21252438

  3. Comparison of the inspector and rating protocol uncertainty influence in the condition rating of sewers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, V; Ferreira, F M; Meireles, I; Almeida, N; Saldanha Matos, J

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater drainage systems asset management decisions, in particular regarding rehabilitation interventions, are largely dependent on close-circuit television (CCTV) inspection results. However, the results of CCTV inspections are affected by several sources of uncertainty. Within the present communication, the inspector's uncertainty is quantified by comparing periodic inspection reports from three trunk sewers of a Portuguese sewer system. The inspections were carried out by the same experienced inspector using the same equipment. Therefore, the uncertainties from the lack of experience and the difference of the inspector and equipment were ruled out. The protocol uncertainty is also quantified comparing the results obtained with the Water Research Center (WRc) and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) protocols condition ratings. Both operational and structural condition rating were analysed, but emphasis was given to the later since it dictates the repair and replacement interventions. PMID:24569288

  4. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LABORATORY ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design and evaluation of laboratory ecological system studies are considered in relation to problems and objectives in environmental toxicology. Ecological systems are defined to be organismic systems together with their level-specific, co-extensive environmental systems and to o...

  5. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  6. Transport of large solids in sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Walski, Thomas; Edwards, Bryce; Helfer, Emil; Whitman, Brian E

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the conditions under which large solids (i.e., solids with a vertical dimension greater than the depth of water) are able to move in a pipe. Depending on the value of a dimensionless number [s(d/y) - 1], where s = specific gravity of the solids, d = water depth, and y = height of solids, motion will occur if a sufficient velocity (also reported as a Froude number or modified "solids" Froude number) is exceeded. Flume experiments were used to determine the coefficients to be used in the design. The velocity required to reach fluid movement was approximately 0.6 to 1.0 m/s (2 to 3 ft/s), which is consistent, although slightly higher than values generally used in conventional sewer design practice. However, it was demonstrated that increasing the pipe slope to achieve a higher velocity does not ensure that the solid will move. PMID:19691252

  7. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

  8. Core Technical Capability Laboratory Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Linda; Dugger, Curtis; Griffin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The Core Technical Capability Lab - oratory Management System (CTCLMS) consists of dynamically generated Web pages used to access a database containing detailed CTC lab data with the software hosted on a server that allows users to have remote access.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  10. Integrated laboratory information system in a large hospital laboratory in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Jacob, E; Tan, I K; Chua, K S; Lim, S H

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated approach to the computerization of all major disciplines of laboratory medicine and pathology. Installed in the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), the computer system discussed comprises a RISC-based Data General Aviion 6200 computer and Meditech MAGIC software. The system has been interfaced with the hospital host IBM computer and supports patient information transfer, result reporting, phlebotomy management, and compilation of laboratory and financial management reports. The main functions of the system include: on-line and off-line acquisition of patient information and test data; preparation of single/combined/cumulative reports; transmission of reports within and between laboratories; instantaneous provision of data in response to telephone enquiries; calculations of quality control/workload/productivity statistics and indices; and generation of billing lists. The computer enables reports to be provided on patient tests results in individual wards, at various specialist out-patient clinics, and in the Accident and Emergency Department of the SGH through the IBM mainframe, as well as to remote printers installed at several other major hospitals.The use of the MAGIC integrated laboratory information system has resulted in a significant increase in laboratory efficiency and productivity. PMID:18924944

  11. The aerospace energy systems laboratory: Hardware and software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneil-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    For many years NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility has employed automation in the servicing of flight critical aircraft batteries. Recently a major upgrade to Dryden's computerized Battery Systems Laboratory was initiated to incorporate distributed processing and a centralized database. The new facility, called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL), is being mechanized with iAPX86 and iAPX286 hardware running iRMX86. The hardware configuration and software structure for the AESL are described.

  12. Crew Systems Laboratory/Building 7. Historical Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slovinac, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Building 7 is managed by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division of the JSC Engineering Directorate. Originally named the Life Systems Laboratory, it contained five major test facilities: two advanced environmental control laboratories and three human-rated vacuum chambers (8 , 11 , and the 20 ). These facilities supported flight crew familiarization and the testing and evaluation of hardware used in the early manned spaceflight programs, including Gemini, Apollo, and the ASTP.

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  14. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm sewers. That, under section 211(c) of the Act, the allowable project costs do not include costs...

  18. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CHARACTERISTICS FROM TREATMENT PLANT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of using a mass balance technique with daily municipal wastewater treatment plant data to determine combined sewer runoff and overflow characteristics. The bias and variability associated with the mass balance technique togeth...

  19. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW: RESEARCH PROGRAM CAPSTONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) is a mixture of urban storm drainage, municipal-industrial wastewater, and subterranean infiltration. Untreated discharges of CSOs have caused substantial pollution impacts on the quality of receiving-water bodies. Problem constituents include visi...

  1. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moffa, P.E.; Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.

    1982-06-01

    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  2. MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW RESEARCH PROGRAM CAPSTONE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) is a mixture of urban storm drainage, municipal-industrial wastewater, and subterranean infiltration. Untreated discharges of CSOs have caused substantial pollution impacts on the quality of receiving-water bodies. Problem constituents include ...

  3. The Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative: Partnership for Building a Sustainable National Public Health Laboratory System

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Anthony D.; Ned, Renée M.; Nicholson, Janet K.A.; Chu, May C.; Becker, Scott J.; Blank, Eric C.; Breckenridge, Karen J.; Waddell, Victor; Brokopp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in early 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories launched the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative (LEI) to help public health laboratories (PHLs) and the nation's entire PHL system achieve and maintain sustainability to continue to conduct vital services in the face of unprecedented financial and other pressures. The LEI focuses on stimulating substantial gains in laboratories' operating efficiency and cost efficiency through the adoption of proven and promising management practices. In its first year, the LEI generated a strategic plan and a number of resources that PHL directors can use toward achieving LEI goals. Additionally, the first year saw the formation of a dynamic community of practitioners committed to implementing the LEI strategic plan in coordination with state and local public health executives, program officials, foundations, and other key partners. PMID:23997300

  4. Thermal system field performance predictions from laboratory and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Haefner, David P.; Teaney, Brian P.; Doe, Joshua M.

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory measurements on thermal imaging systems are critical to understanding their performance in a field environment. However, it is rarely a straightforward process to directly inject thermal measurements into thermal performance modeling software to acquire meaningful results. Some of the sources of discrepancies between laboratory and field measurements are sensor gain and level, dynamic range, sensor display and display brightness, and the environment where the sensor is operating. If measurements for the aforementioned parameters could be performed, a more accurate description of sensor performance in a particular environment is possible. This research will also include the procedure for turning both laboratory and field measurements into a system model.

  5. Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS): A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, Karen S.; Auping, Judith V.; Megargle, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    In the late 70's, a refurbishment of the analytical laboratories serving the Materials Division at NASA Lewis Research Center was undertaken. As part of the modernization efforts, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was to be included. Preliminary studies indicated a custom-designed system as the best choice in order to satisfy all of the requirements. A scaled down version of the original design has been in operation since 1984. The LIMS, a combination of computer hardware, provides the chemical characterization laboratory with an information data base, a report generator, a user interface, and networking capabilities. This paper is an account of the processes involved in designing and implementing that LIMS.

  6. Laboratory Information Management System Chain of Custody: Reliability and Security

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Elliott-Smith, W.; Radosta, T.

    2006-01-01

    A chain of custody (COC) is required in many laboratories that handle forensics, drugs of abuse, environmental, clinical, and DNA testing, as well as other laboratories that want to assure reliability of reported results. Maintaining a dependable COC can be laborious, but with the recent establishment of the criteria for electronic records and signatures by US regulatory agencies, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) are now being developed to fully automate COCs. The extent of automation and of data reliability can vary, and FDA- and EPA-compliant electronic signatures and system security are rare. PMID:17671623

  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1997 Site Environmental Report Vol. II

    SciTech Connect

    Thorson, Patrick

    1998-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 1997 is published by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data). Data presented in volume II are given in Systeme International (SI) units. The list below categorizes the volume II data sections with corresponding summary result tables in volume I: Stack Air, Ambient Air, Rainwater, Creeks, Creek Baseline Study, Hydraugers, Lakes, Stormwater, Sewer, Fixed Treatment Units, Soil, Sediment, Vegetation.

  8. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hiwotu, Tilahun M.; Ayana, Gonfa; Mulugeta, Achamyeleh; Kassa, Getachew B.; Kebede, Yenew; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Tibesso, Gudeta; Desale, Adino; Kebede, Adisu; Kassa, Wondwossen; Mekonnen, Tesfaye; Yao, Katy; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Kebede, Amha; Linde, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hours for cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star rating levels. Results Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01); and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01), respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% of the first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified. Conclusion Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities. PMID:26753129

  9. Reducing pathogens in combined sewer overflows using ozonation or UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tondera, Katharina; Klaer, Kassandra; Gebhardt, Jens; Wingender, Jost; Koch, Christoph; Horstkott, Marina; Strathmann, Martin; Jurzik, Lars; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is a major public health concern in densely populated areas since these water bodies are used for drinking water production or recreational purposes. A main source of this contamination originates from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in regions with combined sewer systems. Thus, the treatment of CSO discharges is urgent. In this study, we explored whether ozonation or UV irradiation can efficiently reduce pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites in CSOs. Experiments were carried out in parallel settings at the outflow of a stormwater settling tank in the Ruhr area, Germany. The results showed that both techniques reduce most hygienically relevant bacteria, parasites and viruses. Under the conditions tested, ozonation yielded lower outflow values for the majority of the tested parameters. PMID:26431869

  10. Flow velocities and shear stresses during flushing operations in sewer collectors.

    PubMed

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2003-01-01

    Many relevant problems of drainage systems such as first flush pollution, flow capacity reduction and consequent risks of surcharges are worsened by sediment accumulation in sewer collectors. For the solution of these problems several sediment cleansing methods and techniques, e.g. mechanical methods, traps and flushing devices, have been developed and applied in the last decades. In particular, simulation studies and experimental campaigns have shown the effectiveness of flushing methods as preventive cleansing strategy in sewer collectors. In this paper the results of a numerical investigation for determining flushing waves characteristics both in terms of duration and flow rate are presented. The collector section lengths where flow velocities and average shear stresses determined by flushing waves exceed minimum threshold values are evaluated using a dimensionless approach. The results, related to the operative ranges of the practical applications, are exposed by means of graphs and regressive equations. PMID:12666809

  11. Surface water sewer misconnections in England and Wales: Pollution sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Butler, D

    2015-09-01

    In urban areas served by separate sewerage consisting of separate pipe systems it is not uncommon for misconnections to be made either accidentally or deliberately, whereby the wrong effluent is connected to the wrong sewer. The main focus of this problem has been on in-household appliances that are wrongly connected to separate surface water sewers, potentially leading to pollution of receiving waters and non-compliance with statutory water quality standards. This paper examines the available evidence to evaluate the potential scale, severity and cost of the problem in England and Wales in comparison to that reported from investigations in the United States. The particular difficulties associated with distinguishing specific sewage sources in the wastewater "cocktail" discharged at polluted surface water outfalls are reviewed. The deficiencies of existing legislation and enforcing compliance with respect to misconnections are also discussed and the pollution potential resulting from domestic misconnections is explored based on sampled data. PMID:25918897

  12. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies. PMID:24470536

  13. Predictive optimal control of sewer networks using CORAL tool: application to Riera Blanca catchment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Cembrano, G; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Aznar, B; Ramón, G; Cabot, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the global control of the Riera Blanca catchment in the Barcelona sewer network using a predictive optimal control approach. This catchment has been modelled using a conceptual modelling approach based on decomposing the catchments in subcatchments and representing them as virtual tanks. This conceptual modelling approach allows real-time model calibration and control of the sewer network. The global control problem of the Riera Blanca catchment is solved using a optimal/predictive control algorithm. To implement the predictive optimal control of the Riera Blanca catchment, a software tool named CORAL is used. The on-line control is simulated by interfacing CORAL with a high fidelity simulator of sewer networks (MOUSE). CORAL interchanges readings from the limnimeters and gate commands with MOUSE as if it was connected with the real SCADA system. Finally, the global control results obtained using the predictive optimal control are presented and compared against the results obtained using current local control system. The results obtained using the global control are very satisfactory compared to those obtained using the local control. PMID:19700825

  14. HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGES FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW TREATMENT: PHASE I CHARACTERIZATION (EPA/600/2-77/053A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a characterization and treatment test program undertaken to develop optimum means of handling and disposal of residual sludges from combined sewer overflow (CSO) treatment systems. Desk top engineering reviews were also conducted to gather, a...

  15. TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION. ON-SITE TESTING WITH MOBILE PILOT PLANT TRAILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeded water treatment using a SALA high gradient magnetic separator pilot plant system was conducted on combined sewer overflows and raw sewage at SALA Magnetics in Cambridge, MA and at on-site locations in the Boston area. Special emphasis was placed on specific design and oper...

  16. Bacterial degradation of polychlorinted biphenyls in sludge from an industrial sewer lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Takacs, A. M.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in an industrial sewer sludge can be effectively degraded by mutant bacteria. The aerated sludge was inoculated daily with mutant bacteria in order to augment the existing bacteria with bacteria that were considered to be capable of degrading PCB's. The pH, nitrogen, and phosphorus levels were monitored daily to maintain an optimum growing medium for the bacteria. A gas chromatographic method was used to determine the PCB concentrations of the sludge initially and also throughout the experiment. Results and discussion of the bacterial treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls are presented.

  17. Incorporating Systems Thinking in Traditional Geoscience Curriculum: A Laboratory Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, R.; Cook, G. W.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    The role of systems thinking in understanding climate change has gained credence over the years. A key concept of systems thinking, namely, stock and flow, deals with the accumulation of any stock in a system over time, such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Several studies have shown that people find it difficult to comprehend the dynamics of such a system. In this study, we design a laboratory module for an introductory earth science course aimed at improving students' understanding of stock-flow concepts. We have structured the laboratory exercise after Bloom's taxonomic principles to include comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Additionally, we have blended metacognition and self-correction by asking the students to reflect on their learning and by providing cues that enable them to rectify and learn from their own mistakes. We will discuss learning gains for the class, the efficacy of using such scaffolding for laboratory modules and the role of systems thinking in understanding climate change.

  18. Piloting a national laboratory electronic programme status reporting system.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi; Motlonye, Bahule; Mpele, Nobantu; Glencross, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse. PMID:23920920

  19. 40 CFR 35.918 - Individual systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collection and treatment system consisting of minimum size (6 or 8 inch) gravity collector sewers normally... diameter gravity sewers carrying partially or fully treated waste water. (b) A public body...

  20. Laboratory Modelling of Volcano Plumbing Systems: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Holohan, Eoghan P.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-04-01

    Earth scientists have, since the XIX century, tried to replicate or model geological processes in controlled laboratory experiments. In particular, laboratory modelling has been used study the development of volcanic plumbing systems, which sets the stage for volcanic eruptions. Volcanic plumbing systems involve complex processes that act at length scales of microns to thousands of kilometres and at time scales from milliseconds to billions of years, and laboratory models appear very suitable to address them. This contribution reviews laboratory models dedicated to study the dynamics of volcano plumbing systems (Galland et al., Accepted). The foundation of laboratory models is the choice of relevant model materials, both for rock and magma. We outline a broad range of suitable model materials used in the literature. These materials exhibit very diverse rheological behaviours, so their careful choice is a crucial first step for the proper experiment design. The second step is model scaling, which successively calls upon: (1) the principle of dimensional analysis, and (2) the principle of similarity. The dimensional analysis aims to identify the dimensionless physical parameters that govern the underlying processes. The principle of similarity states that "a laboratory model is equivalent to his geological analogue if the dimensionless parameters identified in the dimensional analysis are identical, even if the values of the governing dimensional parameters differ greatly" (Barenblatt, 2003). The application of these two steps ensures a solid understanding and geological relevance of the laboratory models. In addition, this procedure shows that laboratory models are not designed to exactly mimic a given geological system, but to understand underlying generic processes, either individually or in combination, and to identify or demonstrate physical laws that govern these processes. From this perspective, we review the numerous applications of laboratory models to

  1. Information systems as a quality management tool in clinical laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Vanessa; Rosecler Bez el Boukhari, Marta

    2007-11-01

    This article describes information systems as a quality management tool in clinical laboratories. The quality of laboratory analyses is of fundamental importance for health professionals in aiding appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Information systems allow the automation of internal quality management processes, using standard sample tests, Levey-Jennings charts and Westgard multirule analysis. This simplifies evaluation and interpretation of quality tests and reduces the possibility of human error. This study proposes the development of an information system with appropriate functions and costs for the automation of internal quality control in small and medium-sized clinical laboratories. To this end, it evaluates the functions and usability of two commercial software products designed for this purpose, identifying the positive features of each, so that these can be taken into account during the development of the proposed system.

  2. Quantification and relative comparison of different types of uncertainties in sewer water quality modeling.

    PubMed

    Willems, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    Quantifiable sources of uncertainty have been identified for a case study of integrated modeling of a sewer system with a more downstream wastewater treatment plant and storage sedimentation tank. The different sources were classified in model input and model-structure-related uncertainties. They were quantified and propagated towards the uncertainty in the event-based prediction of sewer emissions (flow, and physico-chemical water quality concentrations and loads). Based on the concept of variance decomposition, the total prediction uncertainty was split into the contributions of the various uncertainty sources and the different submodels. Although the results strongly depend on the water quality variable considered, it is in most general terms concluded that the uncertainty contribution by the water quality submodels is an order of magnitude higher than that for the flow submodels. Future model improvement should therefore mainly focus on water quality data collection, which would reduce current problems of spurious model calibration and verification, but also of knowledge gaps in in-sewer processes. PMID:18554682

  3. U.S. EPA CSO CAPSTONE REPORT: CONTROL SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimized combined sewer overflow (CSO) requires a storage treatment system because storm flow in the combined sewer system is intermittent and highly variable in both pollutant concentration and flow rate. Storage and treatment alternatives are strongly influenced by input...

  4. USEPA Research on Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  5. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  6. Procedure Manuals for the Comparative Systems Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracevic, Tefko, Ed.; Rothenberg, Leslie, Ed.

    The report deals with experiments in testing and evaluation of an information retrieval system within the Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL). Section I outlines the approach and the general methodology developed in CSL, the operational design of the experiments, the construction and use of the manuals, and the general significance of the…

  7. Automatic rendezvous system testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Naumann, Charles B.

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of MSFC provides sophisticated real time simulation capability in the study of human/system interactions of remote systems. This paper will describe the Flight Robotics Facility of NASA/MSFC, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation configuration, and test results.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2013-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  9. Pollution monitoring system. [photographic laboratory by-products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodding, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to identify those photographic laboratory by-products which can produce harmful reactions if released untreated. After identification of these by-products, specific monitoring systems for each of the offending ions were investigated and recommendations for implementation are presented. Appropriate monitoring systems are discussed.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  11. Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2014-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  13. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Galpin, F.L.; Merrell, G.; Rogers, V.C.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study`s objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  15. 3. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southeast. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 4. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Using Interorganizational Partnerships to Strengthen Public Health Laboratory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kimsey, Paul; Buehring, Gertrude

    2013-01-01

    Due to the current economic environment, many local and state health departments are faced with budget reductions. Health department administrators and public health laboratory (PHL) directors need to assess strategies to ensure that their PHLs can provide the same level of service with decreased funds. Exploratory case studies of interorganizational partnerships among local PHLs in California were conducted to determine the impact on local PHL testing services and capacity. Our findings suggest that interorganizational forms of cooperation among local PHLs can help bolster laboratory capacity by capturing economies of scale, leveraging scarce resources, and ensuring access to affordable, timely, and quality laboratory testing services. Interorganizational partnerships will help local and state public health departments continue to maintain a strong and robust laboratory system that supports their role in communicable disease surveillance. PMID:23997305

  18. Concepts for the third generation of laboratory systems.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G E

    1998-12-01

    This paper briefly describes the history of laboratory systems and discusses some of the recent concepts. The third generation of laboratory systems, which appeared around 1990, encompasses most of the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical procedural steps of the laboratory workflow, thus eliminating much of the so-called "3 D tasks" (dull, dirty, dangerous). These automation systems enable humans to focus on work of higher value such as result validation or development of tests in emerging areas. The new development started in Japan in 1981 and reached the Western hemisphere around 1995. Currently there are between 800 and 900 installations world-wide that meet the above criteria. The majority of them automate hematology, whereas systems that automate more complex areas such as clinical chemistry, immunochemistry, coagulation and urinalysis, represent only about one third. More than 60% of the world-wide system base has been installed in Japan. Future growth in the West and high market saturation in Japan are likely to decrease this percentage during the next few years. The two key concepts of third generation systems are "consolidation" and "integration". The following definitions are suggested: * Consolidation: Combining different analytical technologies or strategies on one instrument or on one group of connected instruments. * Integration: Linking analytical instruments or groups of instruments with pre- and post-analytical devices. Examples for the technical realization of both concepts and practical aspects of how to apply them in an individual laboratory are given. Components, which are specifically new in the context of laboratory automation, are conveyor belts, stationary and floor-running robots, and software for process control. The most attractive options to be considered when automating a laboratory are primary tube sorting and the use of secondary samples to increase speed and to avoid sample carryover. Other applications include automatic

  19. Description of the Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Bruce K. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY) is a comprehensive facility used for development, integration, and preflight validation of hardware and software systems for the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program's Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) experimental transport aircraft. This report describes the history, capabilities, and subsystems of EASILY. A functional description of the many subsystems is provided to give potential users the necessary knowledge of the capabilities of this facility.

  20. 3D geological model developed to analyse the aquifer - sewer network interaction in Bucharest city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpescu, I.; Radu, E.; Gogu, R. G.; Priceputu, A.; Boukhemacha, M. A.; Bica, I.; Gaitanaru, D.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the fact that several important Bucharest city sewer segments drain the groundwater and provide high input flow-rates for the existing waste-water treatment plant, their rehabilitation is necessary. A hydrogeological model, currently under development, will permit to compute the groundwater-sewer network interaction allowing the simulation of distinct design solutions to prevent city disturbances. For groundwater modelling the geological model represents the fundament of understanding the aquifers system behaviour. In this respect a 3D accurate and detailed geological model, covering a region of about 75 km2 has been developed to identify its contact with the major collecting sewer conduit. The shallow aquifer stratum of quaternary formations called Colentina is made of gravels and sands. This unconfined aquifer can be found mainly in the Bucharest city region at depths up to 20 m. A clayey-marl layer is located between Colentina and a lower confined aquifer called Mostistea. This second one is located at depths between 25 m and 70 m and is made of fine and medium sands with gravel intercalations. It overlays on a very thick sequence (40 m to 150 m) of marl and clay layers with slim sandy intercalations. The geological model has been developed on the basis of a large number of geological and geotechnical boreholes. A set of 400 boreholes with depths between 5m to 200 m showing a detailed geological and lithological description stored in a geospatial database have been used. The geological analysis has been performed using a software platform that integrates the spatial database and a set of tools and methodologies developed in a GIS environment with the aim of facilitating the development of 3D geological models for sedimentary media. Taking into account the first 50 m in depth, 25 geological profiles have been interpreted on the basis of chronostratigraphycal, lithological, and sedimentological criteria to delineate the geological formations and assess

  1. Laboratory Information Management Systems for Forensic Laboratories: A White Paper for Directors and Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Hendrickson; Brian Mennecke; Kevin Scheibe; Anthony Townsend

    2005-10-01

    Modern, forensics laboratories need Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) implementations that allow the lab to track evidentiary items through their examination lifecycle and also serve all pertinent laboratory personnel. The research presented here presents LIMS core requirements as viewed by respondents serving in different forensic laboratory capacities as well as different forensic laboratory environments. A product-development methodology was employed to evaluate the relative value of the key features that constitute a LIMS, in order to develop a set of relative values for these features and the specifics of their implementation. In addition to the results of the product development analysis, this paper also provides an extensive review of LIMS and provides an overview of the preparation and planning process for the successful upgrade or implementation of a LIMS. Analysis of the data indicate that the relative value of LIMS components are viewed differently depending upon respondents' job roles (i.e., evidence technicians, scientists, and lab management), as well as by laboratory size. Specifically, the data show that: (1) Evidence technicians place the most value on chain of evidence capabilities and on chain of custody tracking; (2) Scientists generally place greatest value on report writing and generation, and on tracking daughter evidence that develops during their analyses; (3) Lab. Managers place the greatest value on chain of custody, daughter evidence, and not surprisingly, management reporting capabilities; and (4) Lab size affects LIMS preference in that, while all labs place daughter evidence tracking, chain of custody, and management and analyst report generation as their top three priorities, the order of this prioritization is size dependent.

  2. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES FOR EVALUATION OF SEWER FLUSHING DORCHESTER AREA--BOSTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives employing sewer flushing were developed for the Dorchester area of Boston and their cost effectiveness compared with the decentralized combined sewer overflow (CSO) storage/treatment and disinfection facilities proposed as Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area (EMM...

  3. Building a Laboratory Information Management System Using Windows4GL

    SciTech Connect

    Pickens, M.A.; Shaieb, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    The system discussed is currently implemented at LLNL in the Environmental Services program which operates out of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) directorate. Responsibility is to provide the C&MS Environmental Services (CES) program with an enterprise-wide information system which will aid CES. The specific portion of the information system is the Sample Tracking, Analysis and Reporting System (STARS). Since CES was formed by merging two analytical laboratory organizations in May 1995, a new Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) had to be developed. The development of a LIMS in Windows4GL was found to be satisfactory. The product STARS was well received by the user community, and it has improved business practices and efficiency in CES. The CES management staff has seen increased personnel productivity since STARS was release. We look forward to upgrading to CA-OpenROAD and taking advantage of its many improved and innovative features to further enhance STARS.

  4. A potential sanitary sewer overflow treatment technology: fixed-media bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2011-08-01

    Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BODs/m2 x h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment. PMID:21905408

  5. Laboratory performance of a dynamic ice storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    The performance of a commercial 30-ton dynamic ice storage system was measured in a dedicated laboratory test facility and the results analyzed. The ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions to characterize the ice generating performance as a function of condensing conditions, ice build time, and defrost time. The overall efficiency of ice production was determined and the effect of refrigeration system component performance on the overall system efficiency was evaluated. The ability of the charged system -- a tank of ice slush -- to meet a simulated cooling load over was also evaluated. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  6. The Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory: A BITBUS networking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneill-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility developed a computerized aircraft battery servicing facility called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL). This system employs distributed processing with communications provided by a 2.4-megabit BITBUS local area network. Customized handlers provide real time status, remote command, and file transfer protocols between a central system running the iRMX-II operating system and ten slave stations running the iRMX-I operating system. The hardware configuration and software components required to implement this BITBUS application are required.

  7. A novel tracer method for estimating sewer exfiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieckermann, J.; Borsuk, M.; Reichert, P.; Gujer, W.

    2005-05-01

    A novel method is presented to estimate exfiltration from sewer systems using artificial tracers. The method relies upon use of an upstream indicator signal and a downstream reference signal to eliminate the dependence of exfiltration estimates on the accuracy of discharge measurement. An experimental design, a data analysis procedure, and an uncertainty assessment process are described and illustrated by a case study. In a 2-km reach of unknown condition, exfiltration was estimated at 9.9 +/- 2.7%. Uncertainty in this estimate was primarily due to the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as the tracer substance. NaCl is measured using conductivity, which is present at nonnegligible levels in wastewater, thus confounding accurate identification of tracer peaks. As estimates of exfiltration should have as low a measurement error as possible, future development of the method will concentrate on improved experimental design and tracer selection. Although the method is not intended to replace traditional CCTV inspections, it can provide additional information to urban water managers for rational rehabilitation planning.

  8. A novel tracer method for estimating sewer exfiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieckermann, J.; Borsuk, M.; Reichert, P.; Gujer, W.

    2005-05-01

    A novel method is presented to estimate exfiltration from sewer systems using artificial tracers. The method relies upon use of an upstream indicator signal and a downstream reference signal to eliminate the dependence of exfiltration estimates on the accuracy of discharge measurement. An experimental design, a data analysis procedure, and an uncertainty assessment process are described and illustrated by a case study. In a 2-km reach of unknown condition, exfiltration was estimated at 9.9 ± 2.7%. Uncertainty in this estimate was primarily due to the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as the tracer substance. NaCl is measured using conductivity, which is present at nonnegligible levels in wastewater, thus confounding accurate identification of tracer peaks. As estimates of exfiltration should have as low a measurement error as possible, future development of the method will concentrate on improved experimental design and tracer selection. Although the method is not intended to replace traditional CCTV inspections, it can provide additional information to urban water managers for rational rehabilitation planning.

  9. Modelling of biofilters for ammonium reduction in combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, M; Welker, A; Uhl, M

    2009-01-01

    Biofiltration has proved to be a useful system to treat combined sewer overflow (CSO). The study presented uses numerical simulation to detect the critical operating conditions of the filter. The multi-component reactive transport module CW2D was used for the simulation study. Single-event simulations of lab-scale-column experiments with varying boundary conditions regarding the throttle outflow rate were carried out. For the calibration of the CW2D model measurement results of four experiments in two lab-scale columns were used. The model was validated by simulating four events of two further columns filled with the same filter material. These columns were operating with higher throttle outflow rates than the columns used for calibration. For ammonium (NH(4)-N) a good fit between measured and simulated data could be achieved. However, the comparison of simulated and measured effluent concentrations of nitrate (NO(3)-N) showed that there is a need for further investigations mainly due to the uncertainties in the degradation process during dry periods between the loadings. PMID:19657178

  10. Optimiziing the laboratory monitoring of biological wastewater-purification systems

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Gerasimov

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the laboratory monitoring of biochemical wastewater-treatment systems at coke plants is considered, for the example of OAO Koks. By adopting a methodological approach to determine the necessary data from chemical analysis, it is possible to reduce the time, labor, and materials required for monitoring, without impairing the purification process or compromising the plant's environmental policies.

  11. Percolation Tests for Septic Systems: A Laboratory Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how the procedures by which a certificate soil tester evaluates a parcel of land for its suitability as a site for a private sewage system or septic tank can be used by college students as a laboratory exercise in environmental geology. (HM)

  12. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  13. LABORATORY STUDY OF LIMESTONE REGENERATION IN DUAL ALKALI SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of open- and closed-loop laboratory bench scale experiments which were carried out to study parameters which affect the reaction of limestone with dual alkali flue gas desulfurization system process liquors. It gives details of several sets of operat...

  14. Simulation laboratory for evaluating dynamic traffic management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Akiva, M.E.; Mishalani, R.G.; Yang, Q.; Koutsopoulos, H.N.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation laboratory for performance evaluation and design refinement of dynamic traffic management systems. The laboratory consists of four integrated components: (1) a traffic management simulator, which mimics the generation of route guidance and operations of traffic signals and signs; (2) a traffic flow simulator, which models individual vehicle movements and drivers` route choice decisions in the presence of real-time traffic information; (3) a surveillance system module, which collects real-time traffic data from sensors and probe vehicles in the simulated network; and (4) a control device module, which implements control strategies and route guidance generated by the traffic management system under evaluation. The simulation laboratory has been implemented in C++ using object-oriented programming and a distributed environment. It features a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize the simulation process, including animation of vehicle movements, state of surveillance sensors, traffic signals, signs, and so on. This modeling system provides a unique tool for evaluating integrated ATIS and ATMS applications in a computer-based laboratory environment.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of Fecker and Loral optical IR PWI systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorstein, M.; Hallock, J. N.; Houten, M.; Mcwilliams, I. G.

    1971-01-01

    A previous flight test of two electro-optical pilot warning indicators, using a flashing xenon strobe and silicon detectors as cooperative elements, pointed out several design deficiencies. The present laboratory evaluation program corrected these faults and calibrated the sensitivity of both systems in azimuth elevation and range. The laboratory tests were performed on an optical bench and consisted of three basic components: (1) a xenon strobe lamp whose output is monitored at the indicator detector to give pulse to pulse information on energy content at the receiver; (2) a strobe light attenuating optical system which is calibrated photometrically to provide simulated range; and (3) a positioning table on which the indicator system under study is mounted and which provides spatial location coordinates for all data points. The test results for both systems are tabulated.

  16. AIRLAB: A laboratory for flight-crucial-electronics system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. M.; Holden, D. G.; Lupton, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    A new laboratory, AIRLAB, recently completed at the NASA Langley Research Center was developed as a focus for conducting research on fault-tolerant electronic systems for flight-crucial applications. The laboratory was conceived and implemented to enhance the utilization of aeronautical research for improving the performance of future aerospace vehicles. Advanced vehicles will require highly reliable digital electronic systems to perform flight-crucial functions which if lost, would cause total failure of the vehicle. Techniques to form the basis for a validation methodology that can be used to determine the performance and reliability of advanced digital systems are being developed. Included are the development of analytical models, emulation techniques, and experimental procedures. The techniques and methods are verified using these specimens of fault-tolerant computers and systems and the capabilities of AIRLAB.

  17. Contaminant transport pathways between urban sewer networks and water supply wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply wells and sanitary sewers are critical components of urban infrastructure, but sewer leakage threatens the quality of groundwater in sewered areas. Previous work by our group has documented the presence of human enteric viruses in deep public supply wells. Our current research uses such...

  18. Ocean waste disposal: Outfall sewers. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, construction, and environmental effects of outfall sewers. The citations discuss the impact of domestic sewage on aquatic ecosystems, and pollution control of outfall sewers. Monitoring of pollutants in outfall sewage and sludge, and modeling of outfall sewers are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Sewer rehabilitation. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the maintenance and rehabilitation of sewers. The citations discuss joint weatherization treatments, sewer grouts, and plastic sleeves for cover cracked pipes. Maintenance and rehabilitation programs in specific cities are also discussed. The citations also reference the economics of sewer repair. (Contains a minimum of 164 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory's high-performance data system

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, C.; Chorn, G.; Christman, R.; Collins, B.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is designing a High-Performance Data System (HPDS) that will provide storage for supercomputers requiring large files and fast transfer speeds. The HPDS will meet the performance requirements by managing data transfers from high-speed storage systems connected directly to a high-speed network. File and storage management software will be distributed in workstations. Network protocols will ensure reliable, wide-area network data delivery to support long-distance distributed processing. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  2. [Introduction of quality systems into laboratory medicine: methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, G A; Émanuél', A V

    2011-05-01

    The paper considers the problems of introducing the quality management systems (QMS) according to GOST R ISO 9001-2001 in the health care facilities of different forms of property and departmental subordination. It gives examples of successfully putting QMS into practice in the companies that manufacture products for laboratory diagnosis in accordance with the Russian and international standardization principles. Methods are presented for training the staff of the facilities in the QMS principles and making a dialogue between laboratories and customers. PMID:21786620

  3. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  4. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  5. NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory Customer Guide Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Lewis Research Center. The PSL complex supports two large engine test cells (PSL-3 and PSL-4) that are capable of providing flight simulation to altitudes of 70,000 ft. Facility variables at the engine or test-article inlet, such as pressure, temperature, and Mach number (up to 3.0 for PSL-3 and up to 6.0 planned for PSL-4), are discussed. Support systems such as the heated and cooled combustion air systems; the altitude exhaust system; the hydraulic system; the nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen systems; hydrogen burners; rotating screen assemblies; the engine exhaust gas-sampling system; the infrared imaging system; and single- and multiple-axis thrust stands are addressed. Facility safety procedures are also stated.

  6. Technical review of the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W. F.; Thillo, M. Van; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40 m 3 closed life system that commenced operation in May 2002. Light is from 12,000 W of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m 2 of soil. Water is 100% recycled by collecting condensate from the temperature and humidity control system and mixing with leachate collected from under the planting beds. Atmospheric leakage was estimated during the first closure experiment to be 0.5-1% per day in general plus about 1% for each usage of the airlock door. The first trial run of 94 days was with a soybean crop grown from seeds (May 17, 2002) to harvest (August 14, 2002) plus 5 days of post-harvest closure. The focus of this initial trial was system testing to confirm functionality and identify any necessary modifications or improvements. This paper describes the organizational and physical features of the Laboratory Biosphere.

  7. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 3, development and application of southern Nassau County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water per second that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of a larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 90% from conditions in the early 1970's. This report is one of a three-part series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  8. All-ceramic systems: laboratory and clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Schultheis, Stefan; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A

    2011-04-01

    Several all-ceramic systems have been developed in dentistry to meet the increased expectations of patients and dentists for highly aesthetic, biocompatible, and long-lasting restorations. However, early bulk fractures or chippings have led the research community to investigate the mechanical performance of the all-ceramic systems. This overview explores the current knowledge of monolithic and bilayer dental all-ceramic systems, addressing composition and processing mechanisms, laboratory and clinical performance, and possible future trends for all-ceramic materials. PMID:21473997

  9. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where rebolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in an unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  10. The Keck Interferometer Nuller: System Architecture and Laboratory Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, E.; Booth, A.; Colavita, M. M.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Crawford, S.; Garcia, J.; Johnson, R.; Hovland, E.; Koresko, C.; Ligon, R.; Martin, S. R.; Mennesson, B.; Moore, J.; Palmer, D.; Paine, C.; Shao, M.; Swain, M.; Smythe, R.; Vasisht, G.

    2004-01-01

    The first high-dynamic-range interferometric mode planned to come on line at the Keck Observatory is mid-infrared nulling. This observational mode, which is based on the cancellation of the on-axis starlight arriving at the win Keck telescopes, will be used to examine nearby stellar systems for the presence of circumstellar exozodiacal emission. This paper describes the system level layout of the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN), as well as the final performance levels demonstrated in the laboratory integration and test phase at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory prior to shipment of the nuller hardware to the Keck Observatory in mid-June 2004. On-sky testing and observation with the mid-infrared nuller are slated to begin in August 2004.

  11. Applying the Laboratory Integration and Prioritization System (LIPS) to decision-making at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.S.; Mead, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    The Laboratories Services Division of Sandia National Laboratories includes a wide variety of operations such as environmental, safety and health, safeguards and security, facilities, logistics, and sites planning and integration. In the face of declining budgets and increasing requirements, the Management Team needed some tools to assist in negotiating with customers and regulators and in consistently and cost-effectively managing all work performed and/or managed by the Division. The Integrated Services Management System (ISMS) was developed as a series of processes to provide these tools. The Laboratory Integration and Prioritization System (LIPS) was selected as the prioritization methodology for ISMS. The pilot application phase was begun in February 1994 and addressed planning of work and resources for FY95. Extensive training was provided for the Activity Data Sheet (ADS) preparers and the teams which would score each of the activities. After preparation of the ADSs, they were scored by the scoring teams. A division-wide review board reviewed all of the ADSs to ensure consistency of scoring across all of the functional areas. The lessons that were learned from the pilot application were evaluated and improvements incorporated for the FY96 planning and application. The improvements included upgrading the training, providing expert facilitation for scoring boards, modification of the scoring instructions to better represent local situations, and establishing an Validation Board with more authority and accountability to provide quality assurance. The participants in the LIPS process have agreed that no major bases were uncovered, imperfect prioritizations are better than no data, all work packages can be scored and ranked, including core activities, results were objective and quantifiable, and decisions could be made using technically defensible bases.

  12. Waveguide monitoring (such as sewer pipes or ocean zones) via matched field processing.

    PubMed

    Tolstoy, A I

    2010-07-01

    Detecting and locating changes in a waveguide can be extremely difficult. A method is suggested here which does not require simplification of the problem (no spherical chickens) nor any modeling of the waveguide nor of the propagation within it. The method relies only on previous broadband data recorded on an array of receivers (two or more) which is then compared to more recent data to investigate change. Backscattered energy is to be examined here although bistatic configurations may also be possible. This approach is applicable whenever there is sufficient, appropriate data for comparison (note that absolute levels are not needed) and can be applied to acoustically search for scatterers introduced to an ocean zone (such as targets or pollutants), blockages or changes in sewer pipes, or even to non-acoustic energy in a waveguide, e.g., the use of electromagnetic energy in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. This method is based on the signal processing technique known as matched field processing and will be demonstrated on a variety of laboratory sewer pipe data. The method (particularly for localization) is introduced here, as is the suggestion for application to general waveguide environments. PMID:20649214

  13. PERFORMANCE OF OZONE AS A DISINFECTANT FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) minimizes the amount of disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) released into receiving waters. Currently, the primary disinfecting agent used in the US for wastewater treatment is chlorine (Cl2); however, Cl2 produces problems in ...

  14. REAL TIME CONTROL OF SEWERS: US EPA MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of sewage spills and local flooding has traditionally been addressed by large scale capital improvement programs that focus on construction alternatives such as sewer separation or construction of storage facilities. The cost of such projects is often high, especiall...

  15. EVALUATION OF URBAN RUNOFF AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of potential mutagens to the human environment may serve to increase the rate of contact with substances that contribute to cancer incidence in the general population. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate combined sewer overflows and urban runoff for...

  16. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE RATES AMONG SEWER WORKERS IN COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewer workers in Copenhagen, Denmark, have a higher death rate than the comparable male population. An alarmingly high proportion of the deaths occur within the year that employment terminates. Attempts to correlate the statistics with sick leave records or chemicals in the envir...

  18. Incorporating Storm Sewer Exfiltration into SWMM: Proof of Concept

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the peak flow and volume reduction achieved by exfiltration from a perforated storm sewer in an urban catchment. There are three related objectives: [1] quantify peak flow and volume reduction; [2] demonstrate adaptability to climate change; and [3] evaluate ...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2130 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... binding document shall also require that all wastewater introduced into the treatment works not contain... selection of the most cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment and sludge disposal. (Approved by... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2130 Sewer use ordinance....

  20. 40 CFR 35.2130 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... binding document shall also require that all wastewater introduced into the treatment works not contain... selection of the most cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment and sludge disposal. (Approved by... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2130 Sewer use ordinance....

  1. 40 CFR 35.2130 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... binding document shall also require that all wastewater introduced into the treatment works not contain... selection of the most cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment and sludge disposal. (Approved by... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2130 Sewer use ordinance....

  2. 40 CFR 35.2130 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... binding document shall also require that all wastewater introduced into the treatment works not contain... selection of the most cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment and sludge disposal. (Approved by... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2130 Sewer use ordinance....

  3. 40 CFR 35.2130 - Sewer use ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... binding document shall also require that all wastewater introduced into the treatment works not contain... selection of the most cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment and sludge disposal. (Approved by... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2130 Sewer use ordinance....

  4. Episode of toxic gas exposure in sewer workers.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, M M; Watt, S J; Seaton, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sewer workers are used to unpleasant smells, but may be required to investigate unusual ones. Twenty six men were involved in investigation of episodes of such a smell after neighbourhood complaints over several weeks. METHODS: Workers exposed to the smell were investigated by clinical follow up, lung function tests, and measurement of pituitary function. RESULTS: 14 of the 26 developed subacute symptoms including sore throat, cough, chest tightness, breathlessness, thirst, sweating, irritability, and loss of libido. Severity of symptoms seemed to be dose related. Minor symptoms resolved over several weeks but those more seriously affected have shown deteriorating respiratory symptoms and lung function and remain unable to work a year after the incident. In one, evidence of mild cranial diabetes insipidus was found. Analysis of gas from the sewer showed the presence of a mixture of thiols and sulphides, known to be highly odorous and not normally found in sewers. The source remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Several of these men seem to have developed delayed airways disease and disturbances of hypothalamic function. Such an outcome has not to our knowledge been described before. Despite the presence of the smell, standard safety gas detection equipment used to ensure the sewer was safe to enter failed to indicate the presence of a hazard. Protection against such incidents can only be provided by the use of positive pressure breathing apparatus. PMID:9166135

  5. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (NEW ORLEANS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this state-of-the-art review is to examine the performance and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection for combined sewer overflow (CSO) applications. Topics presented include the use of UV light as a disinfecting agent, its practical applications, d...

  6. FIELD TESTING OF PROTOTYPE ACOUSTIC EMISSION SEWER FLOWMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation concerns verifying the operating principles of the acoustic emission flowmeter (U.S. Patent 3,958,458) in the natural environment of three different storm sewer field sites in Nassau County, New York. The flowmeter is a novel, passive, nonintrusive method that ...

  7. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL: DOCUMENTATION AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling package for studying the movement and fate of combined sewer overflow (CSO) sediment in receiving waters is described. The package contains a linear, implicit, finite-difference flow model and an explicit, finite-difference sediment transport model. The sediment model ...

  8. 31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION GROUNDS, DEER ISLAND. METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE COMMISSION, JUNE 1896. Photocopy of image of aperture card 4977-1. Aperture cards and original drawings at Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Archives, Building 39, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, MA - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1239 - Standard: General laboratory systems quality assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: General laboratory systems quality... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1239 Standard: General laboratory...

  11. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    VandeWalle, J. L.; Goetz, G.W.; Huse, S.M.; Morrison, H. G.; Sogin, M.L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Yan, K.; McLellan, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated >1.1M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (~15%) matched sequences from human fecal samples. The fecal components of the sewage samples included enriched pyrotag populations from Lactococcus and Enterobacteriaceae relative to their fractional representation in human fecal samples. In contrast to the large number of distinct pyrotags that represent fecal bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides, only one or two unique V6 sequences represented Acinetobacter, Trichococcus and Aeromonas, which collectively account for nearly 35% of the total sewage community. Two dominant Acinetobacter V6 pyrotags (designated Acineto tag 1 and Acineto tag 2) fluctuated inversely with a seasonal pattern over a 3-year period, suggesting two distinct Acinetobacter populations respond differently to ecological forcings in the system. A single nucleotide change in the V6 pyrotags accounted for the difference in these populations and corresponded to two phylogenically distinct clades based on full-length sequences. Analysis of wavelet functions, derived from a mathematical model of temporal fluctuations, demonstrated that other abundant sewer associated populations including Trichococcus and Aeromonas had temporal patterns similar to either Acineto tag 1 or Acineto tag 2. Populations with related temporal fluctuations were found to significantly correlate with the same WWTP variables (5-day BOD, flow, ammonia, total phosphorous, and suspended solids). These findings illustrate that small differences in V6 sequences can represent phylogenetically and ecologically distinct taxa. This work provides insight into

  12. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  13. Laboratory information management system at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, W.; Barth, D.; Ibsen, T.; Newman, B.

    1994-03-01

    In January of 1994 an important new technology was brought on line to help in the monumental waste management and environmental restoration work at the Hanford Site. Cleanup at the Hanford Site depends on analytical chemistry information to identify contaminates, design and monitor cleanup processes, assure worker safety, evaluate progress, and prove completion. The new technology, a laboratory information management system (LIMS) called ``LABCORE,`` provides the latest systems to organize and communicate the analytical tasks: track work and samples; collect and process data, prepare reports, and store data in readily accessible electronic form.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Mobile Real Time Radiography System

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Mendez, J.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph greater than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes. It has three independent X-Ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12 in. image intensifier, the second is a 36 in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53 ft long X 8 ft. wide X 14 ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only a easily obtainable overweight permit because it weighs approximately 38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  15. Monitoring and analysis of combined sewer overflows, Riverside and Evanston, Illinois, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Andrew M.; Hornewer, Nancy J.; Johnson, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected and analyzed flow data in combined sewer systems in Riverside and Evanston, northeastern Illinois, from March 1997 to December 1999. Continuous 2- and 5-minute stage and velocity data were collected during surcharged and nonsurcharged conditions at 12 locations. Mass balances were calculated to determine the volume of water flowing through the tide-gate openings to the Des Plaines River and the North Shore Channel and to determine the volume of water flowing past the sluice gate to the deep tunnel. The sewer systems consist of circular pipes ranging in diameter from 0.83 feet to 10.0 feet, elliptical siphon pipes, ledges, and tide and sluice gates. Pipes were constructed of either brick and mortar or concrete, and ranged from having smooth surfaces to rough, pitted and crumbling surfaces. One pipe was noticeably affected by water infiltration from saturated ground. During data analysis, many assumptions were necessary because of the complexity of the flow data and sewer-system configurations. These assumptions included estimating the volume of water entering an interceptor sewer at the ''Gage Street pipe'' at Riverside, the effect of infiltration on the ''brick pipe'' at Riverside, and the minimum velocity required for the meter to make an accurate velocity determination. Other factors affecting the analysis of flow data included possible non-instrumented sources of inflow, and backwater conditions in some pipes, which could have caused error in the data analysis. Variations of these assumptions potentially could cause appreciable changes to the final massbalance calculations. Mass-balance analysis at Riverside indicated a total inflow volume into chamber 3 of approximately 721,000 cubic feet (ft3) during April 22-26, 1999. Outflow volume to the Des Plaines River at Riverside through the tide gate was approximately 132,000 ft3; outflow volume to the deep tunnel through the

  16. Cryogenic system upgrade for the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    A. McCartney; V. Ganni; H. Laumer; D. Arenius; J. Creel; W. Chronis; K. Davidson

    2002-05-10

    The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is a National Science Foundation supported facility, with additional support from Michigan State University (MSU). The facility consists of two superconducting cyclotrons and over fifty individual cryostats, each containing several superconducting magnets that are used in the beam transport system. The facility also has a superconducting ion source and a large superconducting spectrograph. To support this facility we operated two helium refrigerators producing approximate 900W at 4.5K. In July of 1999, construction of a new beam analysis system, the A1900, was started. The laboratory was reconfigured to couple the two cyclotrons in series to enable the facility to produce higher intensity radioactive beams than previously possible in the stand-alone mode. In addition, the helium distribution system was upgraded with new transfer lines and a new distribution box. The new requirements increased the refrigeration load to more than 1 KW at 4.5K. To support this increased cryogenic load, the existing two helium cryogenic plants, were at best, marginal in capacity. This would have required both plants to run at full capacity, maximum efficiency and availability. To achieve higher reliability, availability, and process transient capacity for magnet cool down and filling, a decision was made to obtain a larger cryogenic plant to support the new system. The following paper describes the important aspects and capabilities of the new cryogenic system to accomplish this goal.

  17. First workshop on the Building System Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M K; Johnson, B M; Crawley, D B

    1989-09-01

    The Whole Building Systems Integration Laboratory (WBSIL) feasibility study was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the feasibility of constructing a laboratory dedicated to the investigation of whole-building system-integration issues. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this study. To ensure the feasibility study receives a wide range of input, an advisory committee has been formed to assist in establishing the functional criteria for the WBSIL. The advisory committee consists of nationally recognized experts in a variety of disciplines related to building research, design and operation. The original plan was for the advisory committee to provide guidance for the study in three forms. First, the advisory committee was to complete a questionnaire on whole building research issues and products. This was to be followed by the first workshop where the advisory committee would provide information on the need for the WBSIL and on its required design features. Finally, the advisory committee was to meet a second time to provide a review of the conceptual design of the facility and the functional criteria.

  18. Evaluating Cryptosporidium and Giardia concentrations in combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Russell D; Walling, Joyce Perdek

    2006-06-01

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreaks occurred in the 1980s and the massive 1993 Milwaukee, WI outbreak affected more than 400,000 people, the concern over the public health risks linked to protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia has grown. Cryptosporidium and Giardia, found in streams, rivers, groundwater, and soil, form hardy, disinfection-resistant oocysts and cysts. Both organisms are recognized causative agents of gastrointestinal illnesses linked to the consumption of contaminated surface or groundwater. This study, the first in a planned series to estimate the urban contribution to the total Cryptosporidium and Giardia receiving-water loads, focused on combined sewer overflow (CSO). CSOs are discharges of mixed untreated sewage and stormwater released directly into receiving waters during rainfall. This engineered relief is necessary to accommodate hydraulic strain when the combined rain and sanitary flows exceed the system capacity. Limited comprehensive data are available assessing the CSO discharge contribution as a source of these two pathogens. Works by States et al. and Gibson et al. each found Cryptosporidium and much greater Giardia concentrations in CSOs draining parts of Pittsburgh, PA. This project estimated the relative detection frequency and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in CSO. Analytical results were obtained using a modification of Method 1623, originally developed for much cleaner environmental samples. These data are useful for drinking water treatment plants located downstream of CSOs. It is also significant in determining the potential concentrations of parasites at treatment plant intakes and for assessing health risks for water contact and fishing activities. Commonly monitored indicator organisms (total coliform, fecal coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus, and fecal streptococcus), endospores, and selected physical and chemical parameters were analyzed to further describe the samples. CSO from urban

  19. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  20. Optimization of measurement campaigns for calibration of a conceptual sewer model.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Fach, S; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    To simulate hydrological models of combined sewer systems an accurate calibration is indispensable. In addition to all sources of uncertainties in data collection due to the measurement methods itself, it is a key question which data has to be collected to calibrate a hydrological model, how long measurement campaigns should last and where that data has to be collected in a spatial distributed system as it is neither possible nor sensible to measure the complete system characteristics. In this paper we address this question by means of stochastic modelling. Using Monte Carlo Simulation different calibration strategies (selection of measurement sites, selection of rainfall-events) and different calibration parameters (overflow volume, number of overflows) are tested, in order to evaluate the influence on predicting the total overflow volume of the entire system. This methodology is applied in a case study with the aim to calculate the combined sewer overflow (CSO) efficiency. It can be shown that a distributed hydrological model can be calibrated sufficiently when calibration is done on 30% of all existing CSOs based on long-term observation. Event based calibration is limited possible to a limited extend when calibration events are selected carefully as wrong selection of calibration events can result in a complete failure of the calibration exercise. PMID:19403965

  1. Assessing the Impact of a Combined Sewer Separation Project on Water Quality in Blackwater Creek, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, K.; Warren, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    Over a century ago, the City of Lynchburg constructed a sanitary sewer system to deal with the increasing need for waste water treatment. State and federal environmental mandates require cities to eliminate sewer overflows, so in the 1990s, the City of Lynchburg devised a plan to fix the problem of combined sewer overflow. Since Lynchburg's Combined Sewer Separation (CSS) work began approximately twenty years ago, many of the overflow points have been eliminated, leaving 30 points to be closed in the future. It remains unclear, however, whether Blackwater Creek's freshwater ecosystems have begun to show improvement as a result of the City's CSS separation project. As recently as 2012, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality characterized Blackwater Creek as a Category 5 Impaired Waterway, as assessed by benthic rapid bioassessment methods. Since 2003, the intro environmental science class at Randolph College has conducted stream assessment and water quality monitoring at two sites in Blackwater Creek, as a required field project. This work has involved nearly 300 students over that time, and includes rapid bioassessment (RBA) of aquatic macroinvertebrates, chemical and physical analysis, and riparian and channel vegetation assessment. Over this same period, the City has progressed through separation of the CSS system in a significant portion of Blackwater Creek's subwatershed, including our study area. We analyzed ten years of stream monitoring data in tandem with a geographic analysis of the progression of the CSS project to determine whether there has been resultant improvement in water quality. When analyzed in conjunction with the progress of the CSS project, the data did not exhibit a detectable difference between data collected before and after 2006. However, a simple linear regression of the data did show improvement in chemical and biological indicators of stream health, with a greater increase in results pertaining to the RBA. Further sampling is

  2. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of

  3. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results. PMID:22395957

  4. Impacts of Sewer Leaks on Surrounding Groundwater and Surface Water Quality in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, D.; Chui, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Underground sewers deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out of the sewers and contaminates the surrounding groundwater. Singapore does not directly use groundwater as a water supply. However, contaminated groundwater flows into the drains nearby through weep holes, and subsequently enters water supply reservoirs. This study examines the impacts of sewage leaks on surrounding groundwater and surface water quality by modeling the interactions between leaky sewers, groundwater and drains. It first explores the representations of important yet challenging boundary conditions, namely weep holes and leaky sewers, so that their fluxes vary realistically with water pressure throughout a simulation. It then simulates groundwater flow and contaminant transport from leaky sewers to nearby drains over a period of ten years. It further rehabilitates the sewers and models the attenuation of contamination plume for another ten years. The results of this project contribute to the modeling and understanding of the potential impacts of sewer leaks on surrounding groundwater and surface water quality. For example, groundwater quality changes with hydrologic conditions, and it is highest during heavy rainfall and times of high water table because of the low leakage and high dilution rates. Water quality fluctuates daily or even hourly in the vicinity of the sewers, but is more stable in the flow through the weep holes into the drains. Overall, this study benefits the sewer leak monitoring and sewer rehabilitation in many urban areas worldwide.

  5. Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data.

    PubMed

    Mounce, S R; Shepherd, W; Sailor, G; Shucksmith, J; Saul, A J

    2014-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic performance of CSOs using artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to hydraulic models. Previous work has explored using an ANN model for the prediction of chamber depth using time series for depth and rain gauge data. Rainfall intensity data that can be provided by rainfall radar devices can be used to improve on this approach. Results are presented using real data from a CSO for a catchment in the North of England, UK. An ANN model trained with the pseudo-inverse rule was shown to be capable of predicting CSO depth with less than 5% error for predictions more than 1 hour ahead for unseen data. Such predictive approaches are important to the future management of combined sewer systems. PMID:24647201

  6. Additive synthesis with DIASS-M4C on Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM POWERparallel System (SP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H.; Ralley, D.; Restrepo, J.; Tiepei, S.

    1995-12-31

    DIASS-M4C, a digital additive instrument was implemented on the Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM POWER parallel System (SP). This paper discusses the need for a massively parallel supercomputer and shows how the code was parallelized. The resulting sounds and the degree of control the user can have justify the effort and the use of such a large computer.

  7. Peripheral Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory Record, Office Accounting and Research System

    PubMed Central

    Lofink, Raymond M.; Wolfson, Sidney K.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized Record, Office Accounting, and Research system (“ROAR”) has been developed for use in the Peripheral Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory of Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The interactive, menu-driven system utilizes an in-office microcomputer for maintaining patient records with a dial-up link to a time-sharing system at the University of Pittsburgh for performing research activities. Formats for internal storage, screen editing, and printed reports are easily specified to permit additions of new forms and upward-compatible versions of old forms. An on-line patient directory and an expandable library of floppy diskettes provide a large capacity of storage for permanent patient records. An interestingly simple, cost-effective, but powerful combination of three processors using commercial and custom-written software is presented.

  8. [Design of an Incremental and Open Laboratory Automation System].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanfen; Chen, Yueping; Wang, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed great development of TLA (Total Laboratory Automation) technology, however, its application hit the bottleneck of high cost and openess to other parties' instruments. Specifically speaking, the initial purchase of the medical devices requires large sum of money and the new system can hardly be compatible with existing equipment. This thesis proposes a new thought for system implementation that through incremental upgrade, the initial capital investment can be reduced and through open architecture and interfaces, the seamless connection of different devices can be achieved. This thesis elaborates on the standards that open architecture design should follow in aspect of mechanics, electro-communication and information interaction and the key technology points in system implementation. PMID:26665947

  9. User requirements on the future laboratory information systems.

    PubMed

    Brender, J; McNair, P

    1996-07-01

    Today numerous information technology solutions exist for the clinical laboratory which operate either as stand-alone functionalities or with ad hoc integration solutions. The OpenLabs (A2028) AIM Project puts emphasis on the design and specification of a framework for the interoperability of existing systems and new advanced services, and consequently concentrates on the issue of integration. The purpose of the OpenLabs open architecture is to serve as a functional solution to this integration. A basic principle for this open architecture is that each of the advanced services shall be able to function individually or in any combination with an existing Laboratory Information System (LIS), and that it shall enable new modular functionalities to be incorporated in a 'plug-and-play' fashion. The synthesis of the main user needs and requirements implies that the future IT solutions: (a) must be highly flexible and maximally customizable--by the users themselves; (b) are based on the concept of open systems, both technically and functionally, which enables modular functionalities from different vendors to co-operate forming a global LIS functionality; (c) are future viable and able to incorporate already installed IT functionalities; (d) support management of failure prevention, of repair, of success, and of change. The establishment of an open architecture implies that a market will develop for modular, scaleable, and cost-effective LIS features without today's dependence on individual manufacturers and hardware/software platforms. PMID:8875016

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2012-03-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site first received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006 and recertification in 2009. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy and Water Resource Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups

  11. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services Environmental programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia National

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2011-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia National Laboratories, New

  13. VERIFICATION OF NUMERICAL MODEL FOR URBAN INUNDATION DUE TO TORRENTIAL RAINFALL USING PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTAL FLUME WITH A SEWER PIPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaike, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi; Baba, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Hajime; Takeda, Makoto

    In this paper, in order to verify the stormwater exchange model between ground surface and sewerage system in integrated urban inundation model, we conducted experiments of urban inundation using a flat basin with a sewer pipe and rainfall supplier, and those results are compared with numerical simulation results. From the comparison between them, it is obvious that stormwater drainage and overflow discharge in urban area can be estimated exactly by using step-down formula and overflow formula in steady flow cases. In unsteady flow cases, however, calculated inundation water depth on the ground surface responses to piezometric head of the sewer pipe too quickly than experimental results, which requires much smaller values of the coefficients in those formula.

  14. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor

  15. Digital Audio Radio Broadcast Systems Laboratory Testing Nearly Complete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the completion of phase one of the digital audio radio (DAR) testing conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. This satellite, satellite/terrestrial, and terrestrial digital technology will open up new audio broadcasting opportunities both domestically and worldwide. It will significantly improve the current quality of amplitude-modulated/frequency-modulated (AM/FM) radio with a new digitally modulated radio signal and will introduce true compact-disc-quality (CD-quality) sound for the first time. Lewis is hosting the laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes. Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes each, making a total of nine systems being tested. The nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on-channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent-channel (IBAC), and new bands. The laboratory testing was conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. Subjective assessments of the audio recordings for each of the nine systems was conducted by the Communications Research Center in Ottawa, Canada, under contract to the Electronic Industries Association. The Communications Research Center has the only CCIR-qualified (Consultative Committee for International Radio) audio testing facility in North America. The main goals of the U.S. testing process are to (1) provide technical data to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) so that it can establish a standard for digital audio receivers and transmitters and (2) provide the receiver and transmitter industries with the proper standards upon which to build their equipment. In addition, the data will be forwarded to the International Telecommunications Union to help in the establishment of international standards for digital audio receivers and transmitters, thus allowing U.S. manufacturers to compete in the

  16. Scaling-Free Electrochemical Production of Caustic and Oxygen for Sulfide Control in Sewers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2015-10-01

    Caustic shock-loading and oxygen injection are commonly used by the water industry for biofilm and sulfide control in sewers. Caustic can be produced onsite from wastewater using a two-compartment electrochemical cell. This avoids the need for import and storage of caustic soda, which typically represents a cost and a hazard. An issue limiting the practical implementation of this approach is the occurrence of membrane scaling due to the almost universal presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in wastewater. It results in a rapid increase in the cell voltage, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the system. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an innovative solution for this problem involving the inclusion of a middle compartment between the anode and cathode compartments. Caustic was efficiently produced from wastewater over a period of 12 weeks and had an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84.1 ± 1.1% at practically relevant caustic strengths (∼3 wt %). Neither membrane scaling nor an increase in the cell voltage was observed throughout the experiments. In addition, dissolved oxygen was produced in the anode, resulting in continuously oxygenated wastewater leaving the three-compartment cell. This membrane-scaling control strategy represents a major step forward toward practical implementation of on-site simultaneous electrochemical caustic and oxygen generation for sulfide control in sewers and also has the potential to be applied to other (bio)electrochemical systems receiving wastewater as source for product recovery. PMID:26377687

  17. Sewer infiltration/inflow: long-term monitoring based on diurnal variation of pollutant mass flux.

    PubMed

    Bares, V; Stránský, D; Sýkora, P

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a method for quantification of infiltrating groundwater based on the variation of diurnal pollutant load and continuous water quality and quantity monitoring. Although the method gives us the potential to separate particular components of wastewater hygrograph, several aspects of the method should be discussed. Therefore, the paper investigates the cost-effectiveness, the relevance of pollutant load from surface waters (groundwater) and the influence of measurement time step. These aspects were studied in an experimental catchment of Prague sewer system, Czech Republic, within a three-month period. The results indicate high contribution of parasitic waters on night minimal discharge. Taking into account the uncertainty of the results and time-consuming maintenance of the sensor, the principal advantages of the method are evaluated. The study introduces a promising potential of the discussed measuring concept for quantification of groundwater infiltrating into the sewer system. It is shown that the conventional approach is sufficient and cost-effective even in those catchments, where significant contribution of foul sewage in night minima would have been assumed. PMID:19587396

  18. A Laboratory Goniometer System for Measuring Reflectance and Emittance Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Roosjen, Peter P. J.; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.; Bartholomeus, Harm M.; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Jalink, Henk; van der Schoor, Rob; de Jong, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a laboratory goniometer system for performing multi-angular measurements under controlled illumination conditions is described. A commercially available robotic arm enables the acquisition of a large number of measurements over the full hemisphere within a short time span making it much faster than other goniometers. In addition, the presented set-up enables assessment of anisotropic reflectance and emittance behaviour of soils, leaves and small canopies. Mounting a spectrometer enables acquisition of either hemispherical measurements or measurements in the horizontal plane. Mounting a thermal camera allows directional observations of the thermal emittance. This paper also presents three showcases of these different measurement set-ups in order to illustrate its possibilities. Finally, suggestions for applying this instrument and for future research directions are given, including linking the measured reflectance anisotropy with physically-based anisotropy models on the one hand and combining them with field goniometry measurements for joint analysis with remote sensing data on the other hand. The speed and flexibility of the system offer a large added value to the existing pool of laboratory goniometers. PMID:23443402

  19. A laboratory goniometer system for measuring reflectance and emittance anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Roosjen, Peter P J; Clevers, Jan G P W; Bartholomeus, Harm M; Schaepman, Michael E; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Jalink, Henk; van der Schoor, Rob; de Jong, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a laboratory goniometer system for performing multi-angular measurements under controlled illumination conditions is described. A commercially available robotic arm enables the acquisition of a large number of measurements over the full hemisphere within a short time span making it much faster than other goniometers. In addition, the presented set-up enables assessment of anisotropic reflectance and emittance behaviour of soils, leaves and small canopies. Mounting a spectrometer enables acquisition of either hemispherical measurements or measurements in the horizontal plane. Mounting a thermal camera allows directional observations of the thermal emittance. This paper also presents three showcases of these different measurement set-ups in order to illustrate its possibilities. Finally, suggestions for applying this instrument and for future research directions are given, including linking the measured reflectance anisotropy with physically-based anisotropy models on the one hand and combining them with field goniometry measurements for joint analysis with remote sensing data on the other hand. The speed and flexibility of the system offer a large added value to the existing pool of laboratory goniometers. PMID:23443402

  20. Field validation of a new low-cost method for determining occurrence and duration of combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, A; Gutierrez, O; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2013-10-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) events produced in combined sewer systems (CSS) during wet weather conditions are a threat for the receiving water bodies. The large number of CSO structures normally present in a CSS makes that the monitoring of the complete CSO network in a simultaneous way would drastically increase the investment costs. In this paper, a new methodology is presented aiming to characterize the occurrence and duration of CSO events by means of low-cost temperature sensors. Hence, a large number of CSO structures can be simultaneously monitored and the system can be characterized as a whole. The method assumes temperature differences between the overflowing mix of wastewater and stormwater and the sewer gas phase, so the temperature shift produced during a rainfall episode is related to a CSO event occurrence. The method has been tested and validated in La Garriga CSS (Spain) where the temperature at 13 CSO weirs was monitored for a period of 1 year (57 rainfall episodes). For the whole set of CSO events, occurrence and duration were successfully determined in 80% of cases. Advantages, limitations and potential applications of the method are discussed at the end of the paper. PMID:23867850